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Sample records for southeast china electronic

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaofei; Qin, Zhanfen; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yaxian; Xia, Xijuan; Yan, Shishuai; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Xingru; Xu, Xiaobai; Yang, Yongjian

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated. The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (sigmaPBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of sigmaPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the "lipid-compartment". BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of sigmaPBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of sigmaPBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day x kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day x kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  3. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring...

  4. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  5. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast As...... Asian titans in Myanmar and finally the conclusion wraps...

  6. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  7. China's Approach to International Development: A Study of Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Renwick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China is establishing itself as a new international aid donor. This study explains China's emerging approach to international development assistance. The paper addresses the question of how far China's understanding of "development" is an appropriate basis for genuinely "win-win" relationships? The paper explores this question by examining China's relationship with Southeast Asia. China is re-emphasising its commitment and partnership credentials with neighbouring states, some of whom have many people living in poverty and as countries are in need of development assistance. The paper identifies key facets of China's approach to international development, examines economic, political and strategic factors underpinning China's approach in Southeast Asia. Adopting a Human Security perspective, it assesses China's development contribution with reference to Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar and highlights popular opposition. The study finds that Chinese trade and investment are making a significant contribution to the region's economic growth. However, the analysis identifies two problems in China's approach, an over-reliance on the level of state-to-state relations and too narrow a domain of engagement centred upon economic cooperation. China needs to incorporate a societal engagement strategy highlighting transparency and accountability of Chinese corporate behaviour. It also needs to re-balance its approach by emphasising human capital capability and capacity-building across the non-economic social and cultural domains. China's approach to international development is a rapid learning process and is emerging, but still has further to go.

  8. A nuclear free southeast Asia - the China factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the principal nuclear threat to Southeast Asia comes from nuclear weapons stored by the two superpowers in their respective bases and their targeting of each other's bases. Calls for the creation of a nuclear weapons free zone in Southeast Asia (SEANFZ) poses a number of problems to China because of the perceived negative impact of such zones on Chinese security interests, force deployment and strategic doctrine. Hence, it is argued that China is unlikely to support a nuclear free zone treaty which only embraces the Asean states because it would lead to unilateral disarmament on the part of pro-western countries while leaving Indochinese states and the Soviet Union. However, if the proposed SEANFZ treaty resembles the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone treaty, which allow the transit of nuclear-armed vessels, China could be expected to support it. ills

  9. Uranium metallogeny, magmatism and structure in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Granite magmatism and the associated uranium metallogeny in southeast China are considered in relation to a plate tectonic model previously developed for Jiangxi Province which envisages the suturing of three separate continental fault blocks or plates which are thought to have existed as separate continental microplates until the Permian, namely the Sino-Korean, Yangtze and South China Plates. In Jiangxi Province, most of the granitic magmas, including those considered in the paper to be associated with U ore deposits, can be shown to be systematically distributed in relation to the postulated destructive plate margins which are thought to have existed along all the plate boundaries between the continental microplates. The granitic intrusions in Jiangxi range from those more proximal to the inferred location of the subduction zone in a modified Andean type model, such as porphyries of Cu, Cu-Mo and W-Cu type, to more distal granites of U-W-Sn-F-Nb-REE type. They range in age from Indosinian to Yanshanian (but mainly the latter) and are intruded in tensional settings along major lithospheric fracture zones, with sinistral strike slip, many of which continued to move both during and after granite emplacement. These U, W, Sn, F, Nb and REE rich metalliferous granites, which all intruded post-tectonically long after the principal metamorphic events, which are Jinningian (Late Proterozoic on the Yangtze Plate) and Caledonian (South China Plate), and the younger suturing events, are considered in the study to be essentially of juvenile magmatic rather than crustal origin. Such a tectonic model helps to account for the well developed and structurally zoned metallogeny of southeast China and the genesis of the Southeast China Uranium Province. Selected examples of U ore deposits which occur within the Southeast China Uranium Province are considered in order to develop the basis for a genetic model for U which would be more generally applicable to this region and possibly

  10. Interdecadal variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Fraedrich, K.; Sielmann, F.; Zhi, X.

    2014-01-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter precipitation in Southeast China (1961–2010) is characterized by the first empirical orthogonal function of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR reanalyzes) reveals the followin...

  11. Detection of PCV2e strains in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankui Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 has been prevalent in swine herds in China since 2002, causing severe economic loss to the pig industry. The number of live pigs in southeast China is > 20 million. Since information on the genetic variation of PCV2 in the Fujian province is limited, the objective of the present work was to investigate the epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of PCV2 in southeast China from 2013 to 2017. Of the 685 samples collected from 90 different swine herds from 2013 to 2017, 356 samples from 84 different swine herds were positive for PCV2. PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2d, and PCV2e co-existed in the Fujian province, with PCV2d being the predominant circulating strain in swineherds and PCV2e being reported for the first time in China. Strikingly, PCV2-FJ-water DNA comes from contaminated river water and not infected animals. Sequence comparison among all isolates indicated that 95 isolates shared approximately 78.7%–100% nucleotide identity and 74.5%–100% amino acid identity for open reading frame 2 (ORF2. Amino acid alignment showed that the Cap protein of PCV2e differed markedly from those of PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, and PCV2d. These results indicated that various PCV2 genotypes exist in China, and that PCV2 is continuously evolving, leading to rapid emergence of new variant stains.

  12. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  13. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jietao Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps < 0.05 than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria (ps < 0.05 than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  14. Human babesiosis in Southeast China: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old female patient living in Southeast China presented with persistent fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and dizziness of 12-day duration. Blood tests showed neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and active hemolytic anemia, with elevated C-reactive protein. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for a possible diagnosis of sepsis, without any response. Malaria was initially diagnosed after visualizing intraerythrocytic ring-shaped parasites in bone marrow and blood smears. The patient resided in an area of unstable endemicity for Plasmodium falciparum. Blood samples were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a definitive diagnosis of human babesiosis was made using Babesia microti-specific PCR. Chloroquine phosphate and clindamycin were started and the patient became normothermic. However, due to the intolerable adverse effects of the antibiotics, intravenous azithromycin was given as an alternative. The patient recovered from fever and hemolysis, and repeated peripheral blood smears showed hemoparasite clearance. Cases of human babesiosis are rarely reported and probably under-diagnosed in China; therefore, improving our understanding of this disease as a newly emerging public health threat is imperative. Keywords: Human babesiosis, Southeast China, Plasmodium falciparum, Hemoparasites

  15. Freshwater Choices in China: Options That Will Impact South and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    economies in the world. To sustain this economic growth and transform chronic hunger into food self-sufficiency, both China and India have embarked...FRESHWATER CHOICES IN CHINA: OPTIONS THAT WILL IMPACT SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA A Monograph by Mr. Steven M. Nystrom...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Freshwater Choices in China: Options that will Impact South and Southeast Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. The Rise of China and Foreign Direct Investment from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krislert Samphantharak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses foreign direct investment from Southeast Asia to China. With the exception of some government-linked companies, most investments from Southeast Asia have been dominated by the region’s overseas Chinese businesses. In addition to cheap labour costs, large domestic market and growing economy, China has provided business opportunities to investors from Southeast Asia thanks to their geographic proximity and ethnic connections, at least during the initial investment period. However, the network effects seem to decline soon after. As the Chinese economy becomes more globalised and more competitive, the success of foreign investment in China will increasingly depend on business competency rather than ethnic relations.

  17. Human babesiosis in Southeast China: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shanshan; Zhang, Lingling; Yao, Linong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hui; Ni, Qingxiang; Pan, Chenwei; Jin, Lingxiang

    2018-03-01

    A 60-year-old female patient living in Southeast China presented with persistent fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue, and dizziness of 12-day duration. Blood tests showed neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and active hemolytic anemia, with elevated C-reactive protein. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for a possible diagnosis of sepsis, without any response. Malaria was initially diagnosed after visualizing intraerythrocytic ring-shaped parasites in bone marrow and blood smears. The patient resided in an area of unstable endemicity for Plasmodium falciparum. Blood samples were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a definitive diagnosis of human babesiosis was made using Babesia microti-specific PCR. Chloroquine phosphate and clindamycin were started and the patient became normothermic. However, due to the intolerable adverse effects of the antibiotics, intravenous azithromycin was given as an alternative. The patient recovered from fever and hemolysis, and repeated peripheral blood smears showed hemoparasite clearance. Cases of human babesiosis are rarely reported and probably under-diagnosed in China; therefore, improving our understanding of this disease as a newly emerging public health threat is imperative. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Swords into ploughshares? China's Soft Power strategy in Southeast Asia and its challenges1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tai-Ting Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, alongside China's economic growth, the international community has fostered a general anxiety towards a "China threat." In order to relieve itself from suspicion, China adopted the dual strategies of "harmonious worldview" and "good neighbor policy." The strategies led to the use of soft power in China's foreign policy. China aimed to reduce security concerns implied by the threat theory by supporting an image that caters to international peace and development. This article seeks to explain how China achieves its interests in Southeast Asia through the use of soft power. The authors address the concepts of "harmonious worldview" and "good neighbor policy" and how the twin strategies and soft power have shaped China's foreign policy in recent years. This article aims to provide insights into China's policy options in Southeast Asia in the near future.

  19. Organic nitrogen components in soils from southeast China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-you; Wu, Liang-huan; Cao, Xiao-chuang; Zhu, Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the amounts of extractable organic nitrogen (EON), and the relationships between EON and total extractable nitrogen (TEN), especially the amino acids (AAs) adsorbed by soils, and a series of other hydrolyzed soil nitrogen indices in typical land use soil types from southeast China. Under traditional agricultural planting conditions, the functions of EON, especially AAs in the rhizosphere and in bulk soil zones were also investigated. Methods: Pot experiments were conducted using plants of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the rhizosphere and bulk soil zone studies, organic nitrogen components were extracted with either distilled water, 0.5 mol/L K2SO4 or acid hydrolysis. Results: K2SO4-EON constituted more than 30% of TEN pools. K2SO4-extractable AAs accounted for 25% of EON pools and nearly 10% of TEN pools in rhizosphere soils. Overall, both K2SO4-EON and extractable AAs contents had positive correlations with TEN pools. Conclusions: EON represented a major component of TEN pools in garden and paddy soils under traditional planting conditions. Although only a small proportion of the EON was present in the form of water-extractable and K2SO4-extractable AAs, the release of AAs from soil exchangeable sites might be an important source of organic nitrogen (N) for plant growth. Our findings suggest that the content of most organic forms of N was significantly greater in rhizosphere than in bulk soil zone samples. However, it was also apparent that the TEN pool content was lower in rhizosphere than in bulk soil samples without added N. PMID:23549843

  20. China's Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    .... By no means is China able to surpass the United States soft power capabilities. As China's economy and influence in the region continue to grow however, China as an alternative to the United States can become a reality...

  1. Characteristics of tropical cyclone extreme precipitation and its preliminary causes in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wenyu; Ren, Fumin; Wu, Liguang; Chen, Lianshou; Ding, Chenchen

    2018-03-01

    Extreme precipitation induced by a tropical cyclone (TC) is of great concern to Southeast China. Regional characteristics of daily TC-induced extreme precipitation (TCEP) between 1958 and 2016 and the associated preliminary causes over Southeast China (Zhejiang, Fujian, and Shanghai) were examined by applying the objective synoptic analysis technique, TC track similarity area index, daily precipitation observations, and reanalysis data. The intensity and frequency of high-intensity TCEP (≥ 100, ≥ 200, ≥ 300 mm) have had an increasing trend over recent decades. Most of TCEP occurs from July to September, with frequency peaks in August for TCEP at all intensity levels, apart from the frequency for TCEP ≥ 300 mm that peaks in September. Regions with high frequency and large TCEP (R-HFLTs) (relatively high frequency for TCEP ≥ 100 mm) were concentrated along the coastline of the southern coastal Fujian (Southern R-HFLT), the regions from northern coastal Fujian to southernmost coastal Zhejiang (Central R-HFLT), and central coastal Zhejiang (Northern R-HFLT), decreasing from the coastline to inland. The Central R-HFLT region had the highest TCEP intensity and frequency for TCEP ≥ 100 mm compared with the other R-HFLTs. Further analysis showed that the special terrain of Southeast China matched the spatial distribution of TCEP, which highlights the significance of the topography of Southeast China. To discover other factors responsible for the heavy TCEP, we compared two TC groups that influence Central R-HFLT. Under a more northerly direction and slow movement combined with the unique terrain, TCs with stronger vortex circulation generated heavier TCEP during landfall in Central R-HFLT. Heavy TCEP occurred with easterly and southeasterly winds interacting with terrain over the eastern coast for Central R-HFLT. Although large changes in the internal and external environment were sensitive to the observed TCEP intensity, the interaction between TC circulation

  2. India China Encroachment and Positioning in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to entangle the comparative political economic relations between India and China in a critical framework focusing on the bilateral and strategic foreign policy ties. The intention is then to discuss the intertwined geo-political and geoeconomic foreign policy alignments i...

  3. New radiocarbon dates for Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) sub-fossils from southeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X.F. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen, C.D., E-mail: cdshen@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Ding, P.; Yi, W.X. [State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Fu, D.P.; Liu, K.X. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Milu (Elaphurus davidianus, Pere David's deer) is one of the few species of large mammals that became extinct in the wild, but survived domestically. A good understanding of expansion and habitat is required if the reintroduction of Milu into the wild is to be implemented. Among the widely reported findings of Milu sub-fossils, only a small fraction have been dated. Here we report new AMS radiocarbon dates on Milu sub-fossil samples unearthed from two sites at Qingdun, Jiangsu and Fujiashan, Zhejiang in southeast China. These AMS {sup 14}C ages of Milu sub-fossils provide new evidence for the presence of Milu expansion in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River during the Holocene Optimum interval from 5000 yr BC to 3000 yr BC. These new ages also have important implications for the reconstruction of the paleoclimate and paleogeography during the Neolithic Period in southeast China.

  4. Meso-cenozoic extensional tectonics and uranium metallogenesis in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuehui; Chen Zuyi; Cai Yuqi; Fu Jin; Feng Quanhong; Shi Zuhai

    1998-12-01

    Through a systematic study on Meso-Cenozoic extensional tectonics in Southeast China, the authors point out that there are three major types of extensional tectonics such as taphrogenic thermo-upwelling, and gravitational extensional tectonics. The characteristics of structural forms, combination patterns, movement style and syn-tectonic magmatism of different extensional tectonics are studied. Then according to the known isotope age data of uranium mineralizations in the area, the relations between the process of extensional tectonics and regional uranium metallogenesis, as well as the corresponding relations in space and time between extensional tectonics and uranium deposits of different types are analyzed. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the uranium mineralizations of different types in Southeast China are characterized by an united ore-forming mechanism due to the apparent control of extensional tectonics to the regional uranium metallogenesis

  5. [Comparison of biomedical engineering education between Southeast University (China) and American universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Huang Ningping; Sun Xiao; Gu Ning

    2011-06-01

    Taking Duke University as an example, this article makes a comparison between the major of biomedical engineering in the Southeast University and that in American universities in term of subject direction, faculty, teaching principle and status of publishing academic papers. Through the comparison and analysis, the problems we face were explored. From the comparison and summary the future improvements in four aspects, such as strengthening the interdisciplinary among different majors, etc. so as to provide an inspiration on the future perspectives of research and teaching in biomedical engineering in China.

  6. Simulation of regional climate change under the IPCC A2 scenario in southeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weilin; Jiang, Zhihong [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Li, Laurent [IPSL/CNRS/UPMC, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France); Yiou, Pascal [IPSL, UMR CNRS-CEA-UVSQ, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-02-15

    A variable-grid atmospheric general circulation model, LMDZ, with a local zoom over southeast China is used to investigate regional climate changes in terms of both means and extremes. Two time slices of 30 years are chosen to represent, respectively, the end of the 20th century and the middle of the 21st century. The lower-boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature and sea-ice extension) are taken from the outputs of three global coupled climate models: Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques (CNRM) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Results from a two-way nesting system between LMDZ-global and LMDZ-regional are also presented. The evaluation of simulated temperature and precipitation for the current climate shows that LMDZ reproduces generally well the spatial distribution of mean climate and extreme climate events in southeast China, but the model has systematic cold biases in temperature and tends to overestimate the extreme precipitation. The two-way nesting model can reduce the ''cold bias'' to some extent compared to the one-way nesting model. Results with greenhouse gas forcing from the SRES-A2 emission scenario show that there is a significant increase for mean, daily-maximum and minimum temperature in the entire region, associated with a decrease in the number of frost days and an increase in the heat wave duration. The annual frost days are projected to significantly decrease by 12-19 days while the heat wave duration to increase by about 7 days. A warming environment gives rise to changes in extreme precipitation events. Except two simulations (LMDZ/GFDL and LMDZ/IPSL2) that project a decrease in maximum 5-day precipitation (R5d) for winter, other precipitation extremes are projected to increase over most of southeast China in all seasons, and among the three global scenarios. The domain-averaged values for annual simple daily intensity index (SDII), R5d and fraction of

  7. Survey on changes of breast cancer radiotherapy in four hospitals within southeast coastal region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Yongling; Liu Jingjie; Tian Ye; Li Xianming; Zhu Yaqun; Yu De; Du Xianghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to explore the changes and the tendency of breast cancer radiotherapy in China within the past decade. Methods: A survey on breast cancer radiotherapy in 1999 and 2006 was conducted in 4 hospitals located within the southeast coastal region of China, including patients' clinical characteristics, the purpose of radiotherapy and its techniques. Results: The percentage of breast conservative treatment (BCT) increased from 3% in 1999 to 13% in 2006. For radiotherapy techniques in 2066 compared with 1999, the growth trend was found in use of breast immobilization devices (80% vs. 46%), treatment planning system (70% vs. 23%), and CT simulation (14% vs. 0). The frequency was increased in the chest wall irradiation after mastectomy (90% vs. 67%), but decreased in internal mammary region (30% vs. 76%) and axilla (37% vs. 69%) treatment. There were no differences in total dose and fractionation prescription. Conclusions: BCT was performed more frequently, but post-mastectomy radiotherapy was still essential option in China at present. Although some advanced techniques were applied frequently in clinical practice. Simulation, treatment planning, and irradiation target design were urgent for improvement and standardization. (authors)

  8. Geophysical prospecting for the deep geothermal structure of the Zhangzhou basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaofeng; Liu, Shuang; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Guiling; Lin, Wenjing

    2017-04-01

    Zhangzhou basin located at the Southeast margins of Asian plate is one of the largest geothermal fields in Fujian province, Southeast China. High-temperature natural springs and granite rocks are widely distributed in this region and the causes of geothermal are speculated to be involved the large number of magmatic activities from Jurassic to Cretaceous periods. To investigate the deep structure of Zhangzhou basin, magnetotelluric and gravity measurements were carried out and the joint inversion of magnetotelluric and gravity data delineated the faults and the granites distributions. The inversion results also indicated the backgrounds of heat reservoirs, heat fluid paths and whole geothermal system of the Zhangzhou basin. Combining with the surface geological investigation, the geophysical inversion results revealed that the faults activities and magma intrusions are the main reasons for the formation of geothermal resources of the Zhangzhou basin. Upwelling mantle provides enormous heats to the lower crust leading to metamorphic rocks to be partially melt generating voluminous magmas. Then the magmas migration and thermal convection along the faults warm up the upper crust. So finally, the cap rocks, basements and major faults are the three favorable conditions for the formation of geothermal fields of the Zhangzhou basin.

  9. Long-term atmospheric visibility trend in Southeast China, 1973-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke; Wang, Kai; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Zhao, Juanjuan

    2012-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution in Southeast China has been worsening because of the rapid industrial development and urbanization, which have significant negative effects on atmospheric visibility. Characterization of the trend in atmospheric visibility is important for evaluating the impact of PM pollution on the impairment of visual air quality in urban and rural areas. Long-term trend in atmospheric visibility in Southeast China was analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 based on the meteorological data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) database using four statistical methods: annual mean visibility, percentages of “very good” visibility and “bad” visibility, ridit analysis, and cumulative percentiles. The relationship of atmospheric extinction with Air Pollution Index (API) was studied. In addition, the effects of recent environment policies on visibility were studied. The results showed that the visibility had decreased in 94% stations of this region and prefecture stations had the highest decreasing trend of -3.1 km/decade during the entire period. The average visibility of all the 17 stations (i.e., region-average) declined at a rate of -2.0 km/decade, with a 38-year average of 18.1 km. Decrease in the percentage of “very good” visibility and increase in the percentage of “bad” visibility existed in 14 and 16 stations, respectively. Region-average percentage of “bad” visibility was in the range of 2.2-21.5%, with an increasing rate of 5.0% per decade, and that of “very good” visibility was 24.4-71.8%, with a decreasing rate of -10.7% per decade. During the entire period, county and prefecture stations had similar changing patterns and trends in visibility, while town stations had the least worsening trends. Region-average visibility was better before 1988 while worse after 1993 when comparing to the entire period, with the transition period of 1988-1993. The worst 20%, 50% and best 20% of region-average visibility

  10. Linear mixed-effects models to describe individual tree crown width for China-fir in Fujian Province, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xu; Yujun, Sun; Xinjie, Wang; Jin, Wang; Yao, Fu

    2015-01-01

    A multiple linear model was developed for individual tree crown width of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Fujian province, southeast China. Data were obtained from 55 sample plots of pure China-fir plantation stands. An Ordinary Linear Least Squares (OLS) regression was used to establish the crown width model. To adjust for correlations between observations from the same sample plots, we developed one level linear mixed-effects (LME) models based on the multiple linear model, which take into account the random effects of plots. The best random effects combinations for the LME models were determined by the Akaike's information criterion, the Bayesian information criterion and the -2logarithm likelihood. Heteroscedasticity was reduced by three residual variance functions: the power function, the exponential function and the constant plus power function. The spatial correlation was modeled by three correlation structures: the first-order autoregressive structure [AR(1)], a combination of first-order autoregressive and moving average structures [ARMA(1,1)], and the compound symmetry structure (CS). Then, the LME model was compared to the multiple linear model using the absolute mean residual (AMR), the root mean square error (RMSE), and the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj-R2). For individual tree crown width models, the one level LME model showed the best performance. An independent dataset was used to test the performance of the models and to demonstrate the advantage of calibrating LME models.

  11. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na WANG; Hong FANG; Wei-fang ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the ac-celerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only Fitzpatrick types Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and Fitzpatrick type Ⅱ seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, Fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

  12. Emerging of two new subgenotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoya; Xu, Xiaojie; You, Shumei; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens and causes major economic loss to the global swine industry. In this study, a total of 49 PRRSV isolates were collected from different swine herds in seven provinces in Southeast China from 2014 to 2015. All the ORF5 genes and some Nsp2 genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the North America genotype. Among them, five isolates formed a new subgenotype IV derived from highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). Six isolates formed subgenotype III, which were closely related to the NADC30 strain in the US. These isolates formed 13 putative N-linked glycosylation site (NGS) patterns based on N30, 33, 34, 35, 44 and 51. There were fewer NGSs of isolates in subgenotype IV than in subgenotype III. This indicates that the two new subgenotypes of PRRSV strains with different NGS patterns were spreading in those regions of China. The genetic diversity should be considered for the control and prevention of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond. By Leo Suryadinata. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2017. Pp. xi + 278. Paperback: $29.90.......Book review of: The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond. By Leo Suryadinata. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2017. Pp. xi + 278. Paperback: $29.90....

  14. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in South-East China, 1993-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Ye, Rongwei; Berry, Robert J; Liu, Jianmeng; Hu, Dale J; Zhu, Li

    2010-10-01

    To report the prevalence of anaemia by demographic characteristics and its secular trend over 13 years for south-east Chinese pregnant women, and to determine the focus of anaemia prevention in Chinese pregnant women. Prospective study of the data on Hb concentration and other demographic information from a large-scale population-based perinatal health surveillance system in south-east China. Fourteen cities or counties in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. A total of 467 057 prenatal women who had participated in the perinatal health-care surveillance system and delivered babies from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2005 and had a record of Hb in all three pregnancy trimesters. The overall prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women was 39.6 % from 1993 to 2005. Anaemia prevalence increased from the first (29.6 %) to the second (33.0 %) and third (56.2 %) trimesters. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in villagers, in women with less education and in women with higher gravidity or parity. The prevalence of anaemia in all of the trimesters was higher in the spring, summer and autumn and lower in the winter. The prevalence decreased from 1993 to 2005, from 53.3 % to 11.4 % for the first trimester, 45.6 % to 22.8 % for the second trimester and 64.6 % to 44.6 % for the third trimester. The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces decreased substantially from 1993 to 2005. However, anaemia in the third trimester is still a severe public health problem among pregnant women in these areas.

  15. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of China and the United States in the Southeast Asia Region under the Obama Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s rapid rise and the implementation of the Obama Administration’s ”Return to the Asia Pacific” strategy, both China and the United States have significantly changed their relations with Southeast Asia in recent years. Also, the influence of China and the United States in this region has changed too. Both China and the United States have strengthened relations with the Southeast Asia region in terms of political, economic, military, cultural and other aspects, and their influence has also risen in varying degrees. In comparison, China has a greater impact on the economy of Southeast Asia, while the US has more influence on its military and security. China vigorously implements the neighborhood diplomacy featuring amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. The United States actively promotes the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy. The Southeast Asian countries continue to choose the balance of power strategy, relying on China regarding the economy, relying on the United States regarding the security. This has resulted in the continuous game between China and the United States in the Southeast Asian region.

  18. Fluorescence characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in shallow water along the Zhejiang coasts, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Fan, Daidu; Li, Daoji; Cai, Jingong

    2010-04-01

    Twenty-eight surface water samples from rivers, muddy intertidal flats, sand shores, and bedrock coasts were collected along the Zhejiang coastline in southeast China. In addition, three samples from the Changjiang (Yangtze River) were collected for comparison. CDOM (chromophoric dissolved organic matter) absorption and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, as well as nutrients and DOC were measured in these samples. According to salinity, nutrient, and DOC constituents, the 28 Zhejiang samples were categorized into four groups, i.e. highly-polluted, river derived, muddy-flat derived, and saltwater dominated ones. Among the six parameters (two humic-like and two protein-like peak intensities in fluorescence EEM contours, absorption at 300 nm, and DOC concentration) for the Zhejiang samples, any two of them were positively correlated. The submarine groundwater discharge, rather than local rivers, might have provided most of the freshwater that interacted with the saltwater during the mixing process. The high protein-like EEM peaks in samples from muddy salt marshes and rivers were probably caused by terrestrial inputs, land-based pollution, and local biological activities in combination. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Modeling nutrient sources, transport and management strategies in a coastal watershed, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Hong, Huasheng

    2018-01-01

    Integrated watershed management requires an analytical model capable of revealing the full range of impacts that would be caused by the uses and developments in the watershed. The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model was developed in this study to provide empirical estimates of the sources, transport of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) and to develop nutrient management strategies in the Jiulong River Watershed, southeast China that has enormous influence on the region's ecological safety. We calibrated the model using data related to daily streamflow, monthly TN and TP concentrations in 2014 at 30 locations. The model produced R 2 values for TN with 0.95 and TP with 0.94. It was found that for the entire watershed, TN came from fertilizer application (43%), livestock breeding (39%) and sewage discharge (18%), while TP came from livestock breeding (46%), fertilizer application (46%), and industrial discharge (8%). Fifty-eight percent of the TN and 80% of the TP in upstream reaches are delivered to the outlets of North and West rivers. A scenario analysis with SPARROW was coupled to develop suitable management strategies. Results revealed that controlling nutrient sources was effective in improving water quality. Normally sharp reduction in nutrient sources is not operational feasible. Hence, it is recommended that preventing nutrient on land from entering into the river as a suitable strategy in watershed management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  1. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout Southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except Northern Thailand with Central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant F(s) values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Satellite Altimetry to Calibrate the Simulation of Typhoon Seth Storm Surge off Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeters can capture storm surges generated by typhoons and tropical storms, if the satellite flies over at the right time. In this study, we show TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter-observed storm surge features off Southeast China on 10 October 1994 during Typhoon Seth. We then use a three-dimensional, barotropic, finite-volume community ocean model (FVCOM to simulate storm surges. An innovative aspect is that satellite data are used to calibrate the storm surge model to improve model performance, by adjusting model wind forcing fields (the National Center for Environment Prediction (NCEP reanalysis product in reference to the typhoon best-track data. The calibration reduces the along-track root-mean-square (RMS difference between model and altimetric data from 0.15 to 0.10 m. It also reduces the RMS temporal difference from 0.21 to 0.18 m between the model results and independent tide-gauge data at Xiamen. In particular, the calibrated model produces a peak storm surge of 1.01 m at 6:00 10 October 1994 at Xiamen, agreeing with tide-gauge data; while the peak storm surge with the NCEP forcing is 0.71 m only. We further show that the interaction between storm surges and astronomical tides contributes to the peak storm surge by 34% and that the storm surge propagates southwestward as a coastally-trapped Kelvin wave.

  3. Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future.

  4. Genetic diversity of Begonia versicolor (Begoniaceae, a narrow endemic species in southeast Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Begonia versicolor Irmscher, a narrow endemic Begonia species in southeast Yunnan of China, is a wonderful ornamental plant with huge diversity in colored foliage. To investigate its variations, the genetic diversity and population structure were studied based on 56 individuals sampled from four localities using 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci transferred from other species of Begonia. The results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity in B. versicolor comparing with other species of Begonia using microsatellite. Positive inbreeding coefficient (FIS values were found in three populations (SWC, XPZ and DSD. AMOVA analysis indicated that genetic variations occurred mainly within populations (55.9% rather than among populations (9.7% and among groups (34.4%. Four populations were grouped into two clusters based on STRUCTURE. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis showed a high level and significant genetic differentiation in the populations of B. versicolor. Based on its genetic status and rarity in the wild, the sustainable in-situ and ex-situ conservation strategies should be urgently carried out to protect this species with high horticultural and scientific values.

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A R M Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  6. Impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on ensemble flood forecasting over Lanjiang basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble flood forecasting driven by numerical weather prediction products is becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications.In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system based on Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated.The hydrological model is optimized by parallel programmed ɛ-NSGAII multi-objective algorithm and two respectively parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows coupled with a modular approach.The results indicatethat the ɛ-NSGAII algorithm permits more efficient optimization and rational determination on parameter setting.It is demonstrated that the multimodel ensemble streamflow mean have better skills than the best singlemodel ensemble mean (ECMWF) and the multimodel ensembles weighted on members and skill scores outperform other multimodel ensembles. For typical flood event, it is proved that the flood can be predicted 3-4 days in advance, but the flows in rising limb can be captured with only 1-2 days ahead due to the flash feature. With respect to peak flows selected by Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from either singlemodel or multimodels are generally underestimated as the extreme values are smoothed out by ensemble process.

  7. Anthropogenic activities and coastal environmental quality: a regional quantitative analysis in southeast China with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liu, Yan; Huang, Dongren; Ke, Hongwei; Chen, Huorong; Zhang, Songbin; Yang, Shengyun; Cai, Minggang

    2018-02-01

    Regional analysis of environmental issues has always been a hot topic in the field of sustainable development. Because the different levels of economic growth, urbanization, resource endowments, etc. in different regions generate apparently different ecological responses, a better description and comparison across different regions will provide more valuable implications for ecological improvement and policymaking. In this study, seven typical bays in southeast China that are a rapid developing area were selected to quantitatively analyze the relationship between socioeconomic development and coastal environmental quality. Based on the water quality data from 2007 to 2015, the multivariate statistical method was applied to analyze the potential environmental risks and to classify the seven bays based on their environmental quality status. The possible variation trends of environmental indices were predicted based on the cross-regional panel data by Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results showed that there were significant regional differences among the seven bays, especially Quanzhou, Xiamen, and Luoyuan Bays, suffered from severer artificial disturbances than other bays, despite their different development patterns. Socioeconomic development level was significantly associated with some water quality indices (pH, DIN, PO 4 -P); the association was roughly positive: the areas with higher GDP per capita have some worse water quality indices. In addition, the decreasing trend of pH values and the increasing trend of nutrient concentration in the seven bays will continue in the foreseeable future. In consideration of the variation trends, the limiting nutrient strategy should be implemented to mitigate the deterioration of the coastal environments.

