WorldWideScience

Sample records for southeast atlantic estuarine

  1. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Southeast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1991) Southeast regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  2. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  3. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Mid-Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the Mid-Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  4. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: North Atlantic Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0162402)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the North Atlantic regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  5. 78 FR 65974 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Management Councils, the 18 states in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, both the U.S. Virgin Islands and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC935 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  6. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, and each of the constituent interstate commissions: the Atlantic States... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment...

  7. 76 FR 17625 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...: Participants will present summary data, and discuss data needs and treatments. Special Accommodations The... the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of Southeast Data and Review (SEDAR) 26 data webinar for Caribbean Silk snapper, Queen snapper, and...

  8. 75 FR 51983 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  9. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-4366. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center... researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International...

  10. 75 FR 23676 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States... of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  11. 77 FR 75613 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Data Webinar for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... discuss data needs and treatments. Special Accommodations These meetings are physically accessible to... the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Data Webinar for South Atlantic...: Notice of SEDAR 32 data webinar for South Atlantic gray triggerfish and blueline tilefish. SUMMARY: The...

  12. 78 FR 16657 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and... and gray triggerfish. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 32 assessments of the South Atlantic stocks of blueline... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...

  13. Tropical South-East Atlantic response to ENSO as an ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases were selected based on indices of Pacific sea surface temperature and South-East African rainfall. ... an El Niño event, and higher sardine Sardinops sagax catches tend to follow a La Niña event, through the northward and southward shift respectively of the South Atlantic anticyclone and attendant coastal upwelling.

  14. Estuarine demersal fish assemblage from a transition region between the tropics and the subtropics of the South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Hostim-Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n3p153 Estuarine demersal fish assemblage from a transition region between the tropics and the subtropics of the South Atlantic. The coastal state of Espírito Santo is in the central region of Brazil, where biological productivity is considered low. The objective of this work is to present a current list of demersal, estuarine fish from northern Espírito Santo. This work is based on the compilation of data collected monthly using trawl nets. The ichthyofauna comprises 57 species, within 10 orders and 32 families. The family Sciaenidae has the largest number of species (8, followed by Carangidae (4 and Gerreidae (4. This coincides with what has been found for the Brazilian coast and for the coast of the South Atlantic. It is important to note that the total species richness in the estuaries of northern Espírito Santo is lower than other estuaries of the South West Atlantic coast. Most of the species are widely distributed in the Western Atlantic. Only a small part (14% of the fauna of northern Espírito Santo was evaluated in regards to risk of extinction, but conservation should be prioritized in the area due to overexploitation of species.

  15. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic... are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  16. Properties of light absorption in a highly coloured estuarine system in south-east Australia which is prone to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementson, Lesley A.; Parslow, John S.; Turnbull, Alison R.; Bonham, Pru I.

    2004-05-01

    The Huon Estuary in south-east Tasmania is an important site in Australia's aquaculture and finfish industries. Atlantic salmon and shellfish are farmed in the Huon River Estuary, which drains a catchment that includes both areas of pristine wilderness and agriculture. The estuary experiences algal blooms, including blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, which can cause considerable problems for the aquaculture industry. The freshwater input is highly coloured due to high levels of humic material and this combined with intrusions of clearer oceanic water and the occurrence of algal blooms makes this estuary optically complex. Between November 1996 and September 1998 samples for pigment and optical analyses were collected weekly from five sites within the mid to lower regions of the estuary. In addition, every three months (beginning July 1996), samples were collected from 30 sites within the full river/estuary system. Early in December 1997 a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum occurred throughout the estuary and persisted until June 1998. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was found to dominate the total absorption of the water throughout the entire estuary and over the two-year duration of the study. The occurrence of algal blooms showed no correlation with the optical characteristics of the estuary, suggesting that optical parameters cannot be used to predict the occurrence of algal blooms in this estuary. Blooms of different algal species, such as diatoms and dinoflagellates, may be able to be distinguished by their absorption spectra in the UV region rather than the visible region. To date, this study is the most detailed spatial and temporal study of the characteristics of light absorption in an estuarine system within Australia.

  17. 75 FR 52510 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office, HMS Management Division... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  18. 75 FR 61705 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  19. 78 FR 62586 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    .... Participants will present summary data and will discuss data needs and treatments. Although non-emergency... the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 38 data webinar for Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic King Mackerel...

  20. Estuarine demersal fish assemblage from a transition region between the tropics and the subtropics of the South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Hostim-Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The coastal state of Espírito Santo is in the central region of Brazil, where biological productivity is considered low. The objective of this work is to present a current list of demersal, estuarine fish from northern Espírito Santo. This work is based on the compilation of data collected monthly using trawl nets. The ichthyofauna comprises 57 species, within 10 orders and 32 families. The family Sciaenidae has the largest number of species (8, followed by Carangidae (4 and Gerreidae (4. This coincides with what has been found for the Brazilian coast and for the coast of the South Atlantic. It is important to note that the total species richness in the estuaries of northern Espírito Santo is lower than other estuaries of the South West Atlantic coast. Most of the species are widely distributed in the Western Atlantic. Only a small part (14% of the fauna of northern Espírito Santo was evaluated in regards to risk of extinction, but conservation should be prioritized in the area due to overexploitation of species.

  1. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... public. Those interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR. See FOR FURTHER... CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; (843) 571- 4366; kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic...

  2. 75 FR 1753 - Fisheries of the Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Atlantic croaker and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; international... Conservation and Management Act, provided the public has been notified of the Council's intent to take final...

  3. Morphological and molecular evidence on the existence of a single estuarine and rocky intertidal acanthocephalan species of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Diaz, Julia I; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Profilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector, Mañé-Garzón & Dei-Cas, 1977 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) has been reported to parasitise different grapsid species as intermediate hosts along the South Atlantic shores, i.e. Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana) and Neohelice granulata (Dana) in Uruguay and Cyrtograpsus altimanus (Rathbun) in Argentina. Larvae of a similar acanthocephalan described as Profilicollis antarcticus Zdzitowiecki, 1985 were recorded in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Milne-Edwards) from an estuarine habitat on the Southeast Pacific shore in Chile. Earlier studies have questioned the specific assignation of the Chilean estuarine populations of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931. The aim of this study was to re-examine the identification of these acanthocephalans by means of morphological and molecular analyses of cystacanths of Profilicollis spp. gathered from C. angulatus, N. granulata, C. altimanus and H. crenulatus. Our analyses showed that a single species of Profilicollis, P. chasmagnathi, parasitises these four crab species. The assessment of specimens from the South Shetlands Islands, the type-locality of P. antarcticus, is needed before formally proposing that P. antarcticus is a junior subjective synonym of P. chasmagnathi.

  4. 75 FR 12506 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research...: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of goliath grouper will consist... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...

  5. 76 FR 81479 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research... mackerel and cobia. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...

  6. The impact of meteorology on smoke and low-level clouds over the southeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, Adeyemi A.

    In this dissertation, we use radiosondes and satellite observation, reanalysis datasets, as well as radiative and trajectory models to document the relationship between the low-level clouds, smoke and meteorology over the southeast Atlantic. The southeast Atlantic presents a natural environment with one of the world's largest marine low-level clouds, occurring along with the largest consumption of biomass fire over the adjacent southern African continent. This combination results in an extensive region of above-cloud biomass burning aerosols (predominantly smoke) over the marine low-level clouds, whereby the elevated smoke could lead to the stabilization of the lower troposphere, reduction of the cloud-top entrainment, and the build-up of water vapor within the boundary layer, which may eventually lead to increases in cloud fraction and decreases in cloud-top heights, in a process called semi-direct aerosol effect. The smokes are transported at a preferred altitude (˜750h Pa - 550hPa) by a background easterly winds between July and October. During the same period, strong surface winds and ocean-influenced cold surface temperature characterize the meteorology within the boundary layer. The marine low-level cloud region is also associated with strong climatological subsidence above it, and cloud-top temperature inversion layer. The meteorological variations occurring above and below the low-level clouds are capable of influencing the cloud properties, and therefore may confound with the aerosol effects, making the separation of the aerosol and meteorological influences, on the low-level cloud, a very difficult challenge. We address this problem by identifying the dynamical and thermodynamical variations above the low-level clouds during the the peak aerosol months (July-October). Specifically, three areas are explored in this dissertation: the convolution of the dynamical and moisture effects with shortwave-absorbing aerosols over the low-level clouds; the role of

  7. Larval dispersion of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata in coastal marine waters of the Southwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Claudia; Luppi, Tomás; Spivak, Eduardo; Schejter, Laura

    2009-08-01

    The estuarine brachyuran crab Neohelice granulata export their larvae from the parental intertidal population of the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, and probably other populations, to marine waters. The degree of larval dispersion or self-recruitment of populations is unknown. We evaluated the presence of all larval stages of N. granulata in coastal waters of Argentina between 37.9° and 35.8° S, at two different spatial scales: a broad scale of tens to hundreds of kilometers from the Río de la Plata estuary in the north, to Mar Chiquita lagoon in the south, and a small scale of hundreds of meters to some kilometers around the mouth of Mar Chiquita, during spring and summer. Additionally, we registered the larval composition and density at San Clemente creek population, in Samborombon Bay (Río de la Plata estuary), every 3 h along a 30-hour period. Evidence indicates that larval release of N. granulata is temporally synchronized with nocturnal ebb tides and all development from Zoea I to Zoea IV occur in areas close to the parental population, even with very different oceanographic characteristics. A possible mechanism based on salinity selection and wind-driven transport is proposed for such behavior, and some considerations related to the connectivity of present populations are made.

  8. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  9. Changes in ocean circulation in the South-east Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important ocean gateway because major oceanic systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian Ocean via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern ocean. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east Atlantic during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.

  10. Antarctic krill swarm characteristics in the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Krafft, BA

    2012-09-28

    Knowledge about swarm dynamics and underlying causes is essential to understand the ecology and distribution of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. We collected acoustic data and key environmental data continuously across extensive gradients in the little-studied Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. A total of 4791 krill swarms with swarm descriptors including swarm height and length, packing density, swimming depth and inter-swarm distance were extracted. Through multivariate statistics, swarms were categorized into 4 groups. Group 2 swarms were largest (median length 108 m and thickness 18 m), whereas swarms in both Groups 1 and 4 were on average small, but differed markedly in depth distribution (median: 52 m for Group 1 vs. 133 m for Group 4). There was a strong spatial autocorrelation in the occurrence of swarms, and an autologistic regression model found no prediction of swarm occurrence from environmental variables for any of the Groups 1, 2 or 4. Probability of occurrence of Group 3 swarms, however, increased with increasing depth and temperature. Group 3 was the most distinctive swarm group with an order of magnitude higher packing density (median: 226 ind. m−3) than swarms from any of the other groups and about twice the distance to nearest neighbor swarm (median: 493 m). The majority of the krill were present in Group 3 swarms, and the absence of association with hydrographic or topographic concentrating mechanisms strongly suggests that these swarms aggregate through their own locomotion, possibly associated with migration.

  11. Exploring the Elevated Water Vapor Signal Associated with Biomass Burning Aerosol over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Redemann, Jens; Wood, Rob; Zuidema, Paquita; Flynn, Connor; LeBlanc, Samuel; Noone, David; Podolske, James; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Shinozuka, Yohei; hide

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of radiative forcing due to the cumulative effects of aerosols, both directly and on cloud properties, remains the biggest source of uncertainty in our understanding of the physical climate. How the magnitude of these effects may be modified by meteorological conditions is an important aspect of this question. The Southeast Atlantic Ocean (SEA), with seasonal biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes overlying a persistent stratocumulus cloud deck, offers a perfect natural observatory in which to study the complexities of aerosol-cloud interactions. The NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign consists of three field deployments over three years (2016-2018) with the goal of gaining a better understanding of the complex processes (direct and indirect) by which BB aerosols affect clouds. We present results from the first ORACLES field deployment, which took place in September 2016 out of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Two NASA aircraft were flown with a suite of aerosol, cloud, radiation, and meteorological instruments for remote-sensing and in-situ observations. A strong correlation was observed between the aircraft-measured pollution indicators (carbon monoxide and aerosol properties) and atmospheric water vapor content, at all altitudes. Atmospheric reanalysis indicates that convective dynamics over the continent, near likely contribute to this elevated signal. Understanding the mechanisms by which water vapor covaries with plume strength is important to quantifying the magnitude of the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects in the region.

  12. Antarctic krill swarm characteristics in the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Krafft, BA; Skaret, G; Knutsen, T; Melle, W; Klevjer, Thor; Sø iland, H

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about swarm dynamics and underlying causes is essential to understand the ecology and distribution of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. We collected acoustic data and key environmental data continuously across extensive gradients in the little-studied Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. A total of 4791 krill swarms with swarm descriptors including swarm height and length, packing density, swimming depth and inter-swarm distance were extracted. Through multivariate statistics, swarms were categorized into 4 groups. Group 2 swarms were largest (median length 108 m and thickness 18 m), whereas swarms in both Groups 1 and 4 were on average small, but differed markedly in depth distribution (median: 52 m for Group 1 vs. 133 m for Group 4). There was a strong spatial autocorrelation in the occurrence of swarms, and an autologistic regression model found no prediction of swarm occurrence from environmental variables for any of the Groups 1, 2 or 4. Probability of occurrence of Group 3 swarms, however, increased with increasing depth and temperature. Group 3 was the most distinctive swarm group with an order of magnitude higher packing density (median: 226 ind. m−3) than swarms from any of the other groups and about twice the distance to nearest neighbor swarm (median: 493 m). The majority of the krill were present in Group 3 swarms, and the absence of association with hydrographic or topographic concentrating mechanisms strongly suggests that these swarms aggregate through their own locomotion, possibly associated with migration.

  13. Distribution of Fe in waters and bottom sediments of a small estuarine catchment, Pumicestone Region, southeast Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaghati, Tania; Cox, Malcolm E.; Preda, Micaela

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved and extractable iron concentrations in surface water, groundwater and bottom sediments were determined for Halls Creek, a small subtropical tidally influenced creek. Dissolved iron concentrations were much higher in fresh surface waters and groundwater compared to the estuarine water. In bottom sediments, iron minerals were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD); of these, hematite (up to 11%) has formed by precipitation from iron-rich water in the freshwater section of the catchment. Pyrite was only identified in the estuarine reach and demonstrated several morphologies [identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)] including loosely and closely packed framboids, and the euhedral form. The forms of pyrite found in bottom sediments indicate in situ production and recrystallisation. In surface waters, pyrite was detected in suspended sediment; due to oxygen concentrations well above 50 μmol/l, it was concluded that framboids do not form in the water column, but are within resuspended bottom sediments or eroded from creek banks. The persistence of framboids in suspended sediments, where oxygen levels are relatively high, could be due to their silica and clay-rich coatings, which prevent a rapid oxidation of the pyrite. In addition to identifying processes of formation and transport of pyrite, this study has environmental significance, as this mineral is a potential source of bioavailable forms of iron, which can be a major nutrient supporting algal growth

  14. On the Influence of Air Mass Origin on Low-Cloud Properties in the Southeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik; Hollmann, Rainer; Schwarz, Katharina

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the impact of air mass origin and dynamics on cloud property changes in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) during the biomass burning season. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget and thus prominent in climate system research. In this study, the thermodynamically stable SEA stratocumulus cover is observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as connected to large-scale meteorology by the often neglected but important role of spatial origins of air masses entering this region. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory cluster analysis is conducted linking satellite observations of cloud properties (Spinning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager), information on aerosol species (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate), and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis) to air mass clusters. It is found that a characteristic pattern of air mass origins connected to distinct synoptical conditions leads to marked cloud property changes in the southern part of the study area. Long-distance air masses are related to midlatitude weather disturbances that affect the cloud microphysics, especially in the southwestern subdomain of the study area. Changes in cloud effective radius are consistent with a boundary layer deepening and changes in lower tropospheric stability (LTS). In the southeastern subdomain cloud cover is controlled by a generally higher LTS, while air mass origin plays a minor role. This study leads to a better understanding of the dynamical drivers behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA and frames potentially interesting conditions for aerosol-cloud interactions.

  15. 75 FR 51242 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions; and NOAA... representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils...

  16. 76 FR 34061 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with... Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and...; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and...

  17. 78 FR 27957 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ..., describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future... to evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and management criteria, and project future... South Atlantic stock of snowy [[Page 27958

  18. Marine and terrigenous lipids in southeast atlantic sediments (leg 175) as paleoenvironmental indicators: initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schefuss, E.; Versteegh, G.J.M.; Jansen, J.H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Lipid compositions of sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 175 in the eastern South Atlantic reflect a variety of oceanographic and climatological environments. Most of the identified lipids can be ascribed to marine sources, notably haptophytes,

  19. Vulnerability of Southeast Greenland Glaciers to Warm Atlantic Water From Operation IceBridge and Ocean Melting Greenland Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, R.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Wood, M.; Bjørk, A. A.; Morlighem, M.

    2018-03-01

    We employ National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Operation IceBridge high-resolution airborne gravity from 2016, NASA's Ocean Melting Greenland bathymetry from 2015, ice thickness from Operation IceBridge from 2010 to 2015, and BedMachine v3 to analyze 20 major southeast Greenland glaciers. The results reveal glacial fjords several hundreds of meters deeper than previously thought; the full extent of the marine-based portions of the glaciers; deep troughs enabling warm, salty Atlantic Water (AW) to reach the glacier fronts and melt them from below; and few shallow sills that limit the access of AW. The new oceanographic and topographic data help to fully resolve the complex pattern of historical ice front positions from the 1930s to 2017: glaciers exposed to AW and resting on retrograde beds have retreated rapidly, while glaciers perched on shallow sills or standing in colder waters or with major sills in the fjords have remained stable.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Reef Fish Species along the Southeast US Atlantic Coast Inferred from Underwater Video Survey Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Bacheler

    Full Text Available Marine fish abundance and distribution often varies across spatial scales for a variety of reasons, and this variability has significant ecological and management consequences. We quantified the distribution of reef-associated fish species along the southeast United States Atlantic coast using underwater video survey samples (N = 4,855 in 2011-2014 to elucidate variability within species across space, depths, and habitats, as well as describe broad-scale patterns in species richness. Thirty-two species were seen at least 10 times on video, and the most commonly observed species were red porgy (Pagrus pagrus; 41.4% of videos, gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus; 31.0%, black sea bass (Centropristis striata; 29.1%, vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens; 27.7%, and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus; 22.6%. Using generalized additive models, we found that most species were non-randomly distributed across space, depths, and habitats. Most rare species were observed along the continental shelf break, except for goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, which was found on the continental shelf in Florida and Georgia. We also observed higher numbers of species in shelf-break habitats from southern North Carolina to Georgia, and fewer in shallower water and at the northern and southern ends of the southeast United States Atlantic coast. Our study provides the first broad-scale description of the spatial distribution of reef fish in the region to be based on fishery-independent data, reinforces the utility of underwater video to survey reef fish, and can help improve the management of reef fish in the SEUS, for example, by improving indices of abundance.

  1. 78 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... stock status, estimate population benchmarks and management criteria, and project future conditions. The... stock of Gray Triggerfish will consist of: A Data Workshop; a series of Assessment webinars; and a... status of fish stocks in the Southeast Region. SEDAR is a three-step process including: (1) Data Workshop...

  2. 75 FR 24883 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Assessment Process is a stock assessment report which describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research... South Atlantic stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars: a Data Workshop...

  3. 76 FR 18532 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR (See FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT to request an invitation providing webinar access information.) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kari Fenske...-mail: kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and...

  4. Streamflow characteristics of a naturally drained forested watershed in southeast Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2010-01-01

    Information about streamflow characteristics e.g. runoff-rainfall (R/O) ratio, rate and timing of flow, surface and subsurface drainage (SSD), and response time to rainfall events is necessary to accurately simulate fluxes and for designing best management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, those data are scarce in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, a highly...

  5. Southeast Atlantic Cloud Properties in a Multivariate Statistical Model - How Relevant is Air Mass History for Local Cloud Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at untangling the impacts of external dynamics and local conditions on cloud properties in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) by combining satellite and reanalysis data using multivariate statistics. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget, and thus prominent in climate-system research. In this study, SEA stratocumulus cloud properties are observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as affected by external dynamics and spatial origins of air masses entering the study area. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a multivariate approach is conducted using satellite observations of aerosol and cloud properties (MODIS, SEVIRI), information on aerosol species composition (MACC) and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis). To account for the often-neglected but important role of air mass origin, information on air mass history based on HYSPLIT modeling is included in the statistical model. This multivariate approach is intended to lead to a better understanding of the physical processes behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA.

  6. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Interpopulational differences in the female reproductive cycle of the southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, 1851 (Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina B. Ituarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of Chasmagnathus granulatus Dana, a semiterrestrial burrowing crab endemic to the southwestern Atlantic, was compared in two contrasting coastal habitats: San Antonio (SA, marine and Mar Chiquita (MC, estuarial. Mature females were collected monthly for 1.5 years and the ovarian cycle was described using a qualitative scale. Gonadosomatic (GSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indexes were calculated. The highest GSI and HSI occurred early in the reproductive season in SA and during the non-reproductive season in MC. The beginning and duration of the reproductive season also differed between populations: it started later and was shorter in SA. In MC, secondary vitellogenesis continued when the reproductive season had finished, and the ovaries remained fully developed throughout the non-reproductive season (winter. Therefore, females of MC were ready to lay eggs as soon as spring environmental conditions appeared. However, SA females did not attain a fully developed ovary during winter. A limited food supply would restrict the available energy to complete secondary vitellogenesis at the end of the reproductive season in SA, after the last spawning. Thus, the vitellogenic cycle should be completed in the following spring, causing a delay in the beginning of the reproductive period. In addition, the higher temperature amplitude may cause the reproductive period in SA to end early.

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Eliana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology

  9. 77 FR 51771 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Process Webinar for Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel and Cobia AGENCY: National Marine... of SEDAR 28 Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish mackerel and cobia assessment webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish mackerel and cobia fisheries...

  10. National Assessment Of Shoreline Change: Part 2, Historical Shoreline Changes And Associated Coastal Land Loss Along The U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states comprising the Southeast Atlantic Coast (east Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina) represents the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and will eventually include the Northeast Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in

  11. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  12. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Knowledge Gaps, Planned Observations to Address Them, and Implications for Global Climate Change Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The stratocumulus "climate radiators" are critical to the regional and global climate system. They interact with dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and are mixed into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. As emphasized in the latest IPCC report, the global representation of these aerosol-cloud interaction processes in climate models is one of the largest uncertainty in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling, and describe planned field campaigns in the region. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the following four synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: 1) ORACLES (Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their interactions), a five-year investigation between 2015 and 2019 with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP), recently funded by the NASA Earth-Venture Suborbital Program, 2) CLARIFY-2016 (Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing: Year 2016), a comprehensive observational and modeling programme funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and supported by the UK Met Office. 3) LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds), a funded

  13. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the U.S. southeast Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tara L.; Morton, Robert A.; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2006-01-01

    The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina). These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates of shorelines and shoreline change rates can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast is the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico, and will eventually include the Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are based on merging three historical shorelines with a modern shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s. The most recent shoreline is derived from data collected over the period of 1997-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are simple end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1401/ to get additional

  14. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2017-07-18

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Atlantic regions of the United States have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change project. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included four shoreline positions at a given location. The long-term shoreline change rates also incorporate the proxy-datum bias correction to account for the unidirectional onshore bias of the proxy-based high water line shorelines relative to the datum-based mean high water shorelines. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment project. The average rates reported here have a reduced amount of uncertainty relative to those presented in the previous assessments for these two regions.