  8. Connecting gastrointestinal cancer risk to cadmium and lead exposure in the Chaoshan population of Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xueqiong; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Chen, Yanrong; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2018-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pose a serious threat to human health because of its carcinogenicity. China ranks first according to the Global Cancer Report for 2014 in newly diagnosed gastrointestinal cancers and cancer deaths. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of Cd and Pb burden with the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in a hospital-based case-control study from southern regions of China, Chaoshan area. A total of 279 hospitalized patients were recruited in this study, of which 167 were gastrointestinal cancer cases (70 esophageal cancer, 51 gastric cancer, and 46 colorectal cancer), and 112 controls were recruited from two hospitals in the Chaoshan area of southeast China. Basic clinical data and information on gender, age, and other demographic characteristics were collected from medical records. Blood Cd and Pb levels were detected by graphite furnace atomizer absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). Blood Cd/Pb levels and over-limit ratios between cases and controls were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) as measures of relative risk and explored the relationships between blood Cd/Pb levels and gastrointestinal cancer risk and clinicopathological characteristics. Median levels of blood Cd and Pb in cases (2.12 and 60.03 μg/L, respectively) were significantly higher than those of controls (1.47 and 53.84 μg/L, respectively). The over-limit ratios for Cd (≥ 5 μg/L) and Pb (≥ 100 μg/L) in the cases were both higher than that of controls. Blood Cd levels had a tendency to accumulate in the human body with gender, age, and tobacco smoking, while blood Pb levels only were associated with tobacco smoking. The logistic regression model illustrated that gastrointestinal cancers were significantly associated with blood Cd levels and blood Pb levels. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in patients with T3 + T4 stage were markedly higher than in patients

  9. Characteristics of Nitrogen Loss through Surface-Subsurface Flow on Red Soil Slopes of Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haijin; Liu, Zhao; Zuo, Jichao; Wang, Lingyun; Nie, Xiaofei

    2017-12-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) loss related to surface flow and subsurface flow (including interflow and groundwater flow) from slope lands is a global issue. A lysimetric experiment with three types of land cover (grass cover, GC; litter cover, LC; and bare land, BL) were carried out on a red soil slope land in southeast China. Total Nitrogen (TN) loss through surface flow, interflow and groundwater flow was observed under 28 natural precipitation events from 2015 to 2016. TN concentrations from subsurface flow on BL and LC plots were, on average, 2.7-8.2 and 1.5-4.4 times greater than TN concentrations from surface flow, respectively; the average concentration of TN from subsurface flow on GC was about 36-56% of that recorded from surface flow. Surface flow, interflow and groundwater flow contributed 0-15, 2-9 and 76-96%, respectively, of loss load of TN. Compared with BL, GC and LC intercepted 83-86% of TN loss through surface runoff; GC intercepted 95% of TN loss through subsurface flow while TN loss through subsurface flow on LC is 2.3 times larger than that on BL. In conclusion, subsurface flow especially groundwater flow is the dominant hydrological rout for N loss that is usually underestimated. Grass cover has the high retention of N runoff loss while litter mulch will increase N leaching loss. These findings provide scientific support to control N runoff loss from the red soil slope lands by using suitable vegetation cover and mulching techniques.

  10. Sustainable Agriculture Evaluation for Red Soil Hill Region of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi-Guo; XU Meng-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural sustainability for economic development is important and a complex issue throughout the world; however,it is difficult to synthetically evaluate its use in the policy making process. The objective of this study was to evaluate sustainable agriculture in the red soil hill region of Southeast China through a newly proposed method combining four separate sub-systems: regional population (P), resource (R), environmental (E), and socio-economic (S). This new index system was proposed to appraise synthetically the agricultural sustainability of the red soil hill region from 1988 to 1996 with a two-step method assessing: a) the agricultural sustainability in each province independently and b) the relative sustainability of each province to the whole region. The first step only provided a development trend for each province based on its original situation, while the second step provided additional information on the comparative status of each province in agricultural development to the region as a whole. Higher index scores were found for the economy and resource categories denoting improvement. However, lower scores in the environment category indicated the improvement was achieved at the cost of deteriorating ecological surroundings due to an increasing population that demanded more from the agro-ecosystem and put heavier pressures on it. Results also showed that water and soil losses in this region were the major obstacles encountered in sustainable agriculture development. The assessment results were verified when compared with results from another method. This suggested that the new assessment system was reliable and credible in evaluating agricultural sustainability on a regional scale.

  11. The portability of the "Electronics Workbench" simulation software to China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Zhi-Cheng, Dong

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the portability of the Canadian-made simulation software package, "Electronic Workbench" package (EWB) to China. As part of a larger project investigating the portability of various educational software packages, the EWB package was used in electronics instruction in China and

  12. Ferret badger rabies origin and its revisited importance as potential source of rabies transmission in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ye

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent occurrence of ferret badger-associated human rabies cases in southeast China highlights the lack of laboratory-based surveillance and urges revisiting the potential importance of this animal in rabies transmission. To determine if the ferret badgers actually contribute to human and dog rabies cases, and the possible origin of the ferret badger-associated rabies in the region, an active rabies survey was conducted to determine the frequency of rabies infection and seroprevalence in dogs and ferret badgers. Methods A retrospective survey on rabies epidemics was performed in Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces in southeast China. The brain tissues from ferret badgers and dogs were assayed by fluorescent antibody test. Rabies virus was isolated and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The sera from ferret badgers and dogs were titrated using rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA test. Results The ferret badgers presented a higher percentage of rabies seroconversion than dogs did in the endemic region, reaching a maximum of 95% in the collected samples. Nine ferret badger-associated rabies viruses were isolated, sequenced, and were phylogenetically clustered as a separate group. Nucleotide sequence revealed 99.4-99.8% homology within the ferret badger isolates, and 83-89% homology to the dog isolates in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes in the same rabies endemic regions. Conclusions Our data suggest ferret badger-associated rabies has likely formed as an independent enzootic originating from dogs during the long-term rabies infestation in southeast China. The eventual role of FB rabies in public health remains unclear. However, management of ferret badger bites, rabies awareness and control in the related regions should be an immediate need.

  13. FDI Flows to Latin America, East and Southeast Asia and China: Substitutes or Complements?

    OpenAIRE

    Chantasasawat, Busakorn; Fung, K. C.; Iizaka, Hitomi; Siu, Alan

    2005-01-01

    China in recent years has emerged as the largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the world. Many analysts and government officials in the developing world have increasingly expressed concerns that they are losing competitiveness to China. Is China diverting FDI from other developing countries? Theoretically, a growing China can add to other countries’ direct investment by creating more opportunities for production networking and raising the need for raw materials and ...

  14. Electron beam application in gas waste treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifeng

    2003-01-01

    In the most recent decade, electron beam waste treatment technology attracted serious attention from environment policymaker and industrial leaders in power industry in China. Starting in middle of 1980's, Chinese research institute began experiment of electron beam treatment on flue gas. By the end of 2000, two 10,000 cubic meters per hour small scale electron beam gas purifying station were established in Sichuang province and Beijing. Several electron beam gas purifying demonstration projects are under construction. With robust economy and strong energy demand, needless to say, in near future, electron beam gas purifying technology will have a bright prospect in China. (author)

  15. Developing a Home-Based Early Intervention Personnel Training Program in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huichao; Chen, Ching-I; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Squires, Jane; Li, Wenge; Liu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    China is expected to have a rapid growth in specialized early intervention (EI) services for young children ages birth to 6 and their families. A major barrier in the provision of EI services in China is the shortage of well-trained EI personnel. In 2013, a Home-Based Early Intervention Program (HBEIP) was started at South China Normal University…

  16. South China, East Vietnam or West Philippine? Comparative Framing Analysis of Regional News Coverage of Southeast Asian Sea Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Bradley C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, the world paid scant attention to the sporadic skirmishes and sovereignty squabbles in what is known by many as the South China Sea. However, in the past few years, there have been several noteworthy happenings that have drawn the attention of media outlets, including a Chinese oil rig placement near Vietnam, a Philippineinternational court case, a U.S.–ASEAN summit, and Chinese reclamation projects. Many of the countries involved are members of the regional grouping known as ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This study examined Asean’s English-language press, looking at the amount, patterns, and tone of coverage given to regional maritime disputes. Results indicate that use of the term ‘South China Sea’ prevails in all countries except Vietnam. The Asean newspapers have devoted a consistent and substantial amount of space to covering the topic. Indonesia’s Jakarta Post tended to use neutral or positive language when mentioning Asean and the US, while China saw more negative associations in the coverage. Further research is suggested, taking into account mass communication theories and perspectives.

  17. Interannual variation of the Bowen ratio in a subtropical coniferous plantation in southeast China, 2003-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakun Tang

    Full Text Available The interannual variation of the Bowen ratio, through its effect on the warming extent of available energy to the ecosystem land surface air, heavily influences the ecosystem microclimate and affects the hydrological cycle at both regional and global scales. Although the precipitation amount in southeast China is not expected to change greatly as a result of climate change, the precipitation frequency may be altered in the future. We explored the interannual variation of the Bowen ratio and its affecting mechanisms based on eddy covariance measurements in a subtropical plantation in southeast China during 2003-2012. The results indicated that the annual mean Bowen ratio was 0.35 ± 0.06, with a range of 0.29-0.45. The Bowen ratio during the dry season (July-October positively correlated with the annual Bowen ratio (R(2 = 0.85, p<0.001. The effective precipitation frequency during the dry season, through its positive effect on shallow soil water content, indirectly and negatively affected the annual Bowen ratio. Between 2003 and 2012, the annual Bowen ratio exhibited a marginally significant decreasing trend (p = 0.061, meanwhile the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season increased significantly (p<0.001. The annual Bowen ratio may decrease further if the effective precipitation frequency and shallow soil water content during the dry season follow similar trends in the future. The warming effect of available energy to the surface air of our studied plantation may decline with the decreasing annual Bowen ratio.

  18. Temporal and spatial distribution of PM2.5 chemical composition in a coastal city of Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengren; Hu, Min; Du, Bohan; Guo, Qingfeng; Tan, Tianyi; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xiaofeng; He, Lingyan; Wu, Zhijun; Guo, Song

    2017-12-15

    Rapid economic development and urbanization in China has been concentrated in coastal cities, resulting in haze and photochemical smog issues, especially in the densely-populated Yangtze River Delta. In this study, we explore particulate matter (specifically PM 2.5 ) pollution in a city in Zhejiang Province (Ningbo), chosen to represent a typical, densely-populated urban city with residential and industrial sections. PM 2.5 samples were collected at five sites in four seasons from Dec. 2012 to Nov. 2013. The annual average PM 2.5 mass concentration was 53.2±30.4μg/m 3 , with the highest concentration in winter and lowest in summer. Among the five sites, PM 2.5 concentration was highest in an urban residential site and lowest in a suburban site, due to effects of urbanization and the anthropogenic influences. The chemical components of PM 2.5 show significant seasonal variation. In addition, secondary transformation was high in Ningbo, with the highest proportion of secondary components found at a suburban site and the lowest at the industrial sites. Ningbo is controlled by five major air masses originating from inland China, from the Bohai Sea, offshore from the southeast, the Yellow Sea, and off the east coast of Korea. The relative contributions of these air masses differ, by season, with the Bohai Sea air mass dominating in winter and spring, the maritime southeast air mass in summer, and the Yellow Sea and coastal Korean air masses dominating in autumn. The continental air mass is associated with a high PM 2.5 concentration, indicating that it is primarily transports primary emissions. In contrast, the concentration ratios among secondary formed pollutants were higher in the maritime air masses, which suggests that sea breezes control temporal and spatial variations of air pollution over coastal cities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  20. Chinese Assertiveness in the South China Sea and Southeast Asian Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyle A. Thayer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Chinese assertive behaviour towards the Philippines and Vietnam over South China Sea issues in 2011. The article compares and contrasts Chinese diplomatic behaviour in the period before and after the adoption by ASEAN member states and China of Guidelines for the Implementation the Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea in July. In the first period China aggressively asserted its claims to sovereignty by interfering with commercial fishing and oil exploration activities of vessels operating in the Exclusive Economic Zones of Vietnam and the Philippines. Both states resisted Chinese actions. The Philippines allocated increased funding for defence modernization, lobbied ASEAN states and shored up its alliance with the United States. Vietnam too protested Chinese action and undertook symbolic steps to defend national sovereignty. In the second period all states moved to contain South China Sea tensions from affecting their larger bilateral relations. It remains to be seen, however, if proposed confidence building measures will ameliorate Chinese assertiveness.

  1. High-quality heat flow determination from the crystalline basement of the south-east margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangzheng; Tang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Song; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Linyou; Zhao, Ping; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-03-01

    Very few of heat flow data have come from the crystalline basement in the North China Craton but rather from boreholes in the sedimentary cover of oil-gas basins. Explorations for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources and porphyry gold deposits in eastern China offer now valuable opportunities to study the terrestrial heat flow in the crystalline basement. In this study, we obtained continuous temperature logs from two boreholes (the LZ borehole with a depth of 3471 m and the DR borehole with a depth of 2179 m) located in the south-east margin of the North China Craton. The boreholes have experienced long shut-in times (442 days and 261 days for the LZ borehole and DR borehole, respectively); thus, it can be expected that the temperature conditions have re-equilibrated after drilling and drill-mud circulation. Rock thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production were measured for 68 crystalline rock samples from these two boreholes. The measured heat-flow density was determined to be 71.8 ± 2.3 mW m-2 (for the LZ borehole) and 91.5 ± 1.2 mW m-2 (for the DR borehole). The heat flow for the LZ borehole is close to the value of 75 mW m-2 determined in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling main hole (CCSD MH), both being in the Sulu-Dabie orogenic belt and thus able to verify each other. The value for the DR borehole is higher than the above two values, which supports former high heat-flow values determined in the Bohai Bay Basin.

  2. Population genetic structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), from China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Jun L; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Run J

    2008-11-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, is a species of fruit flies of significant agricultural interest. Of supposed Indian origin, the melon fly is now widely distributed throughout South East Asia up to China, while it has been recently eradicated from Japan. The population structure of seven geographic populations from coastal China, as well as samples from other regions of South East Asia and Japan, including lab colonies, have been studied using a 782 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence. The observed genetic diversity was exceedingly low, considering the geographic scale of the sampling, and one single haplotype was found to be predominant from Sri Lanka to China. We confirm that Bactrocera cucurbitae exists in South East Asia as a single phyletic lineage, that Chinese populations are genetically uniform, and that no apparent genetic differentiation exists between these and three available Japanese melon fly sequences.

  3. Impact of land fragmentation on rice producers' technical efficiency in South-East China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.; Heerink, N.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Qu Futian, F.

    2010-01-01

    Rice farming is important for income generation in large parts of China and Asia. This paper uses detailed household, crop- and plot-level data to investigate the levels and determinants of rice producers’ technical efficiency for three villages with different characteristics in a major rice-growing

  4. Distribution, provenance, and onset of the Xiashu Loess in Southeast China with paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wu, Jiang; Hou, Xiaoxue; Fu, Yu; Geng, Junyan

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits are important archives of past climate change in subtropical China, where long-term terrestrial records are scarce. However, only a few long-term records with reliable dating were reported in Jiangsu Province, where loess deposits in southeastern China were first discovered and designated as the Xiashu Loess. Moreover, the provenance of the Xiashu Loess is still controversial. This study presents the magnetostratigraphy and detrital zircon U-Pb age results of loess deposits at Zhoujiashan in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. To date, this section (with basal age of approximately 0.88 Ma) may be the oldest loess deposits discovered in southeastern China. Based on the detrital zircon U-Pb ages of the Zhoujiashan section, together with published results of geochemistry, geomorphology, sedimentology, and meteorology, we propose that the Xiashu Loess has two mixed sources. Local materials derived from the Yangtze River Basin (including exposed river/lake beds, floodplains, and mountains) served as a major contributor. The distal eolian dust that originated from the arid areas of North China (including deserts, piedmont alluvial fans, and drylands) played a minor role in the formation process of the Xiashu Loess. The nearly synchronous onset age (approximately 0.88-0.85 Ma) of the Xiashu Loess was attributed to a regional environmental event during the middle Pleistocene transition.

  5. [Occupational health status of electronics manufacturing female employees in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T T; Mei, L Y

    2018-02-06

    Electronics industry is a typical labor-intensive industry in China. There are a lot of female workers and various occupational hazard factors in the workplace. This article reviewed the characteristics of employment of women in electronics industry, occupational hazards of exposure, protective measures, occupational disease situation, influence of reproductive health and mental health, and occupational health management. Electronics female emplyees have the priority in reproductive health and mental health. Besides, this group has poor protective measures, occupational health management and policy should be taken to enhance the level of women health in electronics industry.

  6. Annual methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies and inland fish aquaculture wetlands in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Hu, Tao; Chen, Jie; Yu, Kai; Zou, Jianwen; Liu, Shuwei

    2018-02-01

    Inland aquaculture ponds have been documented as important sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), while their regional or global source strength remains unclear due to lack of direct flux measurements by covering more typical habitat-specific aquaculture environments. In this study, we compared the CH4 and N2O fluxes from rice paddies and nearby inland fish aquaculture wetlands that were converted from rice paddies in southeast China. Both CH4 and N2O fluxes were positively related to water temperature and sediment dissolved organic carbon, but negatively related to water dissolved oxygen concentration. More robust response of N2O fluxes to water mineral N was observed than to sediment mineral N. Annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from inland fish aquaculture averaged 0.51 mg m-2 h-1 and 54.78 μg m-2 h-1, amounting to 42.31 kg CH4 ha-1 and 2.99 kg N2O-N ha-1, respectively. The conversion of rice paddies to conventional fish aquaculture significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 23% and 66%, respectively. The emission factor for N2O was estimated to be 0.46% of total N input in the feed or 1.23 g N2O-N kg-1 aquaculture production. The estimate of sustained-flux global warming potential of annual CH4 and N2O emissions and the net economic profit suggested that such conversion of rice paddies to inland fish aquaculture would help to reconcile the dilemma for simultaneously achieving both low climatic impacts and high economic benefits in China. More solid direct field measurements from inland aquaculture are in urgent need to direct the overall budget of national or global CH4 and N2O fluxes.

  7. A comparative study on genetic effects of artificial and natural habitat fragmentation on Loropetalum chinense (Hamamelidaceae) in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, N; Comes, H P; Cao, Y N; Guo, R; Zhang, Y H; Qiu, Y X

    2015-06-01

    Elucidating the demographic and landscape features that determine the genetic effects of habitat fragmentation has become fundamental to research in conservation and evolutionary biology. Land-bridge islands provide ideal study areas for investigating the genetic effects of habitat fragmentation at different temporal and spatial scales. In this context, we compared patterns of nuclear microsatellite variation between insular populations of a shrub of evergreen broad-leaved forest, Loropetalum chinense, from the artificially created Thousand-Island Lake (TIL) and the Holocene-dated Zhoushan Archipelago of Southeast China. Populations from the TIL region harboured higher levels of genetic diversity than those from the Zhoushan Archipelago, but these differences were not significant. There was no correlation between genetic diversity and most island features, excepting a negative effect of mainland-island distance on allelic richness and expected heterozygosity in the Zhoushan Archipelago. In general, levels of gene flow among island populations were moderate to high, and tests of alternative models of population history strongly favoured a gene flow-drift model over a pure drift model in each region. In sum, our results showed no obvious genetic effects of habitat fragmentation due to recent (artificial) or past (natural) island formation. Rather, they highlight the importance of gene flow (most likely via seed) in maintaining genetic variation and preventing inter-population differentiation in the face of habitat 'insularization' at different temporal and spatial scales.

  8. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Li Yi; Lili Shi; Deyang Kong; Daoji Cai; Donghua Wang; Zhengjun Shan

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants.This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province,Southeast China.The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs),hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos,pyrethroid pesticides,metolachlor,pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples,which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong.Meanwhile,correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed.Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations,human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed.The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area,however,the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  9. The evolution and ascent paths of mantle xenolith-bearing magma: Observations and insights from Cenozoic basalts in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pu; Niu, Yaoling; Guo, Pengyuan; Cui, Huixia; Ye, Lei; Liu, Jinju

    2018-06-01

    Studies have shown that mantle xenolith-bearing magmas must ascend rapidly to carry mantle xenoliths to the surface. It has thus been inferred inadvertently that such rapid ascending melt must have undergone little crystallization or evolution. However, this inference is apparently inconsistent with the widespread observation that xenolith-bearing alkali basalts are variably evolved with Mg# ≤72. In this paper, we discuss this important, yet overlooked, petrological problem and offer new perspectives with evidence. We analyzed the Cenozoic mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts from several locations in Southeast China that have experienced varying degrees of fractional crystallization (Mg# = 48-67). The variably evolved composition of host alkali basalts is not in contradiction with rapid ascent, but rather reflects inevitability of crystallization during ascent. Thermometry calculations for clinopyroxene (Cpx) megacrysts give equilibrium temperatures of 1238-1390 °C, which is consistent with the effect of conductive cooling and melt crystallization during ascent because TMelt > TLithosphere. The equilibrium pressure (18-27 kbar) of these Cpx megacrysts suggests that the crystallization takes place under lithospheric mantle conditions. The host melt must have experienced limited low-pressure residence in the shallower levels of lithospheric mantle and crust. This is in fact consistent with the rapid ascent of the host melt to bring mantle xenoliths to the surface.

  10. [Nitrogen fixation potential of biological soil crusts in southeast edge of Tengger Desert, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Xin-Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Pan, Yan-Xia; Liu, Yan-Mei; Su, Jie-Qiong

    2012-08-01

    Taking three typical types of biological soil crusts (BSCs), i.e., cyanobacterial-algal crust, lichen crust, and moss crust, in the southeast fringe of Tengger Desert as test objects, this paper studied their nitrogen fixation potential, seasonal fluctuation, and responses to the environmental factors from June 2010 to May 2011. During the whole study period, the nitrogenase activity (NA) of the cyanobacterial-algal, lichen, and moss crusts had significant difference, being 14-133, 20-101, and 4-28 micromol x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively, which indicated the critical role of the species composition of BSCs in nitrogen fixation. The NA of the three crust types had similar response characteristics to environmental factors. The NA had less correlation with the precipitation during the study period, but was positively correlated to the spring > summer > winter. The high air temperature in summer and the low air temperature (desert zone had nitrogen fixation capacity throughout the year, and the controlling effects of environmental factors on the nitrogen fixation were hierarchical. Water condition was the key factor affecting the nitrogen fixation rate and duration of the crusts, while under the conditions of sufficient water supply and carbon storage, heat condition dominated the crusts nitrogen fixation rate.

  11. Migraine attacks among medical students in Soochow University, Southeast China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu X

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Gu,1,2 Yaojie Xie1 1School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong; 2Intensive Care Unit, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Suzhou, China Purpose: Migraine is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is burdensome to both the individual and society, influencing the academic performance and quality of daily lives of medical students worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the migraine prevalence in a sample of university medical students in China and to examine the features and typical trigger factors of migraine among these students. Patients and methods: From May 2016 to August 2016, a total of 1,060 medical students who were enrolled in Soochow University in Jiangsu Province in China were chosen through stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire that included the ID MigraineTM for screening of migraine cases was used to collect data. The frequency, severity, duration of migraine attacks, and relevant trigger factors were measured for migraine cases. In total, 986 students completed the questionnaire. Results: The overall migraine prevalence among students was 7.91%, with 4.64% in male and 9.84% in female students. Junior-grade students had a higher migraine prevalence than senior students (prevalence of migraine of year 1 to year 5 undergraduates: 10.83%, 8.9% vs. 6.25%, 4.42%, 5.33%, P<0.05; prevalence of migraine of year 1 to year 3 graduates: 9.68%, 9.71% vs. 6.38%, P<0.05. Students with a positive family history were more likely to suffer migraine than those without (OR=8.48, 95% CI: 4.33–16.59. Stress (n=73, 93.59%, lack of sleep (n=72, 92.31%, and change of sleeping time (n=68, 87.18% were the top three trigger factors among the students. Conclusion: Migraine was common among medical students from a university in China, and especially higher in female and junior-grade students, and those with a family history of migraine. Reducing stress and improving sleep quality might be effective

  12. Outbreak of Occupational Brucellosis at a Pharmaceutical Factory in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, B D; Wang, S Q; Lai, S M; Lu, Y; Shi, X G; Cao, G P; Hu, X L; Zheng, C J; Yu, Z Y; Zhang, J M; Fang, C F; Gong, Z Y

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is an occupational disease affecting workers in butcher shops, the milking and dairy product industry, causing more than 500 000 new cases around the world. As a national statutory B infectious disease in China, morbidity of brucellosis is rapidly increasing in recent years. We report an occupational outbreak of brucellosis infection in a pharmaceutical factory. Exposure was a result of manual operation in the process line, close contact with sheep placentas, insufficient disinfection and repeated using of protective suits and infected by aerosol dissemination. Improved preventive methods, appropriate public health measures and spread of health education would be helpful to prevent the occupational outbreak of brucellosis in future. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Distribution of atmospheric mercury in northern Southeast Asia and South China Sea during Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chi, Kai Hsine; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Northern South China Sea (SCS) is adjacent to major atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission source regions; however, studies concerning regional atmospheric Hg distribution and cycling are very limited. Accordingly, measurements of atmospheric Hg were conducted in March and April during the 2010 Dongsha Experiment to study its spatial and temporal distribution. Atmospheric Hg was measured at Hengchun and Dongsha Island (Taiwan), Da Nang (Vietnam), Chiang Mai (Thailand) and over the northern SCS. Atmospheric Hg concentrations ranged between 1.54 and 6.83 ng m-3, mostly higher than the Northern Hemisphere background value. Regional wind fields and backward trajectories indicated that the atmospheric Hg concentrations over northern SCS should principally reflect the export of the East Asian Hg emissions by northeast monsoon. However, significantly elevated Hg concentrations were always observed at Da Nang, possibly due to the influence of local Hg emissions. Chiang Mai is located in the intense biomass burning region in northern Thailand. Therefore, atmospheric Hg concentrations at Chiang Mai reflected the influence of regional biomass burning Hg emissions. Two dust storms were encountered at Dongsha Island, one on March 16 and the other on March 21, with atmospheric Hg enhancements. Compared with the 2008 summer values, elevated Hg levels were observed at Dongsha Island in the spring of 2010. Summer air masses were mainly from the deep SCS, representing relatively clean marine air. On the other hand, air masses were from the north in spring, passing eastern China or Taiwan prior to reaching Dongsha Island. Results of this research thus demonstrated the transport of atmospheric Hg from the East Asian continent to northern SCS by regional monsoon activity in spring, but special events, such as biomass burning and dust storms, can also cause enhancements of ambient Hg levels.

  14. Electronic commerce in China:current status, development strategies, and new trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Junyong; Jing Linbo

    2014-01-01

    After years of development in China's electronic commerce sector,there has been a drastic increase not only in the number of electronic commerce enterprises and online shoppers,but also in electronic commerce market turnover in China.During this process,the Chinese government has played a key role in establishing legislation and market disciplines for the electronic commerce market.This paper explores policy regarding electronic commerce development in China and analyzes new trends in China's electronic commerce,including the rise of mobile commerce,social commerce,and cross-border electronic commerce,and the booming industries of internet financing and Big Data.This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the development,uniqueness,and trends of electronic commerce in China.In addition,this paper also provides policymakers in China and other developing countries with policy suggestions regarding electronic commerce.

  15. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cd total ) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cd total in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cd total in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cd total in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r = − 0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • We characterize the Cd total in topsoils, pH and SOM in a typical e-waste recycling area. • The relationships between Cd total in topsoils, pH, and SOM were studied. • Impact of topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification on shallow groundwater quality

  16. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-02-15

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cdtotal) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cdtotal in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cdtotal in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cdtotal in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dietary score and the risk of oral cancer: a case-control study in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Lisong; Liu, Fengqiong; Qiu, Yu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Junfeng; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Cai, Lin; He, Baochang

    2017-05-23

    This study aims to develop a simple dietary score to comprehensively evaluate the role of diet in the risk of oral cancer. A case-control study including 930 oral cancer cases and 2667 frequency-matched controls was performed in Fujian, China. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the effects of dietary factors on oral cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, less intake of domestic meat (oral cancer. Then these variables were incorporated to establish dietary risk score. Assessed by the receiver operating characteristic curve, the score showed a satisfactory discriminatory capacity, with an area under the curve of 0.682 (95% CI: 0.662-0.702). Moreover, the score was positively associated with the risk of oral cancer as quartiles, and the association was apparently stronger in tobacco smokers or alcohol drinkers. Additionally, there were significant multiplicative interactions between the score and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking for oral cancer. In the present study, a convenient dietary score with satisfactory discriminatory capacity was developed to assess the collected effect of dietary factors on oral cancer, which could provide a new strategy for the prevention of oral cancer through changing in dietary habits.

  18. Evaluation of medium-range ensemble flood forecasting based on calibration strategies and ensemble methods in Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Gao, Chao; Xuan, Weidong; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Ensemble flood forecasts by hydrological models using numerical weather prediction products as forcing data are becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications. In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system comprised of an automatically calibrated Variable Infiltration Capacity model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated. The hydrological model is optimized by the parallel programmed ε-NSGA II multi-objective algorithm. According to the solutions by ε-NSGA II, two differently parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows at each of the three hydrological stations. Then a simple yet effective modular approach is proposed to combine these daily and peak flows at the same station into one composite series. Five ensemble methods and various evaluation metrics are adopted. The results show that ε-NSGA II can provide an objective determination on parameter estimation, and the parallel program permits a more efficient simulation. It is also demonstrated that the forecasts from ECMWF have more favorable skill scores than other Ensemble Prediction Systems. The multimodel ensembles have advantages over all the single model ensembles and the multimodel methods weighted on members and skill scores outperform other methods. Furthermore, the overall performance at three stations can be satisfactory up to ten days, however the hydrological errors can degrade the skill score by approximately 2 days, and the influence persists until a lead time of 10 days with a weakening trend. With respect to peak flows selected by the Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from single models or multimodels are generally underestimated, indicating that the ensemble mean can bring overall improvement in forecasting of flows. For

  19. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Reduced Following Conversion of Rice Paddies to Inland Crab-Fish Aquaculture in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wu, Shuang; Li, Shuqing; Li, Zhaofu; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-01-19

    Aquaculture is an important source of atmospheric methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), while few direct flux measurements are available for their regional and global source strength estimates. A parallel field experiment was performed to measure annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from rice paddies and rice paddy-converted inland crab-fish aquaculture wetlands in southeast China. Besides N2O fluxes dependent on water/sediment mineral N and CH4 fluxes related to water chemical oxygen demand, both CH4 and N2O fluxes from aquaculture were related to water/sediment temperature, sediment dissolved organic carbon, and water dissolved oxygen concentration. Annual CH4 and N2O fluxes from inland aquaculture averaged 0.37 mg m(-2) h(-1) and 48.1 μg m(-2) h(-1), yielding 32.57 kg ha(-1) and 2.69 kg N2O-N ha(-1), respectively. The conversion of rice paddies to aquaculture significantly reduced CH4 and N2O emissions by 48% and 56%, respectively. The emission factor for N2O was estimated to be 0.66% of total N input in the feed or 1.64 g N2O-N kg(-1) aquaculture production in aquaculture. The conversion of rice paddies to inland aquaculture would benefit for reconciling greenhouse gas mitigation and agricultural income increase as far as global warming potentials and net ecosystem economic profits are of concomitant concern. Some agricultural practices such as better aeration and feeding, and fallow season dredging would help to lower CH4 and N2O emissions from inland aquaculture. More field measurements from inland aquaculture are highly needed to gain an insight into national and global accounting of CH4 and N2O emissions.

  20. Role of nurse shrubs for restoration planting of two conifers in southeast of Mu Us Sandland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Wang, Xiaoan

    2015-01-01

    Two-year-old pine seedlings, Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus sylvestris were planted under the canopies of three shrub species and in open areas to test for facilitation during seedling establishment in southeast of Mu Us Sandland in northern part of Shaanxi, China. Pine seedlings establishment were assessed three times within three consecutive growing seasons. Height, area and volume of shrubs were measured. Microclimate conditions (light intensity, air temperature and soil temperature and moisture) were recorded in four microhabitats. Near surface light intensity, air temperature and soil temperature were lower under shrubs, which led to higher soil moisture and pine seedlings under the canopy of shrub species. Pine seedlings survival was remarkably higher when planted under the canopy of shrub species (65.7% for P. tabulaeformis and 60.6% for P. sylvestris) as compared with open areas (22.4% for P. tabulaeformis and 38% for P. sylvestris). P. tabulaeformis with shade-tolerance trait expressed high survival of seedlings as compared to that of P. sylvestris seedlings under the canopy of shrub species (Tukey test, P shrub (Caragana korshinskii and Amorpha fruticosa) showed continuously facilitation during moderate drought stress (summer 2012, 2013 and 2014), but dense and small shrub (Caragana korshinskii) reduced the establishment of seedlings possibly for light competition. Salix cheilophila showed a facilitation effect in growing seasons, but the effect of allelopathy led to high mortality of seedlings under their canopy. in addition, two pine growths were not inhibited when planted under three shrubs. In conclusions, nurse-shrub facilitation can be used as an effective restoration strategy in this sandland. However, use of shrubs as nurse plants depends on their canopy structure and ecological impacts; the selection of target species depends on their shade tolerance traits.

  1. Vertical and horizontal assemblage patterns of bacterial communities in a eutrophic river receiving domestic wastewater in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Wang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Weiguo; Di, Panpan; Yi, Neng; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial communities in rivers receiving untreated domestic wastewater may show specific spatial assemblage patterns due to a wide range of physicochemical conditions created by periodic algal bloom. However, there are significant gaps in understanding environmental forces that drive changes in microbial assemblages in polluted rivers. In this study, we applied high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to perform comprehensive spatio-temporal profiling of bacterial community structure in a local river segment receiving domestic wastewater discharge in southeast China. Multivariate statistics were then used to analyse links between bacterial community structure and environmental factors. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plots showed that the bacterial community structure was different between upstream and downstream sections of the river. While the upstream water contained a high proportion of bacteria degrading xenobiotic aromatic compounds, the downstream water experiencing stronger algal bloom had a more diverse bacterial community which included the genus Aeromonas comprising 14 species, most of which are human pathogens. Least discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size revealed that the surface water was mainly inhabited by aerobic microorganisms capable of degrading aromatic compounds, and also contained bacterial genera including pathogenic species. In contrast, in the bottom water we found, along with aromatic compound-degrading species, anaerobic denitrifiers and Fe 3+ -reducing and fermentative bacteria. Variance partitioning canonical correspondence analysis (VPA) showed that nutrient ratios had a stronger contribution to bacterial dissimilarities than other major physicochemical factors (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, and chlorophyll a). These results show that microbial communities in rivers continuously receiving domestic wastewater have specific longitudinal and vertical assemblage patterns and may contain

  2. Evolution of the Lian River coastal basin in response to Quaternary marine transgressions in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongjie; Zheng, Zhuo; Chen, Cong; Wang, Mengyuan; Chen, Bishan

    2018-04-01

    The coastal basin deposit in the Lian River plain is among the thickest Quaternary sequences along the southeastern coast of China. The clastic sediment accumulated in a variety of environmental settings including fluvial, channel, estuary/coastal and marine conditions. Detailed investigation of lithofacies, grain-size distributions, magnetic susceptibility, microfossils and chronology of marine core CN01, compared with regional cores, and combined with offshore seismic reflection profiles, has allowed us to correlate the spatial stratigraphy in the inner and outer plain and the seismic units. Grain size distribution analysis of core CN-01 through compositional data analysis and multivariate statistics were applied to clastic sedimentary facies and sedimentary cycles. Results show that these methods are able to derive a robust proxy information for the depositional environment of the Lian River plain. We have also been able to reconstruct deltaic evolution in response to marine transgressions. On the basis of dating results and chronostratigraphy, the estimated age of the onset of deposition in the Lian River coastal plain was more than 260 kyr BP. Three transgressive sedimentary cycles revealed in many regional cores support this age model. Detailed lithological and microfossil studies confirm that three marine (M3, M2 and M1) and three terrestrial (T3, T2 and T1) units can be distinguished. Spatial correlation between the inner plain, outer plain (typical cores characterized by marine transgression cycles) and offshore seismic reflectors reveals coherent sedimentary sequences. Two major boundaries (unconformity and erosion surfaces) can be recognized in the seismic profiles, and these correspond to weathered reddish and/or variegated clay in the study core, suggesting that Quaternary sediment changes on the Lian River plain were largely controlled by sea-level variations and coastline shift during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  3. Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in the Huzhou Region, Zhejiang Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Ying; Shen, Guo-Song; Zhang, Su; He, Ping-Ya

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies in Huzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China (PRC), and for the future management of hemoglobinopathies. A total of 8578 pregnant women in the Huzhou region was analyzed for thalassemia traits and other hemoglobinopathies from July 1 2012 to November 30 2015. Complete blood count (CBC), and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analyses were performed with automatic counters and capillary electrophoresis (CE). High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia. The prevalence of patients with the α-thalassemia (α-thal) trait was 1.01% (87/8578). β-Thalassemia (β-thal) was carried by 112 women with a frequency of 1.3%. The carrier rate of thalassemia genes in the studied samples was nearly 2.32%. We excluded those without iron studies, with 159 cases as our sample, a total of 63/159 cases (39.6%) also had iron deficiencies. Moreover, Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A), and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were the most common Hb variants after thalassemia trait with frequencies of 0.16 and 0.06%, respectively. Only two Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) carriers were detected in 20 months of screening time. Hb A 1c results could be confidently reported on all cases except the Hb D-Punjab and Hb E variants. This study provided a detailed prevalence and molecular characterization of thalassemia in the Huzhou region, and will contribute toward the development of prevention strategies and reducing excessive health care costs in this area, allowing better management of hemoglobinopathies.

  4. Hydrological impact of high-density small dams in a humid catchment, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Lei, H.; Yang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Jiulong River basin is a humid catchment with a drainage area of 14,741 km2; however, it has over 1000 hydropower stations within it. Such catchment with high-density small dams is scarce in China. Yet few is known about the impact of high-density small dams on streamflow changes. To what extent the large number of dams alters the hydrologic patterns is a fundamental scientific issue for water resources management, flood control, and aquatic ecological environment protection. Firstly, trend and change point analyses are applied to determine the characteristics of inter-annual streamflow. Based on the detected change point, the study period is divided into two study periods, the ``natural'' and ``disturbed'' periods. Then, a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM) and the fixing-changing method are adopted to evaluate the relative contributions of climate variations and damming to the changes in streamflow at each temporal scale (i.e., from daily, monthly to annual). Based on the simulated natural streamflow, the impact of dam construction on hydrologic alteration and aquatic ecological environment will be evaluated. The hydrologic signatures that will be investigated include flood peak, seasonality of streamflow, and the inter-annual variability of streamflow. In particular, the impacts of damming on aquatic ecological environment will be investigated using eco-flow metrics and indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) which contains 33 individual streamflow statistics that are closely related to aquatic ecosystem. The results of this study expect to provide a reference for reservoir operation considering both ecological and economic benefits of such operations in the catchment with high-density dams.

  5. Tree diversity promotes insect herbivory in subtropical forests of south-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Andreas; Baruffol, Martin; Böhnke, Martin; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Lang, Anne C; Nadrowski, Karin; von Oheimb, Goddert; Voigt, Winfried; Zhou, Hongzhang; Assmann, Thorsten; Fridley, Jason

    2010-07-01

    1.Insect herbivory can strongly affect ecosystem processes, and its relationship with plant diversity is a central topic in biodiversity-functioning research. However, very little is known about this relationship from complex ecosystems dominated by long-lived individuals, such as forests, especially over gradients of high plant diversity.2.We analysed insect herbivory on saplings of 10 tree and shrub species across 27 forest stands differing in age and tree species richness in an extraordinarily diverse subtropical forest ecosystem in China. We tested whether plant species richness significantly influences folivory in these highly diverse forests or whether other factors play a more important role at such high levels of phytodiversity.3.Leaf damage was assessed on 58 297 leaves of 1284 saplings at the end of the rainy season in 2008, together with structural and abiotic stand characteristics.4.Species-specific mean damage of leaf area ranged from 3% to 16%. Herbivory increased with plant species richness even after accounting for potentially confounding effects of stand characteristics, of which stand age-related aspects most clearly covaried with herbivory. Intraspecific density dependence or other abiotic factors did not significantly influence overall herbivory across forest stands.5.Synthesis.The positive herbivory-plant diversity relationship indicates that effects related to hypotheses of resource concentration, according to which a reduction in damage by specialized herbivores might be expected as host plant concentration decreases with increasing plant diversity, do not seem to be major determinants for overall herbivory levels in our phytodiverse subtropical forest ecosystem. We discuss the potential role of host specificity of dominant herbivores, which are often expected to show a high degree of specialization in many (sub)tropical forests. In the forest system we studied, a much higher impact of polyphagous species than traditionally assumed might

  6. A content analysis of electronic cigarette manufacturer websites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Jiang, Nan; Grana, Rachel; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to summarise the websites of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) manufacturers in China and describe how they market their products. Methods From March to April 2013, we used two search keywords ‘electronic cigarette’ (Dian Zi Xiang Yan in Chinese) and ‘manufacturer’ (Sheng Chan Chang Jia in Chinese) to search e-cigarette manufacturers in China on Alibaba, an internet-based e-commerce business that covers business-to-business online marketplaces, retail and payment platforms, shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. A total of 18 websites of 12 e-cigarette manufacturers in China were analysed by using a coding guide which includes 14 marketing claims. Results Health-related benefits were claimed most frequently (89%), followed by the claims of no secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (78%), and utility for smoking cessation (67%). A wide variety of flavours, celebrity endorsements and e-cigarettes specifically for women were presented. None of the websites had any age restriction on access, references to government regulation or lawsuits. Instruction on how to use e-cigarettes was on 17% of the websites. Conclusions Better regulation of e-cigarette marketing messages on manufacturers’ websites is needed in China. The frequent claims of health benefits, smoking cessation, strategies appealing to youth and women are concerning, especially targeting women. Regulators should prohibit marketing claims of health benefits, no SHS exposure and value for smoking cessation in China until health-related, quality and safety issues have been adequately addressed. To avoid e-cigarette use for initiation to nicotine addiction, messages targeting youth and women should be prohibited. PMID:25335902

  7. A content analysis of electronic cigarette manufacturer websites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Jiang, Nan; Grana, Rachel; Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to summarise the websites of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) manufacturers in China and describe how they market their products. From March to April 2013, we used two search keywords 'electronic cigarette' (Dian Zi Xiang Yan in Chinese) and 'manufacturer' (Sheng Chan Chang Jia in Chinese) to search e-cigarette manufacturers in China on Alibaba, an internet-based e-commerce business that covers business-to-business online marketplaces, retail and payment platforms, shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. A total of 18 websites of 12 e-cigarette manufacturers in China were analysed by using a coding guide which includes 14 marketing claims. Health-related benefits were claimed most frequently (89%), followed by the claims of no secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (78%), and utility for smoking cessation (67%). A wide variety of flavours, celebrity endorsements and e-cigarettes specifically for women were presented. None of the websites had any age restriction on access, references to government regulation or lawsuits. Instruction on how to use e-cigarettes was on 17% of the websites. Better regulation of e-cigarette marketing messages on manufacturers' websites is needed in China. The frequent claims of health benefits, smoking cessation, strategies appealing to youth and women are concerning, especially targeting women. Regulators should prohibit marketing claims of health benefits, no SHS exposure and value for smoking cessation in China until health-related, quality and safety issues have been adequately addressed. To avoid e-cigarette use for initiation to nicotine addiction, messages targeting youth and women should be prohibited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  9. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  10. Cadmium and lead contamination in japonica rice grains and its variation among the different locations in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Fangmin; Zhao Ningchun; Xu Haiming; Li Yi; Zhang Wenfang; Zhu Zhiwei; Chen Mingxue

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale survey with 269 sampling sites and a field experiment with 12 cultivars grown at 3 ecologically different locations, Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contamination in milled rice grains and its variation among different locations were investigated in the area of southeast China. The objective of this study was mainly to assess the present situation of Cd and Pb contamination in rice grains harvested locally and find out the variation of Cd and Pb background levels in rice grains among the diverse regional locations. The results showed that: a) Cd concentrations in milled rice grains ranged from trace (below 10 ng/g) to 340 ng/g, with the means of 81.4 ng/g (AM) and 55.2 ng/g (GM) for the 269 samples, whereas Pb concentrations ranged from trace (below 10 ng/g) to 1136 ng/g, with the means of 113.5 ng/g (AM) and 51.0 ng/g (GM), respectively. High frequency was observed for both the Cd and Pb concentrations ranging from trace to 200 ng/g, with 95.9% for Cd and 84.8% for Pb, respectively. b) ANOVA for the AMs and GMs among 269 sampling sites indicated that there were significant differences among the different spatial locations in Cd or Pb concentrations. c) The Cd concentrations in milled rice grains were poorly correlated with Pb concentration among the 269 sampling sites surveyed, and no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the AMs or GMs of Cd and Pb concentration was observed among different cities within a range of the same provinces, only with an exception for 1-2 provinces. d) Variance analysis of Cd, Pb concentrations for 12 rice cultivars grown in three locations showed that the great difference in coefficients of variation (CV) was observed both among cultivars grown in the same location and among locations of cultivars planted, in which locations showed much more contribution to the variation of Cd or Pb concentration in milled rice grains as compared with cultivars

  11. Current status of electron beam treatment of flue gas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguang

    2006-01-01

    Fossil resource especially coal will remain the main energy resource in China over the next 3 ∼4 decades. Pollution of flue gas from fossil power station is one problem being desiderated to solve since 1990's. Electron beam treatment of flue gas as an advanced technique has been developed and used by some institutes and industries in China. The current status of flue gas treatment using electron beam and the development of electron accelerator in China are reviewed. (author)

  12. The structure environment, rock-magma system, mineral-forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral-forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1992-01-01

    The Volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt-the Mid-Cz Volcano in the Southeast of China mainly formed around 120 ∼ 130 Ma and 90 ∼ 100 Ma Which is in harmony with the two rock magma activities of k within the region. The rock-magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks (trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt). The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin (early period) ad tension rift valley basin (laster period). The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal-forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral-forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral-forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos. Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts

  13. Potential to Improve the Competitiveness of China's Electronic and Mechanical Products Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hao; Wang Xi; Wang Luxi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since launching the reform and opening policy,and particularly since the mid-1990s with accelerating industrialization processes and further policy changes,the electronics and mechanical industry in China has made huge strides in production and foreign trade value,now accounting for approximately half of total exports from China and becoming a pillar industry of China's foreign trade.

  14. The effects of Southeast Asia fire activities on tropospheric ozone, trace gases and aerosols at a remote site over the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.Y.; Wong, K.H.; Li, Y.S.; Chan, L.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), total reactive nitrogen (NO y ) and aerosols (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were measured on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau at Tengchong (25.01 deg N, 98.3 deg E, 1960 m a.s.l.) in Southwest China, where observational data is scarce, during a field campaign of the TAPTO-China (Transport of Air Pollutants and Tropospheric O 3 over China) in the spring of 2004. Fire maps derived from satellite data and backward air trajectories were used to trace the source regions and transport pathways of pollution. Ozone, CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 had average concentrations of 26 ± 8 ppb, 179 ± 91 ppb, 2.7 ± 1.2 ppb and 34 ± 23 and 28 ± 19 μg/m 3 , respectively. The measured O 3 level is low when compared with those reported for similar longitudinal sites in Southeast (SE) Asia and northeastern Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China suggesting that there exist complex O 3 variations in the Tibetan Plateau and its neighbouring SE Asian region. High levels of pollution with hourly averages of O 3 , CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations up to 59, 678 and 7.7 ppb and 158 and 137 μg/m 3 , respectively, were observed. The increase of pollutants in the lower troposphere was caused by regional built-up and transport of pollution from active fire regions of the SE Asia subcontinent and from northern South Asia. Our results showed that pollution transport from SE Asia and South Asia had relatively stronger impacts than that from Central and South China on the abundance of O 3 , trace gases and aerosols in the background atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

  15. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chunfa, E-mail: wchf1680@sina.com [Department of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing 210044 (China); Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yongming [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 17 Chunhui Rd, Yantai 264003 (China); Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cd{sub total}) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cd{sub total} in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cd{sub total} in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cd{sub total} in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r = − 0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. - Highlights: • We characterize the Cd{sub total} in topsoils, pH and SOM in a typical e-waste recycling area. • The relationships between Cd{sub total} in topsoils, pH, and SOM were studied. • Impact of topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification on

  16. 77 FR 22760 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Gulf of Mexico Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... electronic logbook memory chip will be removed from the unit and downloaded at the contractor site in College Station, Texas. A new logbook memory chip will replace the removed memory chip, a process taking less than...

  17. Incidence of human rabies and characterization of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs in Fujian Province, Southeast China, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Deng, Yan-Qin; Wu, Shou-Li; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yan-Sheng

    2017-08-30

    Rabies is a global fatal infectious viral disease that is characterized by a high mortality after onset of clinical symptoms. Recently, there has been an increase in the incidence of rabies in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of human rabies and characterize the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs sampled from Fujian Province, Southeast China from 2002 to 2012. Data pertaining to human rabies cases in Fujian Province during the period from 2002 through 2012 were collected, and the epidemiological profiles were described. The saliva and brain specimens were collected from dogs in Quanzhou, Longyan and Sanming cities of the province, and the rabies virus antigen was determined in the canine saliva specimens using an ELISA assay. Rabies virus RNA was extracted from canine brain specimens, and rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was amplified using a nested RT-PCR assay, followed by sequencing and genotyping. A total of 226 human rabies cases were reported in Fujian Province from 2002 to 2012, in which 197 cases were detected in three cities of Quanzhou, Longyan and Sanming. ELISA assay revealed positive rabies virus antigen in six of eight rabid dogs and 165 of 3492 seemingly healthy dogs. The full-length gene fragment of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene was amplified from the brain specimens of seven rabid dogs and 12 seemingly healthy dogs. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these 19 rabies virus nucleoprotein genes all belonged to genotype I, and were classified into three genetic groups. Sequencing analysis showed a 99.7% to 100% intra-group and an 86.4% to 89.3% inter-group homology. This study is the first description pertaining to the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies cases and characterization of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene in dogs in Fujian Province, Southeast China. Our findings may provide valuable knowledge for the development of strategies targeting the prevention and control of

  18. Building clinical data groups for electronic medical record in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haibo; Yu, Yingtao; Yang, Peng; Tang, Xuejun; Hu, Jianping; Rao, Keqin; Pan, Feng; Xu, Yongyong; Liu, Danhong

    2012-04-01

    This article aims at building clinical data groups for Electronic Medical Records (EMR) in China. These data groups can be reused as basic information units in building the medical sheets of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMRS) and serve as part of its implementation guideline. The results were based on medical sheets, the forms that are used in hospitals, which were collected from hospitals. To categorize the information in these sheets into data groups, we adopted the Health Level 7 Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 Model (HL7 CDA R2 Model). The regulations and legal documents concerning health informatics and related standards in China were implemented. A set of 75 data groups with 452 data elements was created. These data elements were atomic items that comprised the data groups. Medical sheet items contained clinical records information and could be described by standard data elements that exist in current health document protocols. These data groups match different units of the CDA model. Twelve data groups with 87 standardized data elements described EMR headers, and 63 data groups with 405 standardized data elements constituted the body. The later 63 data groups in fact formed the sections of the model. The data groups had two levels. Those at the first level contained both the second level data groups and the standardized data elements. The data groups were basically reusable information units that served as guidelines for building EMRS and that were used to rebuild a medical sheet and serve as templates for the clinical records. As a pilot study of health information standards in China, the development of EMR data groups combined international standards with Chinese national regulations and standards, and this was the most critical part of the research. The original medical sheets from hospitals contain first hand medical information, and some of their items reveal the data types characteristic of the Chinese socialist national health system

  19. Molecular identification of the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen city, China: a potential imported vertical transmission from Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Guo, G Z; Chen, J Q; Ma, H W; Liu, T; Huang, D N; Yao, C H; Zhang, R L; Xue, C F; Zhang, L

    2014-02-01

    A suspected dengue fever outbreak occurred in 2010 at a solitary construction site in Shenzhen city, China. To investigate this epidemic, we used serological, molecular biological, and bioinformatics techniques. Of nine serum samples from suspected patients, we detected seven positive for dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, eight for DENV-1 RNA, and three containing live viruses. The isolated virus, SZ1029 strain, was sequenced and confirmed as DENV-1, showing the highest E-gene homology to D1/Malaysia/36000/05 and SG(EHI)DED142808 strains recently reported in Southeast Asia. Further phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed their close relationship. At the epidemic site, we also detected 14 asymptomatic co-workers (out of 291) positive for DENV antibody, and DENV-1-positive mosquitoes. Thus, we concluded that DENV-1 caused the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen. Because no imported case was identified, the molecular fingerprints of the SZ1029 strain suggest this outbreak may be due to vertical transmission imported from Southeast Asia.

  20. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characteristics of Cretaceous monzonitic plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: New insights into the petrogenesis of intermediate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Qiu, Jian-Sheng; Zhao, Jiao-Long; Yang, Ze-Li

    2014-05-01

    We present comprehensive petrological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for the Matou and Dalai plutons in western Zhejiang Province, Southeast China, with the aim of constraining the petrogenesis of monzonites and to offer new insights into the deep processes of interaction between crustal- and mantle-derived magmas beneath SE China. The Matou pluton comprises quartz monzonite, whereas the Dalai pluton consists of quartz monzodiorite. Zircon U-Pb ages obtained by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry show that both plutons were emplaced at 99-101 Ma. Rocks of both plutons are intermediate to silicic, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, subalkaline, and K-rich in composition. Samples of the plutons are enriched in large ion lithophile (e.g., Rb, K, and Pb) and light rare earth elements, depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti), and have small negative or no Eu anomalies. In addition, the rocks have high Mg# values (up to 53.9), high zircon ɛHf(t) values (up to - 1.4), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. Geochemical evidence suggests that both depleted asthenospheric and metasomatically enriched mantle components were involved in the formation of these monzonitic rocks. The presence of inherited zircons with Palaeoproterozoic ages and zircons with unusually low ɛHf(t) values (- 12.9) in the Matou quartz monzonites indicates that ancient crustal materials were also involved in their petrogenesis. In combination with the presence of abundant mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with spheroidal to ellipsoidal-ovoidal shapes and xenocrysts within the more diffused enclaves, and the results of trace element modelling, we suggest that the Matou quartz monzonites were generated by mixing between mantle-derived mafic magmas and crustally derived silicic magmas. The Dalai pluton is relatively homogeneous and contains fewer MMEs than the Matou pluton. Zircons from the Dalai pluton show no inherited components, indicating that

  2. Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarette use in a southeast London adult sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Power, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) share several features: rising popularity, use of product flavourings and concerns about marketing to youth. We sought to compare prevalence and predictors of waterpipe tobacco and e-cigarette use, and explore knowledge of waterpipe tobacco and support for interventions. We used convenience sampling methods to conduct a cross-sectional survey among adults in the ethnically diverse southeast London area. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of waterpipe and e-cigarette use. Predictor variables were age, gender, ethnicity and current (past 30-day) cigarette use. Of 1176 respondents (23.0% aged 25-34 years, 56.0% male, 57.4% white ethnicity and 30.4% current cigarette smokers), 31.0% had tried waterpipe tobacco and 7.4% had tried e-cigarettes. Both products were significantly associated with younger age groups, non-white ethnicities and use of each other. Waterpipe tobacco was independently associated with consumption of cigarettes while e-cigarettes were not. Among those aware of waterpipe, a third answered incorrectly to knowledge questions. Among those self-identified as coming from a traditional waterpipe-using community, two-thirds supported further legislative and health promotion waterpipe interventions. Waterpipe tobacco was common and more prevalent than e-cigarettes in this population. Interventions to prevent and control waterpipe are unlikely to marginalize traditional waterpipe-using communities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Multiple Emplacement and Exhumation History of the Late Mesozoic Dayunshan-Mufushan Batholith in Southeast China and Its Tectonic Significance: 1. Structural Analysis and Geochronological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yan; Chu, Yang; Xue, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    The South China Block (SCB) experienced a polyphase reworking by the Phanerozoic tectonothermal events. To better understand its Late Mesozoic tectonics, an integrated multidisciplinary investigation has been conducted on the Dayunshan-Mufushan composite batholith in the north-central SCB. This batholith consists of two major intrusions that recorded distinct emplacement features. According to our structural analysis, two deformation events in relation to batholith emplacement and subsequent exhumation are identified. The early one (D1) was observed mostly at the southern border of the batholith, characterized by a top-to-the-SW ductile shearing in the early-stage intrusion and along its contact zone. This deformation, chiefly associated with the pluton emplacement at ca. 150 Ma, was probably assisted by farfield compression from the northern Yangtze foreland belt. The second but main event (D2) involved two phases: (1) ductile shearing (D2a) prominently expressed along the Dayunshan detachment fault at the western border of the batholith where the syntectonic late-stage intrusion and minor metasedimentary basement in the footwall suffered mylonitization with top-to-the-NW kinematics; and (2) subsequent brittle faulting (D2b) further exhumed the entire batholith that behaved as rift shoulder with half-graben basins developed on its both sides. Geochronological constraints show that the crustal ductile extension occurred during 132-95 Ma. Such a Cretaceous NW-SE extensional tectonic regime, as indicated by the D2 event, has been recognized in a vast area of East Asia. This tectonism was responsible not only for the destruction of the North China craton but also for the formation of the so-called "southeast China basin and range tectonics."

  4. [Spatial pattern analysis and associations of Quercus aquifolioides population at different growth stages in Southeast Tibet, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi-qiang; Hua, Min; Dan, Qu; Lu, Jie; Fang, Jiang-ping

    2016-02-01

    This article analyzed the spatial pattern and its correlation of Quercus aquifolioides, Southeast Tibet at different growing stages by using Ripley' s L function in the method of point pattern, analysis. The results showed the diameter structure of Q. aquifolioides population in Southeast Tibet followed a 'single peak' shape and the saplings and medium trees predominated in number in the whole population. The population had a high regeneration rate and was of increase type. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides from saplings to large trees, saplings and medium trees showed aggregation distribution at.small scale, while large trees showed basically random distribution at whole scale. There was significant correlation between saplings with medium or large trees at small scale, however, there was no correlation between medium and large trees. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides population from saplings, medium trees to large trees, its spatial pattern developed from aggregative distribution to random distribution. The natural regeneration of Q. aquifolioides population was affected not only by interspecific competition, but also by intraspecific competition. In the similar natural environment, the most important factors affecting the spatial pattern of Q. aquifoioides population were its own biological and ecological characteristics.

  5. Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound elements in haze-fog episode and associated health risks in a megacity of southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huiming; Wang, Qin'geng; Shao, Min; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wu, Hongfei; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Haze caused by high particulate matter loadings is an important environmental issue. PM_2_._5 was collected in Nanjing, China, during a severe haze–fog event and clear periods. The particulate-bound elements were chemically fractionated using sequential extractions. The average PM_2_._5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze–fog (96–518 μg/m"3) than non-haze fog periods (49–142 μg/m"3). Nearly all elements showed significantly higher concentrations during haze–fog than non-haze fog periods. Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu were considered to have higher bioavailability and enrichment degree in the atmosphere. Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. The integrated carcinogenic risk for two possible scenarios to individuals exposed to metals was higher than the accepted criterion of 10"−"6, whereas noncarcinogenic risk was lower than the safe level of 1. Residents of a city burdened with haze will incur health risks caused by exposure to airborne metals. - Highlights: • PM_2_._5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze-fog than non-haze fog days. • Nearly all metals had higher contents during haze-fog than non-haze fog days. • Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu had high bioavailability and enrichment level in PM_2_._5. • Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. • Health risk was assessed combined with metal forms in haze-fog and non-haze fog days. - Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound metals and its contribution to health risks during haze-fog and non-haze fog periods were studied from a typical megacity of Southeast China.

  6. [Effects of increased precipitation on the water use of Nitraira tangutorum at southeast edge of Baddain Jaran Desert in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya-Juan; Lu, Qi; Wu, Bo; Li, Yong-Hua; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Jin-Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the threshold value of the water use of Nitraria tanturorum shrubs at the southeast edge of Baddain Jiran Desert. From the early May to late September in 2009, an irrigation simulating increased precipitation was conducted once every month. Three ratios of increased precipitation (0, 50% and 100%) were designed, based on the local mean annual precipitation (115 mm). On the 1 day before irrigation and the 1, 3 and 7 days after irrigation in May, July and September, the deltaD in the xylem water of N. tangutorum, the soil water at the depths 10 and 30 cm, and the well water and natural rainfall, and the variations of the soil water content were measured. Under natural condition, the N. tangutorum mainly utilize ground water in May and September, and utilize the soil water at the depths 10 and 30 cm in July. After irrigation, the ground water use rate of the N. tangutorum decreased, while the soil water use rate increased. In the treatment of 100% increased precipitation, the deltaD ratio of the water in N. tangutorum xylem was affected significantly, and the water use of the N. tangutorum in May, July and September increased. In the treatment of 50% increased precipitation, the soil water condition in May and July was improved, but the water use rate had little improvement. Only when the increased precipitation reached 100% of the local mean annual precipitation, could the water use rate of the N. tangutorum have an obvious increase.

  7. Monsoon-driven transport of atmospheric mercury to the South China Sea from the Chinese mainland and Southeast Asia-Observation of gaseous elemental mercury at a background station in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Laiguo; Xie, Donghai; Sun, Jiaren; He, Qiusheng; Cai, Limei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yiqiang

    2016-11-01

    Concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were continuously monitored from May 2011 to May 2012 at the Wuzhishan State Atmosphere Background Monitoring Station (109°29'30.2″ E, 18°50'11.0″ N) located in Hainan Island. This station is an ideal site for monitoring long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants from mainland China and Southeast Asia to South China Sea. Annual average GEM concentration was 1.58 ± 0.71 ng m -3 during the monitoring period, which was close to background values in the Northern Hemisphere. GEM concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation with relatively higher levels in autumn (1.86 ± 0.55 ng m -3 ) and winter (1.80 ± 0.62 ng m -3 ) and lower levels in spring (1.16 ± 0.45 ng m -3 ) and summer (1.43 ± 0.46 ng m -3 ). Long-range atmospheric transport dominated by monsoons was a dominant factor influencing the seasonal variations of GEM. The GEM diel trends were related to the wind speed and long-range atmospheric mercury transport. We observed 30 pollution episodes throughout the monitoring period. The analysis of wind direction and backward trajectory suggested that elevated GEM concentrations at the monitoring site were primarily related to the outflows of atmospheric Hg from mainland China and the Indochina peninsula. The △GEM/△CO values also suggested that GEM was significantly affected by the long-range transport from the anthropogenic sources and biomass burning in Asia and Indochina peninsula.

  8. Heavy metal pollution in soil associated with a large-scale cyanidation gold mining region in southeast of Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Different gold mining and smelting processes can lead to distinctive heavy metal contamination patterns and results. This work examined heavy metal pollution from a large-scale cyanidation gold mining operation, which is distinguished from artisanal and small-scale amalgamation gold mining, in Jilin Province, China. A total of 20 samples including one background sample were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings pond in June 2013. These samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and degree of pollution as well as sources of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, and Hg. The mean concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cu (819.67, 0.12, and 46.92 mg kg -1 , respectively) in soil samples from the gold mine area exceeded local background values. The mean Hg content was less than the first-class standard of the Environmental Quality for Soils, which suggested that the cyanidation method is helpful for reducing Hg pollution. The geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor results indicated clear signs that enrichment was present for Pb, Cu, and Hg, with the presence of serious Pb pollution and moderate presence to none of Hg and Cu pollution. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there were three metal sources: (1) Pb, Cd, Cu, and As came from anthropogenic sources; (2) Cr and Zn were naturally occurring; whereas (3) Hg and Ni had a mix of anthropogenic and natural sources. Moreover, the tailings dam plays an important role in intercepting the tailings. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk assessment results showed that the study area poses a potentially strong risk to the ecological health. Furthermore, Pb and Hg (due to high concentration and high toxicity, respectively) are major pollutants on the risk index, and both Pb and Hg pollution should be of great concern at the Haigou gold mines in Jilin, China.

  9. Source identification of heavy metals in peri-urban agricultural soils of southeast China: An integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Wang, Huifeng; Dong, Lurui; Huang, Biao; Borggaard, Ole K; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian; He, Yue; Holm, Peter E

    2018-06-01

    Intensive human activities, in particular agricultural and industrial production have led to heavy metal accumulation in the peri-urban agricultural soils of China threatening soil environmental quality and agricultural product security. A combination of spatial analysis (SA), Pb isotope ratio analysis (IRA), input fluxes analysis (IFA), and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was successfully used to assess the status and sources of heavy metals in typical peri-urban agricultural soils from a rapidly developing region of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr in surface soils (0-20 cm) were 0.31, 11.2, 0.08, 35.6, 44.8, 119.0 and 97.0 mg kg -1 , respectively, exceeding the local background levels except for Hg. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that agricultural activities have significant influence on heavy metal accumulation in the surface soils. Isotope ratio analysis suggested that fertilization along with atmospheric deposition were the major sources of heavy metal accumulation in the soils. Based on the PMF model, the relative contribution rates of the heavy metals due to fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, industrial emission, and soil parent materials were 30.8%, 33.0%, 25.4% and 10.8%, respectively, demonstrating that anthropogenic activities had significantly higher contribution than natural sources. This study provides a reliable and robust approach for heavy metals source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area with a clear potential for future application in other regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impacts of springtime biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia on marine organic aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lishan; Yang, Xiaoyang; Lai, Senchao; Ren, Hong; Yue, Siyao; Zhang, Yingyi; Huang, Xin; Gao, Yuanguan; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-06-01

    Fine particles (PM 2.5 ) samples, collected at Weizhou Island over the Gulf of Tonkin on a daytime and nighttime basis in the spring of 2015, were analyzed for primary and secondary organic tracers, together with organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C) of total carbon (TC). Five organic compound classes, including saccharides, lignin/resin products, fatty acids, biogenic SOA tracers and phthalic acids, were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Levoglucosan was the most abundant organic species, indicating that the sampling site was under strong influence of biomass burning. Based on the tracer-based methods, the biomass-burning-derived fraction was estimated to be the dominant contributor to aerosol OC, accounting for 15.7% ± 11.1% and 22.2% ± 17.4% of OC in daytime and nighttime samples, respectively. In two episodes E1 and E2, organic aerosols characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan as well as its isomers, sugar compounds, lignin products, high molecular weight (HMW) fatty acids and β-caryophyllinic acid, were attributed to the influence of intensive biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia (SEA). However, the discrepancies in the ratios of levoglucosan to mannosan (L/M) and OC (L/OC) as well as the δ 13 C values suggest the type of biomass burning and the sources of organic aerosols in E1 and E2 were different. Hardwood and/or C 4 plants were the major burning materials in E1, while burning of softwood and/or C 3 plants played important role in E2. Furthermore, more complex sources and enhanced secondary contribution were found to play a part in organic aerosols in E2. This study highlights the significant influence of springtime biomass burning in the northern SEA to the organic molecular compositions of marine aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A new trend of genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus infection in southeast China (Fujian), 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, D H; Liu, H Z; Huang, A M; Liu, X L; Liu, J F

    2015-10-01

    HBV genotypes have specific geographical distributions and can serve as epidemiological markers. Accumulated data have shown that the major HBV genotypes in China are B and C. Here, the HBV genotypes were examined from 6817 blood samples, which were collected from patients with chronic HBV infection in Fujian Province during 2006-2013; genotype B was identified in 3384 patients (49·6%), while genotype C was identified in 3430 patients (50·3%). The percentage of patients infected with genotype C gradually increased with age from 39·5% (patients aged 50 years), reaching a peak of 67·3% in the 45-50 years age group. These results clearly demonstrate that the genotype distribution of HBV in Fujian Province has significantly changed in recent years with almost equal numbers of genotype B and genotype C infections existing in the entire patient population, while higher incidence of genotype C infection exists in older patients, but genotype B is no longer dominant in the Fujian area as previously reported.