  15. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  16. 76 FR 52638 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research... yellowtail snapper. SUMMARY: The technical stock assessments of the Gulf of Mexico stock of menhaden and the southeast U.S. stocks of yellowtail snapper will be reviewed during the Review Workshop. See SUPPLEMENTARY...

  17. 75 FR 51002 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and... stocks of yellowedge grouper and tilefish will consist of a series of workshops and webinars: a Data... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...

  18. 78 FR 36525 - Fisheries of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... workshop to employ assessment models to evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and... for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast Region. SEDAR is a multi-step process... appropriate for assessment analyses, describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates...

  19. 75 FR 28565 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast Region. A full benchmark assessment... status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and... in SEDAR 8 to evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and management criteria, and...

  20. Aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions in the South-East Atlantic: first results from the ORACLES-2016 deployment and plans for future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; Abel, S.

    2016-12-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for regional and global climate change predictions. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is severely limited. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We describe first results from various synergistic, international research activities aimed at studying aerosol-cloud interactions in the region: NASA's airborne ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols Above Clouds and Their IntEractionS) deployment in August/September of 2016, the DoE's LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds) deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility to Ascension Island (June 2016 - October 2017), the ground-based components of CNRS' AEROCLO-sA (Aerosols Clouds and Fog over the west coast of southern Africa), and ongoing regional-scale integrative, process-oriented science efforts as part of SEALS-sA (Sea Earth Atmosphere Linkages Study in southern Africa). We expect to describe experimental

  1. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Results from the ORACLES-2016 Deployment and a First Look at ORACLES-2017 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal biomass burning (BB) in Southern Africa during the Southern hemisphere spring produces almost a third of the Earth's BB aerosol particles. These particles are lofted into the mid-troposphere and transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, where they interact with one of the three semi-permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. The representation of these interactions in climate models remains highly uncertain, because of the scarcity of observational constraints on both, the aerosol and cloud properties, and the governing physical processes. The first deployment of the NASA P-3 and ER-2 aircraft in the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols Above Clouds and Their IntEractionS) project in August/September of 2016 has started to fill this observational gap by providing an unprecedented look at the SE Atlantic cloud-aerosol system. We provide an overview of the first deployment, highlighting aerosol absorptive and cloud-nucleating properties, their vertical distribution relative to clouds, the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, cloud changes in response to such mixing, and cloud top stability relationships to the aerosol. We also expect to describe preliminary results of the second ORACLES deployment from Sao Tome and Pri­ncipe in August 2017. We will make an initial assessment of the differences and similarities of the BB plume and cloud properties as observed from a deployment site near the plume's northern edge. We will conclude with an outlook for the third ORACLES deployment in October 2018.

  2. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora R. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In the eucalyptus forests, the study examined both managed and unmanaged plantations. During five months, all undecomposed twigs between 10 and 30 cm in length containing ants found within a 16-m2 area on the surface of the leaf litter were collected. A total of 307 nests and 44 species were recorded. Pheidole, Solenopsis, and Camponotus were the most represented genera. Pheidole sp.13, Pheidole sp.43 and Linepithema neotropicum were the most populous species. The dense ombrophilous forest and a eucalyptus plantation unmanaged contained the highest number of colonized twigs; these communities were the most similar and the most species rich. Our results indicate that the twigs are important resources as they help to maintain the litter diversity of dense rain forest and abandoned eucalypt crops.

  3. The Effect of Altitudinal Gradient on the Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Coastal Atlantic Forest of Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Martins, S. C.; Camargo, P. B.; Almeida, D. Q.; Correa, L. O.; Carmo, J. B.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic forest is a vast heterogeneous region with 1.5 million km2, encompassing a large variety of forest physiognomies and compositions, containing large number of species. These forests are distributed in different topographic and climatic conditions, with high levels of precipitation. The rate of deforestation is high, approaching 350 km2 per year, showing be highly fragmented with a large number of species in extinction. The aim of this study was to understanding of the basic biogeochemistry functioning of the coastal Atlantic Forest. The study was carried out in São Paulo State, Brazil (23° 24' S and 45° 11' W). The studied areas were: Restinga Forest at sea level; Lowland Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 100m of altitude asl; Submontana Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 400m of altitude asl and; Montane Ombrophylus Dense Forest at 1000m of altitude asl. A sampling area of 1 ha in each phytophysiognomies was subdivided in contiguous sub-parcels (10 x 10m). The forest floor litter accumulated (0.06m2) was collected monthly (n=15), during 12 months, in each phytophysiognomies. Soils samples (0-0.05m depth) were collected (n=32) from square regular grids, 30m away from each other. Techniques of multivariate like principal components analysis (PCA) were used to determine correlations between the variable. The ordination graphs make possible to observe frequent of standards, representing a significant ratio of the variability of the data. The two first PCA axes cumulatively explained 60% of the total variance of the litter variables. Litter C and δ13C values were strongly influenced by altitude at 1000m. The N and δ15N of litter were influenced by altitude at 100 and 400m. The C/N relation was influenced by altitude at 0m. The lignin was elevated (p<0.01) at sea level in comparison with the other phytophysiognomies. The cellulose values did not vary significantly along the altitudinal gradient. Soil C and N concentrations progressively increased along the

  4. Ecology of Estuarine Macrobenthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, P.M.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Koppel, J. van de; Heip, C.H.R.

    1999-01-01

    Macrobenthos is an important component of estuarine ecosystems. Based on a cross-system comparison, we show that estuarine macrobenthos may directly process a significant portion of the system-wide primary production, and that estuarine macrobenthic biomass may be predicted from primary production

  5. Mapping Shear-wave Velocity Structures of the "African Anomaly" Along a Northwest to Southeast Arc From New Zealand to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodsham, A. E.; Wen, L.

    2006-12-01

    A previous study [Wang and Wen, 2006] investigated the geometry and shear velocity structure of the "African Anomaly" along a great circle arc from the East Pacific Rise to the Japan Sea, and concluded the anomaly extends 1300 km above the core-mantle boundary, that the sides of the anomaly slope towards the apex and has velocity deviations of -5% in the base and -2% to -3% in the mid-lower mantle. Wang and Wen [2004] also reported on the very low velocity province that forms the base of the "African Anomaly" and its lateral extent, but the northern edge of the anomaly was poorly constrained because of the nature of the seismic data. In this presentation we focus on the nature of the anomaly in a cross-section of the mantle along a great arc, from New Zealand, to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge off the coast of Newfoundland, centered over the anomaly. In particular, we focus on the northern edge of the "African Anomaly" where a paucity of large, deep focus earthquakes makes seismic arrivals from the northwest difficult to analyze. We map the lateral extent, thickness, and shear velocity structures of the "African Anomaly" on the basis of forward travel time and waveform modeling of direct S, ScS, and SKS waves. Seismic data used in this study were collected from PASSCAL arrays: KAAPVAAL seismic array (operating years 1997-1999), Tanzania seismic array (1994- 1995), Ethiopia/Kenya seismic array (2000-2002), and the Global Seismographic Network (1994-2002). We minimize uncertainty from earthquake mislocation by relocation of the earthquakes using a global tomographic shear wave velocity model and also correct for heterogeneities outside the anomaly. We explore various methods of data processing, such as frequency filtration, low fold stacking, and cross correlation, to best interpret the arrival times of the various seismic phases and constrain the nature of the "African Anomaly" along a northwest to southeast cross-section.

  6. Aerosol and cloud properties derived from hyperspectral transmitted light in the southeast Atlantic sampled during field campaign deployments in 2016 and 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, S. E.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Pistone, K.; Karol, Y.; Schmidt, S.; Cochrane, S.; Chen, H.; Meyer, K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    We present aerosol and cloud properties collected from airborne remote-sensing measurements in the southeast Atlantic during the recent NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign. During the biomass burning seasons of September 2016 and August 2017, we sampled aerosol layers which overlaid marine stratocumulus clouds off the southwestern coast of Africa. We sampled these aerosol layers and the underlying clouds from the NASA P3 airborne platform with the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). Aerosol optical depth (AOD), along with trace gas content in the atmospheric column (water vapor, NO2, and O3), is obtained from the attenuation in the sun's direct beam, measured at the altitude of the airborne platform. Using hyperspectral transmitted light measurements from 4STAR, in conjunction with hyperspectral hemispheric irradiance measurements from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR), we also obtained aerosol intensive properties (asymmetry parameter, single scattering albedo), aerosol size distributions, cloud optical depth (COD), cloud particle effective radius, and cloud thermodynamic phase. Aerosol intensive properties are retrieved from measurements of angularly resolved skylight and flight level spectral albedo using the inversion used with measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) that has been modified for airborne use. The cloud properties are obtained from 4STAR measurements of scattered light below clouds. We show a favorable initial comparison of the above-cloud AOD measured by 4STAR to this same product retrieved from measurements by the MODIS instrument on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites. The layer AOD observed above clouds will also be compared to integrated aerosol extinction profile measurements from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2).

  7. Carbonate system in the water masses of the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during February and March 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Dávila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate system variables were measured in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean along a transect from South Africa to the southern limit of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC from February to March 2008. Eddies detached from the retroflection of the Agulhas Current increased the gradients observed along the fronts. Minima in the fugacity of CO2, fCO2, and maxima in pH on either side of the frontal zone were observed, noting that within the frontal zone fCO2 reached maximum values and pH was at a minimum.

    Vertical distributions of water masses were described by their carbonate system properties and their relationship to CFC concentrations. Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW and Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW offered pHT,25 values of 7.56 and 7.61, respectively. The UCDW also had higher concentrations of CFC-12 (>0.2 pmol kg−1 as compared to deeper waters, revealing that UCDW was mixed with recently ventilated waters. Calcite and aragonite saturation states (Ω were also affected by the presence of these two water masses with high carbonate concentrations. The aragonite saturation horizon was observed at 1000 m in the subtropical area and north of the Subantarctic Front. At the position of the Polar Front, and under the influence of UCDW and LCDW, the aragonite saturation horizon deepened from 800 m to 1500 m at 50.37° S, and reached 700 m south of 57.5° S. High latitudes proved to be the most sensitive areas to predicted anthropogenic carbon increase. Buffer coefficients related to changes in [CO2], [H+] and Ω with changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (CT and total alkalinity (AT offered minima values in the Antarctic Intermediate Water and UCDW layers. These coefficients suggest that a small increase in CT will sharply decrease the status of pH and carbonate saturation

  8. Genetic architecture of evolved tolerance to PCBs in the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of Atlantic killifish (F. heteroclitus) resident to coastal estuarine habitats contaminated with halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) exhibit heritable resistance to the early life-stage toxicity associated with these compounds. Beyond our knowledge of the aryl hy...

  9. Horizontal and vertical distribution of Chaetognatha in the upper 1000 m of the western Sargasso Sea and the Central and South-east Atlantic.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pierrot-Bultsa, A.C.; Nair, V.R.

    The chaetognath abundance, species richness and bathymetric distribution in the upper 1000 m in two regions of the Atlantic Ocean is discussed based on samples collected on two cruises, one to the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic) on board the R/V R...

  10. Boron isotope-based seasonal paleo-pH reconstruction for the Southeast Atlantic - A multispecies approach using habitat preference of planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitzsch, Markus; Bijma, Jelle; Benthien, Albert; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Steinhoefel, Grit; Kučera, Michal

    2018-04-01

    The boron isotopic composition of planktonic foraminiferal shell calcite (δ11BCc) provides valuable information on the pH of ambient water at the time of calcification. Hence, δ11BCc of fossil surface-dwelling planktonic foraminifera can be used to reconstruct ancient aqueous pCO2 if information on a second carbonate system parameter, temperature and salinity is available. However, pH and pCO2 of surface waters may vary seasonally, largely due to changes in temperature, DIC, and alkalinity. As also the shell fluxes of planktonic foraminifera show species-specific seasonal patterns that are linked to intra-annual changes in temperature, it is obvious that δ11BCc of a certain species reflects the pH and thus pCO2 biased towards a specific time period within a year. This is important to consider for the interpretation of fossil δ11BCc records that may mirror seasonal pH signals. Here we present new Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) δ11BCc coretop data for the planktonic foraminifera species Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides ruber, Trilobatus sacculifer and Orbulina universa and compare them with δ11Bborate derived from seasonally resolved carbonate system parameters. We show that the inferred season-adjusted δ11BCc /δ11Bborate relationships are similar to existing calibrations and can be combined with published δ11BCc field and culture data to augment paleo-pH calibrations. To test the applicability of these calibrations, we used a core drilled on the Walvis Ridge in the Southeast Atlantic spanning the last 330,000 years to reconstruct changes in surface-water pCO2. The reconstruction based on G. bulloides, which reflects the austral spring season, was shown to yield values that closely resemble the Vostok ice-core data indicating that surface-water pCO2 was close to equilibrium with the atmosphere during the cooler spring season. In contrast, pCO2 estimated from δ11BCc of O. universa, T. sacculifer and G. ruber that

  11. Southeast Regional Implementation Manual for Requirements and Procedures for Evaluation of the Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material in Southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Regional Implementation Manual was prepared by EPA Region 4 to provide guidance for applicants proposing open-water disposal of dredged material in southeastern U.S. coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Recognition of Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Neogene tectonic reactivation through apatite fission-track analysis in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil: association with the opening of the south Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello Saenz, C. A.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Hadler Neto, J. C.; Iunes, P. J.; Guedes, S.; Ribeiro, L. F. B.; Paulo, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Apatite fission-track analysis was used for the determination of thermal histories and ages in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil. Together with geological and geomorphologic information, these ages enable us to quantify the thermal histories and timing of Mesozoic and Cenozoic epirogenic and tectonic processes. The collected samples are from different geomorphologic blocks: the high Mantiqueira mountain range (HMMR) with altitude above 1000 m, the low Mantiqueira mountain range (LMMR) under 1000 m, the Serra do Mar mountain range (SMMR), the Jundiaí and Atlantic Plateaus, and the coastline, all of which have distinct thermal histories. During the Aptian (˜120 Ma), there was an uplift of the HMMR, coincident with opening of the south Atlantic Ocean. Its thermal history indicates heating (from ˜60 to ˜80 °C) until the Paleocene, when rocks currently exposed in the LMMR reached temperatures of ˜100 °C. In this period, the Serra do Mar rift system and the Japi erosion surface were formed. The relief records the latter. During the Late Cretaceous, the SMMR was uplifted and probably linked to its origin; in the Tertiary, it experienced heating from ˜60 to ˜90 °C, then cooling that extends to the present. The SMMR, LMMR, and HMMR were reactivated mainly in the Paleocene, and the coastline during the Paleogene. These processes are reflected in the sedimentary sequences and discordances of the interior and continental margin basins.

  13. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. 75 FR 53951 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) Update; Greater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  15. Characterization of an estuarine environment by means of an index based on intertidal macrofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Anxo; Novais, Júlio M; Domínguez, Jorge

    2013-06-15

    Macrobenthic intertidal assemblages from five Atlantic Iberian estuaries were analyzed to develop an estuarine index. An R-mode analysis revealed a close association between the isopod Cyathura carinata, the polychaete Hediste diversicolor and the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. Although these species are abundant in all the estuaries considered, they tend to be absent from sites at the marine and freshwater ends of the environmental gradient. Three different ways of calculating the estuarine index are proposed. The index is comprised in the interval [0,1] and was constructed using relative abundances rather than absolute abundances. Transformation of the raw data helped improve the performance of the index. A non-parametric statistical test is proposed for application to the estuarine index to find sites with the same values after a significant omnibus test. The index appears to be a good proxy for recognizing estuarine limits by use of indicator species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 74004 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Atlantic Regional Fishery Management Councils, each of the 18 constituent states, both the U.S. Virgin... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA059 Atlantic... nominations for the Advisory Panel (AP) for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment...

  17. A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kesavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India. In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.

  18. 75 FR 20985 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....net SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  19. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  20. Estuarine Ecosystem Engineering : Biogeomorphology in the estuarine intertidal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montserrat Trotsenburg, F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate how (macro)benthic organisms interact with the ecological functioning, erodibility and small- to medium-scale morphodynamics of estuarine intertidal sediment by modulating its composition and/or properties. In these interactions, scale is of great importance

  1. General assessment of estuarine pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General assessment of estuarine pollution. Contamination of estuaries by untreated domestic wastewater is widespread, however, in absence of time-series studies the responses of native flora and fauna to modified environment are unclear. Agricultural runoff ...

  2. Occurrence and use of an estuarine habitat by giant manta ray Manta birostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A M; Luiz, O J; Domit, C

    2015-06-01

    Based on the knowledge of local artisanal fishermen and on direct observations, this study presents evidence that the giant manta ray Manta birostris uses the Paranaguá estuarine complex in south Brazil, south-western Atlantic Ocean, in a predictable seasonal pattern. Behavioural observations suggest that the estuary can act as a nursery ground for M. birostris during the summer. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  4. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  5. 78 FR 9372 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    .... Gulf Council 2014 benchmark stocks. 2. Caribbean Council 2013 benchmark stocks. 3. South Atlantic... Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR) process for determining the status of fish stocks in the...

  6. Diet of invasive lionfish on hard bottom reefs of the Southeast USA: insights from stomach contents and stable isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents and stable isotope analyses were used to determine the diet of lionfish in the warm-temperate hard bottom reef community in theSoutheast US Atlantic...

  7. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  8. Shock, stress or signal? Implications of freshwater flows for a top-level estuarine predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Taylor

    Full Text Available Physicochemical variability in estuarine systems plays an important role in estuarine processes and in the lifecycles of estuarine organisms. In particular, seasonality of freshwater inflow to estuaries may be important in various aspects of fish lifecycles. This study aimed to further understand these relationships by studying the movements of a top-level estuarine predator in response to physicochemical variability in a large, temperate south-east Australian estuary (Shoalhaven River. Mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus, 47-89 cm total length were surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters, and their movements and migrations monitored over two years via fixed-position VR2W acoustic receivers configured in a linear array along the length of the estuary. The study period included a high degree of abiotic variability, with multiple pulses (exponentially high flows over a short period of time in fresh water to the estuary, as well as broader seasonal variation in flow, temperature and conductivity. The relative deviation of fish from their modal location in the estuary was affected primarily by changes in conductivity, and smaller fish (n = 4 tended to deviate much further downstream from their modal position in the estuary than larger fish (n = 8. High-flow events which coincided with warmer temperatures tended to drive mature fish down the estuary and potentially provided a spawning signal to stimulate aggregation of adults near the estuary mouth; however, this relationship requires further investigation. These findings indicate that pulse and press effects of freshwater inflow and associated physicochemical variability play a role in the movements of mulloway, and that seasonality of large freshwater flows may be important in spawning. The possible implications of river regulation and the extraction of freshwater for consumptive uses on estuarine fishes are discussed.

  9. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The objectives of this study are: to assess the significance of stabilisation of sediments by algae, in relation to the changes in hydrodynamic and sedimentological regimes arising from the construction of tidal power barrages; to identify a reliable and meaningful method of measuring the effectiveness, including duration, of algal binding on sediment stability, and to relate this method to other methods of measuring critical erosion velocity and sediment shear strength; to undertake a series of field experiments investigating the effect of algae on binding sediments and the parameters which could potentially influence such binding and to develop a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding. This report contains plates, figures and tables. (author)

  10. Meta-analysis of estuarine nurseries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Densities of juvenile fishery species and other animals (all generally 100 mm total length) were summarized for shallow estuarine areas along coastal Texas and...

  11. Benthic and pelagic pathways of methylmercury bioaccumulation in estuarine food webs of the northeast United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Y Chen

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a contaminant of global concern that bioaccumulates and bioamagnifies in marine food webs. Lower trophic level fauna are important conduits of MeHg from sediment and water to estuarine and coastal fish harvested for human consumption. However, the sources and pathways of MeHg to these coastal fisheries are poorly known particularly the potential for transfer of MeHg from the sediment to biotic compartments. Across a broad gradient of human land impacts, we analyzed MeHg concentrations in food webs at ten estuarine sites in the Northeast US (from the Hackensack Meadowlands, NJ to the Gulf of Maine. MeHg concentrations in water column particulate material, but not in sediments, were predictive of MeHg concentrations in fish (killifish and Atlantic silversides. Moreover, MeHg concentrations were higher in pelagic fauna than in benthic-feeding fauna suggesting that MeHg delivery to the water column from methylation sites from within or outside of the estuary may be an important driver of MeHg bioaccumulation in estuarine pelagic food webs. In contrast, bulk sediment MeHg concentrations were only predictive of concentrations of MeHg in the infaunal worms. Our results across a broad gradient of sites demonstrate that the pathways of MeHg to lower trophic level estuarine organisms are distinctly different between benthic deposit feeders and forage fish. Thus, even in systems with contaminated sediments, transfer of MeHg into estuarine food webs maybe driven more by the efficiency of processes that determine MeHg input and bioavailability in the water column.

  12. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Model-Relevant Observations and the Beneficiary Modeling Efforts in the Realm of the EVS-2 Project ORACLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Globally, aerosols remain a major contributor to uncertainties in assessments of anthropogenically-induced changes to the Earth climate system, despite concerted efforts using satellite and suborbital observations and increasingly sophisticated models. The quantification of direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects, as well as cloud adjustments thereto, even at regional scales, continues to elude our capabilities. Some of our limitations are due to insufficient sampling and accuracy of the relevant observables, under an appropriate range of conditions to provide useful constraints for modeling efforts at various climate scales. In this talk, I will describe (1) the efforts of our group at NASA Ames to develop new airborne instrumentation to address some of the data insufficiencies mentioned above; (2) the efforts by the EVS-2 ORACLES project to address aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the SE Atlantic and (3) time permitting, recent results from a synergistic use of A-Train aerosol data to test climate model simulations of present-day direct radiative effects in some of the AEROCOM phase II global climate models.