  12. Effects of atmospheric deposition nitrogen flux and its composition on soil solution chemistry from a red soil farmland, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Zhou, Jing; Peng, Ying; Chan, Andrew; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study on the solution chemistry of red soil in South China is presented. Data are collected from two simulated column-leaching experiments with an improved setup to evaluate the effects of atmospheric N deposition (ADN) composition and ADN flux on agricultural soil acidification using a (15)N tracer technique and an in situ soil solution sampler. The results show that solution pH values decline regardless of the increase of the NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio in the ADN composition or ADN flux, while exchangeable Al(3+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) concentrations increase at different soil depths (20, 40, and 60 cm). Compared with the control, ADN (60 kg per ha per year N, NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio of 2 : 1) decreases solution pH values, increases solution concentrations of NO3(-)-N, Al(3+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) at the middle and lower soil depths, and promotes their removal. NH4(+)-N was not detected in red soil solutions of all the three soil layers, which might be attributed to effects of nitrification, absorption and fixation in farmland red soil. Some of the NO3(-)-N concentrations at 40-60 cm soil depth exceed the safe drinking level of 10 mg L(-1), especially when the ADN flux is beyond 60 kg ha(-1) N. These features are critical for understanding the ADN agro-ecological effects, and for future assessment of ecological critical loads of ADN in red soil farmlands.

  13. Source contributions to carbonaceous species in PM2.5 and their uncertainty analysis at typical urban, peri-urban and background sites in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Wang, Sen; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fuwang; Chen, Xiaoqiu; He, Chi; Lin, Lifeng; Yin, Liqian; Xu, Lingling

    2013-01-01

    Determination of 14 C and levoglucosan can provide insights into the quantification of source contributions to carbonaceous aerosols, yet there is still uncertainty on the partitioning of organic carbon (OC) into biomass burning OC (OC bb ) and biogenic emission OC (OC bio ). Carbonaceous species, levoglucosan and 14 C in PM 2.5 were measured at three types of site in southeast China combined with Latin hypercube sampling, with the objectives to study source contributions to total carbon (TC) and their uncertainties, and to evaluate the influence of levoglucosan/OC bb ratios on OC bb and OC bio partitioning. It was found reliably that fossil fuel combustion is the main contributor (62.90–72.23%) to TC at urban and peri-urban sites. Biogenic emissions have important contribution (winter, 52.98%; summer, 45.71%) to TC at background site. With the increase in levoglucosan/OC bb ratios, the contribution of OC bio is increased while OC bb is decreased in a pattern of approximate natural logarithm at a given range. -- Highlights: •Source contributions to OC and EC were quantified by levoglucosan and 14 C. •Fossil fuel combustion is the main contributor to TC for urban and peri-urban sites. •Biogenic emissions have important contribution to TC for the background site. •Biomass burning is a minor contributor to TC and has high contribution in winter. •Ratios of OC bio and OC bb to TC have a natural logarithmic relation with lev/OC bb . -- The contributions of OC bio and OC bb to TC have a natural logarithmic relationship with the levoglucosan/OC bb ratios

  14. Natural stable isotopic compositions of mercury in aerosols and wet precipitations around a coal-fired power plant in Xiamen, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuyuan; Sun, Lumin; Zhou, Tingjin; Yuan, Dongxing; Du, Bing; Sun, Xiuwu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, samples of 18 wet precipitations (WPs) and 38 aerosols were collected around a coal-fired power plant (CFPP) located in Xiamen, southeast China, which was equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system. Total particulate mercury (TPM) in aerosol samples, and total mercury (WP-TM), dissolved mercury (WP-DM) and particulate mercury (WP-PM) in WP samples were analyzed for the natural isotopic compositions of mercury. For the first time, both mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass independent fractionation of odd (odd-MIF) and even (even-MIF) isotopes of WP-DM and WP-PM were reported and discussed. Both WP-TM and TPM displayed negative MDF and slightly positive even-MIF. Negative odd-MIF was observed in TPM and WP-PM, whereas positive odd-MIF was observed in WP-TM and WP-DM. It was found that the mercury budget in WP-PM samples was mainly controlled by atmospheric particles. Potential sources of mercury in samples were identified via analysis of mercury isotopic signatures and meteorological data with the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The results showed that TPM and WP-PM in solid samples were homologous and the isotopic compositions of WP-TM depended on those of WP-DM. The ratios of Δ199Hg/Δ201Hg resulting from photochemical reactions and positive Δ200Hg values (from -0.06‰ to 0.27‰) in all samples indicated that the mercury coming from local emission of the CFPP together with long-distance transportation were the two main contributing sources.

  15. Geochemical analysis of sediments from a semi-enclosed bay (Dongshan Bay, southeast China) to determine the anthropogenic impact and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonghang; Sun, Qinqin; Ye, Xiang; Yin, Xijie; Li, Dongyi; Wang, Liang; Wang, Aijun; Li, Yunhai

    2017-05-01

    The geochemical compositions of sediments in the Dongshan Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the southeast coast of China, were obtained to identify pollutant sources and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts over the last 100 years. The results indicated that the metal flux had been increasing since the 1980s. Enrichment factor values (Pb, Zn and Cu) suggested only slight enrichment. The proportion of anthropogenic Pb changed from 9% to 15% during 2000-2014. Coal combustion might be an important contamination source in the Dongshan Bay. The historical variation in the metal flux reflected the economic development and urbanization in the Zhangjiang drainage area in the past 30 years. According to the Landsat satellite remote sensing data, the urbanization area expanded approximately three times from 1995 to 2010. The δ 13 C values (-21‰ to -23‰) of the organic matter (OM) in the sediments indicated that the OM was primarily sourced from aquatic, terrigenous and marsh C 3 plants. Nitrogen was mainly derived from aquatic plants and terrigenous erosion before the 1980s. However, the total organic carbon (TOC) contents, total nitrogen (TN) contents and δ 15 N had been increasing since the 1980s, which suggested that the sources of nitrogen were soil erosion, fertilizer and sewage. In addition, the TOC and TN fluxes in the Dongshan Bay had significantly increased since the 1980s, which reflected the use of N fertilizer. However, the TOC and TN fluxes significantly decreased in the past decade because environmental awareness increased and environmental protection policies were implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Joint inversion of ambient noise surface wave and gravity data to image the upper crustal structure of the Tanlu fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Gu, N.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Tanlu fault is a major fault located in the eastern China, which stretches 2400 km long from Tancheng in the north to Lujiang in the south. It is generally believed that the Tanlu fault zone was formed in Proterozoic era and underwent a series of complicated processes since then. To understand the upper crustal structure around the southern segment of the Tanlu fault zone, in 2017 we deployed 53 short period seismic stations around the fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, capital city of Anhui province. The temporary array continuously recorded the data for about one month from 17 March to 26 April 2017. The seismic array spans an area of about 30km x 30Km with an average station spacing of about 5-6km. The vertical component data were used for extracting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion data for the period of 0.2 to 5 seconds. To improve imaging the upper crustal structure of the fault zone, we jointly inverted the surface wave dispersion data and the gravity data because they have complementary strengths. To combine surface wave dispersion data and gravity observations into a single inversion framework, we used an empirical relationship between seismic velocity and density of Maceira and Ammon (2009). By finding the optimal relative weighting between two data types, we are able to find a shear wave velocity (Vs) model that fits both data types. The joint inversion can resolve the upper crustal fault zone structure down to about 7 km in depth. The Vs model shows that in this region the Tanlu fault is associated with high velocity anomalies, corresponding well to the Feidong complex seen on the surface. This indicates that the Tanlu fault zone may provide a channel for the intrusion of hot materials.

  18. Coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls on seasonal and spatial variations of river water quality during baseflow in a coastal watershed of Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    Full Text Available Surface water samples of baseflow were collected from 20 headwater sub-watersheds which were classified into three types of watersheds (natural, urban and agricultural in the flood, dry and transition seasons during three consecutive years (2010-2012 within a coastal watershed of Southeast China. Integrating spatial statistics with multivariate statistical techniques, river water quality variations and their interactions with natural and anthropogenic controls were examined to identify the causal factors and underlying mechanisms governing spatiotemporal patterns of water quality. Anthropogenic input related to industrial effluents and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities associated with the precipitation-induced surface runoff, and natural weathering process were identified as the potential important factors to drive the seasonal variations in stream water quality for the transition, flood and dry seasons, respectively. All water quality indicators except SRP had the highest mean concentrations in the dry and transition seasons. Anthropogenic activities and watershed characteristics led to the spatial variations in stream water quality in three types of watersheds. Concentrations of NH(4(+-N, SRP, K(+, COD(Mn, and Cl- were generally highest in urban watersheds. NO3(-N Concentration was generally highest in agricultural watersheds. Mg(2+ concentration in natural watersheds was significantly higher than that in agricultural watersheds. Spatial autocorrelations analysis showed similar levels of water pollution between the neighboring sub-watersheds exhibited in the dry and transition seasons while non-point source pollution contributed to the significant variations in water quality between neighboring sub-watersheds. Spatial regression analysis showed anthropogenic controls played critical roles in variations of water quality in the JRW. Management implications were further discussed for water resource management. This research

  19. Burkholderia metalliresistens sp. nov., a multiple metal-resistant and phosphate-solubilising species isolated from heavy metal-polluted soil in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun Kang; Ding, Yong Zhen; Feng, Ren Wei; Wang, Rui Gang; Xu, Ying Ming; Chen, Chun; Wei, Xiu Li; Chen, Wei Min

    2015-06-01

    A metal-resistant and phosphate-solubilising bacterium, designated as strain D414(T), was isolated from heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn)-polluted paddy soils at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine in Southeast China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of heavy metals for strain D414(T) were 2000 mg L(-1) (Cd), 800 mg L(-1) (Pb), 150 mg L(-1) (Cu) and 2500 mg L(-1) (Zn). The strain possessed plant growth-promoting properties, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate assimilation, indole production and phosphate solubilisation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate is a member of the genus Burkholderia where strain D414(T) formed a distinct phyletic line with validly described Burkholderia species. Strain D414(T) is closely related to Burkholderia tropica DSM 15359(T), B. bannensis NBRC E25(T) and B. unamae DSM 17197(T), with 98.5, 98.3 and 98.3 % sequence similarities, respectively. Furthermore, less than 34 % DNA-DNA relatedness was detected between strain D414(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest species of Burkholderia. The dominant fatty acids of strain D414(T) were C14:0, C16:0, C17:0 cyclo and C18:1 ω7c. The DNA G+C content was 62.3 ± 0.5 mol%. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain D414(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Burkholderia metalliresistens sp. nov. is proposed, with D414(T) (=CICC 10561(T) = DSM 26823(T)) as the type strain.

  20. A cross-sectional study of inpatients with late stage of dementia in Southeast China and the associations between biochemical parameters and apolipoprotein E genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang B

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bin Jiang,1,2,* Xue-Ping Zhang,3,* Mei-Fang Chen,3 Zheng Wang,3 Ming-Xue Zhao,3 Bin-Hua Chen,3 Hong-Lei Li1 1Department of Neurology and Research Center of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 2Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, 3The Seventh People’s Hospital of Hangzhou, Mental Health Center of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the disease distribution of patients in the late stage of dementia through a cross-sectional investigation and to clarify the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE genotypes and the serum levels of total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and blood glucose in the late-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients.Methods: Patients who were in the late stage of dementia in a mental health center were enrolled in this study. A broad battery of neuropsychological tests and neuroimaging was applied to make the diagnosis. The APOE genotype was determined by the multiplex amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. The association between APOE genotype and the blood level of biochemical parameters was studied.Results: A total of 155 patients were enrolled in this study. The majority of patients had AD (67.8%, followed by vascular dementia (15.5%, mixed dementia (9%, and others (7.7%. The APOE ε4 allele frequency was significantly different in the different groups. The serum level of total cholesterol (TC in APOE ε4 carriers was higher than in non-carriers (P<0.05. No statistically significant differences were found in the blood glucose and triglycerides (TG levels between these two groups.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to study the characteristics of late-stage dementia in hospital patients in Southeast China. We found that the

  1. Branched GDGT-based paleotemperature reconstruction of the last 30,000 years in humid monsoon region of Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    The use of bacterial branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) to reconstruct mean annual air temperatures (MAATs) and environmental pH from soils has sparked significant interest in the terrestrial paleoclimate community. However, the reconstruction of these climate proxies from peat bogs is rare in monsoonal regions of the East Asia. This research was carried out on a core from the Shuizhuyang (SZY) peat bog located in Fujian Province. Branched GDGT (brGDGT) indexes were used for reconstructing the paleoclimate of the last 30 cal ka. The aim was to evaluate quantitatively the MAAT and pH values since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the subtropical zone of China. Results show that the CBT-MBT'-derived MAAT at MIS 3 is about 15.6 °C on average, which is followed by a significant fall at the LGM (11.7-12.1 °C). The temperature difference between the LGM and the present-day value is as high as 5.8 °C. The synchronous variation of biomarker and pollen proxies indicates that replacement of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests by coldtolerant, deciduous broadleaved forests was driven by the significant drop in air temperature. Our results also indicate that the Younger Dryas event lasted from about 12.9 to about 11.3 cal ka, and cooling event at 3.2 cal ka in the late Holocene was detected, showing the sensitivity of peat bogs to rapid cooling. Our pH reconstructions indicate that the pH of the bog rose during Heinrich 1 and Bølling-Allerød periods, probably due to low precipitation, and were lowest in the Holocene thermal maximum between 8 ka and 2.5 ka, probably due to higher precipitation. The decoupling of reconstructed MAAT and pH during particularly deglaciation and YD periods supports the hypothesis that the variations in temperature and precipitation are not always synchronous.

  2. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  3. The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China-legislative and market responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, C.; Dietmar, R.; Eugster, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing significant challenges. The existence of an extensive informal sector, combined with a lack of environmental awareness among WEEE collectors, recyclers and consumers, are contributing to China's difficulties in developing a financially and environmentally sound recycling and disposal system. This paper discusses the current status of WEEE recycling and disposal in China, and its impacts on the environment, human health, and the economy. It also examines the legislative and market responses to the WEEE issue, and how these will be affected by Chinese attitudes and practices towards WEEE recycling

  4. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Southeast Asia: A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    settlements and line grown here, and a small amount of rubber is still highways and railroads. Cogon grass is commonly produced from rubber trees...Gam, Cau, Black Da, Ky Cung, and Ba Brushwood, bamboo, weeds, and tall grasses invade Che-generally flow northwest-southeast and either clear cut forest...Tonkin is the northwest dunes with eucalyptus and small, thorny deciduous arm of the South China Sea. trees and flowering plants. Colon grass is

  6. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  7. Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y L; Reuter, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Informal electronic waste recycling: A sector review with special focus on China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y.L.; Reuter, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector.

  9. How does the rise of China affect Malaysia's electronic and electrical sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Ting, Onn

    2016-01-01

    After joining the WTO in 2001, China’s total exports grew by 19.3% per annum up to 2013 and the country emerged as the world’s biggest exporter of manufactured electronics. China’s rise has had an impact on developing countries such as Malaysia, a major exporter of electronic and electrical (E&E) goods. Malaysia aims to be a high-income economy by 2020, and upgrading its E&E value chain is critical to this goal. Malaysia is part of the East Asian production network and China imports intermedi...

  10. Evaluation of Electronic Healthcare Databases for Post-Marketing Drug Safety Surveillance and Pharmacoepidemiology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Gao, Shuangqing; Lin, Hongbo; Xie, Yanming; Feng, Yuji; Huang, Kui; Zhan, Siyan

    2018-01-01

    Electronic healthcare databases (EHDs) are used increasingly for post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in Europe and North America. However, few studies have examined the potential of these data sources in China. Three major types of EHDs in China (i.e., a regional community-based database, a national claims database, and an electronic medical records [EMR] database) were selected for evaluation. Forty core variables were derived based on the US Mini-Sentinel (MS) Common Data Model (CDM) as well as the data features in China that would be desirable to support drug safety surveillance. An email survey of these core variables and eight general questions as well as follow-up inquiries on additional variables was conducted. These 40 core variables across the three EHDs and all variables in each EHD along with those in the US MS CDM and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDM were compared for availability and labeled based on specific standards. All of the EHDs' custodians confirmed their willingness to share their databases with academic institutions after appropriate approval was obtained. The regional community-based database contained 1.19 million people in 2015 with 85% of core variables. Resampled annually nationwide, the national claims database included 5.4 million people in 2014 with 55% of core variables, and the EMR database included 3 million inpatients from 60 hospitals in 2015 with 80% of core variables. Compared with MS CDM or OMOP CDM, the proportion of variables across the three EHDs available or able to be transformed/derived from the original sources are 24-83% or 45-73%, respectively. These EHDs provide potential value to post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in China. Future research is warranted to assess the quality and completeness of these EHDs or additional data sources in China.

  11. Getting real with the upcoming challenge of electronic nicotine delivery systems: The way forward for the South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2017-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth - ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out. Weak regulation of these products might contribute to the expansion of the ENDS market - in which tobacco companies have a substantial stake - potentially renormalizing smoking habits and negating years of intense tobacco control campaigning. The current situation calls for galvanizing policy makers to gear up to this challenge in the Southeast Asia Region (SEAR) where the high burden of tobacco use is compounded by large proportion of young vulnerable population and limited established tobacco cessation facilities. Banning ENDS in the SEAR seems to be the most plausible approach at present. In the SEAR, Timor-Leste, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Thailand have taken the lead in banning these products. The other countries of the SEAR should follow suit. The SEAR countries may, however, choose to revise their strategy if unbiased scientific evidence emerges about efficacy of ENDS as a tobacco cessation aid. ENDS industry must show true motivation and willingness to develop and test ENDS as effective pharmaceutical tools in the regional context before asking for market authorization.

  12. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old.

  14. Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ... This grant will allow a consortium of research centres in China, Indonesia, Thailand ... Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang.

  15. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  16. Review and Outlook of China Electronic and IT Industry Footprints in IEC International Standardization Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    @@ Year 2006 is the year marking the 100th anniversary of the founding of International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety. Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC, providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since 1957. Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades. Number of IEC TC/SC specialized in electronic and IT amounts up to 52.

  17. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    by China. Even in 1994, the then-Malaysian Defense Minister Najib was careful to play down the security role of ASEAN as he still saw it as being... Razak Baginda. "Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Security: Towards Multilateralism Amid Uncertainty?" Military Technology (April 1994): 10- 16

  18. An evaluation of legislative measures on electrical and electronic waste in the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang Chan

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → The most recent specific WEEE laws of China are reviewed and evaluated. → Take-back requirement is vaguely defined. → The 'environmental expiry date' requirement is redundant. → Use of a 'multiple enforcement body' approach has hampered enforcement. - Abstract: With the increasing number of recycling mishaps in connection with waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) in the People's Republic of China, it is imperative that the handling and recycling of WEEE be sufficiently regulated in China. Regulations covering three major issues, namely, take-back issues, controls on hazardous substances in WEEE and the assurance of good environmental management in WEEE plants, were promulgated between 2006 and 2008. The evaluation in this country report shows that few of these regulatory measures have performed satisfactorily in terms of enforcement, of public acceptance and of environmental concerns. In brief, the take-back requirements and the associated financial responsibilities are only vaguely defined; the control on hazardous substances and the so-called 'environmental expiry date' requirements cannot be properly enforced, and the resources needed to ensure the satisfactory enforcement of the environmental abatement and pollution control requirements in WEEE plants are overwhelming. In addition, the use of a 'multiple enforcement body' approach to the control of hazardous substances in WEEE is an indication that the Chinese government lacks the determination to properly enforce the relevant legal requirements.

  19. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  20. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  1. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Cao, P; Qi, X; Yu, T; Ji, X; Xie, L; An, Q

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  2. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  3. A policy study examining the use of imported LNG for gas-fired power generation on the southeast coast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yajun; Bai Fangfang

    2010-01-01

    Since China's energy demand is growing quickly, speeding up the development of natural gas is an important substitute and supplement for coal and oil. The development of the natural gas market in many developing countries has demonstrated that the success of the whole project hinges upon the success of gas-fired power generation. However, under the current energy pricing system in China, the advantages of gas-fired power plants, such as low investment costs and high efficiency, have not been able to offset the low price of coal. The gas-fired power plants, both at downstream of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry and upstream of the power sector, are faced with a dilemma. In order to solve the problems facing gas-fired power projects while providing policy guidance for the future development of gas-fired power projects, the policy of gas-fired power generation using imported LNG on the southeastern coast of China was examined. This study aims to identify the position of the national energy strategy that China should import some LNG from the other countries, to guide the development of energy policy in this region, and to formulate some clear policy measures.

  4. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Steinernema xueshanense n. sp. (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae), a new species of entomopathogenic nematode from the province of Yunnan, southeast Tibetan Mts., China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráček, Zdeněk; Qi-zhi, L.; Nguyen, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2009), s. 68-79 ISSN 0022-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08085 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and Technology of the People´s Republic of China(CN) 2006AA06Z532; National Key Technology R&D Program(CN) 2008 BAD92B08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : description * entomopathogenic nermatodes * molecular characterization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.807, year: 2009

  8. Heavy metals in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weihua; Bai, Jianfeng; Yao, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, JingWei

    2017-11-01

    For the objective of evaluating the contamination degree of heavy metals and analysing its variation trend in soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area in Shanghai, China, evaluation methods, which include single factor index method, geo-accumulation index method, comprehensive pollution index method, and potential ecological risk index method, were adopted in this study. The results revealed that the soil at a waste electrical and electronic equipment processing area was polluted by arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium. It also demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals were increased over time. Exceptionally, the average value of the metalloid (arsenic) was 73.31 mg kg -1 in 2014, while it was 58.31 mg kg -1 in the first half of 2015, and it was 2.93 times and 2.33 times higher than that of the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soil in 2014 and the first half of 2015, respectively. The sequences of the contamination degree of heavy metals in 2014 and the first half of 2015 were cadmium > lead > copper > chromium > zinc and cadmium > lead > chromium > zinc > copper. From the analysis of the potential ecological risk index method, arsenic and cadmium had higher ecological risk than other heavy metals. The integrated ecological risk index of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and chromium) and metalloid (arsenic) was 394.10 in 2014, while it was 656.16 in the first half of 2015, thus documenting a strong ecological risk.

  9. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  10. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 57 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

  11. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.2). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2011, No.7--Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 2) includes 698 articles which are communicated on the second national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about Nuclear electronics and nuclear detection technology

  12. Fractionation of airborne particulate-bound elements in haze-fog episode and associated health risks in a megacity of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiming; Wang, Qin'geng; Shao, Min; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wu, Hongfei; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Haze caused by high particulate matter loadings is an important environmental issue. PM2.5 was collected in Nanjing, China, during a severe haze-fog event and clear periods. The particulate-bound elements were chemically fractionated using sequential extractions. The average PM2.5 concentration was 3.4 times higher during haze-fog (96-518 μg/m(3)) than non-haze fog periods (49-142 μg/m(3)). Nearly all elements showed significantly higher concentrations during haze-fog than non-haze fog periods. Zn, As, Pb, Cd, Mo and Cu were considered to have higher bioavailability and enrichment degree in the atmosphere. Highly bioavailable fractions of elements were associated with high temperatures. The integrated carcinogenic risk for two possible scenarios to individuals exposed to metals was higher than the accepted criterion of 10(-6), whereas noncarcinogenic risk was lower than the safe level of 1. Residents of a city burdened with haze will incur health risks caused by exposure to airborne metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  14. Oral human papillomavirus infection, sexual behaviors and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in southeast of China: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; Yan, Lingjun; Liu, Fengqiong; Huang, Jiangfeng; Liu, Fangping; Wu, Junfeng; Qiu, Yu; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Cai, Lin; Lin, Lisong; He, Baochang

    2016-12-01

    The causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains controversial. Most of previous studies did not consider the potential modification effect of sexual behaviors when evaluating the role of HPV infection in OSCC risk. To explore the independent and joint effects of oral HPV infection and sexual behaviors on OSCC in Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted from September 2012 to September 2015 in Fujian, China. HPV DNA genotypes were detected in tumor tissues of 178 OSCC patients and oral exfoliated cells of 189 frequency-matched controls using flow-through hybridization and gene chip. Epidemiologic data were collected with a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated with unconditional logistic regression models. The overall HPV prevalence was 14.04% in OSCC patients and 3.17% in controls. HPV-18 was the most prevalent type in cases and controls (10.67% vs. 2.12%). Oral HPV infection was strongly associated with an increased risk of OSCC: the ORs were 7.21 (95% CI: 2.61-19.88) for HPV16/18 and 7.59 (95% CI: 2.34-24.64) for HPV-18. Moreover, the significant associations were only observed in females, young adults, married population, merchants, non-smokers, non-alcohol drinkers and non-tea drinkers. Additionally, the first intercourse below 22years of age and oral sex practice did not show an association with OSCC. But there was a significantly multiplicative interaction between HPV 16/18 and age at first intercourse for OSCC (P interaction factor for OSCC in Fujian area. Furthermore, there might be a combined effect of HPV 16/18 and age at first intercourse on OSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  16. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  17. 75 FR 60159 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... measures: Measures for the Administration of Bank Card Business by the People's Bank of China (Yinfa [1999] 17), issued on 27 January 1999; Circular of the People's Bank of China on Promulgation of Opinions on...; Circular on Uniform Use of CUP Logo and its Holographic Label for Anti-counterfeiting by the People's Bank...

  18. 76 FR 12401 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting Electronic Payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... measures: Measures for the Administration of Bank Card Business by the People's Bank of China (Yinfa [1999] 17), issued on 27 January 1999; Circular of the People's Bank of China on Promulgation of Opinions on...; Circular on Uniform Use of CUP Logo and its Holographic Label for Anti-counterfeiting by the People's Bank...

  19. Online Canton Fairs Ready for Convenient Trade--An Interview with Ding Qiang, General Manager of MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Sun Yongjian

    2006-01-01

    @@ In 2006, the Canton Fairs will greet the 99th and 100th respectively in spring and fall. To meet the need of the development of the convenient trade, the Canton Fairs website, the platform of the online Canton Fairs run by MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center is ready to take several effective measures to offer more convenient services. On March 24, China's Foreign Trade took the occasion to interview with Mr. Ding Qiang, General Manager of MOFCOM China International Electronic Commerce Center.

  20. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  1. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabi, Okunola A. [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Biosciences and Biotechnology Department, Babcock University, Ilisan-remo, Ogun State (Nigeria); Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Bakare, Adekunle A. [Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Huo, Xia, E-mail: xhuo@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (p < 0.05) concentration-dependent increases in DNA damage compared with the negative control. These findings suggest that e-waste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that Nigeria environment is highly contaminated by electronic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contamination level by heavy metals and organics in soils and plants in Nigeria as a result of the electronic waste is as high as the environment in China, even though China is the recipient of about 70% of the world's e-waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study showed that e-waste leachate is genotoxic and mutagenic.

  2. Strategic and Operational Implications of Access to the South China Sea to Maintain Regional Peace and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    .... China currently claims all of the South China Sea and is in dispute with other Southeast Asian nation claimants. China's maritime claim Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapons Free Zone, and People's Liberation Army's Navy modernization are aimed at excluding the U.S. Navy for the South China Sea.

  3. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  4. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The status and development of treatment techniques of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-04-01

    A large quantity of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is being generated because technical innovation promotes the unceasing renewal of products. China's household appliances and electronic products have entered the peak of obsolescence. Due to lack of technology and equipment, recycling of WEEE is causing serious environment pollution. In order to achieve the harmless disposal and resource utilization of WEEE, researchers have performed large quantities of work, and some demonstration projects have been built recently. In this paper, the treatment techniques of typical WEEE components, including printed circuit boards, refrigerator cabinets, toner cartridges, cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal display panels, batteries (Ni-Cd and Li-ion), hard disk drives, and wires are reviewed. An integrated recycling system with environmentally friendly and highly efficient techniques for processing WEEE is proposed. The orientation of further development for WEEE recycling is also proposed.

  6. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  7. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  8. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  9. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    apparently to save ammunition, according to the BPP report . The attacks came after a battalion of Burmese troops had arrived at the border areas to...Manuel Pangilinan says. 17 It will be divided into five " strategic business units" (or SBU’s): commercial banking, which will include Hibernia and...065082 JPRS-SEA-84-173 14 December 1 984 Southeast Asia Report Reproduced From Best Available Copy 20000107 100 IIXTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 9

  10. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmy Bin Agam

    1992-01-01

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  11. Hazardous substances in electronics: the effects of European Union risk regulation on China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that European Union (EU) risk regulation of hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) was both a trigger and formative factor in the development of similar Chinese regulation. The attractiveness and global interdependence of the EU market in EEE impelled a

  12. An electronic atlas on the oceanography of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostov, I. D.; Moroz, V. V.; Rudykh, N. I.; Rostov, V. I.

    2009-12-01

    The digital atlas on CD ROM includes a set of generalized data on the South China Sea oceanography. The data is presented in the form of spreadsheets, graphics, and text. The atlas contains a brief annotated description of the main physical-geographical characteristics and the particularities of the hydrological regime, water masses, tidal phenomena, and water mass circulation. The atlas is an interactive information-reference system including elements of dynamic data visualization. It contains a body of data on the long-term observations of the temperature and salinity; gridded blocks of the average annual, seasonal, and monthly data at the standard depth horizons; and data on the hydrochemical characteristics and water currents obtained by automatic buoy stations (ABS). A list of existing open access data bases and web sites is given where additional online and archived information on a range of special issues and problems related to regional studies and exploitation is provided. The system allows for fast access to specifically selected online or generalized reference information (via the Internet) and for its imaging.

  13. An electron beam flue gas treatment plant for a coal fired thermal power station. EBA demonstration plant in Chengdu thermal power station (China EBA Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Shi, Jingke

    1999-01-01

    Ebara's electron beam flue gas treatment plant was installed and is being demonstrated in Chengdu Thermal Power Station, Sichuan, China. The demonstration is proving that this plant is fully capable of meeting the target removal of sulfur dioxides from flue gas (flow rate : 300-thousand m 3 /h). Recovered by-products, namely ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, from the treatment were actually tested as fertilizers, the result of which was favorable. The sale and distribution of these by-products are already underway. In May 1995, this plant was presented the certificate of authorization by China's State Power Corporation. It is noted that this was the first time a sulfur dioxide removal plant was certified as such in China. (author)

  14. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  15. China-ASEAN Relations in Higher Education: An Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    China's dramatic economic rise has tended to overshadow other wider perspectives on the developing China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) relationship, including in higher education. The article examines contemporary relations between China and ASEAN, set against the longer term development of cultural and trade relations. It is…

  16. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Investment, Sugar, Prices, Controversial, New Wage Systems, Electronic Intelligence Development, Military Aid, Transmigration, Coal Exploration, Exploitation, Aircraft, Debt, Urea, Ammonia, Cement...