  13. Ecological characterisation and infection of Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) of the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of Brazil over a 10 year period: has the behaviour of the autochthonous malaria vector changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buery, Julyana Cerqueira; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Natal, Licia; Silva, Leonardo Santana da; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Fux, Blima; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Falqueto, Aloisio; Cerutti Junior, Crispim

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND In southeastern Brazil, autochthonous cases of malaria can be found near Atlantic Forest fragments. Because the transmission cycle has not been completely clarified, the behaviour of the possible vectors in those regions must be observed. A study concerning the entomological aspects and natural infection of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) captured in the municipalities of the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state was performed in 2004 and 2005. Similarly, between 2014 and 2015, 12 monthly collections were performed at the same area of the study mentioned above. METHODS Center for Disease Control (CDC) light traps with CO2 were set in open areas, at the edge and inside of the forest (canopy and ground), whereas Shannon traps were set on the edge. FINDINGS A total of 1,414 anophelines were collected from 13 species. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar and Knab remained the most frequently captured species in the CDC traps set in the forest canopy, as well as being the vector with the highest prevalence of Plasmodium vivax/simium infection, according to molecular polymerase chain reaction techniques. CONCLUSIONS P. vivax/simium was found only in abdomens of the mosquitoes of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, weakening the hypothesis that this subgenus also plays a role in malaria transmission in this specific region.

  14. Predation on Atlantic salmon and sea trout during their first days as postsmolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, C.; Bak, B.D.; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Radio-tagged smolts of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea trout Salmo trutta were predated heavily by sea birds after crossing the saline limit in the estuary of the River Skjern, Denmark. Most predation took place within the first 9 h after estuarine entry. The field data do not contradict...

  15. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  16. Tidal variations in the Sundarbans estuarine system, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterjee, M.; Shankar, D.; Sen, G.K.; Sanyal, P.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Chatterjee, A.; Amol, P.; Mukherjee, D.; Suprit, K.; Mukherjee, A.; Vijith, V.; Chatterjee, S.; Basu, A.; Das, M.; Chakraborti, S.; Kalla, A.; Misra, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Mandal, G.; Sarkar, K.

    Situated in the eastern coastal state of West Bengal, the Sundarbans Estuarine System (SES) is India’s largest monsoonal, macro-tidal delta-front estuarine system. It comprises the southernmost part of the Indian portion of the Ganga...

  17. 77 FR 60107 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... awareness and community involvement in stewardship, incompatible use by visitors, and ecological impacts of... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management...

  18. Characteristics and landcover of estuarine boundaries: implications for the delineation of the South African estuarine functional zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veldkornet, DA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zulu-Natal), cultivation has removed estuarine habitat. Although delineation of boundaries can be complicated by landcover changes, the estuarine lateral boundary in Cape estuaries could be identified based on sediment characteristics (moisture content, organic content...

  19. 75 FR 24822 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Emergency Fisheries Closure in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Register and by posting to the NMFS Southeast Regional Office website. Classification This action is issued... ATLANTIC 0 1. The authority citation for part 622 continues to read as follows: Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1801...

  20. Estuarine Oceanography. CEGS Programs Publication Number 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. F.

    Estuarine Oceanography is one in a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate and earth science courses. Designed for those interested in coastal oceanography or limnology, the module is structured as a laboratory supplement for undergraduate college classes but should be useful at all levels. The module has two…

  1. Conservation Priority Index for Estuarine Fish (COPIEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Costa, José Lino; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

    2008-12-01

    Public awareness regarding environmental issues has increased in recent decades. The increasing number of impact assessment studies, management and conservation plans, as well as ecological monitoring studies, demand new and more efficient techniques. Indices are an important tool to aid biologists in these studies and should allow an easier comprehension of the data by managers, decision-makers and the general public. This study presents the first multi-metrical index able to establish a hierarchical ordination of the conservation priority of the estuarine fish species using 72 species from 16 estuarine systems (W and S coasts of Portugal). The index is composed of 10 metrics, comprising species life traits, distribution and population trends. The information needed to score each metric was gathered from the published literature and the index validation was done by external means. This methodology allowed the definition of those fish species most in need of conservation planning, and those less prone to extinction in Portuguese estuarine systems. The proposed index fills a gap in our knowledge and provides a useful tool to the scientific community and to the decision-makers, being a breakthrough in the field of conservation planning of estuarine fish species.

  2. Growth Characteristics of an Estuarine Heterocystous Cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimarães, P.; Yunes, J.S.; Cretoiu, M.S.; Stal, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    A new estuarine filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium was isolated from intertidal sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (Brazil). The isolate may represent a new genus related to Cylindrospermopsis. While the latter is planktonic, contains gas vesicles, and is toxic, the newly isolated strain

  3. Assessing estuarine biota in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2005-01-01

    In southern California, most estuarine wetlands are gone, and what little habitat remains is degraded. For this reason, it is often of interest to assess the condition of estuaries over time, such as when determining the success of a restoration project. To identify impacts or opportunities for restoration, we also may want to know how a particular estuary, or area...

  4. Estuarine and marine geology (2011-2015)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Chakraborty, P.

    . Detailed studies on rock-magnetic properties and delta 13Corg in sediments off the Krishna-Godavari provide evidence of reductive diagenesis, formation of authigenic sulfides and occurrence of methane in these estuarine sediments and also...

  5. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey program of offshore resource and geoenvironmental studies, Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico region, from September 1, 1976, to December 31, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, David W.; Needell, Sally W.

    1983-01-01

    Mineral and energy resources of the continental margins of the United States arc important to the Nation's commodity independence and to its balance of payments. These resources are being studied along the continental margins of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in keeping with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey to survey the geologic structures, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.'(Organic Act of 1879). An essential corollary to these resource studies is the study of potential geologic hazards that may be associated with offshore resource exploration and exploitation. In cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the Geological Survey, through its Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program, carries out extensive research to evaluate hazards from sediment mobility, shallow gas, and slumping and to acquire information on the distribution and concentration of trace metals and biogenic and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in sea-floor sediments. All these studies arc providing needed background information, including information on pollutant dispersal, on the nearshore, estuarine, and lacustrine areas that may be near pipeline and nuclear powerplant sites. Users of these data include the Congress, many Federal agencies, the coastal States, private industry, academia, and the concerned public. The results of the regional structural, stratigraphic, and resource studies carried out under the Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Marine Geology Program have been used by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management to select areas for future leasing and to aid in the evaluation of tracts nominated for leasing. Resource studies have concentrated mostly on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf frontier areas. Geologic detailing of five major basins along the U.S. Atlantic margin, where sediments are as much as 14 km thick, have been revealed by 25,000 km of 24-and 48-channel common-depth-point seismic data, 187,000 km of

  7. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  8. A record of the last 460 thousand years of upper ocean stratification from the central Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Peeters, F.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation predominantly enters the Atlantic Ocean through the southeast, where the subtropical gyre is exposed to the influence of the Agulhas leakage (AL). To understand how the transfer of Indian Ocean waters via the AL affected the upper

  9. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  10. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-19

    activities, splash points and Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) operations) and non-military Base activities (e.g., sewage treatment , storm water runoff and...We will measure the metabolism of benthic microalgae, the water column, eelgrass, and any dominant macroalgae by developing series of photosynthesis...activities (storm water control and sewage treatment ). Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Research Plan DCERP Research Plan 32 September 19

  11. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  12. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    apparently to save ammunition, according to the BPP report . The attacks came after a battalion of Burmese troops had arrived at the border areas to...Manuel Pangilinan says. 17 It will be divided into five " strategic business units" (or SBU’s): commercial banking, which will include Hibernia and...065082 JPRS-SEA-84-173 14 December 1 984 Southeast Asia Report Reproduced From Best Available Copy 20000107 100 IIXTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 9

  13. Chromatographic determination of nanomolar cyanate concentrations in estuarine and sea waters by precolumn fluorescence derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widner, Brittany; Mulholland, Margaret R; Mopper, Kenneth

    2013-07-16

    Recent studies suggest that cyanate (OCN(-)) is a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen (N) available to support the growth of aquatic microbes and, thus, may play a role in aquatic N cycling. However, aquatic OCN(-) distributions have not been previously described because of the lack of a suitable assay for measuring OCN(-) concentrations in natural waters. Previous methods were designed to quantify OCN(-) in aqueous samples with much higher reduced N concentrations (micromolar levels) than those likely to be found in natural waters (nanomolar levels). We have developed a method to quantify OCN(-) in dilute, saline environments. In the method described here, OCN(-) in aqueous solution reacts with 2-aminobenzoic acid to produce a highly fluorescent derivative, 2,4-quinazolinedione, which is then quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Derivatization conditions were optimized to simultaneously minimize the reagent blank and maximize 2,4-quinazolinedione formation (>90% reaction yield) in estuarine and seawater matrices. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 nM was achieved with only minor matrix effects. We applied this method to measure OCN(-) concentrations in estuarine and seawater samples from the Chesapeake Bay and coastal waters from the mid-Atlantic region. OCN(-) concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 41 nM. We determined that OCN(-) concentrations were stable in 0.2 μm filtered seawater samples stored at -80 °C for up to nine months.

  14. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  15. Estuarine consumers utilize marine, estuarine and terrestrial organic matter and provide connectivity among these food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....

  16. The impact of channel capture on estuarine hydro-morphodynamics and water quality in the Amazon delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Dos Santos, Eldo; Pinheiro Lopes, Paula Patrícia; da Silva Pereira, Hyrla Herondina; de Oliveira Nascimento, Otávio; Rennie, Colin David; da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly Sternberg, Leonel; Cavalcanti da Cunha, Alan

    2018-05-15

    Due to progressive erosion of the new Urucurituba Channel, the Amazon River has recently captured almost all discharge from the lower Araguari River (Amapá-AP, Brazil), which previously flowed directly to the Atlantic Ocean. These recent geomorphological changes have caused strong impacts on the landscape and hydrodynamic patterns near the Araguari River mouth, especially the alteration of the riverine drainage system and its water quality. Landsat images were used to assess the estuarine landscape morphodynamic, particularly the expansion of the Urucurituba Channel, 80km from the Araguari River mouth, chronicling its connection to the Amazon River. The results suggest that the Urucurituba developed by headward migration across the Amazon delta; this is perhaps the first observation of estuarine distributary network development by headward channel erosion. The rate of Urucurituba Channel width increase has been ≈5m/month since 2011, increasing drainage capacity of the channel. We also collected in situ hydrodynamic measurements and analyzed 17 water quality parameters. Having 2011 as baseline, the flowrate of Araguari River has been diverted by up to 98% through Urucurituba Channel, with substantial changes in net discharge recorded at 3 monitoring stations. Statistically significant differences in water quality (pEstuarine salinity and solids concentrations have increased. Overall, we demonstrate changes in landscape, hydrodynamics and water quality of the lower Araguari River. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Atlantic Hurricanes poster features high quality satellite images of 15 hurricanes which formed in the Atlantic Basin (includes Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...

  18. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  19. 78 FR 50038 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ....33(c), the revised plan meets the reserve's requirements for compliance. The Wells Reserve Management... Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management.... ACTION: Notice of Public Comment Period for the Wells, Maine National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  20. Morphological distinction between estuarine polychaetes: Laeonereis culveri and L. nota (Phyllodocida: Nereididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus-Flores, Citlalli; Salazar-González, S Alejandro; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2016-03-01

    The family Nereididae includes more than 500 polychaete species described worldwide, and includes species common in many benthic environments, but some other species may tolerate freshwater or can even thrive in humid substrates in tropical forests. In estuarine environments, nereidid polychaetes can be abundant and relevant as a food source for resident or migratory birds. Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1879) is a common estuarine species found in tropical and subtropical Atlantic American shores and was described from New Jersey; its median and posterior parapodia have upper notopodial ligules usually longer than the lower ones, and the latter are parallel to the notaciculae throughout the body. L. culveri distribution is from Connecticut to central Argentina; however, this wide distribution might be due to the inclusion of several other species as junior synonyms, despite that some morphological differences were found between them. One of such species is L. nota (Treadwell, 1941), that was described from Texas; its parapodia have notopodial ligules of about the same size, and the lower ones are oblique to the notaciculae. In order to clarify the differences between these two species, and to define which inhabits the Northwestern Caribbean region, topotype materials from these two species and specimens from Chetumal Bay were collected, and their morphological features were compared. Our results indicated that L. culveri and L. nota are different species and that the latter is found in Chetumal Bay. On the basis of mature specimens, L. culveri is hereby restricted to the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, and L. nota are reinstated and its distribution extends from Texas, in the Gulf of Mexico to Chetumal Bay, in the Northwestern Caribbean Sea. A key to identify all species in Laeonereis Hartman (1945) is also included.

  1. Regional-scale migrations and habitat use of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in the US South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyier, Eric A; Franks, Bryan R; Chapman, Demian D; Scheidt, Douglas M; Stolen, Eric D; Gruber, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the geographic extent and timing of coastal shark migrations, as well as their environmental cues, is essential for refining shark management strategies in anticipation of increasing anthropogenic stressors to coastal ecosystems. We employed a regional-scale passive acoustic telemetry array encompassing 300 km of the east Florida coast to assess what factors influence site fidelity of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to an exposed coastal nursery at Cape Canaveral, and to document the timing and rate of their seasonal migrations. Movements of 54 juvenile lemon sharks were monitored for three years with individuals tracked for up to 751 days. While most sharks demonstrated site fidelity to the Cape Canaveral region December through February under typical winter water temperatures, historically extreme declines in ocean temperature were accompanied by rapid and often temporary, southward displacements of up to 190 km along the Florida east coast. From late February through April each year, most sharks initiated a northward migration at speeds of up to 64 km day(-1) with several individuals then detected in compatible estuarine telemetry arrays in Georgia and South Carolina up to 472 km from release locations. Nineteen sharks returned for a second or even third consecutive winter, thus demonstrating strong seasonal philopatry to the Cape Canaveral region. The long distance movements and habitat associations of immature lemon sharks along the US southeast coast contrast sharply with the natal site fidelity observed in this species at other sites in the western Atlantic Ocean. These findings validate the existing multi-state management strategies now in place. Results also affirm the value of collaborative passive arrays for resolving seasonal movements and habitat preferences of migratory coastal shark species not easily studied with other tagging techniques.

  2. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) in coastal environments of Southeast Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Botello, A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Rueda-Quintana, L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses to determine the presence and concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) were carried out in sediments and estuarine organisms (Crassostrea virginica) from five coastal lagoons of the Southeast Gulf of Mexico. The results of this study show high levels of POP's in sediments with high concentration of Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin and ppDDT, either in sediments or biological tissues. According to national regulations, the use and dispersion of these chemical have been severely restricted or totally prohibited in developed countries, however their presence in coastal areas indicate an extensive use and recent application of them. (author)

  3. Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuidema, P [University of Miami; Chiu, C [University of Reading; Fairall, CW [NOAA - Environmental Technology Laboratory; Ghan, SJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Kollias, P [Stony Brook University; McFarguhar, GM; Mechem, DB [University of Kansas; Romps, DM [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Wong, H; Yuter, SE [North Carolina State University; Alvarado, MJ [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.; DeSzoeke, SP; Feingold, G [NOAA - Earth System Research Laboratory; Haywood, JM; Lewis, ER [Brookhaven National Laboratory; McComiskey, A [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Redemann, J [NASA - Ames Research Center; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wood, R [University of Washington; Zhu, P [Florida International University

    2015-12-01

    Southern Africa is the world’s largest emitter of biomass-burning (BB) aerosols. Their westward transport over the remote southeast Atlantic Ocean colocates some of the largest atmospheric loadings of absorbing aerosol with the least examined of the Earth’s major subtropical stratocumulus decks. Global aerosol model results highlight that the largest positive top-of-atmosphere forcing in the world occurs in the southeast Atlantic, but this region exhibits large differences in magnitude and sign between reputable models, in part because of high variability in the underlying model cloud distributions. Many uncertainties contribute to the highly variable model radiation fields: the aging of shortwave-absorbing aerosol during transport, how much of the aerosol mixes into the cloudy boundary layer, and how the low clouds adjust to smoke-radiation and smoke-cloud interactions. In addition, the ability of the BB aerosol to absorb shortwave radiation is known to vary seasonally as the fuel type on land changes.

  4. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  5. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  6. Ecotoxicology of bromoacetic acid on estuarine phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Ana R.; Richardson, Tammi L.; Pinckney, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Bromoacetic acid is formed when effluent containing chlorine residuals react with humics in natural waters containing bromide. The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of bromoacetic acid on estuarine phytoplankton as a proxy for ecosystem productivity. Bioassays were used to measure the EC 50 for growth in cultured species and natural marine communities. Growth inhibition was estimated by changes in chlorophyll a concentrations measured by fluorometry and HPLC. The EC 50 s for cultured Thalassiosira pseudonana were 194 mg L −1 , 240 mg L −1 for Dunaliella tertiolecta and 209 mg L −1 for Rhodomonas salina. Natural phytoplankton communities were more sensitive to contamination with an EC 50 of 80 mg L −1 . Discriminant analysis suggested that bromoacetic acid additions cause an alteration of phytoplankton community structure with implications for higher trophic levels. A two-fold EC 50 decrease in mixed natural phytoplankton populations affirms the importance of field confirmation for establishing water quality criteria. - Highlights: • Bromoacetic acid exposure resulted in lethal impacts to estuarine phytoplankton. • Cultured phytoplankton were less sensitive to bromoacetic acid than natural communities. • Lab results should be confirmed with field experiments whenever possible. - The toxicology of haloacetic acids has been studied in freshwater ecosystems, and urbanization of the coastal zone is making effects in marine ecosystems equally relevant.

  7. Triclosan alterations of estuarine phytoplankton community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckney, James L; Thompson, Laura; Hylton, Sarah

    2017-06-15

    Antimicrobial additives in pharmaceutical and personal care products are a major environmental concern due to their potential ecological impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Triclosan (TCS) has been used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and preservative in various media. The sublethal and lethal effects of TCS on estuarine phytoplankton community composition were investigated using bioassays of natural phytoplankton communities to measure phytoplankton responses to different concentrations of TCS ranging from 1 to 200μgl -1 . The EC 50 (the concentration of an inhibitor where the growth is reduced by half) for phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, cryptophytes) examined in this ranged from 10.7 to 113.8μg TCS l -1 . Exposures resulted in major shifts in phytoplankton community composition at concentrations as low as 1.0μg TCS l -1 . This study demonstrates estuarine ecosystem sensitivity to TCS exposure and highlights potential alterations in phytoplankton community composition at what are typically environmental concentrations of TCS in urbanized estuaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth Characteristics of an Estuarine Heterocystous Cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guimarães

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new estuarine filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium was isolated from intertidal sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (Brazil. The isolate may represent a new genus related to Cylindrospermopsis. While the latter is planktonic, contains gas vesicles, and is toxic, the newly isolated strain is benthic and does not contain gas vesicles. It is not known whether the new strain is toxic. It grows equally well in freshwater, brackish and full salinity growth media, in the absence of inorganic or organic combined nitrogen, with a growth rate 0.6 d-1. Nitrogenase, the enzyme complex responsible for fixing dinitrogen, was most active during the initial growth phase and its activity was not different between the different salinities tested (freshwater, brackish, and full salinity seawater. Salinity shock also did not affect nitrogenase activity. The frequency of heterocysts was high, coinciding with high nitrogenase activity during the initial growth phase, but decreased subsequently. However, the frequency of heterocysts decreased considerably more at higher salinity, while no change in nitrogenase activity occurred, indicating a higher efficiency of dinitrogen fixation. Akinete frequency was low in the initial growth phase and higher in the late growth phase. Akinete frequency was much lower at high salinity, which might indicate better growth conditions or that akinete differentiation was under the same control as heterocyst differentiation. These trends have hitherto not been reported for heterocystous cyanobacteria but they seem to be well fitted for an estuarine life style.

  9. Impact of estuarine pollution on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kerwin, J.A.; Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Stickel, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution of estuaries affects bird populations indirectly through changes in habitat and food supply. The multi-factor pollution of Chesapeake Bay has resulted in diminution of submerged aquatic plants and consequent change in food habits of the canvasback duck. Although dredge-spoil operations can improve wildlife habitat, they often result in its demise. Pollution of estuaries also affects birds directly, through chemical toxication, which may result in outright mortality or in reproductive impairment. Lead from industrial sources and roadways enters the estuaries and is accumulated in tissues of birds. Lead pellets deposited in estuaries as a result of hunting are consumed by ducks with sufficient frequency .to result m large annual die-offs from lead poisoning. Fish in certain areas, usually near industrial sources, may contain levels of mercury high enough to be hazardous to birds that consume them. Other heavy metals are present in estuarine birds, but their significance is poorly known. Oil exerts lethal or sublethal effects on birds by oiling their feathers, oiling eggs and young by contaminated parents, and by ingestion of oil-contaminated food. Organochlorine chemicals, of both agricultural and industrial origin, travel through the food chains and reach harmful levels in susceptible species of birds in certain estuarine ecosystems. Both outright mortality and reproductive impairment have occurred.

  10. 78 FR 34046 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... population models to evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and management criteria, and... Bonnethead sharks. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the HMS stocks of Atlantic Sharpnose and Bonnethead... status of fish stocks in the Southeast Region. SEDAR is a multi-step process including: (1) Data...

  11. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs, where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60, and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  12. 75 FR 47266 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR. See FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT to request an invitation providing webinar access information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366; e-mail: kari.fenske...

  13. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR. See FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT to... CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366; e-mail: kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico...

  14. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  15. Estuarine Facies Model Revisited: Conceptual Model of Estuarine Sediment Dynamics During Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, E. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.; McKee, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of estuarine systems show deposition occurs primarily within the central basin. There, accommodation space is high within the deep central valley, which is below regional wave base and where current energy is presumed to reach a relative minimum, promoting direct deposition of cohesive sediment and minimizing erosion. However, these models often reflect long-term (decadal-millennial) timescales, where accumulation rates are in relative equilibrium with the rate of relative sea-level rise, and lack the resolution to capture shorter term changes in sediment deposition and erosion within the central estuary. This work presents a conceptual model for estuarine sedimentation during non-equilibrium conditions, where high-energy inputs to the system reach a relative maximum in the central basin, resulting in temporary deposition and/or remobilization over sub-annual to annual timescales. As an example, we present a case study of Core Sound, NC, a lagoonal estuarine system where the regional base-level has been reached, and sediment deposition, resuspension and bypassing is largely a result of non-equilibrium, high-energy events. Utilizing a 465 cm-long sediment core from a mini-basin located between Core Sound and the continental shelf, a 40-year sub-annual chronology was developed for the system, with sediment accumulation rates (SAR) interpolated to a monthly basis over the 40-year record. This study links erosional processes in the estuary directly with sediment flux to the continental shelf, taking advantage of the highly efficient sediment trapping capability of the mini-basin. The SAR record indicates high variation in the estuarine sediment supply, with peaks in the SAR record at a recurrence interval of 1 year (+/- 0.25). This record has been compared to historical storm influence for the area. Through this multi-decadal record, sediment flushing events occur at a much more frequent interval than previously thought (i.e. annual rather than

  16. SPECIES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ESTUARINE DETRITIVORES: INHIBITION OR FACILITATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native Hawaiian estuarine detritivores; the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus, and the neritid gastropod Neritina vespertina, were maintained in flow-through microcosms with conditioned leaves from two riparian tree species, Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and guava (Psidium guajava). Th...