  17. Time-series product and substance flow analyses of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habuer,; Nakatani, Jun; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimate the possession and obsolescence of household appliances (HAs) in China. • Over 4.8–5.1 billion units of major HAs will be discarded in the next 20 years. • We calculate the amounts of substances contained in end-of-life (EoL) TV sets. • Less common metals will tend to decrease in content in generation of EoL TV sets. • Precious metals will tend to increase in content in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. - Abstract: Given the amounts of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EoL-EEE) being generated and their contents of both harmful and valuable materials, the EoL-EEE issue should be regarded not only as an emerging environmental problem but also as a resource management strategy in China. At present, in order to provide the basis for managing EoL-EEE at both product and substance levels in China, it is necessary to carry out a quantitative analysis on EoL-EEE and to determine how much of it will be generated and how much materials and substances it contains. In this study, the possession and obsolescence amounts of five types of household appliance (HA) including television (TV) sets and the amounts of substances contained in EoL TV sets were estimated using time-series product flow analysis (PFA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). The results of PFA indicated that the total possession amounts of those five types of HAs will exceed 3.1 billion units in 2030, which will be two times higher than those in 2010. In addition, it was estimated that cumulatively over 4.8–5.1 billion units of these five types of EoL HA would be obsoleted between 2010–2030. The results of SFA on TV sets indicated that the generated amounts of most of the less common metals and a part of common metals such as copper (Cu) would tend to decrease, whereas those of other common metals such as iron (Fe) as well as precious metals would tend to increase in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. The results of this study provide a quantitative basis for helping

  18. Time-series product and substance flow analyses of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habuer,, E-mail: habuer@env.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Nakatani, Jun; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We estimate the possession and obsolescence of household appliances (HAs) in China. • Over 4.8–5.1 billion units of major HAs will be discarded in the next 20 years. • We calculate the amounts of substances contained in end-of-life (EoL) TV sets. • Less common metals will tend to decrease in content in generation of EoL TV sets. • Precious metals will tend to increase in content in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. - Abstract: Given the amounts of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EoL-EEE) being generated and their contents of both harmful and valuable materials, the EoL-EEE issue should be regarded not only as an emerging environmental problem but also as a resource management strategy in China. At present, in order to provide the basis for managing EoL-EEE at both product and substance levels in China, it is necessary to carry out a quantitative analysis on EoL-EEE and to determine how much of it will be generated and how much materials and substances it contains. In this study, the possession and obsolescence amounts of five types of household appliance (HA) including television (TV) sets and the amounts of substances contained in EoL TV sets were estimated using time-series product flow analysis (PFA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). The results of PFA indicated that the total possession amounts of those five types of HAs will exceed 3.1 billion units in 2030, which will be two times higher than those in 2010. In addition, it was estimated that cumulatively over 4.8–5.1 billion units of these five types of EoL HA would be obsoleted between 2010–2030. The results of SFA on TV sets indicated that the generated amounts of most of the less common metals and a part of common metals such as copper (Cu) would tend to decrease, whereas those of other common metals such as iron (Fe) as well as precious metals would tend to increase in EoL TV sets in 2015–2030. The results of this study provide a quantitative basis for helping

  19. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-28

    Commenting on the possibility of.substituting stevia for sugar, he explained that there is fied consumption of &e crop, becau«„t„ some 200 times...sweeter than sugar rhe product is mainlv consumed by those with diabetes. He said China has a huge output of stevia in Yunnan but without mucfc benefit...ton "valued at about 10 million baht. Japan has a reason not to buy stevia here. 121 NAVY SUBMARINE PURCHASES JPRS-SEA-85-13] 28 August 1985

  20. Identifying patterns of non-communicable diseases in developed eastern coastal China: a longitudinal study of electronic health records from 12 public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dehua; Shi, Jianwei; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wang, Zhaoxin; Lu, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Ying; Wang, Bo; Sun, Pengfei

    2017-10-05

    Few studies have examined the spectrum and trends of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in inpatients in eastern coastal China, which is transforming from an industrial economy to a service-oriented economy and is the most economically developed region in the country. This study aimed to dynamically elucidate the spectrum and characteristics of severe NCDs in eastern coastal China by analysing patients' longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs). To monitor the spectrum of NCDs dynamically, we extracted the EHR data from 12 general tertiary hospitals in eastern coastal China from 2003 to 2014. The rankings of and trends in the proportions of different NCDs presented by inpatients in different gender and age groups were calculated and analysed. We obtained a total sample of 1 907 484 inpatients with NCDs from 2003 to 2014, 50.05% of whom were men and 81.53% were aged 50 years or older. There was an increase in the number of total NCD inpatients in eastern coastal China from 2003 to 2014. However, the proportion of chronic respiratory diseases and cancer inpatients decreased over the 12-year period. Compared with men, women displayed a significant increase in the proportion of mental and behavioural disorders (pdeveloping prevention guides for regions experiencing transition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  2. China's good terms and prosperity with ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Jianren

    2006-01-01

    The 15 years since dialogue was established between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have witnessed steadily improving relations between the two sides. ASEAN, founded in 1967, includes Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and Brunei. Despite being close neighbours, China and ASEAN did not have official relations until 1991, due largely to the negative influence of the Cold War. China and ASEAN's member countri...

  3. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations regarding terrorism and related activities (e.g., the 2006 Anti- Money iv Laundering Law), most notably the 2015 Counterterrorism... Money Laundering ASEAN Association for Southeast Asian Nations CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CCP Chinese Communist Party CICIR China...the Financing of Terrorism” in 2006, and passed a new law governing money laundering in an effort to restrict access to funds available to terrorists

  4. China’s Economic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-20

    major U.S. investors in China (based on 2003 sales volumes) include Motorola ($5.8 billion in sales volume), General Motors ($2.2 billion), Dell ...data of many of its trading partners. a. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries are Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines

  5. All projects related to China | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of ... the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North American culture. ... Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia).

  6. Terrestrial soil pH and MAAT records based on the MBT/CBT in the southern South China Sea: implications for the atmospheric CO2 evolution in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Liang Dong1, Li Li1, Qianyu Li1,2, Chuanlun L. Zhang1,3 1State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China 2School of Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia 3Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and/or the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) are derived from the branched glycerol dialkyl Glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of bacterial origin and are widely used to reconstruct the terrestrial soil pH and mean annual air temperature (MAAT); however, these proxies are less frequently used in the oceanic settings. Here we provide the first high resolution records of soil pH and MAAT since the last glacial maximum based on the sedimentary core of MD05-2896 in the southern South China Sea. The MAAT record exhibited typical glacial and interglacial cycles and was consistent with the winter insolation variation. The pH values were lower (6.4-7) in the glacial time and higher (7-8.4) in the interglacial time. Changes in soil pH allowed the evaluation of changes in soil CO2 based on the atmosphere-soil CO2 balance. The results imply that the lower winter MAAT variation with a lower winter atmospheric CO2 concentration might have resulted in a higher pH in the interglacial period. Our records provide a new insight into the evolution of atmospheric CO2 between glacial and interglacial cycles in East Asia. Key words: South China Sea, MBT/CBT, b-GDGTs, MAAT, pH

  7. ‘Borderless’ Southeast Asia historiography: New scholarship on the interactions and exchanges between Southeast Asia and its South Asian and Chinese neighbours in the pre-1500 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Hall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Nola Cooke, Li Tana and James A. Anderson (eds, The Tongking Gulf through history. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, x + 223 pp. [Encounters with Asia Series.] ISBN 9780812243369. Price: USD 59.95 (hardback.Derek Heng, Sino-Malay trade and diplomacy from the tenth through the fourteenth century. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009, xiii + 286 pp. [Research in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 121.] ISBN 9780896802711. Price: USD 28.00 (paperback.Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany and Vijay Sakhuja (eds, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola naval expeditions to Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009, xxv + 337 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789812509365, price: USD 39.90 (hardback; 9789812309372, USD 59.90 (paperback.Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade (eds, Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on cross-cultural exchange. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011, xxxi + 514 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789814345101, price USD 49.90 (paperback; 9789814311168, USD 59.90 (hardback. [India Hardcover Edition co-published with Manohar Publishers and Distributors, India.]Geoff Wade and Sun Laichen (eds, Southeast Asia in the fifteenth century: The China factor. Singapore: NUS Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, xii + 508 pp. ISBN 9789971694487. Price: USD 32.00.

  8. NCDC Southeast Federal Records Center Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — East Point, Georgia is the former location of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Southeast regional Federal Records Center (FRC). The southeast...

  9. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Catch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Region Headboat Survey (SRHS), administered by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC) personnel based at...

  10. Anchoring Singapore Philanthropy in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Already a number of other emerging Southeast Asian middle-income economies ... Management University, to investigate philanthropy in four Southeast Asian ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  11. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hong-hui

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China. Methods The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated to receive one of the single-dose parenteral vaccines. All aspects regarding vaccination logistics, feasibility and safety were documented and systematically recorded. Results of the logistics, feasibility and safety are reported. Results The campaign lasted 5 weeks and the overall vaccination coverage was 78%. On average, the 30 vaccine teams gave immunizations on 23 days. Vaccine rates were higher in those aged ≤ 15 years (90% than in adolescents and young adults (70%. Planned mop-up activities increased the coverage by 17%. The overall vaccine wastage was 11%. The cold chain was maintained and documented. 66 individuals reported of adverse events out of all vaccinees, where fever (21%, malaise (19% and local redness (19% were the major symptoms; no life-threatening event occurred. Three needle-sharp events were reported. Conclusion The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. Emphasis should be placed on: injection safety measures, community involvement and incorporation of mop-up strategies into any vaccination campaign. School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China.

  12. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  13. Culture in Southeast Asian Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    A view of the status of Southeast Asian language programs in American schools leads the author to comment on five interrelated issues. They include: (1) the importance of Southeast Asian language and culture teaching and learning, (2) integrating culture in Southeast Asian language classes, (3) teaching techniques, (4) staffing, and (5)…

  14. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  15. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  16. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  17. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only approximately 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women.

  18. Population and society in twentieth-century Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, C

    1994-09-01

    The historical demographic analysis in this article is a revision of a paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in 1988 at the University of Oregon. The author takes the view that fertility has remained high in the Southeast Asian region due to the dynamics of colonialism and the reinforcement of traditional society. Industrialization, urbanization, and advancing education was not favored by colonial policy. The shift to planting cash crops was labor-intensive work which reinforced large families. The fertility decline after the 1960s is attributed to population pressure and the lower limits of land and production per family. Incentives for smaller families are identified as the expansion of mass education, increased consumer aspirations, and opportunities for modern sector employment. The impact of population growth is viewed as multidimensional and indicative of the conflicts between resources, obligations, and aspirations. The historical record in Southeast Asia reveals a population shortage and the risk of losing the minimum supply of labor necessary for a subsistence economy. Traditional local authorities were in need of men for waging war and producing an economic surplus. Colonial administrators imported cheap labor. As mortality declined and population increased, the societal response was migration, usually to frontier areas. New zones of wet rice production were created in lower Burma, central Siam, and Cochin China due to increased demand. Other survival strategies are identified as infinite land subdivision and multiple job holding in the off-season. Densely populated areas appeared to have lower fertility. Over the past 20 years the strategy appears to have been lower fertility coupled with acceptance of family planning, higher female educational attainment, and higher age at marriage. Southeast Asian patterns are considered indicative of the impact of wars, crises, and economic change on

  19. Geochemistry and geochronology of the ∼0.82 Ga high-Mg gabbroic dykes from the Quanji Massif, southeast Tarim Block, NW China: Implications for the Rodinia supercontinent assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fanxi; Wang, Qinyan; Chen, Nengsong; Santosh, M.; Xu, Yixian; Mustafa, Hassan Abdelsalam

    2018-05-01

    The role of the Tarim Block in the reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia remains contentious. Here we report a suite of high-Mg gabbroic dykes from the Yingfeng area in northwestern Quanji Massif, which is considered as a fragment of the Tarim Block in NW China. Magmatic zircons from these dykes yield to have a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 822.2 ± 5.3 Ma, recording the timing of their emplacement. The gabbros have high MgO (9.91-13.09 wt%), Mg numbers (69.89-75.73) and CaO (8.41-13.55 wt%), medium FeOt (8.50-9.67 wt%) and TiO2 (0.67-0.93 wt%), variable Al2O3 (13.04-16.07 wt%), and high Cr (346.14-675.25 ppm), but relatively low Ni (138.72-212.94 ppm), suggestive of derivation from a primary magma. The rocks display chondrite-normalized LREE patterns with weak fractionation but flat HREE patterns relative to those of the N-MORB. Their primitive mantle normalized trace elemental patterns show positive Rb, Ba and U but negative Th, Nb, Ti and Zr anomalies, carrying characteristics of both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc basalts. The εHf(t) values of the zircons from these rocks vary from +4.7 to +13.5 with depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of 1.23-0.85 Ga, and the youngest value nearly approaching that for the coeval depleted mantle, suggesting significant addition of juvenile materials. Our data suggest that the strongly depleted basaltic magma was probably sourced from a depleted mantle source that had undergone metasomatism by subduction-related components in a back-arc setting. Accordingly we postulate that a subduction-related tectonic regime possibly prevailed at ∼0.8 Ga along the southeastern margin of the Tarim Block. Combining with available information from the northern Tarim Block, we propose an opposite verging double-sided subduction model for coeval subduction of the oceanic crust beneath both the southern and northern margins of the Tarim Block during early Neoproterozoic.

  20. Promoting Secondary Analysis of Electronic Medical Records in China: Summary of the PLAGH-MIT Critical Data Conference and Health Datathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyao; Xie, Chen; Pollard, Tom; Johnson, Alistair Edward William; Cao, Desen; Kang, Hongjun; Liang, Hong; Zhang, Yuezhou; Liu, Xiaoli; Fan, Yong; Zhang, Yuan; Xue, Wanguo; Xie, Lixin; Celi, Leo Anthony; Zhang, Zhengbo

    2017-11-14

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been widely adopted among modern hospitals to collect and track clinical data. Secondary analysis of EHRs could complement the traditional randomized control trial (RCT) research model. However, most researchers in China lack either the technical expertise or the resources needed to utilize EHRs as a resource. In addition, a climate of cross-disciplinary collaboration to gain insights from EHRs, a crucial component of a learning healthcare system, is not prevalent. To address these issues, members from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the People's Liberation Army General Hospital (PLAGH) organized the first clinical data conference and health datathon in China, which provided a platform for clinicians, statisticians, and data scientists to team up and address information gaps in the intensive care unit (ICU). ©Peiyao Li, Chen Xie, Tom Pollard, Alistair Edward William Johnson, Desen Cao, Hongjun Kang, Hong Liang, Yuezhou Zhang, Xiaoli Liu, Yong Fan, Yuan Zhang, Wanguo Xue, Lixin Xie, Leo Anthony Celi, Zhengbo Zhang. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 14.11.2017.

  1. Recent status of purging SO2 and NOx in flue gas by EB and R and D of electron accelerator in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenhao

    2005-01-01

    The main energy resource is coal in China. Flue gas from burning coal is the most fearful pollution. Chinese Government pays more attention to reduction of SO 2 in flue gas from 1990's. Various technical facilities of reducing SO 2 have been imported from developed countries especially from Japanese companies. For example, A largest project is that Chongqing-luohuang electric power station imported limestone-gypsum process FGD technology and facility from Mitsubishi of Japan in 1980s for 300 MW generator spending 36.4 million US$ and 27.3 million RMB. Recently an example is EBA technology in Chengdu thermal plant. Some of Chinese institute is going to improve the technology to treat larger amount of flue gas from one generator such as 200 - 300 MW generator. And an R and D program of manufacturing higher voltage accelerator is being implemented. Otherwise, electron accelerator of industry application has been successfully made from 20 kW - 100 kW with 2.5 MeV energy in China. (author)

  2. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)

  3. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author).

  4. [Potential Carbon Fixation Capability of Non-photosynthetic Microbial Community at Different Depth of the South China Sea and Its Response to Different Electron Donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Feng; Wang, Lei; Xi, Xue-fei; Hu, Jia-jun; Fu, Xiao-hua; Lu, Bing; Xu, Dian-sheng

    2015-05-01

    The seawater samples collected from many different areas with different depth in the South China Sea were cultivated using different electron donors respectively. And the variation in the potential carbon fixation capability ( PCFC ) of non-photosynthetic microbial community (NPMC) in seawater with different depth was determined after a cycle of cultivation through the statistic analysis. In addition, the cause for the variation was clarified through analyzing key gene abundance regarding CO2 fixation and characteristics of seawater with different depth. The result showed that the PCFCs of NPMC in seawater with different depth were generally low and had no significant difference when using NaNO2 as the electron donor. The PCFC of NPMC in surface seawater was higher than that in deep seawater when using H2 as the electron donor, on the contrary, the PCFC of NPMC in deep seawater was higher than that in surface seawater when using Na2S2O3 as the electron donor. The abundance of the main CO2 fixation gene cbbL in surface seawater was higher than that in deep seawater while the cbbM gene abundance in deep seawater was higher than that in surface seawater. Most hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria had the cbbL gene, and most sulfur bacteria had the cbbM gene. The tendency of seawater cbbL/cbbM gene abundance with the change of depth revealed that there were different kinds of bacteria accounting for the majority in NPMC fixing CO2 at different depth of ocean, which led to different response of PCFC of NPMC at different depth of the sea to different electron donors. The distributions of dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon concentration with the change of the depth of the sea might be an important reason leading to the difference of NPMC structure and even the difference of PCFC at different depth of the sea.

  5. Dechlorane Plus (DP) in air and plants at an electronic waste (e-waste) site in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shejun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian Mi; Wang Jing; Shi Tian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Yong [Guangdong Forestry Survey and Planning Institute, Guangzhou 510520 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai Bixian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Air and foliage samples (Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were collected from e-waste and reference sites in South China and analyzed for Dechlorane Plus (DP) and two dechlorinated DPs. DP concentrations in the air were 13.1-1794 pg/m{sup 3} for the e-waste site and 0.47-35.7 pg/m{sup 3} for the reference site, suggesting the recycling of e-waste is an important source of DP to the environment. Plant DP, with concentrations of 0.45-51.9 ng/g dry weight at the e-waste site and 0.09-2.46 ng/g at the reference site, exhibited temporal patterns similar to the air DP except for pine needle at the reference site. The air-plant exchange of DP could be described with the two-compartment model. Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. The ratios of anti-Cl{sub 11} DP to anti-DP in the air and plants may indicate the preferential uptake of dechlorinated DP by plant compared with DP. - Highlights: > Dechlorane Plus was widely present in the air and plants in South China. > Temporal patterns of the plant DP could be described with the two-compartment model. > Plant uptake can efficiently reduce air DP concentration at the reference site. > Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. - E-waste recycling in South China results in wide occurrence of DP in the air and plant.

  6. Governance in Southeast Asia: Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Eduardo T.; Mendoza, Magdalena L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze governance systems in Southeast Asia and proposes some policy suggestions that can improve governance practices in the region. It also discusses the links between governance and official development assistance and the role of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. To put the discussion on governance systems in a proper context, the paper discusses the governance and growth nexus in Southeast Asia; describes the operating governance systems in Southeast As...

  7. Sailing The Calm And Rough Seas: The Influence Of Wealth And Sovereignty In Southeast Asian Maritime Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    International Politics in the South China Sea: Towards a Cooperative Management Regime, ed. W. S. G. Bateman and Ralf Emmers, Routledge Security in...important roles. The next important point to address is undelimited maritime boundaries and ongoing maritime disputes in Southeast Asia. Sam Bateman ...by Malaysia and Singapore could be a good sign 301 Sam Bateman , Joshua Ho, and Jane Chan, Good

  8. Comparative evaluation of environmental contamination and DNA damage induced by electronic-waste in Nigeria and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Okunola A; Bakare, Adekunle A; Xu, Xijin; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2012-04-15

    In the last decade, China and Nigeria have been prime destinations for the world's e-waste disposal leading to serious environmental contamination. We carried out a comparative study of the level of contamination using soils and plants from e-waste dumping and processing sites in both countries. Levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed using gas chromatography/spectrophotometry and heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. DNA damage was assayed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using an alkaline comet assay. Soils and plants were highly contaminated with toxic PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, and heavy metals in both countries. Soil samples from China and plant samples from Nigeria were more contaminated. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of organics and heavy metals in plant samples and the surrounding soils. In human lymphocytes, all tested samples induced significant (pwaste components/constituents can accumulate, in soil and surrounding vegetation, to toxic and genotoxic levels that could induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Southeast Asian Studies in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua; Platt, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    from this approach, this article calls for an examination of one important concept in innovative education, that is, context sensitive education. The case study of an annual joint Singapore-Denmark-America summer school programme to teach and study Southeast Asia in Context is discussed here.......As pressures mount to adopt new or alternative instructional delivery methods to achieve innovative education, there has been a strong orientation towards emphasising the need to integrate the latest technological applications to achieve the best in teaching and learning experiences. Moving away...

  10. ASEAN - China Free Trade Area : A quantitative study of Trade diversion and Trade creation effects on ASEAN - China trade flows

    OpenAIRE

    Duong Xuan, Vinh

    2011-01-01

    The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have a long history of trading with each other. They are economic partners as well as competitors for many years. In order to push their economic relationship to a higher level, in November 2002, ASEAN and China signed the initial framework agreement, determined on establishing the ASEAN - China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) among the eleven countries by 2010 for the ASEAN-6 (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)...

  11. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  12. Southeast Asia’s changing palaeogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.

    2009-01-01

    Geology provides the basis for understanding distributions of faunas and floras in Southeast Asia but only via a complex interplay of plate movements, palaeogeography, ocean circulation and climate. Southeast Asia grew incrementally by the addition of continental fragments, mainly rifted from

  13. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  14. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Taicheng; Zhang Delin; Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo

    2011-01-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m 3 and 27-2975 ng/m 3 at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ΣPBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: → On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. → The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. → Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  15. Evaluating a Web-Based Coaching Program Using Electronic Health Records for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; He, Lin; Tao, Yanxia; Sun, Li; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yashu; Shen, Yuehao; Liu, Suyan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Yaogang

    2017-07-21

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world, and it continues to increase in developing countries. The World Health Organization expects COPD to be the third most common cause of death in the world by 2020. Effective and continuous postdischarge care can help patients to maintain good health. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) as an element of community health care is new technology in China. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Web-based coaching program using EHRs for physical function and health-related quality of life for patients with COPD in China. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2008 to 2015 at two hospitals. The control group received routine care and the intervention group received routine care with the addition of the Web-based coaching program using EHRs. These were used to manage patients' demographic and clinical variables, publish relevant information, and have communication between patients and health care providers. Participants were not blinded to group assignment. The effects of the intervention were evaluated by lung function, including percent of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percent of forced vital capacity (FVC%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum midexpiratory flow; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC); and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Data were collected before the program, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the program. Of the 130 participants, 120 (92.3%) completed the 12-month follow-up program. There were statistically significant differences in lung function (FEV1%: F1,4=5.47, P=.002; FVC%: F1,4=3.06, P=.02; PEF: F1,4=12.49, Pcoaching program using EHRs in China appears to be useful for patients with COPD when they are discharged from hospital into the community. It promotes the sharing of patients' medical information by hospital and community nurses, and

  16. Analysis and evaluation of the Electronic Health Record standard in China: a comparison with the American national standard ASTM E 1384.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Guan, Zhiyu; Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Haiyan; Lu, Min; Li, Tiejun

    2011-08-01

    To analyze and evaluate the newly issued Electronic Health Record (EHR) Architecture and Data Standard of China (Chinese EHR Standard) and identify areas of improvement for future revisions. We compared the Chinese EHR Standard with the standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials Standard Practice for Content and Structure of Electronic Health Records in the United States (ASTM E 1384 Standard). The comparison comprised two steps: (1) comparing the conformance of the two standards to the international standard: Health Informatics-Requirements for an Electronic Health Record Architecture (ISO/TS 18308), and showing how the architectures of the two standards satisfy or deviate from the ISO requirements and (2) comparing the detailed data structures between the two standards. Of the 124 requirement items in ISO/TS 18308, the Chinese EHR Standard and the ASTM E 1384 Standard conformed to 77 (62.1%) and 111 (89.5%), respectively. The Chinese EHR Standard conformed to 34 of 50 Structure requirements (68.0%), 22 of 24 Process requirements (91.7%), and 21 of 50 Other requirements (42.0%). The ASTM E 1384 Standard conformed to 49 of 50 Structure requirements (98.0%), 23 of 24 Process requirements (95.8%), and 39 of 40 Other requirements (78.0%). Further development of the Chinese EHR Standard should focus on supporting privacy and security mechanism, diverse data types, more generic and extensible lower level data structures, and relational attributes for data elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional modelling of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, M.; Leong, C. P.

    A co-operative research project between the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) focussing on the usage of an atmospheric transport and chemistry model, has just been initiated. Here, we describe the main features of the dispersion model and discuss a first set of calculations in light of available measurements of sulphuric species in Southeast Asia. According to our results, anthropogenic sulphur concentrations and depositions are particularly high near the large cities of the region, around a metal smelter in the southern Philippines, and in a region extending from northern Vietnam into southeastern China. These areas coincide with the high-emissions regions of Southeast Asia and we tentatively conclude that regional transport of acidifying species is not as far-reaching as in the mid-latitudes. From our calculations, and from supporting measurements we conclude that most of rural Southeast Asia is not yet severely affected by anthropogenic sulphur, but given the rapid rate of economical development in this region the situation may deteriorate quickly. Areas that are particularly at risk include the large cities, northern Vietnam, most of central Thailand, most of peninsular Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and parts of Java, all of which receive total-sulphur depositions in excess of 0.5 g S m -2 yr -1. Our model simulates sulphate in precipitation in accordance with measurements, but it has a tendency to overestimate atmospheric SO 2. It remains to be investigated whether this is a problem in the model formulation or a result of unrepresentative sampling. An immediate continuation of this study should be performed with higher spatial resolution than the currently used 100×100 km 2. Other imperfections in this model study, which should be addressed in future work, include parameterised vertical transport in deep convective clouds, the influence of natural emissions (primarily from volcanoes) on the

  18. Huperzine alkaloids from Australasian and southeast Asian Huperzia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Han; Goodger, Jason Q D; Field, Ashley R; Holtum, Joseph A M; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-09-01

    The pharmaceutical alkaloid huperzine A (HupA), currently used in herbal supplements and medicines worldwide, is predominantly sourced from the Chinese lycopod Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. (Lycopodiaceae), which on average contains only 0.08 mg HupA g(-1) dry weight, and is experiencing a rapid decline in China due to over-harvesting. To find a high-yielding, natural source of HupA and/or the related huperzine B (HupB) that could potentially be used as the starting material in a commercial propagation program. We surveyed 17 Huperzia species (15 indigenous to Australia and southeast Asia) for their foliar HupA and HupB concentrations. We also studied intra-specific variation for the huperzines in four species that were available in sufficient numbers, and determined tissue-specific accumulation in larger specimens. HupA was detected in 11 Australasian and southeast Asian species, with eight also containing HupB, albeit at much lower concentrations. A H. elmeri (Herter) Holub plant from the Philippines had one of the highest HupA concentrations recorded (1.01 mg g(-1) dry wt) and it also had the highest HupB content of all plants surveyed (0.34 mg g(-1) dry wt). Intra-specific HupA and HupB concentrations were extremely variable, and at the intra-plant level, reproductive strobili were found to accumulate the highest HupA concentrations. Select Huperzia species from Australia and southeast Asia have potential as the starting material for establishing commercial HupA plantations, but the high intra-specific variability observed suggests that detailed screening is needed to isolate high huperzine-yielding individuals.

  19. Understanding the Southeast Asian haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Karthik K. R.; Baikie, T.; T, Mohan Dass E.; Huang, Y. Z.; Guet, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Southeast Asian region had been subjected to a drastic reduction in air quality from the biomass burnings that occurred in 2013 and 2015. The smoke from the biomass burnings covered the entire region including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, with haze particulate matter (PM) reducing the air quality to hazardous levels. Here we report a comprehensive size-composition-morphology characterization of the PM collected from an urban site in Singapore during the two haze events. The two haze events were a result of biomass burning and occurred in two different geographical source regions. We show the similarities and variations of particle size distribution during hazy and clear days during the two haze events. Sub-micron particles (method is used to determine the fractal dimensions of the PM, and the dimensionality varied for every classification from 1.79 to 1.88. We also report the complexities of particles and inconsistencies in the existing approaches to understand them.

  20. Exploring eco-health in China and Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-04-12

    Apr 12, 2017 ... As nations rapidly develop, agriculture intensifies, providing numerous economic benefits. But intensification can also damage the environment and pose ... The Field Building Leadership Initiative, supported by IDRC, aims to ...

  1. Policies, Political-Economy, and Swidden in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jefferson; Fujita, Yayoi; Ngidang, Dimbab; Peluso, Nancy; Potter, Lesley; Sakuntaladewi, Niken; Sturgeon, Janet; Thomas, David

    2009-06-01

    For centuries swidden was an important farming practice found across the girth of Southeast Asia. Today, however, these systems are changing and sometimes disappearing at a pace never before experienced. In order to explain the demise or transitioning of swidden we need to understand the rapid and massive changes that have and are occurring in the political and economic environment in which these farmers operate. Swidden farming has always been characterized by change, but since the onset of modern independent nation states, governments and markets in Southeast Asia have transformed the terms of swiddeners' everyday lives to a degree that is significantly different from that ever experienced before. In this paper we identified six factors that have contributed to the demise or transformation of swidden systems, and support these arguments with examples from China (Xishuangbanna), Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. These trends include classifying swiddeners as ethnic minorities within nation-states, dividing the landscape into forest and permanent agriculture, expansion of forest departments and the rise of conservation, resettlement, privatization and commoditization of land and land-based production, and expansion of market infrastructure and the promotion of industrial agriculture. In addition we note a growing trend toward a transition from rural to urban livelihoods and expanding urban-labor markets.

  2. Aerosol Optical Properties in Southeast Asia From AERONET Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Boonjawat, J.; Le, H. V.; Schafer, J. S.; Reid, J. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2003-12-01

    There is little published data available on measured optical properties of aerosols in the Southeast Asian region. The AERONET project and collaborators commenced monitoring of aerosol optical properties in February 2003 at four sites in Thailand and two sites in Viet Nam to measure the primarily anthropogenic aerosols generated by biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion/ industrial emissions. Automatic sun/sky radiometers at each site measured spectral aerosol optical depth in 7 wavelengths from 340 to 1020 nm and combined with directional radiances in the almucantar, retrievals were made of spectral single scattering albedo and aerosol size distributions. Angstrom exponents, size distributions and spectral single scattering albedo of primarily biomass burning aerosols at rural sites are compared to measurements made at AERONET sites in other major biomass burning regions in tropical southern Africa, South America, and in boreal forest regions. Additionally, the aerosol single scattering albedo and size distributions measured in Bangkok, Thailand are compared with those measured at other urban sites globally. The influences of aerosols originating from other regions outside of Southeast Asia are analyzed using trajectory analyses. Specifically, cases of aerosol transport and mixing from Southern China and from India are presented.

  3. Financial Crises and Automotive Industry Development in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doner, Richard F.; Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The automotive industries of Southeast Asia have grown significantly but unevenly. Thailand has outperformed its neighbours in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines with regard to production and, most notably, export volumes. But the Thai auto industry has not exhibited the level of local...... (indigenous) technology capacity and input growth seen in South Korea, Taiwan and, increasingly, in China. The 1997–98 and 2008 financial and economic crises generally reinforced pre-existing national automotive strategies, but to different degrees: They strongly accelerated an earlier Thai move to exports...... whose very success weakened pressures for upgrading; encouraged more moderate automotive liberalisation in Indonesia and, to a lesser extent, in the Philippines; but promoted only minimal changes to Malaysia’s relatively protectionist national car strategy. The fact that the crises served more...

  4. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  5. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052. Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.

  6. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Yu, Shanfa; Dai, Junming; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhu, Xiaojun; Ji, Yuqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-08-12

    This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models.

  7. Comparison of electron density profiles observed in China's low latitude station with that produced by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manlian; Shi Jiankui; Wang Xiao

    2003-01-01

    One month's data of ionograms observed by DPS-4 digisonde in China's low latitude station Hainan (19.4 deg N/109.0 deg E) for the high solar activity year 2002 is used to make a comparison study between the observational electron density profiles and that produced by the newly updated International Reference Ionosphere (IRI2001). The present study showed that for the month studied (April, 2002): (1) When B0-Tab value is used, profiles given by IRI2001 are in poor agreement with the observational results during daytime and nearby midnight hours when standard Ne(h) option is chosen, whereas when the LAY functions version is chosen, IRI2001 produces profiles with erroneous features during evening and nighttime hours, although it produces profiles in a reasonable good agreement with the observational ones during daytime hours. (2) In general, profiles produced by IRI2001 with B0-Gulyaeva choice is in better agreement with observational profiles than when B0-Tab is chosen. When the B0-Gulyaeva and LAY functions version of Ne(h) are both chosen, IRI2001 produced the best results when compared with the observational results. (3) The B0 parameter given by B0-Gulyaeva choice in IRI2001 is much closer to the observed (best fitted) one than that given by the B0-Tab choice is. (author)

  8. Using the Job Burden-Capital Model of Occupational Stress to Predict Depression and Well-Being among Electronic Manufacturing Service Employees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Shuang; Li, Tao; Yu, Shanfa; Dai, Junming; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhu, Xiaojun; Ji, Yuqing; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to identify the association between occupational stress and depression-well-being by proposing a comprehensive and flexible job burden-capital model with its corresponding hypotheses. Methods: For this research, 1618 valid samples were gathered from the electronic manufacturing service industry in Hunan Province, China; self-rated questionnaires were administered to participants for data collection after obtaining their written consent. The proposed model was fitted and tested through structural equation model analysis. Results: Single-factor correlation analysis results indicated that coefficients between all items and dimensions had statistical significance. The final model demonstrated satisfactory global goodness of fit (CMIN/DF = 5.37, AGFI = 0.915, NNFI = 0.945, IFI = 0.952, RMSEA = 0.052). Both the measurement and structural models showed acceptable path loadings. Job burden and capital were directly associated with depression and well-being or indirectly related to them through personality. Multi-group structural equation model analyses indicated general applicability of the proposed model to basic features of such a population. Gender, marriage and education led to differences in the relation between occupational stress and health outcomes. Conclusions: The job burden-capital model of occupational stress-depression and well-being was found to be more systematic and comprehensive than previous models. PMID:27529267

  9. Pollen of Southeast Asian Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), with an overview of the pollen fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulalacao, L.J.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollen morphological descriptions of Alchornea in the literature, which are almost completely based on African and American species, the pollen of eight Southeast Asian species of Alchornea was investigated, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Very little variation

  10. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David

    2003-01-01

    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  11. Southeast Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, boat ramps, marinas, heliports, and log storage areas in Southeast Alaska. Vector...

  12. Southeast Asia: Of Tigers and Turmoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, Jeff; Morris, James; Syrett, Ann; Szeles, Erno

    1997-01-01

    .... Economic growth has been phenomenal for most Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, while Cambodia and Vietnam are struggling to provide a basic economic foundation to feed their people...

  13. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  14. Southeast Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for waterfowl in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of foraging and rafting...

  15. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  16. 2010 ARRA Lidar: 4 Southeast Counties (MI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Southeast Michigan LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Monroe, St. Clair, Macomb, and Livingston Counties SEMCOG CONTRACT:...

  17. Southeast Economic Add-on 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Southeast...

  18. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  19. Southeast Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls, and terns in Southeast Alaska. Points in this...