  17. GoM Coastal and Estuarine Biopsy Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small vessel surveys are conducted within estuarine and nearshore coastal waters to collect tissue biopsy samples from bottlenose dolphins. Visual surveys are...

  18. Benthic foraminiferal biocoenoses in the estuarine regimes of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Benthic Foraminifera are highly responsive to subtle changes in the estuarine environment. Keeping this in view, a qualitative analysis of living benthic Foraminifera was made of the samples collected from the Mandovi-Zuari estuaries...

  19. Shrimp farming in estuarine environment: Points to ponder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    of the expansion has taken place around the estuarine area as it facilitates water exchange and waste disposal. In semi-intensive and extensive type of farming practices, use of different types of chemicals and antibiotics, artificial feeds, probiotics...

  20. NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1985, NOAA launched the Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Program to develop a consistent data base on the distribution, relative abundance, and life...

  1. Distribution and drift of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) eggs and larvae in Greenland offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hovgård, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Catches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs and larvae from 45 national and international ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Greenland offshore waters during the period 1950 to 1984 have been compiled and re-analysed. Southeast and Southwest Greenland were identified as im- portant spawning areas...

  2. 78 FR 34041 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); scoping meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast Region... in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS), and before voting to submit the FMP to... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management Plan for the...

  3. 78 FR 34042 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); scoping meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast Region... in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS), and before voting to submit the FMP to... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management Plan for the...

  4. Estuarine beaches of the Amazon coast: environmental and recreational characterization

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Rosigleyse C.; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; Jiménez Quintana, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon coast is rich in natural resources, with highly valued natural landscapes and ecological systems. These environments include estuarine beaches, which are important areas for recreational activities. The present study provides an environmental and recreational diagnosis of three of these estuarine beaches on the Amazon coast (Colares, Maruda, and Murubira). The study was conducted in July, 2012, 2013 and 2015. An set of variables was assessed: (i) physical variables (hydrodynamics),...

  5. Ecology of Buzzards Bay: An Estuarine Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), highbush blueberry { Vaccinium corymbosum ), and swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum), occur in areas...ice left by the retreating glaciers were buried by glacial debris and outwash sands that collapsed as the ice melted, leav- ing the depressions . When...persistently saturated soils. These bogs are dominated by Sphagnum spp. or "peat" mosses and low-growing shrubs like cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon

  6. VARIATIONS IN THE SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF FRESHWATER AND ESTUARINE CDOM CAUSED BY PARTITIONING ONTO RIVER AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optical properties and geochemical cycling of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are altered by its sorption to freshwater and estuarine sediments. Measured partition coefficients (Kp) of Satilla River (Georgia) and Cape Fear River estuary (North Carolina) CDOM ran...

  7. Southeast Region Finfish Age Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set includes port samples of reef fish species collected from commercial and recreational fishery landings in the U.S. South Atlantic (NC - FL Keys). The data...

  8. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  9. Distribution and partitioning of heavy metals in estuarine sediment cores and implications for the use of sediment quality standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Total metal concentrations in surface sediments and historically contaminated sediments were determined in sediment cores collected from three estuaries (Thames, Medway and Blackwater in south-east England. The partitioning behaviour of metals in these sediments was also determined using a sequential extraction scheme. These data were then compared with sediment quality values (SQVs to determine the potential ecotoxicological risk to sediment dwelling organisms. When total metal concentrations in surface sediments are examined, no risk to biota in any of the estuaries is indicated. However, when historically contaminated sediments at depth are also considered, risks to biota are apparent and are greatest for the Thames, followed by the Medway and then the Blackwater. This suggests that regulatory authorities should examine vertical metal profiles, particularly in estuaries that are experiencing low sediment accumulation rates where historically contaminated sediments are in the shallow sub-surface zone and where erosion or dredging activities may take place. When metal partitioning characteristics are also considered, the risk to biota is comparable for the Medway and the Blackwater with the potentially bioavailable fraction presenting no ecotoxicological risk. Conversely, over 70% of metals are labile in the Thames Estuary sediments and toxic effects are probable. This suggests that the application of SQVs using total sediment metal concentrations may over- or under-estimate the risk to biota in geochemically dissimilar estuarine sediments. Keywords: sediment quality values, estuarine sediments, metal contamination, partitioning, sequential extraction

  10. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  11. Composition of estuarine colloidal material: organic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigleo, A.C.; Hoering, T.C.; Helz, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Colloidal material in the size range 1.2 nm to 0.4 ??m was isolated by ultrafiltration from Chesapeake Bay and Patuxent River waters (U.S.A.). Temperature controlled, stepwise pyrolysis of the freeze-dried material, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of the volatile products indicates that the primary organic components of this polymer are carbohydrates and peptides. The major pyrolysis products at the 450??C step are acetic acid, furaldehydes, furoic acid, furanmethanol, diones and lactones characteristic of carbohydrate thermal decomposition. Pyrroles, pyridines, amides and indole (protein derivatives) become more prevalent and dominate the product yield at the 600??C pyrolysis step. Olefins and saturated hydrocarbons, originating from fatty acids, are present only in minor amounts. These results are consistent with the composition of Chesapeake phytoplankton (approximately 50% protein, 30% carbohydrate, 10% lipid and 10% nucleotides by dry weight). The pyrolysis of a cultured phytoplankton and natural particulate samples produced similar oxygen and nitrogencontaining compounds, although the proportions of some components differ relative to the colloidal fraction. There were no lignin derivatives indicative of terrestrial plant detritus in any of these samples. The data suggest that aquatic microorganisms, rather than terrestrial plants, are the dominant source of colloidal organic material in these river and estuarine surface waters. ?? 1982.

  12. Ecotoxicology of bromoacetic acid on estuarine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ana R; Richardson, Tammi L; Pinckney, James L

    2015-11-01

    Bromoacetic acid is formed when effluent containing chlorine residuals react with humics in natural waters containing bromide. The objective of this research was to quantify the effects of bromoacetic acid on estuarine phytoplankton as a proxy for ecosystem productivity. Bioassays were used to measure the EC50 for growth in cultured species and natural marine communities. Growth inhibition was estimated by changes in chlorophyll a concentrations measured by fluorometry and HPLC. The EC50s for cultured Thalassiosira pseudonana were 194 mg L(-1), 240 mg L(-1) for Dunaliella tertiolecta and 209 mg L(-1) for Rhodomonas salina. Natural phytoplankton communities were more sensitive to contamination with an EC50 of 80 mg L(-1). Discriminant analysis suggested that bromoacetic acid additions cause an alteration of phytoplankton community structure with implications for higher trophic levels. A two-fold EC50 decrease in mixed natural phytoplankton populations affirms the importance of field confirmation for establishing water quality criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bounded and unbounded boundaries - Untangling mechanisms for estuarine-marine ecological connectivity: Scales of m to 10,000 km - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanski, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the self-recruitment and connectivity of estuarine and coastal fauna and flora were made possible by an integration of physical oceanographic observations and modelling with results from studies of the behaviour of the seeds, eggs, larvae, propagules, juveniles and polyps, of population dynamics, microchemical tagging using natural and artificial markers, genetics and direct observations of trajectories. The species studied in those case studies were jellyfish in marine lakes, corals in acidified bays, seagrass, mangrove propagules, mussels and oysters, prawns, some estuarine fish larvae, the copepod Calanus finmarchius in the North Sea, sea turtles in the Coral Sea, and the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus in the Southeast Asia archipelago. The spatial scales for self-recruitment and connectivity vary with the species from a few m to 10,000 km, and the temporal scales vary from one to three generations. These studies suggest that, with increasing physical openness of a given site for a given species, self-recruiting increasingly relies on the behaviour of the species. Estuarine and coastal systems thus are simultaneously bounded and unbounded depending on the sites and the species considered and, although often ignored, the integration of oceanographic and behavioural understanding is increasingly required. This paper has shown the importance of understanding the hydrological and ecological dynamics with unbounded boundaries in creating the connectivity between parts of the aquatic continuum from the river catchment to the open seas.

  14. A review of estuarine fish research in South America: what has been achieved and what is the future for sustainability and conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, S J M; Barletta, M

    2016-07-01

    Estuarine fish research in South America began in the early 20th Century, but it is only within the last 40 years that detailed studies have been undertaken. This review firstly summarizes research results from South American estuaries by geographic area, starting with the temperate south-east, then the temperate-sub-tropical transition zone in Brazil, then the semi-arid and tropical estuaries of north and north-east Brazil including the Amazon complex, then the north and Caribbean coasts and finally down the Pacific coast of the continent. They include almost all types of estuarine systems, from large open systems (e.g. the temperate Rio de La Plata and tropical Amazon) to extensive coastal lakes (e.g. the temperate Patos Lagoon and tropical Cienega Grande de Santa Marta). They encompass a broad range of climatic and vegetation types, from saltmarsh systems in the south-east and fjords in the south-west to both arid and humid tropical systems, dominated by mangroves in the north. Their tidal regimes range from microtidal (e.g. Mar Chiquita, Argentina) through mesotidal (e.g. Goiana, Brazil) to macrotidal in the Amazon complex where they can exceed 7 m. The review uses where possible the recent standardization of estuarine fish categories and guilds, but the ways that fishes use tropical South American systems may necessitate further refinements of the categories and guilds, particularly in relation to freshwater fishes, notably the Siluriformes, which dominate many north and north-east South American systems. The extent to which South American studies contribute to discussions and paradigms of connectivity and estuarine dependence is summarized, but work on these topics has only just begun. The anthropogenic issue of pollution, particularly in relation to heavy metals and fishes and fisheries in estuaries is more advanced, but the possible effects of climate change have barely been addressed. Studies around conservation and management are briefly reviewed and

  15. A user's guide to coping with estuarine management bureaucracy: An Estuarine Planning Support System (EPSS) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Jemma; Nicholson, Rose; Weston, Keith; Elliott, Michael; Birchenough, Andrew; Sühring, Roxana

    2018-02-01

    Estuaries are amongst the most socio-economically and ecologically important environments however, due to competing and conflicting demands, management is often challenging with a complex legislative framework managed by multiple agencies. To facilitate the understanding of this legislative framework, we have developed a GISbased Estuarine Planning Support System tool. The tool integrates the requirements of the relevant legislation and provides a basis for assessing the current environmental state of an estuary as well as informing and assessing new plans to ensure a healthy estuarine state. The tool ensures that the information is easily accessible for regulators, managers, developers and the public. The tool is intended to be adaptable, but is assessed using the Humber Estuary, United Kingdom as a case study area. The successful application of the tool for complex socio-economic and environmental systems demonstrates that the tool can efficiently guide users through the complex requirements needed to support sustainable development. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of river flow and tidal asymmetry on 1-D estuarine morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, L.; Van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, J.A.; He, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research efforts have been devoted to understanding estuarine morphodynamics under tidal forcing. However, the impact of river discharge on estuarine morphodynamics is insufficiently examined. Inspired by the Yangtze Estuary, this work explores the morphodynamic impact of river discharge in

  17. Studies on growth and age of bivalves from temperate and tropical estuarine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    Comparison of growth progression and age composition of Abra alba and Nuculana minuta from temperate estuarine ecosystem with Meretrix casta and Paphia malabarica from tropical estuarine environment, revealed that the annual growth rate in tropical...

  18. Reversing tidal flow and estuarine morphodynamics in the Metronome laboratory flume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Leuven, J.R.F.W.; Braat, L.; van der Vegt, M.; van Maarseveen, M.C.G.; Markies, H.; Roosendaal, C.; van Eijk, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to test a novel experimental principle for creating reversing tidal flows of sufficient strength to cause estuarine morphodynamics. The study of estuarine morphodynamics has hitherto been limited to field observation and numerical modelling, whilst fluvial morphodynamics have

  19. Distribution and diversity of copepods in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Truly estuarine and estuarine-marine species were the major components of copepods Neritic and limnetic species were stragglers in this environment and showed fortuitous distribution Monsoonal cycle induced seasonal rhythm on salinity and copepods...

  20. Evolution of Interhemispheric Sea-Surface Temperature Contrast in the Tropical Atlantic During Termination I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2001-12-01

    Meteorological and oceanographic studies show that interannual and decadal variability in tropical Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) strongly influences the climates over northeast Brazil, sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the Central American and Caribbean regions. In this context, it is worthwhile to reconstruct spatial temperature patterns for the longer-term tropical Atlantic SST history. In this study, a high-resolution alkenone-derived SST record from the subtropical eastern South Atlantic (core GeoB 1023-5) is compared with one from the tropical western North Atlantic (core M35003-4). This comparison reveals synchronous SST variations between both near equatorial Atlantic regions during the Heinrich Event 1 (H1) (18-15.5 cal kyr B.P.), but dipole-like SST variations during the Younger Dryas (YD) (13-11.5 cal kyr B.P.). To assess the relationship of SST variations between both regions, we calculated SST differences between cores GeoB 1023-5 and M35003-4, and compared it with the coccolithophorid Florisphaera profunda abundance record from the equatorial eastern Atlantic (core RC24-08) as an indicator of variations in intensity of south-easterly trade winds [McIntyre and Molfino, 1996]. This comparison suggests that synchronous warming in both regions during the H1 can be attributed to a reduced northward heat transport from the warm equatorial Atlantic to the cold high-latitude North Atlantic linked to the slowdown of thermohaline circulation overturning during cold events under full glacial conditions. However, dipole-like SST variations during the YD is probably more associated with strengthened south-easterly trade winds, which led to a strong upwelling-related cooling in the eastern South Atlantic region and concurrently enhanced advection of warm subtropical South Atlantic waters to the tropical western Atlantic during that time. Accordingly, a coupled oceanic-atmospheric process created a warm pool in the tropical western Atlantic and thus a dipole

  1. Atlantic Oceanography. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    on the effect of environmental characteristics upon the encrusting calcareous-tube-making polychaete worm Hydroides dianthus has been begun, and it is...B. eb!Lineus. In spring 1978, work uas initiated on rearing the larvae of the calcareous encrusting tube worm Hydroides dianthus . Preliminary...larvae belonging to the coastal species, Balanus amphitrite and Hydroides dianthus and the estuarine barnacle, BaZanus ebur-neus. Some of the difficulties

  2. NCDC Southeast Federal Records Center Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — East Point, Georgia is the former location of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Southeast regional Federal Records Center (FRC). The southeast...

  3. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Catch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Region Headboat Survey (SRHS), administered by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC) personnel based at...

  4. Anchoring Singapore Philanthropy in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Already a number of other emerging Southeast Asian middle-income economies ... Management University, to investigate philanthropy in four Southeast Asian ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  5. Female reproductive cycle of the Southwestern Atlantic estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Brachyura, Grapsoidea, Varunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina B. Ituarte

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The female reproductive biology of a Chasmagnathus granulatus population inhabiting the area near the mouth of Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, Argentina, was studied. An increase in air temperature during the spring is related to the start of the breeding period, when well defined egg-laying and hatching pulses were observed. Hatching is synchronic during the whole summer but the egg production was not, probably due to the gradual incorporation of young females to the reproductive population. Neither egg-laying nor larval release showed a clear relation to moon phase or tidal cycles, suggesting that reproduction is not rigidly programmed in this unpredictable habitat. Females moult at the beginning of autumn, after releasing the last larvae. However, a new cohort of ovocytes, which was in primary vitellogenesis before moulting, completed the secondary ovogenesis after moulting. Consequently, ovaries remained fully developed throughout the winter.

  6. Genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis for the estuarine Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Genetic linkage maps are valuable tools in evolutionary biology; however, their availability for wild populations is extremely limited. Fundulus heteroclitus...

  7. Predicting estuarine benthic production using functional diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dolbeth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We considered an estuarine system having naturally low levels of diversity, but attaining considerable high production levels, and being subjected to different sorts of anthropogenic impacts and climate events to investigate the relationship between diversity and secondary production. Functional diversity measures were used to predict benthic production, which is considered as a proxy of the ecosystem provisioning services. To this end, we used a 14-year dataset on benthic invertebrate community production from a seagrass and a sandflat habitat and we adopted a sequential modeling approach, where abiotic, trait community weighted means (CWM and functional diversity indices were tested by generalized linear models (GLM, and their significant variables were then combined to produce a final model. Almost 90% of variance of the benthic production could be predicted by combining the number of locomotion types, the absolute maximum atmospheric temperature (proxy of the heat waves occurrence, the type of habitat and the mean body mass, by order of importance. This result is in agreement with the mass ratio hypothesis, where ecosystem functions/services can be chiefly predicted by the dominant trait in the community, here measured as CWM. The increase of benthic production with the number of locomotion types may be seen as greater possibility of using the resources available in the system. Such greater efficiency would increase production. The other variables were also discussed in line of the previous hypothesis and taking into account the general positive relationship obtained between production and functional diversity indices. Overall, it was concluded that traits representative of wider possibilities of using available resources and higher functional diversity are related with higher benthic production.

  8. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  9. Culture in Southeast Asian Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    A view of the status of Southeast Asian language programs in American schools leads the author to comment on five interrelated issues. They include: (1) the importance of Southeast Asian language and culture teaching and learning, (2) integrating culture in Southeast Asian language classes, (3) teaching techniques, (4) staffing, and (5)…

  10. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  11. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  12. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  13. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  14. Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — n 2000, the US EPA granted authority to establish up to five Estuarine Indicator Research Programs. These Programs were designed to identify, evaluate, recommend and...

  15. 78 FR 27956 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 39 to the Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); notice of public hearings; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast... comments received on the DEIS in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) and before... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 39 to the Fishery Management Plan for the...

  16. 78 FR 66900 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 28 to the Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); scoping; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast Region, in... received on the DEIS in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS), and before voting to... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 28 to the Fishery Management Plan for the...

  17. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of

  18. Tidal influence on subtropical estuarine methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Katrin; Grinham, Alistair; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-05-01

    . Although dissolved methane surface water concentrations were highest in the upper reaches of the estuary, experiencing the lowest tidal currents, fluxes measured using chambers were lower relative to middle and lower reaches. This supports the tidal study findings as higher tidal currents were experienced in the middle and lower reaches. The dominant driver behind estuarine methane water-air fluxes in this system was tidal current speed. Future studies need to take into account flux rates during both transition and slack tide periods to quantify total flux rates.

  19. Biochemical and physiological adaptations in the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata during salinity acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Adalto; Lauer, Mariana Machado; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Colares, Elton Pinto; Monserrat, José María; Dos Santos Filho, Euclydes Antônio

    2008-11-01

    Neohelice granulata (Chasmagnathus granulatus) is an intertidal crab species living in salt marshes from estuaries and lagoons along the Atlantic coast of South America. It is a key species in these environments because it is responsible for energy transfer from producers to consumers. In order to deal with the extremely marked environmental salinity changes occurring in salt marshes, N. granulata shows important and interesting structural, biochemical, and physiological adaptations at the gills level. These adaptations characterize this crab as a euryhaline species, tolerating environmental salinities ranging from very diluted media to concentrated seawater. These characteristics had led to its use as an animal model to study estuarine adaptations in crustaceans. Therefore, the present review focuses on the influence of environmental salinity on N. granulata responses at the ecological, organismic and molecular levels. Aspects covered include salinity tolerance, osmo- and ionoregulatory patterns, morphological and structural adaptations at the gills, and mechanisms of ion transport and their regulation at the gills level during environmental salinity acclimation. Finally, this review compiles information on the effects of some environmental pollutants on iono- and osmoregulatory adaptations showed by N. granulata.

  20. Annotation of the Nuclear Receptors in an Estuarine Fish species, Fundulus heteroclitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Baldwin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear receptors (NRs are ligand-dependent transcription factors that respond to various internal as well as external cues such as nutrients, pheromones, and steroid hormones that play crucial roles in regulation and maintenance of homeostasis and orchestrating the physiological and stress responses of an organism. We annotated the Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog; Atlantic killifish nuclear receptors. Mummichog are a non-migratory, estuarine fish with a limited home range often used in environmental research as a field model for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to variable environmental conditions such as salinity, oxygen, temperature, pH, and toxic compounds because of their hardiness. F. heteroclitus have at least 74 NRs spanning all seven gene subfamilies. F. heteroclitus is unique in that no RXRα member was found within the genome. Interestingly, some of the NRs are highly conserved between species, while others show a higher degree of divergence such as PXR, SF1, and ARα. Fundulus like other fish species show expansion of the RAR (NR1B, Rev-erb (NR1D, ROR (NR1F, COUPTF (NR2F, ERR (NR3B, RXR (NR2B, and to a lesser extent the NGF (NR4A, and NR3C steroid receptors (GR/AR. Of particular interest is the co-expansion of opposing NRs, Reverb-ROR, and RAR/RXR-COUPTF.

  1. Anthropogenic emissions of 210Po, 210Pb and 226Ra in an estuarine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Aguirre, A.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Gasco, C.; Travesi, A.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive study on the distribution of natural radionuclides in an estuarine ecosystem located in Southwestern Spain is presented. This environment is highly affected by the wastes released by a phosphoric acid industry which uses phosphate rocks raw material for fertilizer production. This rock has generally high concentrations of U and its daughters. The estuary is formed by two rivers. Odiel and Tinto, which have a common mouth into the Atlantic Ocean and a salt marsh (Odiel marsh) affected by the income of Odiel riverwaters. This river receives directly the liquid and part of the solid (gypsum) wastes released from the industries. Besides that, most of the phosphogypsum wastes are stored in uncovered piles at the right margin of the Tinto river. The study has concluded that the wastes from such industries are the cause of the enhanced concentrations found at the bed of both river channels as well as the enhancement found in surface soils in certain zones of the Odiel wet marshland. Indeed, the Northern marsh and the Mojarrera channel at the Odiel marsh seem to be the main sinks of the contaminant released by the phosphoric acid industry. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Trophic web structure and ecosystem attributes of a temperate estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva García-Seoane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems and simultaneously among the most threatened by conflicting human activities, which damage their ecological functions. Describing and attempting to understand the structure and functioning of estuaries is an essential step for maintaining and restoring the quality of estuarine ecosystems. The objective of this study was to obtain insights into the ecosystem structure and functioning of Ria de Aveiro. The study area is a coastal lagoon located on the Northwest Atlantic coast of Portugal, which is connected to the sea through an artificial channel. The ECOPATH software was used to create a static balanced trophic food web model of the tidal part of Ria de Aveiro. The model considers 26 functional groups, including birds, fish, invertebrates, seagrasses, zooplankton, phytoplankton and detritus. Few adjustments were necessary for the input parameters because most of the data were based on direct observations or compiled from literature based on the study site. The trophic interactions within the food web of Riade Aveiro and the transference of energy between functional groups were quantitatively represented. Finally, the keystone index was defined for each functional group.