  20. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  1. Sidewalk Survey Implementation for the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    With funding from GDOT and STRIDE, the team deployed the Online Sidewalk Assessment Survey to gather input on local sidewalk repair and maintenance preferences across a variety of community types in the southeast. The team targeted four major cities ...

  2. Comparing China and India's New Security Optionss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    must be based on an approach which seeks to explain the interrelated variables, inconsistencies and disruptive effects of India's and China’s dramatic rise and insertion into the global political economy and more specifically how this relationship is playing out in Southeast Asia....... is to examine the implications of the major shifts in foreign policy of China and India and an attempt to look at epistemic actors and social forces influence on foreign policy. Both countries are struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast Asia and as emerging...

  3. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  4. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  5. Characterization of rainwater chemical composition after a Southeast Asia haze event: insight of transboundary pollutant transport during the northeast monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Lin, Chin Yik; Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Hamid, Haris Hafizal Abdul; Mohamad, Noorlin; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul; Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul; Kamaludin, Nurul Farahana; Lazim, Mohamad Azwani Shah Mat

    2017-06-01

    Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (China and the marine region in the South China Sea were responsible for the high pollution event in the study area. These findings can be useful in identifying contributions of pollutants from single or multiple sources in rainwater samples during haze episodes.

  6. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  7. Teaching Information Systems Courses in China: Challenges, Opportunities, and Lessons for US Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Meg; Rivituso, Jack

    2016-01-01

    In Fall of 2014, as a result of a Chinese faculty visit to an upstate New York college to observe American pedagogical techniques in teaching information systems, two US faculty members were invited to teach two separate courses at a vocational college in southeast China. The courses to be taught in China were selected by the Chinese faculty and…

  8. Sex-dependent accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; She, Ya-Zhe; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Ying; Mo, Ling; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is limited on sex-related accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife. In the present study, DP isomers were examined in liver and eggs of two fish species, northern snakehead and crucian carp, from an electronic waste recycling site in China. Hepatic ∑DP (sum of syn- and anti-DP) concentrations ranged 260–1920 ng/g lipid in northern snakehead and 340–1670 ng/g in crucian carp, with significantly higher levels in males relative to females. ∑DP concentrations ranged 4.6–310 ng/g lipid in the eggs, demonstrating their maternal transfer in the female fish. The mean eggs to liver concentration ratios (E/L ratios) were 0.03 and 0.03 in northern snakehead, and 0.26 and 0.25 in crucian carp, for syn- and anti-DP, respectively. A significantly negative correlation between the E/L ratios and the hepatic DP concentrations was observed, indicating a dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers in the fish. -- Highlights: ► Male fish contained significantly higher DP residues than females. ► DP isomers can be maternally transferred to eggs in female fish. ► A dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers was observed. ► First report on sex-related bioaccumulation of DP isomers in wildlife. -- Sex-dependent accumulation and species-specific maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant was observed in two highly contaminated fish species

  9. Feature of Dust Particles in the Spring Free Troposphere over Dunhuang in Northwestern China: Electron Microscopic Experiments on Individual Particles Collected with a Balloon-borne Impactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Iwasaka, Y.; Matsuki, A.; Trochkine, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Zhang, D.; Nagatani, T.; Shi, G.-Y.; Nagatani, M.; Nakata, H.; Shen, Z.; Chen, B.; Li, G.

    2005-01-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol particles were collected using a balloon-borne particle impactor in August of 2002 and March of 2003 at Dunhuang in northwestern China (40 o 00'N, 94 o 30'E), and the morphology and elemental composition of the aerosol particles were analyzed in order to understand the mixing state of coarse dust particles (diameter >1 μm) over the desert areas in the Asian continent in spring. Electron microscopic experiments on the particles revealed that dust particles were major constituents of coarse mode particles in the free troposphere over the Taklamakan Desert in spring and summer.Si-rich or Ca-rich particles are major components of dust particles collected in the free troposphere over dunhuang and the values of [number of Ca-rich particles]/[number of Si-rich particles] differs markedly between spring and summer, being about 0.3 in the spring of 2003 and about 1.0 in the summer of 2002 at heights 3-5 km above sea level. It is likely that the condition of the ground surface and the strength of vertical mixing in source areas of Asian dust are potential factors causing the difference in the chemical types of dust particles.Comparison of the elemental compositions of these particles with those of particles collected over Japan strongly suggests that these particles were chemically modified during their long-range transport in the free troposphere. Analysis of wind systems shows that both the predominating westerly wind in the free troposphere and the surface wind strongly controlled by the geographical structure of the Tarim Basin are important in the long-range transport of KOSA particles originating in the Taklamakan Desert

  10. Biological monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage, in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenbing; Fan, Ruifang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage in Southern China and research the influence of environment smoke tobacco (EST) to people through active and passive smoking. Urinary concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene were determined in 141 randomly selected voluntary residents aged 13 to 81 years in two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-exposed groups, two control groups, and an EST research group. The concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in PAH-exposed groups are significantly higher (pelectronic garbage (1.1 μmol/mol creatinine) is a little higher than those of iron foundry workers, automobile repair workers, and firefighters. Mean value of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (11.3 μmol/mol creatinine) is much higher than that of shipyard and aircraft maintenance and much lower than some occupational exposure, such as coking batteries, sorting department, and distillation department in coking plant. Some metabolites of PAHs (PAHm) are significantly elevated through active and passive smoking, while the influence of EST to other PAHm is not statistically significant. 2-Hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers are, respectively, 3.9, 1.9, 1.4, and 1.9 times to those of nonsmokers. In nonsmokers, passive smokers excreted 1.1, 1.5, 1.9, and 1.5 times of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene compared to nonpassive smokers.

  11. Modern Political and Economic Aspects of the Oil and Gas Complex in the Southeast Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstracUThe article reviews the problems caused by the conflict of interests between certain Southeast Asian countries and other states, China foremost, which aroused from oil and gas field development on disputable offshore sections. At the same time the positions of the region's leading transnational corporations in the field of oil and gas policy and their relationships with the countries-ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations members are outlined. Separately are represented the foreign policy stands of Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia on territorial disputes over offshore oil and gas fields. These processes are pushing both European and American business to abandon the conventional schemes and accept the new conditions of their activity in Southeast Asia.

  12. The anatomy of China's export growth

    OpenAIRE

    Amiti, Mary; Freund, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports remained ...

  13. Autochthonous leptospirosis in South-East Austria, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Wallner, Carina; Allerberger, Franz; Schmoll, Friedrich; Seeber, Katharina; Wagner, Jasmin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Flick, Holger; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the world's mostly spread zoonoses causing acute fever. Over years, leptospirosis has been reported to occur rarely in Austria and Germany (annual incidence of 0.06/100,000 in Germany). Only imported cases have been on the increase. Objectives of this case-series study were to retrospectively assess epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of leptospirosis illnesses in South-East Austria, to describe risk exposures for autochthonous infections, and to compare patients with imported versus autochthonous infection. During the 9-year period between 2004 and 2012, 127 adult patients (49 females, 78 males) who tested positive by rapid point-of-care test for Leptospira-specific IgM (Leptocheck®) were identified through electronic hospital databases. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with 82 patients. A total of 114 (89.8%) of the 127 patients enrolled had acquired leptospirosis within Austria and 13 (10.2%) had potentially imported infections. Most autochthonous cases were diagnosed during the months of June and July, whereas fewest were diagnosed during the winter months. Exposure to rodents, recreational activities in woods or wet areas, gardening, cleaning of basements or huts were the most common risk exposures found in autochthonous infection. Serogroups Australis (n = 23), Sejroe (n = 22), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (n = 11) were identified most frequently by MAT testing in autochthonous infections. Patients with imported leptospirosis were significantly younger, less likely to be icteric and had significantly lower liver transaminase levels (p = 0.004) than those with autochthonous infections. Leptospirosis is endemic in South-East Austria. In contrast to reports from other countries we found a relatively high proportion of leptospirosis cases to be female (39% vs. ∼ 10%), likely the result of differing risk exposures for South-East Austria.

  14. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  15. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 FGC award winners in the Southeast are: the Department of Human Services’ U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Southeast Regional Office and Department of Energy’s East Tennessee Technology Park.

  16. Indonesia's Transformation and the Stability of Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel

    2001-01-01

    ... and straits, Indonesia is the key to Southeast Asian security. Therefore, Indonesia's choices and its evolution will frame the future of Southeast Asia and influence the balance of power in the broader Asia-Pacific region...

  17. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    and through which a major portion of world’s trade passes by sea. Territory claimed by China is also claimed in part by Brunei, Malaysia , the...comprises 10 Southeast Asian nations: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao, Malaysia , Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam. 30 U.S...media continues to be subject to Communist Party censorship . Against this evolving backdrop, the human rights question remains one of the thorniest in

  18. The Winter Cooling Trend in Eastern China during the Recent Global Warming Hiatus Period and Its Possible Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T.; Li, S.; Luo, F.; Han, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The authors analyzed the observed winter surface air temperature in eastern mainland China during the recent global warming hiatus period through 1998-2013. The results suggest a substantial cooling trend of about -1.0°/decade in Eastern China, Northeast China and Southeast China. Mechanism exploration indicates that the displacement of the East Asian upper-tropospheric jet and the associated Rossby wave may have contributed to the cooling trend. A southward shift of the East Asian polar together with a northward shift of the subtropical jet caused the enhancement of the northern East Asian trough and Siberian High. A diagnostic analysis suggests that the Arctic sea ice loss, ENSO and North Atlantic SST all play a role. With the three factors removed, the air temperature trend is -0.35, -0.08 and -0.44°/decade over East China, Northeast China and Southeast China, respectively.

  19. AHP 40: REVIEW: CHINA'S ENCOUNTERS ON THE SOUTH AND SOUTHWEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fiaschetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This collection of fifteen articles investigates the formation of the southern Chinese frontier and interaction between China and the various regions of Southeast Asia throughout history. The idea started with a panel presented at the meeting of the Association of Asian Studies in 2010, to which other contributions from experts in the field have been added.

  20. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia ? aerosol and chemical characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Stohl , A.; Forster , C.; Huntrieser , H.; Mannstein , H.; Mcmillan , W. W.; Petzold , A.; Schlager , H.; Weinzierl , B.

    2006-01-01

    An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24–25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia only six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from AIRS sate...

  1. Overburdening: Two books on the British politics towards Southeast Asia from 1943 to 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Anten

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Peter Lowe, Contending with nationalism and communism; Britishpolicy towards Southeast Asia, 1945-65. Basingstoke and NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, xii + 312 pp. [Global conflictand security since 1945.] ISBN 9780230524873. Price: GBP 60.00(hardback.T.O. Smith, Britain and the origin of the Vietnam War; UK policyin Indo-China, 1943-50. Basingstoke and New York: PalgraveMacmillan, 2007, xiii + 229 pp. [Global contlict and security since1945.] ISBN 9780230507050. Price: GBP 60.00 (hardback

  2. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  3. Participation in Southeast Asian pollution control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, Dave; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Although public awareness of environmental issues in Southeast Asian countries has increased dramatically during the nineties, there has not been a corresponding rise in the level of participation in environmental decision-making. Public participation often takes places at the end of a

  4. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  5. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular

  6. Forest statistics for Southeast Texas counties - 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Daniel F. Bertelson

    1986-01-01

    These tables were derived from data obtained during a 1986 inventory of 22 counties comprising the Southeast Unit of Texas (fig. 1). Grimes, Leon, Madison, and Waller counties have been added to the Southeastern Unit since the previous inventory if 1975. All comparisons of the 1975 and 1986 forest statistics made in this Bulletin account for this change. The data on...

  7. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in

  8. School Physics Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Chin Pin; Tee, Tan Boon

    1978-01-01

    Traces physics curriculum innovation in Southeast Asia since the 1950s. The unique features of such innovation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand are highlighted. Forecasts for the future of physics education in part of the world are also discussed. (Author/HM)

  9. Changes in Financial Practices: Southeast Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents research on changes over a two-year period in the use of new, Western financial practices by Southeast Asian refugees and in variables affecting those changes. Significant interaction effects showed that increased use of new practices was affected by age, education, work experience, and changes in English ability. (JOW)

  10. Answer Markup Algorithms for Southeast Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Typical markup methods for providing feedback to foreign language learners are not applicable to languages not written in a strictly linear fashion. A modification of Hart's edit markup software is described, along with a second variation based on a simple edit distance algorithm adapted to a general Southeast Asian font system. (10 references)…

  11. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  12. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  13. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    anshory

    Development Studies (CEDS), Padjadjaran University, for his excellent research assistance. ... Malaysia, and Philippines) are the most vulnerable to climate change. 2. ... system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), ... national administrative areas in seven countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., ...

  14. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Timothy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Ball, Kia [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Fournier, Ashley [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  15. Wind speed change regionalization in China (1961–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jun Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research quantitatively recognized the wind speed change using wind speed trend and trend of wind speed variability from 1961 to 2012 and regionalized the wind speed change on a county-level basis. The mean wind speed observation data and linear fitting method were used. The findings suggested that level-I regionalization includes six zones according to wind speed trend value in different regions, viz. Northeast China–North China substantial declining zone, East–Central China declining zone, Southeast China slightly declining zone, Southwest China very slightly declining zone, Northwest China declining zone, and Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau slightly declining zone. Level-II regionalization divides China into twelve regions based on trend of wind speed variability and the level-I regionalization results.

  16. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  17. Cretaceous–Eocene provenance connections between the Palawan Continental Terrane and the northern South China Sea margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Lei; Cao, Licheng; Qiao, Peijun; Zhang, Xiangtao; Li, Qianyu; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J.J.

    2017-01-01

    The plate kinematic history of the South China Sea opening is key to reconstructing how the Mesozoic configuration of Panthalassa and Tethyan subduction systems evolved into today's complex Southeast Asian tectonic collage. The South China Sea is currently flanked by the Palawan Continental Terrane

  18. Genetic diversity of Diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts across east and south-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Xu, Changbao; Tian, Mingyi; Deng, Xiaoling; Cen, Yijing; He, Yurong

    2017-10-01

    Diaphorina citri is the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the most widespread pathogen associated huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus. To enhance our understanding of the distribution and origin of the psyllid, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structures of 24 populations in Asia and one from Florida based on the mtCOI gene. Simultaneously, genetic diversity and population structures of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' and secondary endosymbiont (S-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' of D. citri were determined with the housekeeping genes. AMOVA analysis indicated that populations of D. citri and its endosymbionts in east and south-east Asia were genetically distinct from populations in Pakistan and Florida. Furthermore, P-endosymbiont populations displayed a strong geographical structure across east and south-east Asia, while low genetic diversity indicated the absence of genetic structure among the populations of D. citri and its S-endosymbiont across these regions. The 'Ca. C. ruddii' is more diverse and structured than the D. citri and the 'Ca. P. armatura' across east and south-east Asia. Multiple introductions of the psyllid have occurred in China. Management application for controlling the pest is proposed based on the genetic information of D. citri and its endosymbionts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Media, Mobilities and Identity in East and Southeast Asia: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Edwards

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This collection for Cultural Studies Review aims to address gaps in existing mobilities scholarship from two perspectives. First, while several articles here discuss the physical movement of various groups, the overarching focus is the complex interplay of mobile technologies and information on the one hand, and rapidly evolving formations of culture and identity on the other. Geographically, our focus is outside the ‘global north’, on a region that has perhaps been more dramatically transformed by physical, cultural and informational mobility than any other: East and Southeast Asia. Rather than taking ‘Asia’ as a category of cultural identity, this collection conceptualises the geographic region as a zone of cultural and political plurality, in which a vast array of migrations, imaginings, representations and discourses are constantly bumping up against political and cultural borders, as well as various state-sponsored and state-sanctioned ideas and images, in fascinating and often highly volatile ways. Topic covered in this collection include Hong Kong working holidaymakers in Australia (Louis Ho, literary narratives of overseas adoptees who have returned to South Korea (Ethan Waddell, online debates and conflicts between Chinese migrants and local Chinese-Singaporeans (Sylvia Ang, the politics of representing urban demolition and relocation in independent Chinese documentaries (Dan Edwards, the ‘glocalisation’ of Japanese anime culture in the online space in China (Asako Saito and the representation of migrant worker experience in South Korean cinema (Sina Kim.

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  1. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  2. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  3. Climate change and postglacial human dispersals in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro; Trejaut, Jean Alain; Loo, Jun-Hun; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Lee, Chien-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ming; Hudjashov, Georgi; Forster, Peter; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B

    2008-06-01

    Modern humans have been living in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for at least 50,000 years. Largely because of the influence of linguistic studies, however, which have a shallow time depth, the attention of archaeologists and geneticists has usually been focused on the last 6,000 years--in particular, on a proposed Neolithic dispersal from China and Taiwan. Here we use complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequencing to spotlight some earlier processes that clearly had a major role in the demographic history of the region but have hitherto been unrecognized. We show that haplogroup E, an important component of mtDNA diversity in the region, evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years and expanded dramatically throughout ISEA around the beginning of the Holocene, at the time when the ancient continent of Sundaland was being broken up into the present-day archipelago by rising sea levels. It reached Taiwan and Near Oceania more recently, within the last approximately 8,000 years. This suggests that global warming and sea-level rises at the end of the Ice Age, 15,000-7,000 years ago, were the main forces shaping modern human diversity in the region.

  4. Modernizing the Alliance: Southeast Europe between Lisbon and Washington

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Nakić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War opened the space for developing new relationships in the international community that are conducive to creating global partnerships. Although Article 5 remains the brand of NATO, it is necessary to modernize the relationship between the U.S. and the EU as well as with other important actors in international relations such as the UN, OSCE, Russia and China. With changed international relations through past sixty years, the North Atlantic Alliance has changed itself simultaneously over decades. The Alliance passed through different stages of its own development – from the Cold War era to attempting to create a global partnership. Acting globally, there is a need for defining the legitimate operations outside the territory of Member States under International law. In this sense, Articles 4 and 7 have a special meaning. In fact, bearing in mind the mission of “old” and traditional NATO, the Lisbon Summit represents a major step toward completion of NATO’s post-Cold War transition, but also contributes to the process of building long-lasting peace and confidence in Southeast Europe.

  5. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment

  6. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  7. Challenges of Green Logistics in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beškovnik, Bojan; Jakomin, Livio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the trends towards green logistics in global aspect and challenges of adopting green logistics in the region of Southeast Europe. Modern logistics with supply chain management is experiencing a period of important evolution. From reversible logistics, we came to green logistics, which is a wider concept of environmentally friendly thinking. Reverse logistics includes processes of movements and transportation of waste from users to recycling plants; meanwhile, green logist...

  8. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  9. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Type.-Holotype male, Chiang Mai Prov., Thailand, 1933, O.R. Causey (on slide, Type in USNM). Southeast Asia Records.-- INDONESIA: Sulawesi (North...Kapit Dist., Nanga Pelagus (Traub). SINGAPORE: Kg. Chantek Bahru (Colless); Nee Soon (Colless). THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Causey); Chiang Rai (Causey...THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Notonanda, Scanlon). Cholburi, Bangphra,(Scanlon). Khon Kaen Prov., Ban Phai and Chum Phae (Manop R.). Loei Prov., Dan Sal, Ban

  10. Combating Taenia solium cysticercosis in Southeast Asia an opportunity for improving human health and livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A Lee; Wu, Hai-Wei; Conlan, James; Satrija, Fadjar

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the zoonotic pork tapeworm Taenia solium is emerging as a constraint for the nutritional and economic well-being of small-holder farming communities in many underdeveloped areas of Southeast Asia. It occurs mainly in impoverished regions with inadequate sanitation, poor pig management practices and lack of meat inspection and control. Neurocysticercosis, the most serious form of the disease, is considered the most common parasitic infection of the human nervous system and the most frequent preventable cause of epilepsy in the developing world. Although theoretically easy to control and declared eradicable, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis remains a neglected disease. There is a lack of information and awareness of the burden and transmission of the disease at the regional and global level, partially explained by the unavailability of good quality diagnostic tools in field-applicable formats. These factors are further compounded by a lack of validated simple and sustainable intervention packages as part of integrated helminth control programmes. To date, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis has not been eliminated from any region by a specific programme in Southeast Asia, and no national control programmes are yet in place except in parts of the People's Republic of China. The presence, distribution, public health importance and economic relevance of cysticercosis need to be better documented in Southeast Asia in order to bring it to the attention of affected communities, decision-makers and funding bodies. A number of proven cost-effective intervention tools for combating cysticercosis appear to be available but need to be field validated. The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)) serves as an important regional 'driving force' for managing research, capacity building, knowledge and stakeholder engagement essential for controlling cysticercosis in the Southeast Asian region while ensuring that

  11. Prevalence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G; Zheng, D; Cai, Q; Yuan, Z

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is now recognized as an important public health problem in Southeast Asia and tropical northern Australia. Although B. pseudomallei has been detected in various water and soil samples in southeast China, the enviromental distribution of B. pseudomallei in China is unclear. In the winter months of 2007, 154 and 130 soil and water samples, respectively, were collected from several locations in Guangxi, China. The samples were screened for B. pseudomallei by bacterial culture and identification and confirmed by PCR for species-specific 16S rDNA and flagellin genes. B. pseudomallei was detected in 8.4% of the soil samples but in none of the water samples. All positive samples were confined to a single low-lying region from rice paddy fields. Counts of B. pseudomallei ranged from 23 to 521 c.f.u./g soil. This is the first geographical distribution survey of B. pseudomallei in soil in Guangxi, China, and the data are of importance for further evaluating the impact of this pathogen on melioidosis in this region.

  12. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: implications for mantle dynamics in the southeast Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.; Fower, M.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, X.B.; Nguyen, T.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cenozoic basalts in Indo-China are part of a regional melting episode along the rifted Eurasian margin. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts are used to place constraints on the extent of lithospheric and asthenosphere contributions to the melts and possible mantle dynamic implications. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb isotopic ratios of the basalts reflect minimal crustal wall rock reaction, and variable enrichment in EM1 and EM2 of a 208 Pb-rich MORB-like source. Some, but not all, of this variation corresponds to the age of lithospheric sector penetrated. Basalts erupted through a cratonic, central sector (e.g. at Quang Ngai, Pleiku, Song Cau, Kong Plong, and Buon Ma Thuot) and off-cratonic, southwest sector (e.g. Phuoc Long) resemble those of EM2-rich basalts from southern and southeaster China and the South China Sea. Basalts from an off-cratonic, southeast sector (e.g. from Dalat, Xuan Loc, and the offshore Ile des Cendres-Phu Cuy complex) reflect mixing between a low- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, high- 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, EM1-like component, and resemble basalts from northwest Taiwan, eastern and northeastern China, and parts of the Japan Sea. While EM2 tends to characterise lithospheric sectors, presence of EM1 in off-cratonic rather than cratonic basalts implies an asthenosphere rather than lithospheric source. Pervasive presence of EM1 in southeast Asian and marginal basin asthenosphere corresponds with thermally-anomalous mantle and may involve delaminated cratonic substrate entrained by mobile, extruded asthenosphere. (authors)

  13. Germplasm Diversity of Chinese Kale in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun LEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese kale is an important vegetable crop in China, especially in South China where the majority of varieties are grown. It originated in South China and spread throughout Southeast Asia thereafter. Chinese kale can be classified into two types according to whether the petals are white or yellow. There are also three main cultivated types based on the edible organs, including the stalk and leaf type, the stalk type, and the leaf type. Two primary types have also been defined based on stalk color, including green stalks and red stalks. They are also cultivated based on the type of stalk, including main stalk and lateral stalk types. Significant differences have also been observed in glucosinolate content among the varieties, and a 40-fold difference in neoindle-3-methyl glucosinolate was detected across the cultivars.

  14. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Iqra Anugrah; Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University

    2014-01-01

    "Three recent works provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies." (author's abstract). Review of: 1. Ford, Michele (ed.): Social Activism in Southeast Asia. Series: Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia. London, New York: Routledge 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-63059-7. 2. Petras, James...

  15. Cultural barriers to health care for southeast Asian refugees.

    OpenAIRE

    Uba, L

    1992-01-01

    Many Southeast Asians now living in the United States experience severe health problems, attributable to physical trauma and inadequate health care in Asia, and low socioeconomic status in this country. Evidence indicates that despite their health problems, Southeast Asian refugees underuse the American health care system. Cultural reasons for this underuse are examined. Southeast Asian cultural attitudes toward suffering, such as beliefs that suffering is inevitable or that one's life span i...

  16. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  17. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  18. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  19. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  20. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-Ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-06-23

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions.

  1. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  2. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  3. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  4. Return to Clark Air Force Base: Establishing Permanent Military Bases in the Philippines as part of the United States Grand Strategy in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Castro, Renato Cruz De, “The US-Philippine Alliance: An Evolving Hedge Against An Emerging China Challenge,” Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol 31...Rise, RAND, Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2008 Mogato, Manuel , “The US-Philippine Military Agreement That Was Supposed To Counter China Is Facing Another

  5. People's Republic of China's Technological Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Sigurdson

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the People's Republic of China in the global economy by exemplifying industrial sectors where it has established a strong competitive advantage. The author accounts for China's growth by looking at factors such as direct foreign investment and investment in research and development. This paper discusses several economic sectors including the textile, electronics, semiconductor, and aircraft industries as cases where China has upgraded its technological p...

  6. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  7. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; ,; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Our aim was to produce a uniform ‘regional’ land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on ‘sub-regional’ mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project.Location  The ‘region’ of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east.Methods  The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998–2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’.Results  The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics.Main conclusions  The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub

  8. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  9. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  10. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  11. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  12. 7 CFR 1007.2 - Southeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Southeast marketing area. 1007.2 Section 1007.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  13. Corporate governance and corruption : A comparative study of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijayati, Nureni; Hermes, Niels; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The weak corporate governance framework in Indonesia, as in other countries in Southeast Asia, was deemed a crucial factor in deepening the financial and economic crisis in the late 1990s. Over a decade after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries have made

  14. Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of Aba River, southeast Nigeria was studied in four stations from November 2014 to August 2015 to identify the major anthropogenic activities and their impact on the water quality.

  15. Doctor-Patient Communication in Southeast Asia: A Different Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative…

  16. Parental Contributions to Southeast Asian American Adolescents' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung

    2008-01-01

    Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…

  17. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia. Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly ...

  18. Prevalence of HIV infection among premarital couples in southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Catholic Church in Nigeria offers premarital HIV screening to couples, yet instances of voluntary screening are rare in southeast Nigeria. This study examines the contribution of such tests to HIV detection, and evaluates the prevalence of HIV infection in southeast Nigeria among couples who are planning to marry.

  19. Mixed Feelings: East Asia’s Debate about China’s Economic Growth and Regional Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    to its large subscription and the weighted voting system. Instead of establishing an AMF, Japan and China took part in the multilateral Chiang Mai Initiative...and its damaging impact on trade. Therefore, it too has taken part in the Chiang Mai Initiative. Southeast Asia China remains a minor trade partner for...with the multilateral structure of the Chiang Mai Initiative to manage currency exchange rates than a Japan-dominated AMF. For this reason, they are

  20. On the Role of Food Habits in the Context of the Identity and Cultural Heritage of South and Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泽维尔

    2014-01-01

    Located south of China and extending from Pakistan to the Philippines,South and Southeast Asia is a vast region.The nations and ethnic groups of Southern and South Eastern Asia have a rich and varied cultural heritage.Food habits are an inseparable part of this heritage and certain ways concerning food and its preparation,as well as the ceremonies or rituals surrounding it,give whole nations and groups an identity that can be as important as dress or 1anguage.

  1. Financial Denartments Should Quicken Steps of Electronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      At 2004 China Electronic Finance Forum held in Beijing recently,Pan Xinping, Dean of Software Institute of Graduate Institute of Chinese Academy of Science appealled that China's financial departments should further quicken electronization and establish complete network electronic payment system to offer comprehensive financial service such as checking card, transference and clearance between banks, electronic securities, accounting management,transaction disposal, payment commission and service of report, and establish financial management information system. And it should finish communications between computer systems of all different professional banks, providing strong backing for the development of electronic finance in China.……

  2. Financial Denartments Should Quicken Steps of Electronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ At 2004 China Electronic Finance Forum held in Beijing recently,Pan Xinping, Dean of Software Institute of Graduate Institute of Chinese Academy of Science appealled that China's financial departments should further quicken electronization and establish complete network electronic payment system to offer comprehensive financial service such as checking card, transference and clearance between banks, electronic securities, accounting management,transaction disposal, payment commission and service of report, and establish financial management information system. And it should finish communications between computer systems of all different professional banks, providing strong backing for the development of electronic finance in China.

  3. Recent status of EB applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguang; Zhan Wenlong

    2004-01-01

    The advantages of energetic electron beam (EB) made it an attractive method for radiation processing of materials. In the present paper, the recent status of R and D of EB applications in China has demonstrated briefly. (author)

  4. China-U.S. Trade Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    biotechnology , life sciences, opto-electronics, information and communications, electronics, flexible manufacturing (e.g., robots), advanced materials...and products such as rice protein concentrate and wheat gluten used to manufacture pet food and animal feed) from China believed to have caused the...Department continued to apply U.S. countervailing laws to non-market countries (such as China), establish an alternative method for determining

  5. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-04-19

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies ( n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity.

  6. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Lindsay, Ana; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L.; Wallington, Sherrie F.; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2–12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies (n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity. PMID:28422081

  7. Southeast Asia activity on the rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.; Johnston, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region has gained favor in the increasingly competitive global market for drilling funds and technology. The level of activity in the region contrasts to the U.S., where political, fiscal, and geological conditions have caused an industry-wide depression. Consolidation and restructuring of the oil industry have also affected the Asia-Pacific area, but not as adversely as North America. The shifting focus of most U.S. oil companies to the international sector has increased attention on Southeast Asia. The number of production-sharing contracts and exploration licenses in the region has increased to almost 800, covering an area of 7 million sq km

  8. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  9. The export of China nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    The article first introduces the meaning of nuclear power export, and then analyses the advantages of China nuclear industry based on the status and development of this industry. At the same time. the collection of nuclear development for the next 30 years of several nations in south-east Asia, south Asia, Middle East, Africa and South America is compiled, which could be a valuable reference for foreseeing nuclear power export market. Finally, as the situation throughout the world is considered, some suggestions are made that what else could be done for future development and export. (author)

  10. Potential market of wind farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengfei Shi [Hydropower Planning General Inst., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources are abundant in China, in southeast coast area along with the rapid economic growth, electricity demand has been sharply increased, due to complex terrain detailed assessments are in urgent need. Advanced methodology and computer model should be developed. In this paper the existing wind farms, installed capacity, manufacturers share and projects in the near future are presented. For further development of wind farm in large scale, different ways of local manufacturing wind turbine generators (WTG) are going on. Current policy and barriers are analyzed. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, H.

    2002-07-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  12. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri

    2002-08-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  13. Buildings energy efficiency in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, energy service providers from around the Southeastern United States gathered at the Shenandoah Environment and Education Center of Georgia Power Company, to discuss issues related to energy efficiency buildings in the region. The meeting was organized by an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the Atlanta Support Office of the DOE. The objectives of the Workshop were to provide a forum for regional energy service providers to discuss matters of mutual concern and to identify issues of particular relevance to the Southeast. What characterizes energy use in the Southeast Most lists would include rapid population growth, high temperatures and humidity, a large air conditioning load on utilities, a relatively clean environment, and regulatory processes that seek to keep energy prices low. There was less unanimity on what are the priority issues. No definitive list of priorities emerged from the workshop. Participants did identify several areas where work should be initiated: networking, training/certification/education, performance of technical measures, and studies of market forces/incentives/barriers. The most frequently mentioned context for these work areas was that of utility programs. Presentations given during the first morning provided attendees an overview of energy use in the region and of building energy conservation programs being implemented both by state agencies and by utilities. These were the base for breakout and plenary sessions in which attendees expressed their views on specific topics. The regional need mentioned most often at the workshop was for networking among energy service providers in the region. In this context, this report itself is a follow up action. Participants also requested a regional directory of energy program resources. DOE agreed to assemble a preliminary directory based upon input from workshop attendees. Because the response was quick and positive, a directory is part of this document.

  14. Characterizing Aerosols over Southeast Asia using the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Slutsker, Ilya; Welton, Ellsworth, J.; Chin, Mian; Kucsera, Thomas; Schmaltz, Jeffery E.; Diehl, Thomas; hide

    2007-01-01

    Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  15. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  16. Above Canopy Emissions of Isoprene and Monoterpenes from a Southeast Asian Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Johnson, C.; Cai, Z.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Bai, J.; Li, Q.

    2003-12-01

    Fluxes of isoprene were measured using the eddy covariance technique and an ozone chemiluminescence isoprene sensor above a secondary tropical forest/rubber tree plantation located in the Xishuangbanna region of southern China during the wet and dry seasons. Fluxes of monoterpenes were inferred from ambient boundary layer concentrations (wet season) and from relaxed eddy accumulation measurements (dry season). Isoprene emissions were comparable to what has been observed from other tropical forests in Africa and South America. In this forest, monoterpene emissions were much higher during the wet season due to the senescence of the rubber trees during the dry season. These flux measurements represent the first ecosystem level flux measurements reported from Southeast Asian tropical forests.

  17. Wandering saints : Chan eccentrics in the art and culture of Song and Yuan China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Paramita

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese history, few personalities compare to the Chan eccentrics. These legendary, exceptional monks, including the friends Hanshan and Shide, their teacher Fenggan, and Budai, supposedly dwelled in the mountains and cities of southeast China between the seventh and tenth centuries. Dressed in

  18. Dragon on Terrorism: Assessing China's Tactical Gains and Strategic Losses Post-September 11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    ...) consequence of the U.S.-led War on Terrorism has not only been to checkmate and roll-back China's recent moves at strategic expansion in Central, South, and Southeast Asia but also to tilt the regional balance of power...

  19. Migration and Social Aspirations: Chinese Cosmopolitanism in Wenzhou Region (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores what motivates the movements of Chinese migrants from China to Portugal. It presents an ethnographic account of social aspirations in Wenzhou, a port city located in South Zhejiang (Southeast China, where post-Mao economic prosperity, allied to the existence of networks of trade and migration, resulted in social and economic inequalities and great social pressure to become rich and successful. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Wenzhou and in Lisbon (Portugal between 2008 and 2010, this paper argues that Wenzhou migratory projects are a result of modernity aspirations and desires for material modernization articulated with core Chinese values such as filial piety.

  20. CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPHOON PRECIPITATION OVER CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-mei; REN Fu-min; LI Wei-jing; WANG Xiao-ling

    2008-01-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of typhoon precipitation over China are analyzed in this study. The results show that typhoon precipitation covers most of central-eastern China. Typhoon precipitation gradually decreases from the southeastern coastal regions to the northwestern mainland. The maximum annual typhoon precipitation exceeds 700 mm in central-eastern Taiwan and part of Hainan, while the minimum annual typhoon precipitation occurs in parts of Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Sichuan, with values less than 10 mm. Generally, typhoons produce precipitation over China during April - December with a peak in August. The annual typhoon precipitation time series for observation stations are examined for long-term trends. The results show that decreasing trends exist in most of the stations from 1957 to 2004 and are statistically significant in parts of Taiwan, Hainan, coastal Southeast China and southern Northeast China. The anomaly of typhoon precipitation mainly results from that of the general circulation over Asia and the Walker Cell circulation over the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. Typhoon torrential rain is one of the extreme rainfall events in the southeastern coastal regions and parts of central mainland. In these regions, torrential rains are mostly caused by typhoons.

  1. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  2. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  3. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jing; Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ΣPBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  4. Environment and security in the South China Sea region : the role of experts, non-governmental actors and governments in regime building processes

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Background: The Spratly islands in the South China Sea are today the focal point of a territorial dispute that represents a serious threat to the regional security in Southeast Asia. Six governments - China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei - have laid claims to all or some of the more than 230 islets, reefs and shoals in the Spratly area. The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a key player in the South China Sea conflict. However, the South China Sea is not jus...

  5. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  6. Emerging Pollutant of Concern: Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Asia with Particular Preference to Southeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia countries were developing countries, with the rapid development for a better living condition leads to longer life expectancy, which increased total population. It may result in increased the demand of pharmaceutical in domestic use and or in hospital. Although most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs met the local authority’s regulatory requirement, there are still many pharmaceutical compound incompletely removed and discharge to the water stream and enter the environment. Recently many studies and researches have published on the occurrence and source as well as the fate of pharmaceuticals all over the world including Asia. As part of Asia region, Southeast Asia countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Cambodia, and Lao PDR seem has lack of research knowledge and information regarding this emerging pollutant issues compared to developed Asia country as China, Korea and Hong Kong. In this paper, it will review recent studies occurrences (surface and wastewater on most common pharmaceuticals with several recommendations to overcome and thus summarise the actual situation in Southeast Asia.

  7. Evolutionary history of continental southeast Asians: "early train" hypothesis based on genetic analysis of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinam, Timothy A; Hong, Lih-Chun; Phipps, Maude E; Stoneking, Mark; Ameen, Mahmood; Edo, Juli; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-11-01

    The population history of the indigenous populations in island Southeast Asia is generally accepted to have been shaped by two major migrations: the ancient "Out of Africa" migration ∼50,000 years before present (YBP) and the relatively recent "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian agriculturalists approximately 5,000 YBP. The Negritos are believed to have originated from the ancient migration, whereas the majority of island Southeast Asians are associated with the Austronesian expansion. We determined 86 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete genome sequences in four indigenous Malaysian populations, together with a reanalysis of published autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of Southeast Asians to test the plausibility and impact of those migration models. The three Austronesian groups (Bidayuh, Selatar, and Temuan) showed high frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups, which originated from the Asian mainland ∼30,000-10,000 YBP, but low frequencies of "Out of Taiwan" markers. Principal component analysis and phylogenetic analysis using autosomal SNP data indicate a dichotomy between continental and island Austronesian groups. We argue that both the mtDNA and autosomal data suggest an "Early Train" migration originating from Indochina or South China around the late-Pleistocene to early-Holocene period, which predates, but may not necessarily exclude, the Austronesian expansion.

  8. Assessment and the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulan

    1989-03-01

    In order to assess the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters and to estimate the internal doses of the population of China from ingestion, 1650 samples of waters were collected from normal radiation background areas of 28 provinces or autonomous regions of China. Radioactivity levels of U, Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in drinking waters were determined. The levels and the characteristics of distribution of 4 radionuclides are given. The results show that radioactivity levels in the southeast China are lower than in the north and northwest China. The average radioactivity levles of the 4 radionuclides in China close to the average levels given in UNSCEAR 1986 report. The result of estimation of internal doses from ingestion in the population of China is below the corresponding results given in UNSCEAR 1986 report, but near the result given by ICRP

  9. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  10. Simulation of the Onset of the Southeast Asian Monsoon during 1997 and 1998: The Impact of Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansen; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, K.-M.; Wetzel, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The onset of the southeast Asian monsoon during 1997 and 1998 was simulated by coupling a mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) and a detailed, land surface model, PLACE (the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange). The rainfall results from the simulations were compared with observed satellite data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The control simulation with the PLACE land surface model and variable sea surface temperature captured the basic signatures of the monsoon onset processes and associated rainfall statistics. Sensitivity tests indicated that simulations were sigmficantly improved by including the PLACE land surface model. The mechanism by which the land surface processes affect the moisture transport and the convection during the onset of the southeast Asian monsoon were analyzed. The results indicated that land surface processes played an important role in modifying the low-level wind field over two major branches of the circulation: the southwest low-level flow over the Indo-china peninsula and the northern, cold frontal intrusion from southern China. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes modified the low-level temperature distribution and gradient, and therefore the low-level wind due to the thermal wind effect. The more realistic forcing of the sensible and latent heat fluxes from the detailed, land surface model improved the low-level wind simulation apd associated moisture transport and convection.

  11. Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... It is transmitted to humans and animals when they consume raw or undercooked fish. ... environment when contaminated feces enter local water sources. ... Emerging Disease Research Initiative (Eco EID) in Southeast Asia.

  12. AFSC/ABL: Southeast Coastal Monitoring Project - CTD database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Alaska Coastal Monitoring (SECM) project in Alaska was initiated in 1997 by the Auke Bay Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, to study the...

  13. An Education in Entertainment – Possible Trends in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Entertainment Industry has been used interchangeably with the term Creative Industries and also has been suggested to be part of the creative industries. The creative industries seeks to provide commercially viable artistic and creative products, known as intellectual property, and in the process of such provision, contributes to the nation’s creative economy. From an education perspective in Southeast Asia, two observations can be made. Firstly, the focus of education in relation to the entertainment industry has always been technical. Secondly, the introduction of the concepts of the creative industries in Southeast Asia has spurred new trends in the education of the entertainment industry. Outside of Southeast Asia, there have been a growing number of academic programs in the field of Entertainment. From within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has taken the lead to introduce two new trends in the entertainment education – entertainment management and entertainment arts.

  14. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1603, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA ship Pisces departed Morehead city on 3 July 2016 for a Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) research cruise in continental shelf and shelf-break...

  15. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1402, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  16. AFSC/NMML: Southeast Alaska Cetacean Vessel Surveys, 1991 - 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1991, NMML initiated cetacean studies with vessel coverage throughout inland waters of Southeast Alaska. Between 1991 and 1993, line-transect methodology was used...

  17. Southeast Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for brown bears in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of bear concentrations....

  18. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  19. Southeast Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Southeast Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and rookery...

  20. AFSC/ABL: Ocean Acidification in Southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information from one primary project a Southeast Alaska (SEAK) environmental monitoring study. It also includes support analyses for Kodiak...

  1. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1304, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  2. Devolution of the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EEPSEA). EEPSEA is the only program in Southeast Asia dedicated to helping economists and environmental researchers gain expertise in environmental economics research. Since its inception, the program has been managed by IDRC from its ...

  3. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia) ... for evaluating both the process and outcome of capacity development efforts in CBNRM. ... Cluster Case Studies Planning Workshop, Beijing, September 21-23, 2006; ...

  4. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  5. Bringing It All Together: The Southeast Alaska Music Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Brad

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Southeast Alaska Music Festival discussing topics such as the role of the host school, the communities and schools within the region, and scoring procedures at the Festival. Includes a festival schedule. (CMK)

  6. DoD Workshop on Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berke, Philip; Brown, Robert; Elliott, Michael; Friday, Paul; Holst, Robert; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilkens, R. N

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings encompass outcomes from the DoD Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability Workshop, which took place in April 2007, and reflect the opinions and views of workshop participants...

  7. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1204, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  8. Energy in Southeast Asia: from Networks to Markets Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic regions and experiences strong economic and energy demand growth rates. In this context, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is seeking to interconnect the electric grids and gas networks of the countries through two initiatives, the Asean Power Grid and the Trans-Asean Gas Pipeline, in order to pool resources and optimize energy markets integration in the region

  9. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  10. Land rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A

    2003-01-01

    Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...

  11. Doctor?patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Studies of doctor?patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in in...

  12. The democratizing potential of the Internet in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kevin J

    1997-01-01

    This thesis argues that the Internet is likely to he a strong, positive facilitating factor for the transition to and consolidation of democracy for states in Southeast Asia. U.S. policy makers intent on promoting democracy in Southeast Asia should consider the Internet's potential as a tool for promoting democratization. A review of the existing democratization literature, coupled with quantitative analysis of the societal impact of computer networking technologies, suggests that the level o...

  13. Rediscovery of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Yingjiang County,Yunnan Province,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zheng, Xi; Jiang, Xue-Long; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok

    2017-07-18

    The sun bear, Helarctos malayanus (Raffles, 1821), is a forest-dependent bear species distributed in tropical Southeast Asia. The species was previously reported from scattered localities in southwestern China, which is at the northeastern edge of its global range. Due to the scarcity of reliable recent records, some authorities cast doubt on the continued existence of sun bear in China. Here we present the rediscovery of this species in Yingjiang County, western Yunnan Province, China, near the international border with Myanmar's Kachin State.

  14. China Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc.

  15. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  16. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  17. Lessons Learned from Southeast Asian Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, R.; Tanaka, S.

    2009-04-01

    At certain scales, flood has always been the lifeline of many people from Southeast Asian countries. People are traditionally accustomed to living with such floods and their livelihood is adjusted accordingly to optimize the benefits from the floods. However, large scale flood occasionally turns into the disaster and causes massive destruction not only in terms of human causalities but also damage to economic, ecological and social harmonies in the region. Although economic growth is prevailing in a relative term, the capacity of people to cope with such extreme events is weakening therefore the flood disaster risk is increasing in time. Recent examples of flood disaster in the region clearly show the increasing severity of disaster impact. This study reveals that there are many factors, which directly or indirectly influence the change. This paper considers the most prominent natural and socio-economic factors and analyzes their trend with respect to flood disasters in each country's context. A regional scale comparative analysis further helps to exchange the know how and to determine what kind of strategy and policy are lacking to manage the floods in a long run. It is also helpful in identifying the critical sectors that should be addressed first to mitigate the potential damage from the floods.

  18. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  19. The U.S.-China Military Scorecard: Forces, Geography, and the Evolving Balance of Power, 1996-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the Philippines and Vietnam, efforts should also be made with the states of Southeast Asia’s “southern tier,” including Indonesia and Malaysia . This...Hanoi THAILAND CAMBODIA VIETNAM LAOS MALAYSIA MALAYSIA BRUNEI PHILIPPINES TAIWAN INDONESIA South China Sea PhilippineSea Sulu Sea Palawan uzon Hainan...blocked pages hosted on U.S. cloud computing services, and simple proxy serv- ers, to circumvent censorship .83 Recently, however, China has become more

  20. China's revival

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on China's unique economic experience over the last three decades. What lessons can be learned from China’s blend of visible central guidance at the macro level and fierce competition at the micro level?

  1. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  2. Measuring the sustainability of tin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Congren; Tan, Quanyin; Zeng, Xianlai; Zhang, Yuping; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-09-01

    Tin is a component of many items used in daily activities, including solder in consumer electronics, tin can containing food and beverages, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers in construction products, catalysts in industrial processes, etc. China is the largest producer and consumer of refined tin, and more than 60% of this refined tin is applied in the electronics sector as solder. China is the leader in global economic growth; simultaneously, China is also a major producer and consumer of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Thus, future tin supply and demand in China are forecasted, based on the gross domestic product per capita and the average consumption of refined tin in past five years. Current tin reserves and identified resources in China can meet the future two decades of mine production, but import of tin will also be critical for China's future tin consumption. However, there will be a lot of uncertainty for import of tin from other countries. At the same time, virgin mining of geological ores is a process of high energy consumption and destruction of the natural environment. Hence recycling tin from Sn-bearing secondary resources like tailings and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) can not only address the shortage of tin mineral resources, but also save energy and protect the ecological environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  4. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  5. Notes on the genus Microcriodes Breuning, with description of a new species from Xizang, China (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Batocerini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxuan Bi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Microcriodes Breuning is newly recorded from China upon the discovery of M. sikkimensis Breuning, 1943 and M. wuchaoi sp. n. from Motuo, Southeast Xizang. Illustrations of the habitus, genitalia including non-everted endophallus, as well as diagnostic features are provided.

  6. EMIGRATION FROM RUSSIA TO SOUTHEAST ASIA: FACTORS, GEOGRAPHY AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the geographical features and trends of emigration of Russian citizens to the countries of Southeast Asia on the basis of a comparative analysis of domestic and foreign statistics. The results of sociological research in these countries have been used: interviews with experts and migrant citizens of various countries of the former USSR who live or stay in Southeast Asia for more than six months. In the course of the study, a comprehensive methodology was developed and the degree of favorableness of the migration and visa regimes of the Southeast Asian countries for Russian citizens has been assessed for a number of characteristics. Factors attracting Russian citizens to the countries of the region in the context of the migration theory of the factors of “pull and push” have been revealed. The socio-demographic structure of migration flows and the geographical features of the resettlement of Russian citizens in the Southeast Asian countries have been considered. The main channels of migration of Russian citizens to the region are given: temporary labor migration, migration for permanent residence, and tourism. Several groups of Russian-speaking migrants in the Southeast Asian countries have been singled out: migrants who have moved to permanent residence, as a rule, opened their own businesses; temporary migrant workers who work for several years in Southeast Asia, are tied to work and are planning to return to Russia after some time; temporary migrants who live in Southeast Asia for several months and periodically return to Russia; Russian women who married citizens of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and other Southeast Asian countries – former students who studied in the USSR and Russia. On the basis of expert assessments, the types of migration and visa regimes of the countries of Southeast Asia for Russian citizens have been highlighted. Specifics of the formation of Russian-speaking communities in the countries of the

  7. Deformation of the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.R.; Camp, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Four structural elements north of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau (Washington, Idaho, and Oregon) are (1) the offlap of progressively younger basalt units from prebasalt topographic highs; (2) east-west open folds associated with reverse faulting; (3) northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south faults with predominantly vertical displacement; and (4) vertical north-northwest-south-southeast feeder dikes. These may be explained by (1) a regional east to west tilting of the plateau caused by the isostatic rise of older rocks on the eastern margin; (2) a stress regime with a horizontal maximum principal stress in a north-northwest-south-southeast direction, and a horizontal minimum principal stress in a west-southwest-east-northeast direction; and (3) reactivation of an older northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south structural grain in the pre-Miocene basement. The stress regime is similar to that envisaged for the area southwest of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, and the difference in the type of deformation on either side of that feature may be attributed to differences in the thickness of the crust across the ancient boundary

  8. Falls amongst older people in Southeast Asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, M H; Tan, M P; Mackenzie, L; Lovarini, M; Suttanon, P; Clemson, L

    2017-04-01

    The older population in the Southeast Asian region is accelerating and is expected to surpass the proportion of the ageing population in North America and Europe in the future. This study aims to identify the research literature related to falls among older people in Southeast Asia, to examine current practice and discuss the future direction on falls prevention and interventions in the region. A scoping review design was used. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Ageline, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Thai-Journal Citation Index, MyCite and trial registries databases. Thirty-seven studies and six study protocols were included, from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. One-sixth of the studies involved interventions, while the remainder were observational studies. The observational studies mainly determined the falls risk factors. The intervention studies comprised multifactorial interventions and single interventions such as exercises, educational materials and visual correction. Many of the studies replicated international studies and may not have taken into account features unique to Southeast Asia. Our review has revealed studies evaluating falls and management of falls in the Southeast Asian context. More research is required from all Southeast Asian countries to prepare for the future challenges of managing falls as the population ages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; pAustria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  10. Cropping pattern adjustment in China's grain production and its impact on land and water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tian-xiang; Zhu, Jing; Balezentis, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at decomposing China's grain output changes into three terms, namely area sown effect, pure yield effect, and cropping pattern adjustment effect. Furthermore, the paper analyses the impact of shifts in cropping pattern on water and land use in China's grain production. An index...... adjustments). However, these effects vary across regions: Southeast China experienced land-saving and water-using changes, while other regions underwent land- and water-saving changes. In general, China's grain output growth has increased the total amount of land and water needed, implying more severe...... played an important role in promoting China's grain production, with a contribution of over 15 per cent during 2003-2012. Moreover, such changes enabled to save about 6.8 million hectares of sown areas and 31.06 billion m3 of water in grain production (if compared to the case without cropping pattern...

  11. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  12. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman Hawari; Nolan Hertel; Mohamed Al-Sheikhly; Laurence Miller; Abdel-Moeze Bayoumi; Ali Haghighat; Kenneth Lewis

    2010-12-29

    2 Project Summary: The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation’s premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering

  13. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing

  14. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the

  15. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawari, Ayman; Hertel, Nolan; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamed; Miller, Laurence; Bayoumi, Abdel-Moeze; Haghighat, Ali; Lewis, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation's premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: (a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, (b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering faculty and the MUSIC URRs

  16. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing

  17. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  18. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  19. Health and health-care systems in southeast Asia: diversity and transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Phua, Kai Hong; Yap, Mui Teng; Pocock, Nicola S; Hashim, Jamal H; Chhem, Rethy; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Lopez, Alan D

    2011-01-29

    Southeast Asia is a region of enormous social, economic, and political diversity, both across and within countries, shaped by its history, geography, and position as a major crossroad of trade and the movement of goods and services. These factors have not only contributed to the disparate health status of the region's diverse populations, but also to the diverse nature of its health systems, which are at varying stages of evolution. Rapid but inequitable socioeconomic development, coupled with differing rates of demographic and epidemiological transitions, have accentuated health disparities and posed great public health challenges for national health systems, particularly the control of emerging infectious diseases and the rise of non-communicable diseases within ageing populations. While novel forms of health care are evolving in the region, such as corporatised public health-care systems (government owned, but operating according to corporate principles and with private-sector participation) and financing mechanisms to achieve universal coverage, there are key lessons for health reforms and decentralisation. New challenges have emerged with rising trade in health services, migration of the health workforce, and medical tourism. Juxtaposed between the emerging giant economies of China and India, countries of the region are attempting to forge a common regional identity, despite their diversity, to seek mutually acceptable and effective solutions to key regional health challenges. In this first paper in the Lancet Series on health in southeast Asia, we present an overview of key demographic and epidemiological changes in the region, explore challenges facing health systems, and draw attention to the potential for regional collaboration in health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolutionary history of Helicobacter pylori sequences reflect past human migrations in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breurec, Sebastien; Guillard, Bertrand; Hem, Sopheak; Brisse, Sylvain; Dieye, Fatou Bintou; Huerre, Michel; Oung, Chakravuth; Raymond, Josette; Tan, Tek Sreng; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vong, Sirenda; Monchy, Didier; Linz, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    The human population history in Southeast Asia was shaped by numerous migrations and population expansions. Their reconstruction based on archaeological, linguistic or human genetic data is often hampered by the limited number of informative polymorphisms in classical human genetic markers, such as the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA. Here, we analyse housekeeping gene sequences of the human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori from various countries in Southeast Asia and we provide evidence that H. pylori accompanied at least three ancient human migrations into this area: i) a migration from India introducing hpEurope bacteria into Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia; ii) a migration of the ancestors of Austro-Asiatic speaking people into Vietnam and Cambodia carrying hspEAsia bacteria; and iii) a migration of the ancestors of the Thai people from Southern China into Thailand carrying H. pylori of population hpAsia2. Moreover, the H. pylori sequences reflect iv) the migrations of Chinese to Thailand and Malaysia within the last 200 years spreading hspEasia strains, and v) migrations of Indians to Malaysia within the last 200 years distributing both hpAsia2 and hpEurope bacteria. The distribution of the bacterial populations seems to strongly influence the incidence of gastric cancer as countries with predominantly hspEAsia isolates exhibit a high incidence of gastric cancer while the incidence is low in countries with a high proportion of hpAsia2 or hpEurope strains. In the future, the host range expansion of hpEurope strains among Asian populations, combined with human motility, may have a significant impact on gastric cancer incidence in Asia.

  1. Teaching East and Southeast Asia through Asian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy C. Barrett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colonialism and indigenous responses to its varied forms dominate modern Asian historiography and imbue the history of the region with rich and multifaceted connections to world history. As a result, the histories of East and Southeast Asian nation-states since 1500 cannot be viewed outside of the context of global affairs. Imagining Asian peoples and cultures during this time is problematic for students, who typically approach colonialism from a western perspective. This presentation explores various means of incorporating into the classroom pedagogical materials and diverse media sources that facilitate a more grounded examination of East and Southeast Asian colonies, peoples, and nation-states.It pays special attention to teaching colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and transnationalism from the perspective of Southeast Asia’s indigenous peoples.

  2. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Development of East Asia's petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia's petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry

  3. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  4. Long-term monitoring of atmospheric PCDD/Fs at Mount Lulin during spring season: PCDD/F source apportionment through a simultaneous measurement in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ngo Tuan; Li, Chueh Ting; Wang, Sheng Hsiang; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Lee, Chung-Te; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chi, Kai Hsien

    2017-10-01

    A long term assessment of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at Mt. Lulin, located in center of Taiwan was carried out from 2008 to 2013 (n = 81) assuming Mt. Lulin to be background area. During monitoring processes, PCDD/F samples collected in the field occasionally reached high concentration. To investigate this situation, simultaneous sample collection was carried out in Southeast Asia countries (i.e., Vietnam and Thailand) and Taiwan in 2013. The average concentration of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in biomass-burning source regions, namely Son La and Doi Ang Khang were 19.8 ± 12.1 fg I-TEQ m -3 (n = 19) and 17.8 ± 12.4 fg I-TEQ m -3 (n = 20), respectively. In the downwind area of Mt. Lulin, the average concentration of PCDD/Fs was found to be 4.64 ± 3.77 fg I-TEQ m -3 (n = 18). PCDD/F concentration in the source region was much higher than that in the downwind region. On March 19, 2013, the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations increased dramatically from 7.71 to 484 fg I-TEQ m -3 at Mt. Lulin, which many times exceeded that of assumed source region in Southeast Asia. Moreover, mainland Southeast Asia and the southeast coast of China was suspected to be the main contributors of atmospheric PCDD/Fs and biomass markers, such as nonsea-salt K + and NH 4 + , during the spring. WRF-Chem and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) simulations have confirmed this correlation. It can be concluded that atmospheric PCDD/Fs observed at Mt. Lulin during spring mostly derived from the air mass transport not only from Southeast Asia but also the southeast coast of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  6. Diversification and autonomy: axes in Argentine rapprochement to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Rubiolo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 onwards, with the change of presidency in Argentina and the consolidation of the internal recovery, the orientation of foreign policy acquires more autonomist nuances. It is in this scenario that the links with less developed countries - or of the South - should be understood, including the ties with the economies of Southeast Asia. Our objective in this work is to analyze the current state of Argentina’s bilateral ties with Southeast Asia - with special emphasis on the Philippines -analyzing these bonds as an alternative for insertion within a strategy of selective diversification and extension of margins of autonomy.

  7. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  8. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  9. Seasonal and spatial variability of surface ozone over China: contributions from background and domestic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both observations and a 3-D chemical transport model suggest that surface ozone over populated eastern China features a summertime trough and that the month when surface ozone peaks differs by latitude and region. Source-receptor analysis is used to quantify the contributions of background ozone and Chinese anthropogenic emissions on this variability. Annual mean background ozone over China shows a spatial gradient from 55 ppbv in the northwest to 20 ppbv in the southeast, corresponding with changes in topography and ozone lifetime. Pollution background ozone (annual mean of 12.6 ppbv shows a minimum in the summer and maximum in the spring. On the monthly-mean basis, Chinese pollution ozone (CPO has a peak of 20–25 ppbv in June north of the Yangtze River and in October south of it, which explains the peaks of surface ozone in these months. The summertime trough in surface ozone over eastern China can be explained by the decrease of background ozone from spring to summer (by −15 ppbv regionally averaged over eastern China. Tagged simulations suggest that long-range transport of ozone from northern mid-latitude continents (including Europe and North America reaches a minimum in the summer, whereas ozone from Southeast Asia exhibits a maximum in the summer over eastern China. This contrast in seasonality provides clear evidence that the seasonal switch in monsoonal wind patterns plays a significant role in determining the seasonality of background ozone over China.

  10. Accelerator control systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Chihyuan

    1992-01-01

    Three accelerator facilities were built in the past few years, the 2.8 GeV electron positron collider BEPC, the heavy ion SSC cyclotron accelerator HIRFL and the 800 MeV synchrotron radiation storage ring HESYRL. Aimed at different research areas, they represent a new generation of accelerator in China. This report describes the design philosophy, the structure, performance as well as future improvements of the control systems of the these facilities. (author)

  11. Southeast Asian Medicinal Plants as a Potential Source of Antituberculosis Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all of the control strategies, tuberculosis (TB is still a major cause of death globally and one-third of the world’s population is infected with TB. The drugs used for TB treatment have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and emergence of resistance strains. Plant-derived medicines have since been used in traditional medical system for the treatment of numerous ailments worldwide. There were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from plants in the last 17 years. However, none is focused on Southeast Asian medicinal plants. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting the medicinal plants of Southeast Asian origin evaluated for anti-TB. This review is based on literatures published in various electronic database. A total of 132 plants species representing 45 families and 107 genera were reviewed; 27 species representing 20.5% exhibited most significant in vitro anti-TB activity (crude extracts and/or bioactive compounds 0–<10 µg/ml. The findings may motivate various scientists to undertake the project that may result in the development of crude extract that will be consumed as complementary or alternative TB drug or as potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel anti-TB drug.

  12. Temporal change of EIA asymmetry revealed by a beacon receiver network in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Maruyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Nishioka, Michi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the temporal change of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) asymmetry, a multipoint satellite-ground beacon experiment was conducted along the meridional plane of the Thailand-Indonesia sector. The observation includes one station near the magnetic equator and four stations at off-equator latitudes. This is the first EIA asymmetry study with high spatial resolution using GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) observations in Southeast Asia. GRBR-total electron contents (TECs) from 97 polar-orbit satellite passes in March 2012 were analyzed in this study. Successive passes captured rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry, especially during geomagnetic disturbances. The penetrating electric fields that occur during geomagnetic disturbed days are not the cause of the asymmetry. Instead, high background TEC associated with an intense electric field empowers the neutral wind to produce severe asymmetry of the EIA. Such rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry was not seen during nighttime, when meridional wind mainly controlled the asymmetric structures. Additional data are necessary to identify the source of the variations, i.e., atmospheric waves. Precisely capturing the locations of the crests and the evolution of the asymmetry enhances understanding of the temporal change of EIA asymmetry at the local scale and leads to a future local modeling for TEC prediction in Southeast Asia.

  13. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  14. 78 FR 54869 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, and Southeast... describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future...

  15. [Climatic suitability of citrus in subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hai-Lai; Qian, Huai-Sui; Li, Ming-Xia; Du, Yao-Dong

    2010-08-01

    By applying the theories of ecological suitability and the methods of fuzzy mathematics, this paper established a climatic suitability model for citrus, calculated and evaluated the climatic suitability and its spatiotemporal differences for citrus production in subtropical China, and analyzed the climatic suitability of citrus at its different growth stages and the mean climatic suitability of citrus in different regions of subtropical China. The results showed that the citrus in subtropical China had a lower climatic suitability and a higher risk at its flower bud differentiation stage, budding stage, and fruit maturity stage, but a higher climatic suitability and a lower risk at other growth stages. Cold damage and summer drought were the key issues affecting the citrus production in subtropical China. The citrus temperature suitability represented a latitudinal zonal pattern, i. e., decreased with increasing latitude; its precipitation suitability was high in the line of "Sheyang-Napo", medium in the southeast of the line, low in the northwest of the line, and non in high mountainous area; while the sunlight suitability was in line with the actual duration of sunshine, namely, higher in high-latitude areas than in low-latitude areas, and higher in high-altitude areas than in plain areas. Limited by temperature factor, the climatic suitability was in accordance with temperature suitability, i. e., south parts had a higher suitability than north parts, basically representing latitudinal zonal pattern. From the analysis of the inter-annual changes of citrus climatic suitability, it could be seen that the citrus climatic suitability in subtropical China was decreasing, and had obvious regional differences, suggesting that climate change could bring about the changes in the regions suitable for citrus production and in the key stages of citrus growth.

  16. Traveling Uncharted Waters: The Exchange of Government Information between the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program established between the United States and China for exchange of government publications through their national libraries, the Library of Congress and the National Library of China. Challenges to the program, including the shift to electronic formats in the United States and government Internet censorship in China, are…

  17. Industrial tracer application in people's republic of china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Maoyi

    1987-01-01

    A number of important applications of radioisotopes and their compounds used as tracers in petroleum industry, metallurgical industry, mechanical industry, chemical industry, electronic industry, hydrology and water conservancy in China are introduced in this paper. And the tracer technique applied to entomology is also mentioned. The industrial tracer applications are successful and beneficial in People's Republic of China from the examples given. (author)

  18. 78 FR 33810 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... reduction loan for the fishing capacity reduction program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery... July 22, 2012. Since then, all harvesters of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon must pay the fee and...

  19. 77 FR 26744 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... of reduction payment tender of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon permits. SUMMARY: The National... Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. The program authorizes NMFS to make payments to permit holders...

  20. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  1. Ruptured Uterus At Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. | Eze | Ebonyi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Ruptured uterus is an obstetric catastrophe associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Objectives: To determine the incidence, causes, management and fetomaternal outcomes of ruptured uterus in Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Delivery records, theatre registers and case notes of all ruptured ...

  2. The Prosea Programme (Plant Resources of Southeast Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Dr. A.J.G.H. Kostermans (BO) died on 10 July 1994. He became 88 years old and was buried in the Bogor Botanical Garden, close to the plants and the herbarium to which he devoted most of his life. The life and work of ‘Dok’ are well known to Southeast Asian botanists and various obituaries appeared

  3. Downed woody material in southeast Alaska forest stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederic R. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Data collected in conjunction with the multiresource inventory of southeast Alaska in 1985-86 included downed wood along 234 transects at 60 locations. Transects occurred in 11 forest types and 19 plant associations within the entire southeastern Alaska archipelago. Downed wood weights in forest types ranged from 1232 kilograms per hectare (0.6 ton per acre) in muskeg...

  4. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  5. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  6. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  7. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  8. New trends in the anthropology of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question, is there such an entity as a separate field of the anthropology of Southeast Asia? Has the crisis in anthropology in the 1970s and ‘the literary turn’ of the 1980s led to a renewed interest in area studies? A number of topics that originally belonged to the field

  9. Doctor-patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D F; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-03-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in internal medicine outpatient clinics of an Indonesian teaching hospital and two affiliated hospitals. During 26 weeks we engaged in an iterative interview and coding process to identify emergent factors. Patients were generally dissatisfied with doctors' communication style. The doctors indicated that they did not deliberately use a one-way style. Communication style appeared to be associated with characteristics of Southeast Asian culture, the health care setting and medical education. Doctor-patient communication appeared to be affected by cultural characteristics which fell into two broad categories representing key features of Southeast Asian culture, "social distance" and "closeness of relationships", and to characteristics categorized as "specific clinical context". Consideration of these characteristics could be helpful in promoting the use of a partnership communication style.

  10. Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014 [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeado, Joe; Schmidt, Jeff; Hart, Rebecca; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This summary from the "Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014" full report presents the school district performance in a pull-out format. Definitions are provided for the column heading: (1) Total Operations Spending, (2) Property Tax Revenue, (3) Total Enrollment; (4) One-Year Change in Enrollment, (5) Minority Enrollment,…

  11. Microsoft in Southeast Europe: A Conversation with Goran Radman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, William; Frayne, Colette; Kelley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Goran Radman (GR) joined Microsoft in 1996 and served until Fall 2008 as Microsoft Chairman, Southeast Europe (SEE) and Chairman, East and Central Europe (ECEE). Based in Croatia, where he enjoys sailing the Adriatic coast and islands, he spoke with the authors during 2008 and 2009 about his experience launching Microsoft's commercial presence in…

  12. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia). Recently, capacity development has regained a central place on the agenda of many donor organizations, including IDRC. The challenge is to measure the results of capacity development initiatives. In Asia, there are a few ongoing efforts to document ...