  3. 76 FR 40338 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... coastal issues of the reserve related to water quality (non-point source pollution), invasive species... Reserve System AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management.... ACTION: Notice of Approval and Availability for Revised Management Plans for ACE Basin, SC National...

  4. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill entered Louisiana bays in mid-2010. • Oil was used minimally (<1%) in diets of mussels and barnacles. • Also, oil did not enhance planktonic respiration rates. • Use of oil carbon was relatively small in these productive estuarine food webs. - Abstract: Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, −27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and −1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems

  5. Macrophytes in estuarine gradients : Flow through flexible vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic plants –or macrophytes- are an important part of coastal, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide, both from an ecological and an engineering viewpoint. Their meadows provide a wide range of ecosystem services: forming a physical protection of the shoreline, enhancing water quality and

  6. Marine and Estuarine Ecology. Man and the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Bobby N.; And Others

    "Man and the Gulf of Mexico (MGM)" is a marine science curriculum developed to meet the marine science needs of tenth through twelfth grade students in Mississippi and Alabama schools. This MGM unit, which focuses on marine and estuarine ecology, is divided into six sections. The first section contains unit objectives, discussions of the…

  7. Does biodiversity of estuarine phytoplankton depend on hydrology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, JG; Wolff, WJ; Simas, TC; Bricker, SB

    2005-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth in estuaries is controlled by factors such as flushing, salinity tolerance, light, nutrients and grazing. Here, we show that biodiversity of estuarine phytoplankton is related to flushing, and illustrate this for some European estuaries. The implications for the definition of

  8. Salt Marsh--Estuarine Ecosystem: A Liquid Asset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steever, E. Zell

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the salt marsh-estuarine ecosystem is provided. Topics discussed include: the general geologic history and formation of this ecosystem; physical and chemical parameters; variety; primary productivity; tidal zones; kind, sizes and abundance of vegetation; and the environmental factors influencing vegetation. (BT)

  9. DCERP Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program Workshop Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    regions (including submerged aquatic vegetation, macroalgae and microalgae) • Estuarine and riverine water column • Beach and dunes • Surf zone...following the activation of the new water treatment plant. Assess upstream and tributary contaminant contributions resulting in eutrophication problems...12 3.2 WATER QUALITY

  10. Estuarine use by spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing estuarine use and marine excursions by spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the Great Fish Estuary, South Africa, were studied using manual and automated telemetry methods. In all, 20 individuals, ranging from 362 mm to 698 mm total length (TL), were caught and tagged with acousticcoded ...

  11. 75 FR 65613 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... based on priority issues defined by the reserve. The objectives described in this plan are designed to... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Estuarine Research..., National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce...

  12. Southeast Asia: A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    settlements and line grown here, and a small amount of rubber is still highways and railroads. Cogon grass is commonly produced from rubber trees...Gam, Cau, Black Da, Ky Cung, and Ba Brushwood, bamboo, weeds, and tall grasses invade Che-generally flow northwest-southeast and either clear cut forest...Tonkin is the northwest dunes with eucalyptus and small, thorny deciduous arm of the South China Sea. trees and flowering plants. Colon grass is

  13. Atlantic menhaden adult tagging study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  14. Pollution biomarkers in estuarine animals: critical review and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, José M; Martínez, Pablo E; Geracitano, Laura A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Martins, Camila Martinez Gaspar; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Chaves, Isabel Soares; Ferreira-Cravo, Marlize; Ventura-Lima, Juliane; Bianchini, Adalto

    2007-01-01

    In this review, recent developments in monitoring toxicological responses in estuarine animals are analyzed, considering the biomarker responses to different classes of pollutants. The estuarine environment imposes stressful conditions to the organisms that inhabit it, and this situation can alter their sensitivity to many pollutants. The specificity of some biomarkers like metallothionein tissue concentration is discussed in virtue of its dependence on salinity, which is highly variable in estuaries. Examples of cholinesterase activity measurements are also provided and criteria to select sensitive enzymes to detect pesticides and toxins are discussed. Regarding non-specific biomarkers, toxic responses in terms of antioxidant defenses and/or oxidative damage are also considered in this review, focusing on invertebrate species. In addition, the presence of an antioxidant gradient along the body of the estuarine polychaete Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae) and its relationship to different strategies, which deal with the generation of oxidative stress, is reviewed. Also, unusual antioxidant defenses against environmental pro-oxidants are discussed, including the mucus secreted by L. acuta. Disruption of osmoregulation by pollutants is of paramount importance in several estuarine species. In some cases such as in the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, there is a trade off between bioavailability of toxicants (e.g. metals) and their interaction with key enzymes such as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase. Thus, the metal effect on osmoregulation is also discussed in the present review. Finally, field case studies with fish species like the croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Scianidae) are used to illustrate the application of DNA damage and immunosuppressive responses as potential biomarkers of complex mixture of pollutants.

  15. Estuarine development and early Holocene transgression across an aeolianite substrate, Caesarea, central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.; Austin, James A.; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly N.

    2018-04-01

    Estuaries are important features on the coastal landscape due to their potential for rich, diverse, and abundant resources. The modern coast of the southeast Mediterranean is largely devoid of estuaries except in rare circumstances where ample sands are delivered to the shore, such as east of the Nile Delta. Whether or not today's condition is reflective of that present during lower sea-levels is greatly speculative in part due to a dearth of high-resolution sub-surface mapping in the shallower (sediments in water depths 45-10 mbsl, both within paleo-channels of the Crocodile and Hadera rivers, and more broadly across the shelf. These water depths correspond to early Holocene dates ( 10.5-7.5 ka) which, based on global sea-level curves, was a period of rapid ( 1-1.7 cm/yr) sea-level rise. Now-submerged aeolianite ridges (locally referred to as 'kurkar'), cemented aeolian deposits formed during pre-Last-Glacial-Maximum (LGM) seaward advance (regression) of the coastline, likely provided some offshore barrier for estuarine development. These were insufficient, however, to account for all the estuarine deposition interpreted, leading us to hypothesize that sand-constructed barrier islands were also present as sea-level rose during the Holocene. This supply of sand, clearly greater than what is evident today, could have originated from sea-level rise phase eroding Nile Delta sediments transported northward by littoral currents, or from increased output from local rivers during wetter climatic conditions. We also observe a transition from linear, shore-parallel aeolianite ridge morphology features on land and in shallow water, to nested, arcuate features below 30 mbsl. Whereas the linear ridges are thought to be coastal foredune remnants abandoned by the retreating shoreline, the arcuate forms resemble fossil parabolic (blowout) dunes. Based on the recent initiation of parabolic dunes on Cape Cod following anthropogenic denudation of forests there, we suggest that

  16. Governance in Southeast Asia: Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Eduardo T.; Mendoza, Magdalena L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze governance systems in Southeast Asia and proposes some policy suggestions that can improve governance practices in the region. It also discusses the links between governance and official development assistance and the role of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. To put the discussion on governance systems in a proper context, the paper discusses the governance and growth nexus in Southeast Asia; describes the operating governance systems in Southeast As...

  17. Genome architecture enables local adaptation of Atlantic cod despite high connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Julia M I; Berg, Paul R; Jonsson, Per R.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to local conditions is a fundamental process in evolution; however, mechanisms maintaining local adaptation despite high gene flow are still poorly understood. Marine ecosystems provide a wide array of diverse habitats that frequently promote ecological adaptation even in species...... characterized by strong levels of gene flow. As one example, populations of the marine fish Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are highly connected due to immense dispersal capabilities but nevertheless show local adaptation in several key traits. By combining population genomic analyses based on 12K single......-nucleotide polymorphisms with larval dispersal patterns inferred using a biophysical ocean model, we show that Atlantic cod individuals residing in sheltered estuarine habitats of Scandinavian fjords mainly belong to offshore oceanic populations with considerable connectivity between these diverse ecosystems. Nevertheless...

  18. Benthic infaunal community structuring in an acidified tropical estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Belal; Marshall, David J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing ocean acidification (OA) should have strong direct and indirect influences on marine invertebrates. While most theory and application for OA is based on relatively physically-stable oceanic ecological systems, less is known about the effects of acidification on nearshore and estuarine systems. Here, we investigated the structuring of a benthic infaunal community in a tropical estuarine system, along a steep salinity and pH gradient, arising largely from acid-sulphate groundwater inflows (Sungai Brunei Estuary, Borneo, July 2011- June 2012). Preliminary data indicate that sediment pore-water salinity (range: 8.07 - 29.6 psu) declined towards the mainland in correspondence with the above-sediment estuarine water salinity (range: 3.58 - 31.2 psu), whereas the pore-water pH (range: 6.47- 7.72) was generally lower and less variable than the estuarine water pH (range: 5.78- 8.3), along the estuary. Of the thirty six species (taxa) recorded, the polychaetes Neanthes sp., Onuphis conchylega, Nereididae sp. and the amphipod Corophiidae sp., were numerically dominant. Calcified microcrustaceans (e.g., Cyclopoida sp. and Corophiidae sp.) were abundant at all stations and there was no clear distinction in distribution pattern along the estuarine between calcified and non-calcified groups. Species richness increased seawards, though abundance (density) showed no distinct directional trend. Diversity indices were generally positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation) with salinity and pH (p 0.05). Three faunistic assemblages were distinguished: (1) nereid-cyclopoid-sabellid, (2) corophiid-capitellid and (3) onuphid- nereid-capitellid. These respectively associated with lower salinity/pH and a muddy bottom, low salinity/pH and a sandy bottom, and high salinity/pH and a sandy bottom. However, CCA suggested that species distribution and community structuring is more strongly influenced by sediment particle characteristics than by the

  19. Southeast Asian Studies in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua; Platt, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    from this approach, this article calls for an examination of one important concept in innovative education, that is, context sensitive education. The case study of an annual joint Singapore-Denmark-America summer school programme to teach and study Southeast Asia in Context is discussed here.......As pressures mount to adopt new or alternative instructional delivery methods to achieve innovative education, there has been a strong orientation towards emphasising the need to integrate the latest technological applications to achieve the best in teaching and learning experiences. Moving away...

  20. Investigation of mangrove macroalgae as biomonitors of estuarine metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, Felicity [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)], E-mail: f.melville@cqu.edu.au; Pulkownik, Alex [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    This study examined the potential use of macroalgae epiphytic on mangrove aerial roots as biomonitors of estuarine contamination. The metal concentrations of macroalgae were investigated in four estuaries in the vicinity of Sydney, Australia, and compared to water and sediment metal concentrations over three seasonal surveys. Macroalgal metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, manganese and iron) appeared to be more associated with sediment metal concentrations than water concentrations, suggesting they may be useful biomonitors of estuarine sediment contamination. Algae in the more contaminated estuaries generally contained higher metal concentrations. However, concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese appeared to be similar in the algae despite the varying sediment concentrations, while accumulation of copper, zinc, lead and chromium appeared to be associated with ambient environmental concentrations. The uptake of metals also varied among the different species, suggesting that algal parameters, such as morphology, may also influence metal uptake and accumulation.

  1. Methodology for impact assessment in the estuarine/marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haven, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Impacts on the estuarine/marine environment can be assessed in economic terms by tracing the impact flow out of the economic sector through the marine environment and back into the economic sector as changes in natural resource availability. An impact can then be measured by the changes created in the economic sector by changes in resource availability. Primary emphasis is placed on the development of an appropriate ecological model of the estuarine environment for this purpose. Two types, an ecological input/output model and a dynamic (difference equation) model, are proposed. Acceptability criteria for these models include the ability to track lethal and sublethal, direct and indirect (food web), and short- and long-term effects of a variety of pollutants related to the production and use of various energy resources

  2. Marine and estuarine natural microbial biofilms: ecological and biogeochemical dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Roger Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine and estuarine microbial biofilms are ubiquitously distributed worldwide and are increasingly of interest in basic and applied sciences because of their unique structural and functional features that make them remarkably different from the biota in the plankton. This is a review of some current scientific knowledge of naturally occurring microbial marine and estuarine biofilms including prokaryotic and microeukaryotic biota, but excluding research specifically on engineering and applied aspects of biofilms such as biofouling. Because the microbial communities including bacteria and protists are integral to the fundamental ecological and biogeochemical processes that support biofilm communities, particular attention is given to the structural and ecological aspects of microbial biofilm formation, succession, and maturation, as well as the dynamics of the interactions of the microbiota in biofilms. The intent is to highlight current state of scientific knowledge and possible avenues of future productive research, especially focusing on the ecological and biogeochemical dimensions.

  3. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O Hammill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals are associated with small islets, reefs and rocks exposed at low tide and estuarine habitats throughout eastern Canada. Evidence of harvesting by indigenous people has been found in pre-European contact archaeological excavations. A bounty harvest as well as subsistence and commercial hunting probably lead to a decline in the population from 1949 to the early 1970s. The bounty was removed in 1976, and harbour seals, in the southern parts of their range have been protected since then. There is little information available on total abundance and current population trend. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA research has shown separation between Northeast and Northwest Atlantic harbour seals. Within Canada, the subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor shows some population sub-structure with three distinct units that could be separated into Hudson Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sable Island. Urban development resulting in habitat degradation is probably the most important factor affecting harbour seal populations in AtlanticCanada, although other factors such as incidental catches in commercial fisheries and competition with grey seals may also be important.

  4. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program 2 (DCERP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Assessing TMDL effectiveness using flow-adjusted concentrations:  A case study of the Neuse River , North Carolina. Environmental Science & Technology 37...activities, and data collection in the NRE Basin and New River by local stakeholder groups. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Monitoring...relationships between light penetration and solids/chl a levels. ArcGIS and spatial statistics will be used to estimate average bathymetric areas

  5. Coastal and estuarine resources of Bangladesh: management and conservation issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hena M. Kamal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of Bangladesh includes a number of bays into which different types of rivers empty, creating an estuarine ecosystem adjacent to the shore. The main estuarine systems are Brahmaputra-Megna (Gangetic delta, Karnaphuly, Matamuhuri, Bakkhali and Naf rivers, which are comprised of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass, seaweeds, fisheries, coastal birds, animals, coral reefs, deltas, salt beds, minerals and sand dunes. The estuarine environment, which serves as feeding, breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of animals, varies according to the volume of discharge of the river and tidal range. It is highly productive in terms of nutrient input from different sources that promotes other living resources in the estuaries. Drought conditions exist during the winter months, i.e. November to February, and effective rainfall is confined to the monsoon period, i.e. May to June. Changes in salinity and turbidity depend on annual rainfall. The colour of most estuarine waters is tea brown or brown due to heavy outflows during the monsoon. The tidal mixing and riverine discharge governs the distribution of the hydrological parameters. The pH of these waters is reported to be slightly alkaline (>7.66 and dissolved oxygen (<6.0 mg/l shows an inverse relationship to temperature. Studies of plankton have indicated two periods of maximum abundance, i.e. February-March and August-September. The abundance of fish and shrimp larvae varies in number and composition with season. Many marine and freshwater species are available in various types of coastal brackish water, which depend on monsoonal activities and local environmental conditions.

  6. Tributyltin-resistant bacteria from estuarine and freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuertz, S; Miller, C E; Pfister, R M; Cooney, J J

    1991-01-01

    Resistance to tributyltin (TBT) was examined in populations from TBT-polluted sediments and nonpolluted sediments from an estuary and from fresh water as well as in pure cultures isolated from those sediments. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) for populations were higher at a TBT-polluted freshwater site than at a site without TBT, suggesting that TBT selected for a TBT-resistant population. In contrast, EC50s were significantly lower for populations from a TBT-contaminated estuarine site than for those from a site without TBT, suggesting that other factors in addition to TBT determine whether populations become resistant. EC50s for populations from TBT-contaminated freshwater sediments were nearly 30 times higher than those for populations from TBT-contaminated estuarine sediments. We defined a TBT-resistant bacterium as one which grows on trypticase soy agar containing 8.4 microM TBT, a concentration which prevented the growth of 90% of the culturable bacteria from these sediments. The toxicity of TBT in laboratory media was influenced markedly by the composition of the medium and whether it was liquid or solid. Ten TBT-resistant isolates from estuarine sediments and 19 from freshwater sediments were identified to the genus level. Two isolates, each a Bacillus sp., may be the first gram-positive bacteria isolated from fresh water in the presence of a high concentration of TBT. There was a high incidence of resistance to heavy metals: metal resistance indices were 0.76 for estuarine isolates and 0.68 for freshwater isolates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1746939

  7. Microbial Formation of Ethane in Anoxic Estuarine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Oremland, Ronald S.

    1981-01-01

    Estuarine sediment slurries produced methane and traces of ethane when incubated under hydrogen. Formation of methane occurred over a broad temperature range with an optimum above 65°C. Ethane formation had a temperature optimum at 40°C. Formation of these two gases was inhibited by air, autoclaving, incubation at 4 and 80°C, and by the methanogenic inhibitor, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid. Ethane production was stimulated by addition of ethylthioethanesulfonic acid, and production from ethylthi...

  8. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    availability to phytoplankton in the water column, as well as to benthic microalgae, macroalgae , and seagrasses in bottom waters (Gallegos et al., 2005...further another of MCBCL’s key management objectives for meeting the requirements of the CWA. How wetlands may be utilized for water treatment ...Regulations Appendix B Prioritized list of MCBCL’s conservation and water quality needs Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Strategic

  9. Paradigms in the Recovery of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Borja, Ángel; Carstensen, Jacob; Elliott, Michael S.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria

    2015-01-01

    © 2013, Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. Following widespread deterioration of coastal ecosystems since the 1960s, current environmental policies demand ecosystem recovery and restoration. However, vague definitions of recovery and untested recovery paradigms complicate efficient stewardship of coastal ecosystems. We critically examine definitions of recovery and identify and test the implicit paradigms against well-documented cases studies based on a literature review. The study hi...

  10. Effect of thermal shock on developmental stages of estuarine fish. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.M.

    1978-12-01

    Physiological data and ecological data show that the few estuarine spawners have a higher thermal tolerance in the embryonic and larval stages than do the freshwater, coastal, or oceanic spawning species. However, since all three groups (freshwater, estuarine, and oceanic spawners) occupy the estuary and coastal waters at different times of the year, knowledge of their physiology and ecology at different developmental or life cycle stages is critical for estuarine management decisions

  11. Progress and challenges in coupled hydrodynamic-ecological estuarine modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Brush, Mark J.; Rashleigh, Brenda; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; del Barrio, Pilar; Grear, Jason S.; Harris, Lora A.; Lake, Samuel J.; McCardell, Grant; O'Donnell, James; Ralston, David K.; Signell, Richard P.; Testa, Jeremy; Vaudrey, Jamie M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical modeling has emerged over the last several decades as a widely accepted tool for investigations in environmental sciences. In estuarine research, hydrodynamic and ecological models have moved along parallel tracks with regard to complexity, refinement, computational power, and incorporation of uncertainty. Coupled hydrodynamic-ecological models have been used to assess ecosystem processes and interactions, simulate future scenarios, and evaluate remedial actions in response to eutrophication, habitat loss, and freshwater diversion. The need to couple hydrodynamic and ecological models to address research and management questions is clear because dynamic feedbacks between biotic and physical processes are critical interactions within ecosystems. In this review, we present historical and modern perspectives on estuarine hydrodynamic and ecological modeling, consider model limitations, and address aspects of model linkage, skill assessment, and complexity. We discuss the balance between spatial and temporal resolution and present examples using different spatiotemporal scales. Finally, we recommend future lines of inquiry, approaches to balance complexity and uncertainty, and model transparency and utility. It is idealistic to think we can pursue a “theory of everything” for estuarine models, but recent advances suggest that models for both scientific investigations and management applications will continue to improve in terms of realism, precision, and accuracy.

  12. Managing bay and estuarine ecosystems for multiple services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needles, Lisa A.; Lester, Sarah E.; Ambrose, Richard; Andren, Anders; Beyeler, Marc; Connor, Michael S.; Eckman, James E.; Costa-Pierce, Barry A.; Gaines, Steven D.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Lenihan, Junter S.; Parrish, Julia; Peterson, Mark S.; Scaroni, Amy E.; Weis, Judith S.; Wendt, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    Managers are moving from a model of managing individual sectors, human activities, or ecosystem services to an ecosystem-based management (EBM) approach which attempts to balance the range of services provided by ecosystems. Applying EBM is often difficult due to inherent tradeoffs in managing for different services. This challenge particularly holds for estuarine systems, which have been heavily altered in most regions and are often subject to intense management interventions. Estuarine managers can often choose among a range of management tactics to enhance a particular service; although some management actions will result in strong tradeoffs, others may enhance multiple services simultaneously. Management of estuarine ecosystems could be improved by distinguishing between optimal management actions for enhancing multiple services and those that have severe tradeoffs. This requires a framework that evaluates tradeoff scenarios and identifies management actions likely to benefit multiple services. We created a management action-services matrix as a first step towards assessing tradeoffs and providing managers with a decision support tool. We found that management actions that restored or enhanced natural vegetation (e.g., salt marsh and mangroves) and some shellfish (particularly oysters and oyster reef habitat) benefited multiple services. In contrast, management actions such as desalination, salt pond creation, sand mining, and large container shipping had large net negative effects on several of the other services considered in the matrix. Our framework provides resource managers a simple way to inform EBM decisions and can also be used as a first step in more sophisticated approaches that model service delivery.

  13. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  14. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring...

  15. Southeast Asia’s changing palaeogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.

    2009-01-01

    Geology provides the basis for understanding distributions of faunas and floras in Southeast Asia but only via a complex interplay of plate movements, palaeogeography, ocean circulation and climate. Southeast Asia grew incrementally by the addition of continental fragments, mainly rifted from

  16. The ecology of intertidal oyster reefs of the South Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Leonard M.; Lanier, William P.

    1981-01-01

    The functional role of the intertidal oyster reef community in the southeastern Atlantic coastal zone is described. This description is based on a compilation of published data, as well as some unpublished information presented as hypotheses. The profile is organized in a hierarchical manner, such that relevant details of reef oyster biology (autecology) are presented, followed by a description of the reef community level of organization. Then the reef community is described as a subsystem of the coastal marsh-ecosystem (synecoloqy). This information is also synthesized in a series of nested conceptual models of oyster reefs at the regional level, the drainage basin level, and the individual reef level. The final chapter includes a summary overview and a section on management implications and guidelines. Intertidal oyster reefs are relatively persistent features of the salt marsh estuarine ecosystem in the southeastern Atlantic coastal zone. The average areal extent of the oyster reef subsystem in this larger ecosystem is relatively small (about 0.05%). This proportion does not reflect, however, the functional importance of the reef subsystem in stablizing the marsh, providing food for estuarine consumers, mineralizing organic matter, and providing firm substrates in this otherwise soft environment.