  13. Effects of lithology on geothermal gradient on the southeast Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the effects of lithologic formations on geothermal gradients is carried out in the south-east Niger Delta, Nigeria, using continuous temperature and lithologic log data from closely-spaced petroleum wells. The gradient profiles obtained for the deep wells, logged to depths between 6500 ft (1981m) and 8500ft ...

  14. Globalization and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that…

  15. Doctor-patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Nugraheni, M.D.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a

  16. Cultural Patterns of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    An overview of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans is discussed to aid teachers in understanding behaviors exhibited by Asian students. Culture influences in the following areas are explored: family relationships, respect for age, social interaction, communication style, family expectations, humility, school situations, decision making, and…

  17. Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

    1988-01-01

    Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

  18. On lunisolar calendars and intercalation schemes in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislén, Lars

    2018-04-01

    This is a survey of different calendar intercalation schemes, mainly in Southeast Asia. The Thai and Burmese Calendars, superficially very similar, are shown to have quite different and interesting intercalation schemes. We also investigate similarities between the original Burmese Calendar and the Romakasiddhânta from India.

  19. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly women. Governments aim to facilitate these value chains ...

  20. Southeast Asia: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, which contains approximately 500 citations dated between 1952 and 1972, is one of a series on various areas of the world. Countries included in this bibliography on Southeast Asia are: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Western Samoa and the…

  1. Oil source rocks in the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Cengiz

    In the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey, two carbonate source rock units, the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation, are identified. The maturity levels of the source rock units increase towards the north and the west. Both the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation are good to excellent oil-source rocks with widespread "kitchen areas".

  2. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 5. Soil mass movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1974-01-01

    Research in southeast Alaska has identified soil mass movement as the dominant erosion process, with debris avalanches and debris flows the most frequent events on characteristically steep, forested slopes. Periodically high soil water levels and steep slopes are controlling factors. Bedrock structure and the rooting characteristics of trees and other vegetation exert...

  3. The Nature of Values Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    In recent years, concern in several Southeast Asian nations about the deterioration of values within their societies has resulted in renewed efforts to teach values by means of special courses in the schools. This paper compares the current programs of values education in four of the nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Phillipines, and Singapore.…

  4. Application of geotechnical data to resource planning in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.L. Schroeder; D.N. Swanston

    1987-01-01

    Recent quantification of engineering properties and index values of dominant soil types in the Alexander Archipelago, southeast Alaska, have revealed consistent diagnostic characteristics useful to evaluating landslide risk and subgrade material stability before timber harvesting and low-volume road construction. Shear strength data are summarized and grouped by Soil...

  5. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 8. Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. Schmiege; Austin E. Helmers; Daniel M. Bishop

    1974-01-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of southeast Alaska is the abundance of water. Large glaciers, icefields, and thousands of streams result from heavy precipitation throughout the year. Published and unpublished data on water regimen, temperature, sedimentation, and chemistry are combined. These serve as a basis for understanding how this valuable resource may...

  6. Building Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The effects of climate change on Southeast Asia are well documented. Temperature increases have the potential to reduce water availability, affecting crop yields and food security. Coastal cities are vulnerable to sea-level rise and flooding during periods of intense rainfall. Coastal ecosystems, plains and deltas are affected ...

  7. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  8. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located.

  9. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer’s health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

  10. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steven; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Nguyen-Mai, Huong; Harper, Sherilee

    2015-10-15

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

  11. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  12. Diplomatic strategies around FOCALAE: emerging platform for Latin American policy of China Popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ren-rang Chyou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The People's Republic of China has always followed a policy of no alignment, even with its neighbors of the Southeast Asian region. But since every rule has an exception, the People's Republic of China changed its position in 1990, by joining the core of the Asian Region, in an action interpreted as remuneration for the support received in favor of its legal status, and for the political support to the principle of the "One China" In time, the financial Asian crisis has created a bi-polar development, with the Southern countries still under the influence of the financial sequels of the crisis, and the Northern ones, as the People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong attaining evident economic achievements. With the financial crisis, Beijing was invited to participate in the Asian Forum of BOAO, under the political clout of the "ASEAN+3" group. The People's Republic of China also actively cooperates in the Forum for East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC, in order to project a "southern political sphere", able to act as a fence around the Capitalist World Axis, under the leadership of USA. The People's Republic of China, after gaining the desired success in the BOAO by projecting the image of "a China in peaceful emergence", has been able to come out as the leader of the Southeast Asian region, and also has managed to focus the international attention in the FEALAC. Nowadays, everybody tries to understand the real intentions of China in this forum. Does China look at it as a mere negotiation forum for South to South relations or it wants to turn it into a replica of the BOAO, to use it as a tool to influence Latin America?

  13. A closer looking at dimming and brightening in China during 1961–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates dimming and brightening of surface solar radiation (SSR during 1961–2005 in China as well as its relationships to total cloud cover (TCC. This is inferred from daily ground-based observational records at 45 pyranometer stations. A statistical method is introduced to study contributions of changes in the frequency of TCC categories and their atmospheric transparency to the secular SSR trend. The surface records suggest a renewed dimming beyond 2000 in North China after the stabilization in the 1990s; however, a slight brightening appears beyond 2000 in South China. Inter-annual variability of SSR is negatively correlated with that of TCC, but there is a positive correlation between decadal variability of SSR and TCC in most cases. The dimming during 1961–1990 is exclusively attributable to decreased atmospheric transparency, a portion of which is offset by TCC frequency changes in Northeast and Southwest China. The dimming during 1961–1990 in Northwest and Southeast China primarily results from decreased atmospheric transparency under all sky conditions and the percentage of dimming stemming from TCC frequency changes is 11% in Northwest and 2% in Southeast China. Decreased atmospheric transparencies during 1991–2005 in North China in most cases lead to the dimming. TCC frequency changes also contribute to the dimming during this period in North China. This feature is more pronounced in summer and winter when TCC frequency changes can account for more than 80% of dimming. In South China, increased atmospheric transparencies lead to the brightening during 1991–2005. A substantial contribution by TCC frequency changes to the brightening is also evident in spring and autumn.

  14. A closer looking at dimming and brightening in China during 1961-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). LAGEO, Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates dimming and brightening of surface solar radiation (SSR) during 1961-2005 in China as well as its relationships to total cloud cover (TCC). This is inferred from daily ground-based observational records at 45 pyranometer stations. A statistical method is introduced to study contributions of changes in the frequency of TCC categories and their atmospheric transparency to the secular SSR trend. The surface records suggest a renewed dimming beyond 2000 in North China after the stabilization in the 1990s; however, a slight brightening appears beyond 2000 in South China. Inter-annual variability of SSR is negatively correlated with that of TCC, but there is a positive correlation between decadal variability of SSR and TCC in most cases. The dimming during 1961-1990 is exclusively attributable to decreased atmospheric transparency, a portion of which is offset by TCC frequency changes in Northeast and Southwest China. The dimming during 1961-1990 in Northwest and Southeast China primarily results from decreased atmospheric transparency under all sky conditions and the percentage of dimming stemming from TCC frequency changes is 11% in Northwest and 2% in Southeast China. Decreased atmospheric transparencies during 1991- 2005 in North China in most cases lead to the dimming. TCC frequency changes also contribute to the dimming during this period in North China. This feature is more pronounced in summer and winter when TCC frequency changes can account for more than 80% of dimming. In South China, increased atmospheric transparencies lead to the brightening during 1991-2005. A substantial contribution by TCC frequency changes to the brightening is also evident in spring and autumn. (orig.)

  15. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  16. A New Chronology for the Bronze Age of Northeastern Thailand and Its Implications for Southeast Asian Prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F W; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G

    2015-01-01

    There are two models for the origins and timing of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia. The first centres on the sites of Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha in Northeast Thailand. It places the first evidence for bronze technology in about 2000 B.C., and identifies the origin by means of direct contact with specialists of the Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition of Central Eurasia. The second is based on the site of Ban Non Wat, 280 km southwest of Ban Chiang, where extensive radiocarbon dating places the transition into the Bronze Age in the 11th century B.C. with likely origins in a southward expansion of technological expertise rooted in the early states of the Yellow and Yangtze valleys, China. We have redated Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha, as well as the sites of Ban Na Di and Ban Lum Khao, and here present 105 radiocarbon determinations that strongly support the latter model. The statistical analysis of the results using a Bayesian approach allows us to examine the data at a regional level, elucidate the timing of arrival of copper base technology in Southeast Asia and consider its social impact.

  17. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  18. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  19. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  20. Occurrence Prospect of HDR and Target Site Selection Study in Southeastern of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Gan, H.

    2017-12-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource is one of the most important clean energy in future. Site selection a HDR resource is a fundamental work to explore the HDR resources. This paper compiled all the HDR development projects domestic and abroad, and summarized the location of HDR geothermal geological index. After comparing the geological background of HDR in the southeast coastal area of China, Yangjiang Xinzhou in Guangdong province, Leizhou Peninsula area, Lingshui in Hainan province and Huangshadong in Guangzhou were selected from some key potential target area along the southeast coast of China. Deep geothermal field model of the study area is established based on the comprehensive analysis of the target area of deep geothermal geological background and deep thermal anomalies. This paper also compared the hot dry rock resources target locations, and proposed suggestions for the priority exploration target area and exploration scheme.

  1. China's quest for energy and Northeast Asian security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2003-01-01

    The Iraq conflict has China striving to secure reliable, long-term sources of foreign energy to reduce their dependence on Middle East oil fields. As the world's third largest oil consumer, China became a net importer of crude in 1993. The major energy players in China are negotiating contracts with overseas producers and financing new developments for crude oil and natural gas. For example, China signed a contract in June 2003 for the delivery of 30 metric tonnes of oil per year from Siberia. Military planning and politics play a major role in a country where oil giants are majority-owned by the state. Diversification of domestic energy supplies from crude to natural gas has slowly begun. Construction of a massive gas pipeline to supply Shanghai from the Tarim Basin began in July 2002. It is feared that this pipeline could become a target for terrorists. Agreements for building terminals along the southeast coast to receive shipments of liquid natural gas (LNG) and ethylene from foreign suppliers were recently signed. Keeping shipping lanes safe from Indonesia and Australia will require cooperation from China's neighbours. Oil and gas markets in China are being opened according to World Trade Organization requirements. Rising energy demand will increasingly be met through increased oil shipments from foreign sources, judged by the behaviour of major Chinese players in the industry. Both China and Japan are looking to Russia to provide them with oil. Proposals for the construction of a pipeline from Russia to East Asia are lamenting over the termination point of the pipeline. Bilateral ties would be greatly improved by a Sino-Russian deal. Security in Central Asia is changing. Every country in the region has indicated its willingness to attract investment from China, Russia and the United States. 2 figs

  2. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trivitayanurak

    2012-01-01

    the model has the least skill at reproducing the data, where the model has a negative bias of 76% and only captures 14% of the observed variability. This model performance reflects the small-scale island-marine environment and the mix of aerosol species, with the model showing more skill at reproducing observed AOD over larger continental regions such as China where AOD is dominated by one aerosol type. The model shows that AOD over Borneo is approximately evenly split between organic and sulphate aerosol with sea salt representing 10–20% during May–September; we find a similar breakdown over continental Southeast Asia but with less sea salt aerosol and more dust aerosol. In contrast, East China AOD is determined mainly by sulphate aerosol and a seasonal source of dust aerosol, as expected. Realistic sensitivity runs, designed to test our underlying assumptions about emissions and chemistry over Borneo, show that model AOD is most sensitive to isoprene emissions and organic gas-phase partitioning but all fail to improve significantly upon the control model calculation. This emphasises the multi-faceted dimension of the problem and the need for concurrent and coordinated development of BVOC emissions, and BVOC chemistry and organic aerosol formation mechanisms.

  3. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivitayanurak, W.; Palmer, P. I.; Barkley, M. P.; Robinson, N. H.; Coe, H.; Oram, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    has the least skill at reproducing the data, where the model has a negative bias of 76% and only captures 14% of the observed variability. This model performance reflects the small-scale island-marine environment and the mix of aerosol species, with the model showing more skill at reproducing observed AOD over larger continental regions such as China where AOD is dominated by one aerosol type. The model shows that AOD over Borneo is approximately evenly split between organic and sulphate aerosol with sea salt representing 10-20% during May-September; we find a similar breakdown over continental Southeast Asia but with less sea salt aerosol and more dust aerosol. In contrast, East China AOD is determined mainly by sulphate aerosol and a seasonal source of dust aerosol, as expected. Realistic sensitivity runs, designed to test our underlying assumptions about emissions and chemistry over Borneo, show that model AOD is most sensitive to isoprene emissions and organic gas-phase partitioning but all fail to improve significantly upon the control model calculation. This emphasises the multi-faceted dimension of the problem and the need for concurrent and coordinated development of BVOC emissions, and BVOC chemistry and organic aerosol formation mechanisms.

  4. Simulating Microwave Scattering for Wetland Vegetation in Poyang Lake, Southeast China, Using a Coherent Scattering Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan Liao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a polarimetric coherent electromagnetic scattering model for Poyang Lake wetland vegetation. Realistic canopy structures including curved leaves and the lodging situation of the vegetation were taken into account, and the situation at the ground surface was established using an Advanced Integral Equation Model combined with Oh’s 2002 model. This new model can reasonably describe the coherence effect caused by the phase differences of the electromagnetic fields scattered from different particles by different scattering mechanisms. We obtained good agreement between the modeling results and C-band data from the Radarsat-2 satellite. A simulation of scattering from the vegetation in Poyang Lake showed that direct vegetation scattering and the single-ground-bounce mechanism are the dominant scattering mechanisms in the C-band and L-band, while the effects of the double-ground-bounce mechanism are very small. We note that the curvature of the leaves and the lodging characteristics of the vegetation cannot be ignored in the modeling process. Monitoring soil moisture in the Poyang Lake wetland with the C-band data was not feasible because of the density and depth of Poyang Lake vegetation. When the density of Poyang Lake Carex increases, the backscattering coefficient either decreases or remains stable.

  5. Land rental market, off-farm employment and agricultural production in Southeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, S.; Heerink, N.; Ruben, R.; Qu, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a plot-level analysis of the impact of land rentalmarket participation and offfarm employment on land investment, input use, and rice yields for 215 plots cultivated by 52 households in three villages inNortheast Jiangxi Province. Our findings showthat households that rent extra

  6. Variable number of tandem repeats of 9 Plasmodium vivax genes among Southeast Asian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Yun, Seung-Gyu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Yang; Han, Jin-Hee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Lim, Chae-Seung; Cao, Jun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Cui, Liwang; Han, Eun-Taek

    2017-06-01

    The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P. vivax genes (12.6%) were found. Of these, 9 VNTR fragments from 8 P. vivax genes were used for PCR amplification and sequence analysis to examine the genetic diversity among 134 isolates from four Southeast Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Myanmar) with different malaria endemicity. We confirmed the existence of extensive polymorphism of VNTR fragments in field isolates. This detection provides several suitable markers for analysis of the molecular epidemiology of P. vivax field isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Unravelling the genetic history of Negritos and indigenous populations of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanian, Farhang; Yunus, Yushima; Naidu, Rakesh; Jinam, Timothy; Manica, Andrea; Hoh, Boon Peng; Phipps, Maude E

    2015-04-14

    Indigenous populations of Malaysia known as Orang Asli (OA) show huge morphological, anthropological, and linguistic diversity. However, the genetic history of these populations remained obscure. We performed a high-density array genotyping using over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in three major groups of Negrito, Senoi, and Proto-Malay. Structural analyses indicated that although all OA groups are genetically closest to East Asian (EA) populations, they are substantially distinct. We identified a genetic affinity between Andamanese and Malaysian Negritos which may suggest an ancient link between these two groups. We also showed that Senoi and Proto-Malay may be admixtures between Negrito and EA populations. Formal admixture tests provided evidence of gene flow between Austro-Asiatic-speaking OAs and populations from Southeast Asia (SEA) and South China which suggest a widespread presence of these people in SEA before Austronesian expansion. Elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and enriched homozygosity found in OAs reflect isolation and bottlenecks experienced. Estimates based on Ne and LD indicated that these populations diverged from East Asians during the late Pleistocene (14.5 to 8 KYA). The continuum in divergence time from Negritos to Senoi and Proto-Malay in combination with ancestral markers provides evidences of multiple waves of migration into SEA starting with the first Out-of-Africa dispersals followed by Early Train and subsequent Austronesian expansions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. DOES AFTA AND CHINA'S ENTRY INTO WTO AFFECT FDI IN ASEAN COUNTRIES?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zaini Abd Karim; Yusairi Othman

    2005-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an important role in the rapid economic development of the newly industrializing and developing economies of Southeast Asia. In terms of the regions attractiveness, ASEAN region is a leading recipient of FDI flows in the developing world, with five ASEAN countries in the top 20 developing-countries recipients of long-term global capital flows from 1997 to 1998. While the creation of AFTA may help FDI inflows to ASEAN countries, China's entry into World Tr...

  9. Extreme Precipitation events over North China in August 2010 and their link to eastward-propagating wave-trains across Eurasia: observations and monthly forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsolini, Y.J.; Zhang, L.; Peters, D.H.W.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Schneidereit, A.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the Far East in summer, climate is strongly influenced by the fluctuating Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), and strong precipitation is often associated with southeasterly low-level wind that brings moist air from the southern China seas. The WPSH intraseasonal variability is partly

  10. Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institution. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang. Institution Country. China. Project Leader. Dr Fang Jing. Institution. Kunming Medical University as represented by Jiang Runsheng. Institution Country. China. Institution Website. http://www.kmmu.edu.cn. Project Leader.

  11. Why do we have such difficulty assessing aerosol impacts in Southeast Asia? Examining the representativeness of regional in situ, remote sensing, and modeling data using examples from a recent field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Lagrosas, N.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Campbell, J. R.; Chew, B.; Cook, J.; Di Girolamo, L.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Johnson, R. S.; Jonsson, H.; Lynch, P.; Sessions, W.; Simpas, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia faces numerous climate change issues, and the interaction between aerosol particles, clouds, and precipitation is thought to impact the environment in this region at both weather and climate scales. Aerosol particles have direct radiative effects, indirect effects through interaction with clouds and precipitation, and also act as a tracer for other processes affecting the carbon cycle or atmospheric chemistry. Southeast Asia also hosts some of the most complex meteorological phenomenon of the world, challenging in situ, remote sensing and modeling systems. Indeed, there is more diversity in satellite based aerosol, fire, cloud, and precipitation products in Southeast Asia than perhaps anywhere else in the world outside of the poles. In addition to serious direct challenges to aerosol observability in Southeast Asia, such as persistent ubiquitous cloud cover, there are also contextual biases (such as for aerosol retrievals the classic clear sky bias). Contextual bias affects the representativeness of nearly all aerosol assessments in Southeast Asia. As part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, a small intensive study was conducted in Singapore and the Palawan Archipelago in September 2011 to study the flow of biomass burning smoke through the South China/East Sea and into the summertime monsoonal trough. Analysis of field data coupled with multiple satellite and model products allowed us to investigate questions on the representativeness of data and to what extent they capture the 'true' state of the meteorological and aerosol environment. Four specific representativeness issues are presented based on IOP examples: 1) Individual biases in retrievals or model simulations; 2) Sampling biases at short time scales based on product coverage; 3) Temporal and spatial scale biases inherent in large and point based measurements; 4) Contextual biases that develop from the aggregation of data products. Considering all four of these issues we

  12. Analysis of future drought characteristics in China using the regional climate model CCLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhai, Jianqing; Jiang, Tong; Wang, Yanjun; Li, Xiucang; Wang, Run; Xiong, Ming; Su, Buda; Fischer, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the intensity, area and duration of future droughts in China are analyzed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The SPI and SPEI are used to evaluate the simulation ability of drought characteristics with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM). The projected intensity and duration of future drought events are analyzed for the period 2016-2050 under three different respective concentration pathways (RCPs). The simulated and projected drought events are analyzed by applying the intensity-area-duration method. The results show that CCLM has a robust capability to simulate the average drought characteristics, while some regional disparities are not well captured, mainly the simulation of more drought events of shorter duration in Northwest China. For the future period 2016-2050, more intense dryness conditions are projected for China. An increase in evapotranspiration is found all over China, while a reduction in precipitation is apparent in the southern river basins. The increase in evapotranspiration plays an important role in the changes of future droughts over the northern river basins and southern river basins. Under RCP2.6, drought events of longer duration and with higher frequency are projected for the southwest and southeast of China. Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, a continuing tendency to more dry conditions is projected along a dryness band stretching from the southwest to the northeast of China. More frequent drought events of longer duration are projected in the southwestern river basins. For all future droughts, larger extents are projected, especially for events with long-term duration. The projected long-term drought events will occur more often and more severe than during the baseline period, and their central locations will likely shift towards Southeast China. The results of this study can be used to initiate and strengthen drought adaptation measures at

  13. [Regional differences and development tendency of livestock manure pollution in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan-Guang; Liao, Shao-Pan; Jing, Yue; Luan, Jiang

    2013-07-01

    The rapid development of livestock production in China has brought livestock manure pollution as a serious environment problem, even threatens China's agriculture sustainable development. On the basis of public statistical data and field research data, this paper analyzed the magnitude of livestock manure excretion and pollution of China and different provinces in 2010, and predicted development tendencies of livestock manure excretion and pollution in 2020 through the Decision Support System for China's Agricultural Sustainable Development (CHINAGRO). The result shows that total livestock manure excretion of China in 2010 is 1 900 million tons, and livestock manure pollution is 227 million tons, while per hectare arable land of livestock manure pollution is 1.86 tons. Provinces in the southeast China, such as Guangdong and Fujian, are areas with high pressure of livestock manure pollution. Model simulation shows that China's total amount of livestock manure pollution will increase to 298 million tons in 2020 without government intervention. The pressure of livestock manure pollution will become higher in most regions of China, especially in east and south regions. The situation in central and western region is better than that in east regions although the pollution pressure will also increase in those areas. Policy intervention such as taxes and subsidies should be adopted to reduce the discharge of livestock manure pollution, and encourage livestock production transfer from eastern areas to the central and western regions.

  14. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  15. Closing ceremonies of the FIRST Southeast Regional robotics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the conclusion of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition held at the KSC Visitor Complex, KSC Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings speaks to the teams and other attendees. At left is Gregg Gale, with Walt Disney World, which is the site of the national competition (at EPCOT) April 6-8. Teams of high school students from all over the country tested the limits of their imagination using robots they designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at the Southeast Regional event, 16 were Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  16. Southeast Asian Fathers’ Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Detzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the fathering experiences of Southeast Asian immigrant men who are parenting their adolescent children in the United States. Focus group discussions were conducted with twenty-two Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese immigrant fathers. The study found that most fathers wanted to become closer to their children and be more involved in their children’s daily activities. Common fathering roles such as the family provider, teacher, supervisor, and disciplinarian also emerged from the analyses. Parent educators, social service providers, policy makers, and practitioners who work with Southeast Asian families should understand the complex and critical roles of fathers and includethem when designing, developing, and delivering programs and services for families.

  17. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ridge-like lava tube systems in southeast Tharsis, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiannan; Huang, Jun; Kraft, Michael D.; Xiao, Long; Jiang, Yun

    2017-10-01

    Lava tubes are widely distributed in volcanic fields on a planetary surface and they are important means of lava transportation. We have identified 38 sinuous ridges with a lava-tube origin in southeast Tharsis. The lengths vary between 14 and 740 km, and most of them occur in areas with slopes rate, low lava viscosity, and sustained magma supply during a long period. Besides, lava flow inflation is also important in the formation of the ridge-like lava tubes and some associated features. These lava tubes provide efficient lateral pathways for magma transportation over the relatively low topographic slopes in southeast Tharsis, and they are important for the formation of long lava flows in this region. The findings of this study provide an alternative formation mechanism for sinuous ridges on the martian surface.

  19. Popular Orientalism: Somerset Maugham in Mainland Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Doran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on his experiences during a journey through mainland Southeast Asia in 1923, Somerset Maugham wrote a book of colonial travel entitled The Gentleman in the Parlour. As the work of one of the most popular writers of the twentieth century, Maugham’s travelogue both expressed and helped to shape contemporary thinking about Southeast Asia and Western imperialism. Focusing especially on his representations of Burma and Cambodia, an analysis is presented of Maugham’s book in the light of postcolonial scholarship, especially the theoretical insights developed under the inspiration of Edward Said’s Orientalism. Despite its pretensions to be apolitical, Maugham’s travel book is shown to be a repository of Western colonial ideas and attitudes, integrally involved in the circulation of the prevailing European discourse of high imperialism. As such, it is a valuable resource for historians and other scholars who wish to understand the way that discourse worked at the level of popular literature.

  20. Religion in Public Spaces in Contemporary Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Afrianty, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Religion is among the most overlooked factors in the development of nation-states in Southeast Asia. Some reasons for this include a bias emphasizing religious ideology in the study of anti-colonial organizations that dates to the origins of the politics of state formation; the influence of many ideas on the patterns of modern elite formations that stress the need for religion to shape national constitutions, and the fact that religion is difficult to neglect in shaping the behavior of...

  1. Application of Prognostic Mesoscale Modeling in the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    A prognostic model is being used to provide regional forecasts for a variety of applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Emergency response dispersion models available at SRS use the space and time-dependent meteorological data provided by this model to supplement local and regional observations. Output from the model is also used locally to aid in forecasting at SRS, and regionally in providing forecasts of the potential time and location of hurricane landfall within the southeast United States

  2. Financial Crisis and Economic Restructuring in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yul Kwon

    1998-01-01

    The hidden inner structural problem with the rapid growth of economy was exposed after the financial crisis and South-East Asia is facing serious economic crisis. Currently, the core of the financial crisis is the low function of financial system, so to make the financial department normal by rebuilding the untrue financial system is the problem we are facing. If our financial sector delay the structural adjustment and continue to be competitive in credit, the insolvent debenture will soar. E...

  3. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  4. State of rare disease management in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Supian, Azuwana; Lim, Jeremy; Zafra, Matt; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2016-08-02

    Rare diseases, also referred to as orphan diseases, are characterised by their low prevalence with majority of them are chronically debilitating and life threatening. Given the low prevalence and the widely dispersed but very small patient base for each disease, there may often be a disproportion in the availability of treatments and resources to manage patients, spur research and train experts. This is especially true in Southeast Asian countries that are currently in the process of implementing or revising their universal health coverage schemes. This paper aims to examine the status of rare disease management in Southeast Asian countries. It will serve as the basis for a more active discussion on how countries in the region can address an under-recognised rare disease burden and enhance national and regional capacities. The study consists of literature reviews and key stakeholders interviews in six focus countries, including the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand and five countries as best practice, comprising of France, Canada, Australia, Taiwan, and South Korea. Rare disease management initiatives across each country were examined based on the World Health Organization's framework for action in strengthening health systems. The results suggest rare disease management remains challenging across Southeast Asia, as many of the focus countries face fundamental issues from basic healthcare systems to funding. Nonetheless, there are substantial improvement opportunities, including leveraging best practices from around the world and organising a multi-stakeholder and regional approach and strategy. Southeast Asian countries have made significant progress in the management of rare disease, but there remain key areas for substantial development opportunities.

  5. Southeast Asia’s Democratic Developmental States and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Rock

    2015-01-01

    How has democracy impacted growth in Southeast Asia? This question can be answered by demonstrating how political elites in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand crafted quite unique democratic developmental states that enabled them to provide the public goods and public policies to maintain high growth. Because of this, growth under democracy has been as high as it was during the heyday of these polities’ developmental autocracies. Moreover, as there was no single dominant pathway to the construc...

  6. Improving communication skills in the Southeast Asian health care context

    OpenAIRE

    Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors’, patients’, medical students’ and nurses’ perceptions on the c...

  7. Building Maritime Security in Southeast Asia: Outsiders Not Welcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Najib Razak , has called for greater vigi- lance and intelligence sharing to combat piracy and prevent terrorism along the Malacca Strait.21 To improve...part a reward for its partnership in the war on terrorism. Weatherbee, International Rela- tions in Southeast Asia, p. 37. 18. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun...Abd Razak , “The Security of the Straits of Malacca and Its Im- plications to the South East Asia Regional Se- curity” (speech, Seoul, 13 March 2007

  8. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Thi Hong Le; Ha Thi Cam Huynh; Hong Thi Thu Dinh

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the...

  9. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.

    2016-01-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  10. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Electronic Conferencing in Education: An Example from Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kenneth; Stokes, Jack

    The use of electronic conferencing in undergraduate social work courses at Southeast Missouri State University and Middle Tennessee State University is discussed. Conferencing increases student participation, encourages more effective relationships among participants, and provides additional feedback experiences. Faculty determined that selection…

  12. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012. Grantee: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. More than 200 million migrant workers in. China are self-employed or work without contracts, benefits, or legal protection. IDRC- supported research in both India and China has examined ...

  13. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  14. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  15. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: implications for mantle dynamics in the southeast Asian region; Compositions isotopiques et en elements en trace des basaltes vietnamiens: implications pour la dynamique du manteau en Asie du Sud-Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H.; Fower, M. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Nguyen, H. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Nguyen, X.B.; Nguyen, T.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Cenozoic basalts in Indo-China are part of a regional melting episode along the rifted Eurasian margin. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts are used to place constraints on the extent of lithospheric and asthenosphere contributions to the melts and possible mantle dynamic implications. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb isotopic ratios of the basalts reflect minimal crustal wall rock reaction, and variable enrichment in EM1 and EM2 of a {sup 208}Pb-rich MORB-like source. Some, but not all, of this variation corresponds to the age of lithospheric sector penetrated. Basalts erupted through a cratonic, central sector (e.g. at Quang Ngai, Pleiku, Song Cau, Kong Plong, and Buon Ma Thuot) and off-cratonic, southwest sector (e.g. Phuoc Long) resemble those of EM2-rich basalts from southern and southeaster China and the South China Sea. Basalts from an off-cratonic, southeast sector (e.g. from Dalat, Xuan Loc, and the offshore Ile des Cendres-Phu Cuy complex) reflect mixing between a low- {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, high-{sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, EM1-like component, and resemble basalts from northwest Taiwan, eastern and northeastern China, and parts of the Japan Sea. While EM2 tends to characterise lithospheric sectors, presence of EM1 in off-cratonic rather than cratonic basalts implies an asthenosphere rather than lithospheric source. Pervasive presence of EM1 in southeast Asian and marginal basin asthenosphere corresponds with thermally-anomalous mantle and may involve delaminated cratonic substrate entrained by mobile, extruded asthenosphere. (authors) 85 refs.

  16. Phylogeography of pink pineapple mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) reveals the history of pineapple introduction and cultivation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y B; Zhan, R L; Sun, G M; Wu, J B; Zhao, Y L

    2015-08-19

    The pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a widespread plant-sucking insect of considerable concern because it transmits the pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus. Its distribution is closely linked with its host, the pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill] because of its wingless and parthenogenetic characteristics. To investigate the history of D. brevipes introduction and the cultivation of pineapple in China, samples of D. brevipes were collected from the main pineapple production region in China, and from Thailand, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analyzed. Homologous sequences of D. brevipes COI from Brazil, Thailand, and Philippines that are deposited in GenBank were compared. Phylogenetic analyses suggest there are close genetic relationships between PPM populations from Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, and from Thailand and China, which probably originate from South America. It is suggested that most PPMs in China were introduced from South America by way of Southeast Asia, being accompanied by the pineapple seedling. Conversely, some PPMs represented by Haplotype-WN from Wanning of China, and Lampang of Thailand were found to differ greatly from populations in Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, and China. It is possible that another route was used for the introduction and distribution of pineapple, or that pineapple might have originated in Southeast Asia.

  17. Health in Southeast Asia 6 Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Patcharanarumol, W; Ir, P; Aljunid, SM; Mukti, AG; Akkhavong, K; Banzon, E; Huong, DB; Thabrany, H; Mills, A

    2011-01-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for natio...

  18. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  19. Foreign and Domestic Contributions to Springtime Ozone Pollution over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Lin, J.; Yan, Y.; Lin, W.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant that damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China. Here, we use a global-regional two-way coupled model system based on GEOS-Chem to quantify the contributions to springtime ozone over China from anthropogenic emissions in major source regions across the globe. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone pollution. Together, foreign anthropogenic emissions enhance springtime surface ozone over China by 3 12 ppb. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the contribution increases with altitude until a value of 80% in the upper troposphere. Impact from Japan and Korea is 1 2 ppb over east coastal regions, and negligible in inland. Anthropogenic emissions of South and South-East Asia increase ozone over Tibet and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau by up to 5 ppb, and their contribution increases with height due to strong vertical transport. Pollution from North America and Europe mainly accompanies strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities that are favorable to long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhances surface ozone by 1 3 ppb over West and North China. Despite a much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is greater than European contribution due to the nearly doubled amount of anthropogenic NMVOC emissions. The high percentage contribution of foreign anthropogenic emissions to China's ozone pollution can be partly explained by excessive domestic NOx emissions that suppress ozone production efficiency and even destroy ozone. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global environmental protection collaboration.

  20. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,