  17. Changes in metal contamination levels in estuarine sediments around India – An assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Nath, B.N.

    provides managers and decision-makers of environmental protection agency with a better scientific understanding for decision-making in controlling metal pollution in estuarine sediments around India....

  18. Stable isotopes and mercury in a model estuarine fish: Multibasin comparisons with water quality, community structure, and available prey base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Douglas H., E-mail: Doug.Adams@MyFWC.com; Paperno, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Stable-isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) and mercury in a model predator, and associated prey community assessments were used to make inferences regarding food web relationships and how these relationships are influenced by habitat variability and anthropogenic factors. Although interconnected, the three major basins of the Indian River Lagoon system on the Atlantic coast of Florida comprise noticeably different available habitat types with spatially distinct faunal communities and available prey for spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, a model predatory fish species. Water quality, degree of urbanization, human population density, and levels of nitrogen enrichment clearly differ between these representative estuarine basins. The differences can influence feeding ecology and therefore result in different mercury concentrations and different stable-isotope signatures of spotted seatrout between basins. Mercury concentrations in spotted seatrout were greatest in Mosquito Lagoon (ML) and least in the Indian River Lagoon proper (IRL), although concentrations were low for all basins. Spotted seatrout from IRL were carbon-depleted and nitrogen-enriched compared with those from the other basins; this suggests either that the fish's primary source of carbon in IRL is an algae- or phytoplankton-based food web or that the pathway through the food web is shorter there. The {delta}{sup 15}N values of IRL spotted seatrout were greater than those in the Banana River Lagoon or ML, suggesting slightly different trophic positioning of fish in these basins. The greater {delta}{sup 15}N values in IRL spotted seatrout may also reflect the greater human population density and resultant anthropogenic inputs (e.g., observed higher total nitrogen levels) in IRL compared with the other more pristine basins examined. Understanding species' responses to broad-scale habitat heterogeneity in estuaries and knowing basin-specific differences in stable isotopes

  19. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  20. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  1. Stalling Tropical Cyclones over the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Emanuel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey produced massive amounts of rain over southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana. Average storm total rainfall amounts over a 10,000 square mile (26,000 square km) area exceeded 30 inches (750 mm). An important aspect of the storm that contributed to the large rainfall totals was its unusual motion. The storm stalled shortly after making landfall, then moved back offshore before once again making landfall five days later. This storm motion permitted heavy rainfall to occur in the same general area for an extended period of time. The unusual nature of this event motivates an investigation into the characteristics and potential climate change influences on stalled tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin using the HURDAT 2 storm track database for 1866-2016 and downscaled tropical cyclones driven by simulations of present and future climate. The motion of cyclones is quantified as the size of a circle circumscribing all storm locations during a given length of time. For a three-day period, Harvey remained inside a circle with a radius of 123 km. This ranks within the top 0.6% of slowest-moving historical storm instances. Among the 2% of slowest-moving storm instances prior to Harvey, only 13 involved storms that stalled near the continental United States coast, where they may have produced substantial rainfall onshore while tapping into marine moisture. Only two such storms stalled in the month of September, in contrast to 20 September stalls out of the 36 storms that stalled over the nearby open Atlantic. Just four of the stalled coastal storms were hurricanes, implying a return frequency for such storms of much less than once per decade. The synoptic setting of these storms is examined for common features, and historical and projected trends in occurrences of stalled storms near the coast and farther offshore are investigated.

  2. Understanding the Southeast Asian haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Karthik K. R.; Baikie, T.; T, Mohan Dass E.; Huang, Y. Z.; Guet, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Southeast Asian region had been subjected to a drastic reduction in air quality from the biomass burnings that occurred in 2013 and 2015. The smoke from the biomass burnings covered the entire region including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, with haze particulate matter (PM) reducing the air quality to hazardous levels. Here we report a comprehensive size-composition-morphology characterization of the PM collected from an urban site in Singapore during the two haze events. The two haze events were a result of biomass burning and occurred in two different geographical source regions. We show the similarities and variations of particle size distribution during hazy and clear days during the two haze events. Sub-micron particles (method is used to determine the fractal dimensions of the PM, and the dimensionality varied for every classification from 1.79 to 1.88. We also report the complexities of particles and inconsistencies in the existing approaches to understand them.

  3. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  4. Fenologia de Psychotria nuda e P. Brasiliensis (Rubiaceae em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil Phenology of Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis (Rubiaceae in an area of the Atlantic Forest, Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Medeiros de Almeida

    2000-12-01

    Psychotria são importantes recursos para espécies de aves de Floresta Atlântica.We compared two sympatric species of Psychotria (P. brasiliensis and P. nuda, regarding phenology and spatial distribution. The phenological events were associated with abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and photoperiod and biotic factors (pollinators and frugivores. We carried out the study between August/1998 and July/1999 in an undisturbed area of the Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro. We made phenological observations and also recorded the species visiting the flowers and eating the fruits of both plant species. The production of new leaves occurred from November/1998 to May/1999 for both species. There was a positive correlation between photoperiod, rainfall and temperature (climatological means and leafing period. The flowering period was between March and June for P. nuda and, April and July for P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda was visited mainly by males of an species of hummingbird, Thalurania glaucopis (Trochilidae (47,2%; n=682, while P. brasiliensis was visited by females (85,1%; n=1869 of this hummingbird species. Both species flowered in the same period, used the same pollinator, but may not compete for this resource, thus we rejected the "shared-pollinator" hypothesis. The fruiting period ocurred all year round for P. nuda and P. brasiliensis. Lipaugus lanioides, was the most frequent frugivore in P. brasiliensis. Psychotria nuda and P. brasiliensis had clumped distribution, apparently due to vegetative reproduction, mostly by P. nuda. This study suggests that both species of Psychotria are important resources for Atlantic Rain Forest bird species.

  5. CHEMOSENSORY ATTRACTION OF ZOOSPORES OF THE ESTUARINE DINOFLAGELLATES, PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA AND P. SHUMWAYAE, TO FINFISH MUCUS AND EXCRETA. (R825551)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic strains of the estuarine dinoflagellates, Pfiesteria piscicida and P. shumwayae, can cause fish death and disease, whereas other estuarine `lookalike' species such as cryptoperidiniopsoids have not been ichthyotoxic under ecologically rel...

  6. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  7. 15 CFR 921.52 - Promotion and coordination of estuarine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion and coordination of estuarine research. 921.52 Section 921.52 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Research Projects § 921.52 Promotion and coordination of estuarine research. (a) NOAA will promote and...

  8. Control of fouling organisms in estuarine cooling water systems by chlorine and bromine chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, D.T.; Margrey, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The study described was initiated to evaluate the antifouling effectiveness of chlorine and bromine chloride in low velocity flow areas where estuarine waters are used for cooling purposes. The relative antifouling effectiveness of chlorine and bromine chloride under intermittent and continuous modes of application in low velocity flow areas was evaluated at an estuarine power plant located on the Chesapeake Bay

  9. Toxic pressure of herbicides on microalgae in Dutch estuarine and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P; Sjollema, S.B.; van der Geest, H.G.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Lamoree, M.H.; de Voogt, W.P.; Admiraal, W.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    For several decades now, there has been an increase in the sources and types of chemicals in estuarine and coastal waters as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This has led to considerable concern about the effects of these chemicals on the marine food chain. The fact is that estuarine and

  10. BOOK REVIEW: ESTUARINE SCIENCE: A SYNTHETIC APPROACH TO RESEARCH AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is the product of fifty leading estuarine scientists most of whom attended a workshop convened for the purpose of "put[ting] together the case for synthesis of estuarine data and to show the capabilities of synthetic methods of research" (p. 2). The editor, John E. Hob...

  11. Effects of hydrological forcing on the structure of a tropical estuarine food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisha B. Atwood; Tracy N. Wiegner; Richard A. MacKenzie

    2012-01-01

    River flow can impact which sources of particulate organic matter (POM) fuel estuarine food webs. Here, we used stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope analyses to compare how contributions of diff erent POM sources (terrestrial, estuarine, and marine) to the diets of zooplankton and juvenile fishes differed between low and high river flow conditions, as well as...

  12. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  13. Transport of persistent organic pollutants by microplastics in estuarine conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastics represent an increasing source of anthropogenic contamination in aquatic environments, where they may also act as scavengers and transporters of persistent organic pollutants. As estuaries are amongst the most productive aquatic systems, it is important to understand sorption behaviour and transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by microplastics along estuarine gradients. The effects of salinity sorption equilibrium kinetics on the distribution coefficients (Kd) of phenanthrene (Phe) and 4,4‧-DDT, onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and onto polyethylene (PE) were therefore investigated. A salinity gradient representing freshwater, estuarine and marine conditions, with salinities corresponding to 0 (MilliQ water, 690 μS/cm), 8.8, 17.5, 26.3 and 35 was used. Salinity had no significant effect on the time required to reach equilibrium onto PVC or PE and neither did it affect desorption rates of contaminants from plastics. Although salinity had no effect on sorption capacity of Phe onto plastics, a slight decrease in sorption capacity was observed for DDT with salinity. Salinity had little effect on sorption behaviour and POP/plastic combination was shown to be a more important factor. Transport of Phe and DDT from riverine to brackish and marine waters by plastic is therefore likely to be much more dependent on the aqueous POP concentration than on salinity. The physical characteristics of the polymer and local environmental conditions (e.g. plastic density, particle residence time in estuaries) will affect the physical transport of contaminated plastics. A transport model of POPs by microplastics under estuarine conditions is proposed. Transport of Phe and DDT by PVC and PE from fresh and brackish water toward fully marine conditions was the most likely net direction for contaminant transport and followed the order: Phe-PE >> DDT-PVC = DDT-PE >> Phe-PVC.

  14. 76 FR 99 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 24 to the Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ...NMFS, Southeast Region, in collaboration with the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council), intends to prepare an EIS to describe and analyze a range of alternatives for management actions to be included in an amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP). These alternatives will consider measures to establish a rebuilding plan for the red grouper stock, while setting annual catch limits (ACLs), accountability measures (AMs), allocations, maximum sustainable yield (MSY), and optimum yield (OY) for red grouper. The purpose of this NOI is to solicit public comments on the scope of issues to be addressed in the EIS.

  15. How tides and river flows determine estuarine bathymetries [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandle, D.

    2004-04-01

    For strongly tidal, funnel-shaped estuaries, we examine how tides and river flows determine size and shape. We also consider how long it takes for bathymetric adjustment, both to determine whether present-day bathymetry reflects prevailing forcing and how rapidly changes might occur under future forcing scenarios. Starting with the assumption of a 'synchronous' estuary (i.e., where the sea surface slope resulting from the axial gradient in phase of tidal elevation significantly exceeds the gradient in tidal amplitude ζ̂), an expression is derived for the slope of the sea bed. Thence, by integration we derive expressions for the axial depth profile and estuarine length, L, as a function of ζ̂ and D, the prescribed depth at the mouth. Calculated values of L are broadly consistent with observations. The synchronous estuary approach enables a number of dynamical parameters to be directly calculated and conveniently illustrated as functions of ζ̂ and D, namely: current amplitude Û, ratio of friction to inertia terms, estuarine length, stratification, saline intrusion length, flushing time, mean suspended sediment concentration and sediment in-fill times. Four separate derivations for the length of saline intrusion, LI, all indicate a dependency on D 2/f ÛU o ( Uo is the residual river flow velocity and f is the bed friction coefficient). Likely bathymetries for `mixed' estuaries can be delineated by mapping, against ζ̂ and D, the conditions LI/ Lsalt. By combining the derived expressions for L and LI with this latter criterion, an expression is derived relating Di, the depth at the centre of the intrusion, to the corresponding value of Uo. This expression indicates Uo is always close to 1 cm s -1, as commonly observed. Converting from Uo to river flow, Q, provides a morphological expression linking estuarine depth to Q (with a small dependence on side slope gradients). These dynamical solutions are coupled with further generalised theory related to depth and

  16. Tributyltin-resistant bacteria from estuarine and freshwater sediments.

    OpenAIRE

    Wuertz, S; Miller, C E; Pfister, R M; Cooney, J J

    1991-01-01

    Resistance to tributyltin (TBT) was examined in populations from TBT-polluted sediments and nonpolluted sediments from an estuary and from fresh water as well as in pure cultures isolated from those sediments. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) for populations were higher at a TBT-polluted freshwater site than at a site without TBT, suggesting that TBT selected for a TBT-resistant population. In contrast, EC50s were significantly lower for populations from a TBT-contaminated estuarine s...

  17. Lead distribution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Nath, B.N.

    . Trace element geochemical associations in the Arabian Gulf. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 17, 353–356. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(86)90247-X Achyuthan, H., Richardmohan, D., Srinivasalu, S., 2002a. Trace metals concentrations in the sediment cores of estuary... in the coastal sediment of chennai coast. IIOAB J. 3, 12–18. Ray, A.K., Tripathy, S.C., Patra, S., Sarma, V. V, 2006. Assessment of Godavari estuarine mangrove ecosystem through trace metal studies. Environ. Int. 32, 219–223. Reddy, M.S., Basha, S., Sravan...

  18. Assessment of Godavari estuarine mangrove ecosystem through trace metal studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, A.K.; Tripathy, S.C.; Patra, S.; Sarma, V.V.

    York), pp. 265?286, 1975. 12. Ranga Rao, V., Reddy, B. S. R., Raman, A. V. & Ramana Murthy, M. V. Oceanographic features of the Bay-mangrove waterways of Coringa, East coast of India. Proc. AP Akad. Sc., 7 (2): 135-142, 2003. 13. Robertson, A. I...-Godavari estuarine mangrove ecosystem, Andhra Pradesh, India. Indian J Mar. Sc. (in press), 2004. 18. Turkian, K. K. and Wedephol, K. H. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth crust. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 72: 175-192, 1961. 19. Twilley, R...

  19. Anaerobic oxidation of acetylene by estuarine sediments and enrichment cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbertson, C.W.; Zehnder, A.J.B.; Oremland, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Acetylene disappeared from the gas phase of anaerobically incubated estuarine sediment slurries, and loss was accompanied by increased levels of carbon dioxide. Acetylene loss was inhibited by chloroamphenicol, air, and autoclaving. Addition of 14 C 2 H 2 to slurries resulted in the formation of 14 CO 2 and the transient appearance of 14 C-soluble intermediates, of which acetate was a major component. Acetylene oxidation stimulated sulfate reduction; however, sulfate reduction was not required for the loss of C 2 H 2 to occur. Enrichment cultures were obtained which grew anaerobically at the expense of C 2 H 2

  20. Restoration practicesin Brazil's Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Correa de Lima Palidon; Maisa dos Santos Guapyassu

    2005-01-01

    The atlantic Rain Forst (Mata Atlantica) extends along the southern coast of Brazil and inland into Argentina and Paraguay. Originally covering 15% of the land area of Brazil, it was a region of an estimated 1.3 million km2 (MMA 2000). Today, remnants of the Atlantic Forest represents about 8% of the original area, or some 94,000 km2...

  1. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David

    2003-01-01

    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  2. Southeast Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, boat ramps, marinas, heliports, and log storage areas in Southeast Alaska. Vector...

  3. Southeast Asia: Of Tigers and Turmoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, Jeff; Morris, James; Syrett, Ann; Szeles, Erno

    1997-01-01

    .... Economic growth has been phenomenal for most Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, while Cambodia and Vietnam are struggling to provide a basic economic foundation to feed their people...

  4. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  5. Southeast Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for waterfowl in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of foraging and rafting...

  6. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  7. 2010 ARRA Lidar: 4 Southeast Counties (MI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Southeast Michigan LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Monroe, St. Clair, Macomb, and Livingston Counties SEMCOG CONTRACT:...

  8. Southeast Economic Add-on 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Southeast...

  9. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  10. Southeast Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls, and terns in Southeast Alaska. Points in this...

  11. Sidewalk Survey Implementation for the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    With funding from GDOT and STRIDE, the team deployed the Online Sidewalk Assessment Survey to gather input on local sidewalk repair and maintenance preferences across a variety of community types in the southeast. The team targeted four major cities ...

  12. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  13. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  14. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  15. Modernizing the Alliance: Southeast Europe between Lisbon and Washington

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Nakić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War opened the space for developing new relationships in the international community that are conducive to creating global partnerships. Although Article 5 remains the brand of NATO, it is necessary to modernize the relationship between the U.S. and the EU as well as with other important actors in international relations such as the UN, OSCE, Russia and China. With changed international relations through past sixty years, the North Atlantic Alliance has changed itself simultaneously over decades. The Alliance passed through different stages of its own development – from the Cold War era to attempting to create a global partnership. Acting globally, there is a need for defining the legitimate operations outside the territory of Member States under International law. In this sense, Articles 4 and 7 have a special meaning. In fact, bearing in mind the mission of “old” and traditional NATO, the Lisbon Summit represents a major step toward completion of NATO’s post-Cold War transition, but also contributes to the process of building long-lasting peace and confidence in Southeast Europe.

  16. Benthic amphipods (Amphipoda: Gammaridea and Corophiidea) from the Mexican southeast sector of the Gulf of Mexico: checklist, new records and zoogeographic comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ríos, Carlos E; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis

    2013-01-01

    The southeast region of the Gulf of Mexico is considered to be biologically important, because it is a connection and transition zone between the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, harboring great marine biodiversity. Nevertheless, benthic amphipods have been poorly studied in the Mexican southeast sector of the Gulf of Mexico with few studies listing species. The aim of this study is to provide an update checklist of species for the Mexican southeast sector (based on literature review and records from the present study) as well as a brief zoogeographical analysis for the Gulf of Mexico amphipod fauna, putting them in context with the fauna on the tropical western Atlantic. Fifty-five species were listed for the Mexican southeast sector; 36 of them showed a geographical extension to the Yucatan continental shelf representing 23 new records for the Mexican southeast sector, nine for the southeast region and four for the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the zoogeographical analysis, there is support of the application of Carolinian and Caribbean zoogeographic provinces to amphipods in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Geochronology of the Rio Formoso estuarine by {sup 210}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Gilberto N.; Lyra, Denilson T.; Melo, Julyanne T.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G.; Franca, Elvis J.; Santos, Thiago O., E-mail: gnarruda@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: denilsonengseg@gmail.com, E-mail: julyanne.melo@ufpe.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza Neto, Joao A., E-mail: adauto@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Uranium series disequilibrium is useful for dating methods, in which profile sediments can be considered as historical records of anthropogenic events regarding the distribution and impacts of chemical substances on the environment. In this study, 2 deep sediment profiles (about 1 m) were collected, layered at each 3 cm, oven-dried and homogenized. The radiochemical separation of {sup 210}Pb consisted of using hydrobromic acid and an ion exchange resin (DOWEX) for precipitating {sup 210}Pb in the form of lead chromate. After 10 days, the radioactivity was therefore measured by means of the low level gas flow proportional counter, model S5-XLB, from Canberra. Sedimentation rate were obtained by CIC (Constant Initial Concentration) model assumes a constant sedimentation rate throughout the period over which unsupported {sup 210}Pb is measurable. Some sediment profiles were not dated since the percentage of sand was quite high in top layers or a high percentage of organic matter and water in excess were observed in the all sediment samples. {sup 210}Pb geochronology was successfully applied to age nine sediment profiles, in which higher sedimentation rates were observed in the middle portion of the estuarine probably related to shrimp farming impacts. By using geochronology, the detection of human impacts on chemical element distribution could be enhanced in the case of environmental monitoring studies in the Rio Formoso estuarine. (author)

  18. Geochronology of the Rio Formoso estuarine by 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, Gilberto N.; Lyra, Denilson T.; Melo, Julyanne T.B.; Farias, Emerson E.G.; Franca, Elvis J.; Santos, Thiago O.; Souza Neto, Joao A.

    2015-01-01

    Uranium series disequilibrium is useful for dating methods, in which profile sediments can be considered as historical records of anthropogenic events regarding the distribution and impacts of chemical substances on the environment. In this study, 2 deep sediment profiles (about 1 m) were collected, layered at each 3 cm, oven-dried and homogenized. The radiochemical separation of 210 Pb consisted of using hydrobromic acid and an ion exchange resin (DOWEX) for precipitating 210 Pb in the form of lead chromate. After 10 days, the radioactivity was therefore measured by means of the low level gas flow proportional counter, model S5-XLB, from Canberra. Sedimentation rate were obtained by CIC (Constant Initial Concentration) model assumes a constant sedimentation rate throughout the period over which unsupported 210 Pb is measurable. Some sediment profiles were not dated since the percentage of sand was quite high in top layers or a high percentage of organic matter and water in excess were observed in the all sediment samples. 210 Pb geochronology was successfully applied to age nine sediment profiles, in which higher sedimentation rates were observed in the middle portion of the estuarine probably related to shrimp farming impacts. By using geochronology, the detection of human impacts on chemical element distribution could be enhanced in the case of environmental monitoring studies in the Rio Formoso estuarine. (author)

  19. Estuarine retention of larvae of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W.

    1982-08-01

    Larvae of estuarine organisms continually face possible export from the parent estuary. Retention of larvae of the estuarine crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii was investigated in the upper Newport River estuary, North Carolina. All of the developmental stages occurred in the same area of the estuary with similar horizontal distributions, and the concentrations of intermediate and late stages were not greatly reduced from those of the first larval stage. This was strong evidence for the continuous retention of larvae in the upper estuary. To determine mechanisms by which retention might be effected, field studies of the vertical distributions and migrations of these larvae were made. The four zoeal stages had similar but complex vertical migration patterns, which varied from study to study. These migrations centered on the depth of no net flow, reducing longitudinal transport during development. Cross-spectral analysis of the larval migrations and the environmental cycles of light, salinity and current speed revealed that each of these external cycles affected larval depth. Megalopae of R. harrisii also migrated vertically, but they were present in much lower concentrations than the zoeal stages, an indication of a change to benthic existence in this final larval form.

  20. Influence of estuarine processes on spatiotemporal variation in bioavailable selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robin; Luoma, Samuel N.; Elrick, Kent A.; Carter, James L.; van der Wegen, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic processes (physical, chemical and biological) challenge our ability to quantify and manage the ecological risk of chemical contaminants in estuarine environments. Selenium (Se) bioavailability (defined by bioaccumulation), stable isotopes and molar carbon-tonitrogen ratios in the benthic clam Potamocorbula amurensis, an important food source for predators, were determined monthly for 17 yr in northern San Francisco Bay. Se concentrations in the clams ranged from a low of 2 to a high of 22 μg g-1 over space and time. Little of that variability was stochastic, however. Statistical analyses and preliminary hydrodynamic modeling showed that a constant mid-estuarine input of Se, which was dispersed up- and down-estuary by tidal currents, explained the general spatial patterns in accumulated Se among stations. Regression of Se bioavailability against river inflows suggested that processes driven by inflows were the primary driver of seasonal variability. River inflow also appeared to explain interannual variability but within the range of Se enrichment established at each station by source inputs. Evaluation of risks from Se contamination in estuaries requires the consideration of spatial and temporal variability on multiple scales and of the processes that drive that variability.

  1. Microbial degradation of pharmaceuticals in estuarine and coastal seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benotti, Mark J. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Brownawell, Bruce J. [Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States)], E-mail: bruce.brownawell@sunysb.edu

    2009-03-15

    Microbial degradation rates were measured for 19 pharmaceuticals in estuarine and coastal surface water samples. Antipyrine, carbamazepine, cotinine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim were the most refractory (half-lives, t{sub 1/2} = 35 to >100 days), making them excellent candidates for wastewater tracers. Nicotine, acetaminophen, and fluoxetine were labile across all treatments (t{sub 1/2} = 0.68-11 days). Caffeine, diltiazem, and nifedipine were also and relatively labile in all but one of the treatments (t{sub 1/2} = 3.5-13 days). Microbial degradation of caffeine was further confirmed by production {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. The fastest decay of non-refractory compounds was always observed in more sewage-affected Jamaica Bay waters. Degradation rates for the majority of these pharmaceuticals are much slower than reported rates for small biomolecules, such as glucose and amino acids. Batch sorption experiments indicate that removal of these soluble pharmaceuticals from the water column to sediments is a relatively insignificant removal process in these receiving waters. - Microbial degradation rates were measured for 19 structurally variable pharmaceuticals in wastewater-impacted estuarine and coastal seawater.

  2. Isolation of heterotrophic diazotrophic bacteria from estuarine surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnelid, Hanna; Harder, Jens; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse

    2014-10-01

    The wide distribution of diverse nitrogenase (nifH) genes affiliated with those of heterotrophic bacteria in marine and estuarine waters indicates ubiquity and an ecologically relevant role for heterotrophic N2 -fixers (diazotrophs) in aquatic nitrogen (N) cycling. However, the lack of cultivated representatives currently precludes an evaluation of their N2 -fixing capacity. In this study, microoxic or anoxic N-free media were inoculated with estuarine Baltic Sea surface water to select for N2 -fixers. After visible growth and isolation of single colonies on oxic plates or in anoxic agar tubes, nifH gene amplicons were obtained from 64 strains and nitrogenase activity, applying the acetylene reduction assay, was confirmed for 40 strains. Two strains, one Gammaproteobacterium affiliated with Pseudomonas and one Alphaproteobacterium affiliated with Rhodopseudomonas were shown to represent established members of the indigenous diazotrophic community in the Baltic Sea, with abundances of up to 7.9 × 10(4) and 4.7 × 10(4)  nifH copies l(-1) respectively. This study reports media for successful isolation of heterotrophic diazotrophs. The applied methodology and the obtained strains will facilitate future identification of factors controlling heterotrophic diazotrophic activity in aquatic environments, which is a prerequisite for understanding and evaluating their ecology and contribution to N cycling at local and regional scales. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Microbial degradation of pharmaceuticals in estuarine and coastal seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotti, Mark J.; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial degradation rates were measured for 19 pharmaceuticals in estuarine and coastal surface water samples. Antipyrine, carbamazepine, cotinine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim were the most refractory (half-lives, t 1/2 = 35 to >100 days), making them excellent candidates for wastewater tracers. Nicotine, acetaminophen, and fluoxetine were labile across all treatments (t 1/2 = 0.68-11 days). Caffeine, diltiazem, and nifedipine were also and relatively labile in all but one of the treatments (t 1/2 = 3.5-13 days). Microbial degradation of caffeine was further confirmed by production 14 CO 2 . The fastest decay of non-refractory compounds was always observed in more sewage-affected Jamaica Bay waters. Degradation rates for the majority of these pharmaceuticals are much slower than reported rates for small biomolecules, such as glucose and amino acids. Batch sorption experiments indicate that removal of these soluble pharmaceuticals from the water column to sediments is a relatively insignificant removal process in these receiving waters. - Microbial degradation rates were measured for 19 structurally variable pharmaceuticals in wastewater-impacted estuarine and coastal seawater

  4. Metal Bioaccumulation by Estuarine Food Webs in New England, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Y. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the degree of metal exposure and bioaccumulation in estuarine organisms is important for understanding the fate of metals in estuarine food webs. We investigated the bioaccumulation of Hg, methylmercury (MeHg, Cd, Se, Pb, and As in common intertidal organisms across a watershed urbanization gradient of coastal marsh sites in New England to relate metal exposure and bioaccumulation in fauna to both chemical and ecological factors. In sediments, we measured metal and metalloid concentrations, total organic carbon (TOC and SEM-AVS (Simultaneously extracted metal-acid volatile sulfides. In five different functional feeding groups of biota, we measured metal concentrations and delta 15N and delta 13C signatures. Concentrations of Hg and Se in biota for all sites were always greater than sediment concentrations whereas Pb in biota was always lower. There were positive relationships between biota Hg concentrations and sediment concentrations, and between biota MeHg concentrations and both pelagic feeding mode and trophic level. Bioavailability of all metals measured as SEM-AVS or Benthic-Sediment Accumulation Factor was lower in more contaminated sites, likely due to biogeochemical factors related to higher levels of sulfides and organic carbon in the sediments. Our study demonstrates that for most metals and metalloids, bioaccumulation is metal specific and not directly related to sediment concentrations or measures of bioavailability such as AVS-SEM.

  5. Sedimentologic and paleontologic study of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina: A late Pleistocene Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramayo, S. A.; Téllez, B. Gutiérrez; Schillizzi, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is made mainly on the basis of paleontological and paleoichnological studies, supported by sedimentological analyses and radiocarbon dating. Continental late Pleistocene and continental, transitional, and marine Holocene stratigraphic units are identified. The former comprises fossil mammals and ichnites of 16000-12,000 BP. The continental early Holocene time, ca. 8100 BP, is represented by an interdune paleoenvironment in which shallow brackish ponds were colonized by diatoms, fish, rodents, and birds. A transitional paleoenvironment in the middle Holocene—6930-6570 BP—is recorded by deposits formed by estuarine crabs. During the late Holocene, between 5000 and 4800 BP, a marine transgression was recorded by a rich mollusc fauna.

  6. Assessment of acid leachable trace metals in sediment cores from River Uppanar, Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyamperumal, T.; Jonathan, M.P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Armstrong-Altrin, J.S.; Ram-Mohan, V.

    2006-01-01

    An acid leachable technique is employed in core samples (C1, C2 and C3) to develop a baseline data on the sediment quality for trace metals of River Uppanar, Cuddalore, southeast coast of India. Acid leachable metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd) indicate peak values at the sulphidic phase and enrichment of metals in the surface layers are due to the anthropogenic activities. Association of trace metals with Fe, Mn indicates their adsorption onto Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides and their correlation with S indicate that they are precipitated as metal sulphides. Factor analysis identified three possible types of geochemical associations and the supremacy of trace metals along with Fe, Mn, S and mud supports their geochemical associations. Factor analysis also signifies that anthropogenic activities have affected both the estuarine and fresh water regions of River Uppanar. - Both natural and anthropogenic factors are affecting metals in sediments

  7. Are there general spatial patterns of mangrove structure and composition along estuarine salinity gradients in Todos os Santos Bay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrícia; Dórea, Antônio; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Barros, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Species distribution and structural patterns of mangrove fringe forests along three tropical estuaries were evaluated in northeast of Brazil. Interstitial water salinity, percentage of fine sediments and organic matter content were investigated as explanatory variables. In all estuaries (Jaguaripe, Paraguaçu and Subaé estuaries), it was observed similar distribution patterns of four mangrove species and these patterns were mostly related with interstitial water salinity. Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia schaueriana tended to dominate sites under greater marine influence (lower estuary), while Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa dominated areas under greater freshwater influence (upper estuary), although the latter showed a wider distribution over these tropical estuarine gradients. Organic matter best explained canopy height and mean height. At higher salinities, there was practically no correlation between organic matter and density, but at lower salinity, organic matter was related to decreases in abundances. The described patterns can be related to interspecific differences in salt tolerance and competitive abilities and they are likely to be found at other tropical Atlantic estuaries. Future studies should investigate anthropic influences and causal processes in order to further improve the design of monitoring and restoration projects.

  8. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  9. Atlantic frugivory: a plant-frugivore interaction data set for the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Carolina; Galetti, Mauro; Montan, Denise; Pizo, Marco A; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Culot, Laurence; Bufalo, Felipe; Labecca, Fabio; Pedrosa, Felipe; Constantini, Rafaela; Emer, Carine; Silva, Wesley R; da Silva, Fernanda R; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jordano, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    The data set provided here includes 8,320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The data set includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, 5 fishes, 1 amphibian, and 3 reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive data set available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76, and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3,883) followed by mammals (1,315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates, and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our data set is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Estuarine and Riverine Areas Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-25

    flushing, wet screening, gravity separation, pneumatic separation, phytoremediation , and vacuuming. Reclamation may be self-performed or contracted...range is along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from North Carolina to Mexico and into the Bahamas and West Indies (USFWS, 1996). Piping plovers are

  11. Biogeochemical and Optical Analysis of Coastal DOM for Satellite Retrieval of Terrigenous DOM in the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, A.; Dyda, R. Y.; Hernes, P. J.; Hooker, Stan; Hyde, Kim; Novak, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Estuaries and coastal ocean waters experience a high degree of variability in the composition and concentration of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a consequence of riverine/estuarine fluxes of terrigenous DOM, sediments, detritus and nutrients into coastal waters and associated phytoplankton blooms. Our approach integrates biogeochemical measurements (elemental content, molecular analyses), optical properties (absorption) and remote sensing to examine terrestrial DOM contributions into the U.S. Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB). We measured lignin phenol composition, DOC and CDOM absorption within the Chesapeake and Delaware Bay mouths, plumes and adjacent coastal ocean waters to derive empirical relationships between CDOM and biogeochemical measurements for satellite remote sensing application. Lignin ranged from 0.03 to 6.6 ug/L between estuarine and outer shelf waters. Our results demonstrate that satellite-derived CDOM is useful as a tracer of terrigenous DOM in the coastal ocean

  12. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L; Clark, Peter A; Catto, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)

  13. Rethinking Atlantic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Walvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Shaping the Stuart World 1603-1714: The Atlantic Connection. Allan I. Macinnes & Arthur H. Williamson (eds.. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2006. xiv + 389 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America. Kenneth Morgan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. x + 221 pp. (Paper US$ 32.00 Although an important debate continues about the concept itself, the use of “the Atlantic” has embedded itself in scholarly vernacular. The scholarly output directly spawned by an engagement with the concept continues apace. That ocean, and the peoples who lived and traded along its edges, and who finally moved across it, have provided an important geographical focus for some major reconsiderations of modern history. Prompted by the Macinnes/Williamson volume, I returned to my own undergraduate and graduate notes and essays from courses on Stuart Britain: the Atlantic was totally absent – not even present as a distant speck on our intellectual map. We studied, and debated, the formal histories of migrations to the Americas (i.e. European migrations but there was no mention of Africa or Africans. And no sense was conveyed that the European engagement with the Americas (in their totality – as opposed to North America was a two-way, mutual force: that the European world was influenced, indeed shaped in many critical regards, by the Americas: by the land, the products, the peoples, and by the markets of that hemisphere. At its most obvious in the ebb and flow of peoples, even that eluded the historians I encountered as a student. It was as if we were talking about a different cosmos; few moved beyond the conventions of European migrations westwards and little attention was paid to that most dominant of migrations – the enforced African migrations to the Americas.

  14. Ecoengineering with Ecohydrology: Successes and failures in estuarine restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Michael; Mander, Lucas; Mazik, Krysia; Simenstad, Charles; Valesini, Fiona; Whitfield, Alan; Wolanski, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Ecological Engineering (or Ecoengineering) is increasingly used in estuaries to re-create and restore ecosystems degraded by human activities, including reduced water flow or land poldered for agricultural use. Here we focus on ecosystem recolonization by the biota and their functioning and we separate Type A Ecoengineering where the physico-chemical structure is modified on the basis that ecological structure and functioning will then follow, and Type B Ecoengineering where the biota are engineered directly such as through restocking or replanting. Modifying the physical system to create and restore natural processes and habitats relies on successfully applying Ecohydrology, where suitable physical conditions, especially hydrography and sedimentology, are created to recover estuarine ecology by natural or human-mediated colonisation of primary producers and consumers, or habitat creation. This successional process then allows wading birds and fish to reoccupy the rehabilitated areas, thus restoring the natural food web and recreating nursery areas for aquatic biota. We describe Ecohydrology principles applied during Ecoengineering restoration projects in Europe, Australia, Asia, South Africa and North America. These show some successful and sustainable approaches but also others that were less than successful and not sustainable despite the best of intentions (and which may even have harmed the ecology). Some schemes may be 'good for the ecologists', as conservationists consider it successful that at least some habitat was created, albeit in the short-term, but arguably did little for the overall ecology of the area in space or time. We indicate the trade-offs between the short- and long-term value of restored and created ecosystems, the success at developing natural structure and functioning in disturbed estuaries, the role of this in estuarine and wetland management, and the costs and benefits of Ecoengineering to the socio-ecological system. These global case

  15. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  16. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  17. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Sousa Dias Cartaxana, Paulo Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area...... spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick...... macroalgae, like Codium tomentosum or Fucus vesiculosus, the contribution of the far-red emission fluorescence peak was more significant, most probably due to re-absorption of the emitted red Chl a fluorescence within the dense photosynthetic layer. Similarly, an increase in the number of layers of the thin...

  18. Resting eggs in free living marine and estuarine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg

    2018-01-01

    Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...

  19. The Aquapelago and the Estuarine City: Reflections on Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hayward

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there have been a number of attempts to both imagine Manhattan’s pre-colonial past and to envisage new ways in which the metropolitan island (and the greater New York area might more productively relate to its location within a major estuarine environment. Rising sea levels associated with global warming have given a particular focus, not to say sense of urgency, to this enterprise. This essay reviews several of the aforementioned projects and discusses their conceptual parameters with reference to recent debates in Island Studies concerning the concept of the aquapelago. Consideration is given to aspects of the cultural imagination of place and conceptions of the integration of human/urban and natural ecosystems. Drawing on these discussions, the essay outlines the manner in which established analyses of aquapelagic assemblages can be expanded to embrace metropolitan island environments.

  20. Microbial dehalogenation of organohalides in marine and estuarine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Negroni, Andrea; Häggblom, Max M; Fava, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Marine sediments are the ultimate sink and a major entry way into the food chain for many highly halogenated and strongly hydrophobic organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT). Microbial reductive dehalogenation in anaerobic sediments can transform these contaminants into less toxic and more easily biodegradable products. Although little is still known about the diversity of respiratory dehalogenating bacteria and their catabolic genes in marine habitats, the occurrence of dehalogenation under actual site conditions has been reported. This suggests that the activity of dehalogenating microbes may contribute, if properly stimulated, to the in situ bioremediation of marine and estuarine contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of oils and petroleum hydrocarbons to estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E. (Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS); Cox, B.A.; Anderson, J.W.

    1978-04-01

    Bioassay experiments with various life stages of three estuarine shrimp and soluble petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) revealed residual Bunker C oil and refined No. 2 fuel oil to be more toxic than two crude oils tested. Larvae of Palaemonetes pugio were slightly more sensitive to the PH than adults, while young penaeid shrimp were shown to be more resistant than older, larger individuals. Shrimp exposed to PH in conjunction with temperature and salinity changes were more susceptible to the PH. Some common aromatic and diaromatic PH, including three naphthalene compounds, were utilized in bioassays. Naphthalenes were highly toxic. The toxicity of petroleum products is closely related to aromatic hydrocarbon content, especially the naphthalenes and related hydrocarbons.

  2. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  3. Hydrologic influence on redox dynamics in estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H. A.; Kim, K. H.; Guimond, J. A.; Heiss, J.; Ullman, W. J.; Seyfferth, A.

    2017-12-01

    Redox conditions in coastal aquifers control reactions that impact nutrient cycling, contaminant release, and carbon budgets, with implications for water resources and ecosystem health. Hydrologic changes can shift redox boundaries and inputs of reactants, especially in dynamic coastal systems subject to fluctuations on tidal, lunar, and longer timescales. We present two examples of redox shifts in estuarine systems in Delaware, USA: a beach aquifer and a saltmarsh. Beach aquifers are biogeochemical hot spots due to mixing between fresh groundwater and infiltrating seawater. At Cape Henlopen, DE, geochemical measurements identified reactions in the intertidal aquifer that include cycling of carbon, nitrogen, iron, and sulfur. Measurements and modeling illustrate that redox potential as well as the locations of redox reactions shift on tidal to seasonal timescales and in response to changing beach and aquifer properties, impacting overall rates of reactions such as denitrification that reduces N loads to coastal waters. In the St. Jones National Estuarine Research Reserve, tidal fluctuations in channels cause periodic groundwater-surface water exchange, water table movement, and intermittent flooding that varies spatially across the saltmarsh. These changes create shifts in redox potential that are greatest near channels and in the top 20 cm of sediments. The magnitude of redox change depends on hydrologic setting (near channels or in marsh interior), hydrologic conditions (tidal stage, seasonal shifts), as well as prevalence of macropores created by crab burrows that change seasonally with crab activity. These shifts correspond to changes in porewater chemistry that have implications for nutrient cycling and carbon export to the ocean. Understanding hydrologic influence on redox geochemistry is critical for predicting how these systems and their ecosystem services may change in the future in response to anthropogenic and climate change.

  4. Modelling Watershed and Estuarine Controls on Salt Marsh Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi Lalimi, F.; Marani, M.; Murray, A. B.; D'Alpaos, A.

    2017-12-01

    The formation and evolution of tidal platforms have been extensively studied through observations and models, describing landform dynamics as a result of the local interactions and feedbacks among hydrodynamics, vegetation, and sediment transport. However, existing work mainly focuses on individual marsh platforms and, possibly, their immediate surrounding, such that the influence and controls on marsh dynamics of inland areas (through fluvial inputs) and of exchanges with the ocean have not been comprehensively and simultaneously accounted for. Here, we develop and use a process-based model to evaluate the relative role of watershed, estuarine, and ocean controls on salt marsh accretionary and depositional/erosional dynamics and define how these factors interact to determine salt marsh resilience to environmental change at the whole-estuary scale. Our results, in line with previous work, show that no stable equilibrium exists for the erosional dynamics of the marsh/tidal flat boundary. In addition, we find that under some circumstances, vertical accretion/erosion dynamics can lead to transitions between salt marsh and tidal flat equilibrium states that occur much more rapidly than marsh/tidal flat boundary erosion or accretion could. We further define, in the multidimensional space of estuarine-scale morphodynamic forcings, the basins of attractions leading to marsh-dominated and tidal-flat-dominated estuaries. The relatively slow dynamics asymptotically leading to marsh- or tidal-flat- dominance in many cases suggest that estuaries are likely to be found, at any given time, in a transition state dictated by temporal variations in environmental forcings.

  5. New insights into the early life ecology of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792 in the northern Iberian Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atlantic Iberian estuaries, sardines tend to be a minor component of the ichthyoplankton assemblages, with rare occurrence largely restricted to estuarine mouths. However, this was not the case of the Lima estuary (NW Portugal, where sardines were the most abundant and frequently occurring marine taxon of the larval fish assemblages. Abundance of sardines collected during a two-year survey (2002-2004 ranged from 0.5 to 60.8 larvae/100 m3, with the majority still showing yolk and unpigmented eyes. Moreover, 80% of sardines were 8 days old or less and the total length ranged from 2 to 16 mm. Seasonal variations of sardine occurrence in the Lima estuary correlated with temporal variations of salinity and temperature in the water column. The unusually high river-flow observed during the winter of 2002-2003, which preceded the spring-summer abundance peak, seemed to act as a signal for the estuarine recruitment that was encountered. In addition, the estuarine occurrence of sardine larvae was also correlated with the intensity of summer upwelling, which was responsible for coastal depletion of sardine larvae resulting in estuarine low catches during the summer of 2002. The Lima estuary also revealed another peculiarity related to the lack of temporal synchrony between coastal spawning activity and occurrence of larvae within the estuary. The abundance peaks of newly-hatched larvae (autumn 2002 and spring-summer 2003 did not coincide with the winter-spring spawning pattern described earlier for the northern Iberian coast. Modifications of the spawning strategy of the northern Iberian sardine stock are discussed based on these new insights into the early life of S. pilchardus.

  6. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.

  7. South Atlantic pale oceanography and evolution during the Albian; Paleoceanografia e a evolucao do Atlantico Sul no Albiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ricardo Latge Milward de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Exploracao e Producao]. E-mail: ricardolatge@petrobras.com.

    2004-11-01

    A vast array of geochemical, geophysical, sedimentological and paleontological data, together with modern environmental analogues in the Red Sea, support the view that the South Atlantic maintained its bi partitioned condition from latest Aptian to the middle Albian. The lineament comprising the Florianopolis High and Sao Paulo Dorsal formed an effective barrier to sea-water circulation between the Southern South Atlantic (SSA) and Central South Atlantic (CSA) until late Albian times. During that time, the latter communicated mainly with the North Atlantic, which in turn was connected to the Tethys Sea. The CSA was then entirely located within an arid climatic belt, and subject to a negative hydric balance, whereas an estuarine circulation pattern prevailed in the SSA. The comparison of carbon and oxygen stable isotope results from limestones in various parts of the world demonstrates that the CSA waters were warmer than those of the Malvinas in the South, and the Tethyan Sea to the North. The CSA sedimentary evolution was coeval with profound paleoceanographic changes. These were mainly induced by global tectonic phenomena related to the dynamics of oceanic crustal accretion, culminating with the definitive interconnection of the Tethyan and Indian oceanic waters by the end-Albian. Halokynetic movements and orbital variations brought about oscillations in accommodation space, which permitted the stacking of tens of shallowing-upward cycles with varied magnitudes. (author)

  8. Interannual and Decadal Variability of Landfalling Tropical Cyclones in the Southeast Coastal States of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The interannual variability of the At lantic tropical cyclone (TC) frequency is well known. Separately,recent studies have also suggested that a much longer, multidecadal (40-60 year) trend might be emerging from the recent increase in Atlantic TC activity. However, the overall structure of the intrinsic frequencies (or temporal modes) of Atlantic TC activity is not yet known. The focus of this study is to systematically analyze the intrinsic frequencies of Atlantic TC activity using hurricane and tropical storm landfall data collected along the southeast coast (SEC) of the United States. Based on an Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) analysis of the frequency of landfall TCs along the SEC from 1887-1999, we have found that Atlantic TC activity has four primary, temporal modes. The interannual and multidecadal modes reported in the published literature are two such modes. After identifying all primary modes, the relative importance of each mode and its physical cause can be analyzed. For example, the most energetic mode is the interannual mode (2-7 year period). This mode is known to be associated with the 2-7 year El Nino / La Ni na cycle. The average number of annual landfalling TCs along the SEC decreased by 24% during El Nino years, but did not show significant increase during weak and moderate La Nina years. However, intense La Nina years were generally associated with more than average landfalling TCs along the SEC. The effects of El Nino and La Nina also became more significant when only hurricanes were considered. The significance of the effects of El Nino and La Nina on landfalling TCs and hurricanes in different US southeast coastal states showed significant differences.

  9. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  10. The use of mechanistic descriptions of algal growth and zooplankton grazing in an estuarine eutrophication model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M. E.; Walker, S. J.; Wallace, B. B.; Webster, I. T.; Parslow, J. S.

    2003-03-01

    A simple model of estuarine eutrophication is built on biomechanical (or mechanistic) descriptions of a number of the key ecological processes in estuaries. Mechanistically described processes include the nutrient uptake and light capture of planktonic and benthic autotrophs, and the encounter rates of planktonic predators and prey. Other more complex processes, such as sediment biogeochemistry, detrital processes and phosphate dynamics, are modelled using empirical descriptions from the Port Phillip Bay Environmental Study (PPBES) ecological model. A comparison is made between the mechanistically determined rates of ecological processes and the analogous empirically determined rates in the PPBES ecological model. The rates generally agree, with a few significant exceptions. Model simulations were run at a range of estuarine depths and nutrient loads, with outputs presented as the annually averaged biomass of autotrophs. The simulations followed a simple conceptual model of eutrophication, suggesting a simple biomechanical understanding of estuarine processes can provide a predictive tool for ecological processes in a wide range of estuarine ecosystems.

  11. Relationship between benthic foraminifera and sediment in the estuarine complex of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.

    Two indices of community association were used to elucidate the relationship between changes in species composition of benthic foraminifera and changes in the grain size composition of the sediment in estuarine complex of Goa. The degree...

  12. Environmental impact assessment of benthic community stability in an estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    . There was also a substantial decrease in clam production during the 10 year time under consideration. The implication of ever increasing mining rejects in the estuarine system and the utilization of quantitative benthic parameters in environmental impact studies...

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics of the Mahanadi estuarine ecosystem, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Upadhyay, S.

    mixed coastal plain estuary. The oxygen concentration in this estuarine system is closely related to biological activity and hence to seasonal changes in pH and it bears an inverse relationship with salinity structure. Dissolved nutrients are mostly non...

  14. Behaviour of fluoride and dissolved silicon in Gouthami Godavari estuarine environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Sudhakar, U.; Varaprasad, S.J.D.

    The concentrations of fluoride and dissolved silicon in Gouthami-Godavari estuarine region (Andhra Pradesh, India) have been measured as a function of chlorinity during different seasons. Fluoride and dissolved silicon behave conservatively during...

  15. RELEVANCE OF ROOTED VASCULAR PLANTS AS INDICATORS OF ESTUARINE SEDIMENT QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity assessments and numerical quality assessment guidelines for estuarine sediments are rarely based on information for aquatic plants. The effect of this lack of information on contaminated sediment evaluations is largely unknown. For this reason, the toxicities of whole se...

  16. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: West Coast Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0161540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the West Coast regional component of NOAA’s Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and economically...

  17. Phytoplankton characteristics in a polluted Bombay Harbour-Thana-Bassein creek estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ramaiah, N.; Nair, V.R.

    Annual variations in phytoplankton characteristics were studied from Bombay Harbour-Thana creek-Bassein creek (BHTCBC) estuarine confluence to assess the levels of pigment concentration, productivity and, qualitative and qunatitative nature...

  18. Seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and productivity in a tropical estuarine complex (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devassy, V.P.; Goes, J.I.

    Phytoplankton cell numbers and chlorophyll a determinations were made during the premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon periods in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine complex (west coast of India). Primary productivity estimates agreed well with chlorophyll a...

  19. Ecological periodic tables for nekton and benthic macrofaunal community usage of estuarine habitats Slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables for nekton and benthic macrofaunal community usage of estuarine habitats Steven P. Ferraro, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Newport, OR Background/Questions/Methods The chemical periodic table, the Linnaean system of classification, and the Her...

  20. St Lucia is one of the largest estuarine systems in Africa and forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Board) are the managers of the St Lucia estuarine system and provide .... Linefish System (NMLS), a database maintained by. Marine & Coastal Management, branch of the ...... trawlers operating on the Tugela Bank showed that squaretail kob ...

  1. Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Species composition, abundance and distribution of hydromedusae from Dharamtar estuarine system, adjoining Bombay Harbour, Maharashtra, India were investigated during 1984-1985. Twenty six species belonging to 19 genera were obtained from this area...

  2. Estuarine Living Marine Resources: Gulf of Mexico Regional Distribution and Abundance (NCEI Accession 0163993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is the original (1992) Gulf of Mexico regional component of NOAA's Estuarine Living Marine Resources (ELMR) Project, a national database of ecologically and...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

  4. Tracing coastal and estuarine groundwater discharge sources in a complex faulted and fractured karst aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater discharge can be an important input of water, nutrients and other constituents to coastal wetlands and adjacent marine areas, particularly in karst regions with little to no surface water flow. A combination of natural processes (e.g., sea-level rise and climate change) and anthropogenic pressures (e.g., urban growth and development) can alter the subterranean water flow to the coastline. For water management practices and environmental preservation to be better suited for the natural and human environment, a better understanding is needed of the hydrogeologic connectivity between the areas of fresh groundwater recharge and the coastal zone. The Yucatan peninsula has a unique tectonic and geologic history consisting of a Cretaceous impact crater, Miocene and Eocene tectonic plate movements, and multiple sea-level stands. These events have shaped many complex geologic formations and structures. The Sian Káan Biosphere Reserve (SKBR), a UNESCO World Heritage Site located along the Atlantic Ocean, overlaps two distinct hydrogeologic regions: the evaporate region to the south and south west, and the Holbox Fracture Zone to the north. These two regions create a complex network of layered, perched and fractured aquifers and an extensive groundwater cave network. The two regions are distinguished by bedrock mineralogical differences that can be used to trace shallow subsurface water from interior portions of the peninsula to the Bahia de la Ascension in the SKBR. The objective of this research was to use naturally occurring geochemical tracers (eg., Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, K+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen) to decipher the sources of groundwater flow through the coastal wetlands of the SKBR and into the Bahia de la Ascension. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected during two field campaigns in 2010 and 2012 within the coastal and estuarine waters of the SKBR. Additional water samples were collected at select cenotes along

  5. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  6. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 FGC award winners in the Southeast are: the Department of Human Services’ U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Southeast Regional Office and Department of Energy’s East Tennessee Technology Park.

  7. Indonesia's Transformation and the Stability of Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel

    2001-01-01

    ... and straits, Indonesia is the key to Southeast Asian security. Therefore, Indonesia's choices and its evolution will frame the future of Southeast Asia and influence the balance of power in the broader Asia-Pacific region...

  8. Evaluation of Marsh/Estuarine Water Quality and Ecological Models: An Interim Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    benthic oxygen demand, benthic scour and deposition, photosynthesis and respiration of aquatic plants, and nitrification (Dobbins 1964; O’Connor 1967... photosynthesis , algal respiration, decom- position, and mixing processes play dominant roles, the understanding and characterization of significant pro...Adams, S. M. 1979. "A Mathematical Model of Trophic Dynamics in Estuarine Seagrass Communities," Marsh-Estuarine Systems Simulation, Dame, R. F., ed

  9. Risk assessment of herbicides and booster biocides along estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caquet, Th; Roucaute, M; Mazzella, N; Delmas, F; Madigou, C; Farcy, E; Burgeot, Th; Allenou, J-P; Gabellec, R

    2013-02-01

    A 2-year study was implemented to characterize the contamination of estuarine continuums in the Bay of Vilaine area (NW Atlantic Coast, Southern Brittany, France) by 30 pesticide and biocide active substances and metabolites. Among these, 11 triazines (ametryn, atrazine, desethylatrazine, desethylterbuthylazine, desisopropyl atrazine, Irgarol 1051, prometryn, propazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn), 10 phenylureas (chlortoluron, diuron, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, fenuron, isoproturon, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-urea, linuron, metoxuron, and monuron), and 4 chloroacetanilides (acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metazachlor) were detected at least once. The objectives were to assess the corresponding risk for aquatic primary producers and to provide exposure information for connected studies on the responses of biological parameters in invertebrate sentinel species. The risk associated with contaminants was assessed using risk quotients based on the comparison of measured concentrations with original species sensitivity distribution-derived hazardous concentration values. For EU Water Framework Directive priority substances, results of monitoring were also compared with regulatory Environmental Quality Standards. The highest residue concentrations and risks for primary producers were recorded for diuron and Irgarol 1051 in Arzal reservoir, close to a marina. Diuron was present during almost the all survey periods, whereas Irgarol 1051 exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with highest concentrations recorded in June and July. These results suggest that the use of antifouling biocides is responsible for a major part of the contamination of the lower part of the Vilaine River course for Irgarol 1051. For diuron, agricultural sources may also be involved. The presence of isoproturon and chloroacetanilide herbicides on some dates indicated a significant contribution of the use of plant protection products in

  10. Rocky intertidal macrobenthic communities across a large-scale estuarine gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Giménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated relationships between (1 salinity and species richness and (2 frontal zones and community structure for the rocky intertidal macrobenthic community of the Uruguayan coast. A large-scale sampling design (extent ~500 km covering 9 rocky shores across 3 intertidal levels was performed between September and November 2002. The linear relationship between salinity and species richness (minimum at the freshwater extreme and the lack of correlation between variation in salinity and richness rejected two previous empirical models, explaining variations in species richness along the salinity gradient. Other factors (e.g. turbidity may explain this discrepancy. The estuarine front defined two communities—freshwater and estuarine-marine—differing in species composition and richness. The freshwater community was characterised by low richness and few individuals confined to crevices or tide pools, and must be structured by physical processes (e.g. desiccation; the estuarine-marine community, with individuals occupying almost all available substrata, must be structured by both physical and biological processes. A marine front, separating estuarine and marine habitats, had a weak effect on community structure although estuarine and marine assemblages differed according to species characterising different functional groups. We conclude that the position of the estuarine frontal zones is important for explaining large-scale patterns of community structure in the study area.

  11. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  13. ProAtlantic - The Atlantic Checkpoint - Data Availability and Adequacy in the Atlantic Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, F.

    2017-12-01

    DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint is a basin scale wide monitoring system assessment activity based upon targeted end-user applications. It is designed to be a benchmark for the assessment of hydrographic, geological, habitat, climate and fisheries data existence and availability in the Atlantic basin. DG MAREs Atlantic Checkpoint service will be delivered by the ProAtlantic project. The objective of this project is to investigate, through appropriate methodologies in the framework of 11 key marine challenges, how current international and national data providers - e.g. EMODNet, Copernicus - meet the requirements of the stakeholders and deliver fit for purpose data. By so doing, the main thematic and geographic gaps will be readily identified in the Atlantic basin for future consideration by DG MARE. For each challenge, specific web products in the form of maps, metadata, spreadsheets and reports will be delivered. These products are not an end by themselves but rather a means of showing whether data were available, let alone accessible. For example, the Fisheries Impact Challenge outputs include data grids (VMS/Seabed) and data adequacy reports. Production of gridded data layers in order to show the extent of fisheries impact on the seafloor involved the identification, acquisition and collation of data sources for the required data types (VMS/Seabed/Habitats Data) in the Atlantic basin. The resulting spatial coverage of these grids indicates the relatively low level of data availability and adequacy across the Atlantic basin. Aside from the data delivered by programmes such as EMODNet and Copernicus, there are a lot of initiatives by regional bodies such as OSPAR and ICES that consist of assembling and disseminating data to address specific issues. Several international projects have delivered research, data collection, and networking around several of the Atlantic Checkpoint challenge topics, namely MPAs, renewable energy assessment, seabed mapping, oil spill

  14. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  15. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Meriç

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  16. Upslope deposition of extremely distal turbidites: An example from the Tiburon Rise, west-central Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James; Beck, Christian; Ogawa, Yujiro

    1989-11-01

    Terrigenous silt and sand turbidites recovered from the crest of the Tiburon Rise in the west-central Atlantic represent an unprecedented example of upslope turbidite deposition in an extremely distal setting. These Eocene-Oligocene beds, which were derived from South America more than 1000 km to the southeast, were probably deposited by extremely thick (>1500 m) turbidity currents that flowed parallel to the southern margin of the rise. We suggest that flow thickness was the dominant control on deposition of these beds, rather than true upslope flow. This interpretation points out the importance of local bathymetry on the behavior of even extremely distal turbidity currents.

  17. 76 FR 4733 - Atlantic Southeast Airlines, a Subsidiary of Skywest, Inc., Airport Customer Service Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Airlines, a Subsidiary of Skywest, Inc., Airport Customer Service Division, Fort Smith, AR; Notice of... Customer Service Division v. United States Secretary of Labor (Court No. 09- 00522). On September 28, 2009... 35. Workers at the subject firm (subject worker group) provided airline customer services. AR 4,8,14...

  18. Year Five of Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System (SEACOOS) Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    established the first network of subsurface observing locations (of temperature and salinity ) and shelf current observations. The program also initiated a...evolving, three-dimensional fields of the coastal ocean from the estuaries out to the boundaries of the EEZ was the ambitious goal of the SEACOOS...fiddler crab Uca minax, Marine Biology, 152:1283-1291, doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0777- y. Chassignet, E.P., H.E. Hurlburt, O.M. Smedstad, G.R

  19. Bottom Pressure Tides Along a Line in the Southeast Atlantic Ocean and Comparisons with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Byrne, Deidre A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor pressure records, collected at 11 stations aligned along a single ground track of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellites, are analyzed for their tidal content. With very low background noise levels and approximately 27 months of high-quality records, tidal constituents can be estimated with unusually high precision. This includes many high-frequency lines up through the seventh-diurnal band. The station deployment provides a unique opportunity to compare with tides estimated from satellite altimetry, point by point along the satellite track, in a region of moderately high mesoscale variability. That variability can significantly corrupt altimeter-based tide estimates, even with 17 years of data. A method to improve the along-track altimeter estimates by correcting the data for nontidal variability is found to yield much better agreement with the bottom-pressure data. The technique should prove useful in certain demanding applications, such as altimetric studies of internal tides.

  20. 76 FR 10007 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR (See FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT) to request an invitation providing webinar access information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366; e-mail: kari.fenske@safmc.net...

  1. 76 FR 47564 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... open to the public. Those interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR (See Contact... CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366; e-mail: kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico...

  2. 76 FR 13986 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., SC 29405. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366; e-mail: kari.fenske@safmc.net...

  3. 76 FR 35856 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... public. Those interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR (See FOR FURTHER... CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; telephone: (843) 571-4366; e-mail: kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Webinar Date Day Time...

  4. 75 FR 57517 - Atlantic Southeast Airlines, a Subsidiary of Skywest, Inc., Airport Customer Service Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... result of down sizing and closing of major companies in our area; all of which are receiving TAA benefits... as leisure travelers, travel agencies, corporate accounts, and the military may have benefited from...

  5. Participation in Southeast Asian pollution control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, Dave; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Although public awareness of environmental issues in Southeast Asian countries has increased dramatically during the nineties, there has not been a corresponding rise in the level of participation in environmental decision-making. Public participation often takes places at the end of a

  6. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  7. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular

  8. Forest statistics for Southeast Texas counties - 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Daniel F. Bertelson

    1986-01-01

    These tables were derived from data obtained during a 1986 inventory of 22 counties comprising the Southeast Unit of Texas (fig. 1). Grimes, Leon, Madison, and Waller counties have been added to the Southeastern Unit since the previous inventory if 1975. All comparisons of the 1975 and 1986 forest statistics made in this Bulletin account for this change. The data on...

  9. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in

  10. School Physics Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Chin Pin; Tee, Tan Boon

    1978-01-01

    Traces physics curriculum innovation in Southeast Asia since the 1950s. The unique features of such innovation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand are highlighted. Forecasts for the future of physics education in part of the world are also discussed. (Author/HM)

  11. Changes in Financial Practices: Southeast Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents research on changes over a two-year period in the use of new, Western financial practices by Southeast Asian refugees and in variables affecting those changes. Significant interaction effects showed that increased use of new practices was affected by age, education, work experience, and changes in English ability. (JOW)

  12. Answer Markup Algorithms for Southeast Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Typical markup methods for providing feedback to foreign language learners are not applicable to languages not written in a strictly linear fashion. A modification of Hart's edit markup software is described, along with a second variation based on a simple edit distance algorithm adapted to a general Southeast Asian font system. (10 references)…

  13. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  14. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  15. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    anshory

    Development Studies (CEDS), Padjadjaran University, for his excellent research assistance. ... Malaysia, and Philippines) are the most vulnerable to climate change. 2. ... system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), ... national administrative areas in seven countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., ...

  16. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    by China. Even in 1994, the then-Malaysian Defense Minister Najib was careful to play down the security role of ASEAN as he still saw it as being... Razak Baginda. "Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Security: Towards Multilateralism Amid Uncertainty?" Military Technology (April 1994): 10- 16

  17. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Timothy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Ball, Kia [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Fournier, Ashley [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  18. 75 FR 30483 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... and 635 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3; Final Rule... and 635 [Docket No. 080519678-0217-02] RIN 0648-AW65 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark... available to rebuild blacknose sharks and end overfishing of blacknose and shortfin mako sharks, consistent...

  19. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    .... 120706221-2481-01] RIN 0648-XC106 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2013 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. We propose to keep the porbeagle shark...

  20. 78 FR 59878 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Aggregated Large Coastal Shark (LCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Coastal Shark (LCS), Atlantic Hammerhead Shark, Atlantic Blacknose Shark, and Atlantic Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark (SCS) Management Groups AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... closing the commercial management groups for aggregated LCS and hammerhead sharks in the Atlantic region...

  1. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine... plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark fisheries. The comment... potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS is extending the comment...

  2. 78 FR 54195 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... 110831548-3536-02] RIN 0648-XC836 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Commercial Shark Fisheries...) dressed weight (dw) of non-blacknose small coastal shark (SCS) quota from the Atlantic region to the Gulf... Atlantic shark permitted vessels. DATES: The quota transfer is effective from September 2, 2013 until...

  3. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    .... 110913585-1625-01] RIN 0648-BB36 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2012 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS proposes season openings based on...

  4. Atlantic menhaden processing plant test tagging data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic menhaden are a schooling forage fish species, which are subject to a large commercial purse seine fishery. Atlantic menhaden are harvested for reduction...

  5. Environmental siting suitability analysis for commercial scale ocean renewable energy: A southeast Florida case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcan, Amanda

    This thesis aims to facilitate the siting and implementation of Florida Atlantic University Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (FAU SNMREC) ocean current energy (OCE) projects offshore southeastern Florida through the analysis of benthic anchoring conditions. Specifically, a suitability analysis considering all presently available biologic and geologic datasets within the legal framework of OCE policy and regulation was done. OCE related literature sources were consulted to assign suitability levels to each dataset, ArcGIS interpolations generated seafloor substrate maps, and existing submarine cable pathways were considered for OCE power cables. The finalized suitability map highlights the eastern study area as most suitable for OCE siting due to its abundance of sand/sediment substrate, existing underwater cable route access, and minimal biologic presence. Higher resolution datasets are necessary to locate specific OCE development locales, better understand their benthic conditions, and minimize potentially negative OCE environmental impacts.

  6. Atlantic Seaduck Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic Seaduck Project is being conducted to learn more about the breeding and moulting areas of seaducks in northern Canada and more about their feeding ecology on wintering areas, especially Chesapeake Bay. Satellite telemetry is being used to track surf scoters wintering in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and black scoters on migrational staging areas in New Brunswick, Canada to breeding and moulting areas in northern Canada. Various techniques used to capture the scoters included mist netting, night-lighting, and net capture guns. All captured ducks were transported to a veterinary hospital where surgery was conducted following general anaesthesia procedures. A PTT100 transmitter (39 g) manufactured by Microwave, Inc., Columbia, Maryland was implanted into the duck?s abdominal cavity with an external (percutaneous) antenna. Eight of the surf scoters from Chesapeake Bay successfully migrated to possible breeding areas in Canada and all 13 of the black scoters migrated to suspected breeding areas. Ten of the 11 black scoter males migrated to James Bay presumably for moulting. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website. Habitat cover types of locations using GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and aerial photographs (in conjunction with remote sensing software) are currently being analyzed to build thematic maps with varying cosmetic layer applications. Many factors related to human population increases have been implicated in causing changes in the distribution and abundance of wintering seaducks. Analyses of the gullet (oesophagus and proventriculus) and the gizzard of seaducks are currently being conducted to determine if changes from historical data have occurred. Scoters in the Bay feed predominantly on the hooked mussel and several species of clams. The long-tailed duck appears to select the gem clam in greater amounts than other seaducks, but exhibits a diverse diet of

  7. Determination of deep water circulation in the East Atlantic Ocean by means of a box-model based evaluation of C-14 measurements and other tracer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitzer, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radiocarbon (C-14) measurements proved to be an efficient means of determining the average, large-area deep water circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. The thesis under review explains and discusses measurements carried out in the equatorial West Atlantic and North Atlantic Ocean. The samples have been taken during mission 56 of the RS 'meteor' in spring 1981. The gas has been obtained by vacuum extraction and the measurements have been performed in proportional counter tubes, the error to be accounted for amounting to 2per mille. These measured data, together with measurements of the potential temperatures, the silicate and CO 2 concentrations, and measured data from the South-East Atlantic Ocean, have been used to calculate on the basis of a box model of the Atlantic Ocean the deep water flow from the West to the East Atlantic Ocean, the deep water circulation between the various East Atlantic basins, and the turbulent diffusion coefficients required to parameterize the deep water mixing processes. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high and the marine boundary layer clouds in boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Li, Wenhong; Deng, Yi; Yang, Song; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Huang, Lei; Liu, W. Timothy

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates dynamical and thermodynamical coupling between the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH), marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds, and the local sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the North Atlantic in boreal summer for 1984-2009 using NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 dataset, various cloud data, and the Hadley Centre sea surface temperature. On interannual timescales, the summer mean subtropical MBL clouds to the southeast of the NASH is actively coupled with the NASH and local SSTs: a stronger (weaker) NASH is often accompanied with an increase (a decrease) of MBL clouds and abnormally cooler (warmer) SSTs along the southeast flank of the NASH. To understand the physical processes between the NASH and the MBL clouds, the authors conduct a data diagnostic analysis and implement a numerical modeling investigation using an idealized anomalous atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Results suggest that significant northeasterly anomalies in the southeast flank of the NASH associated with an intensified NASH tend to induce stronger cold advection and coastal upwelling in the MBL cloud region, reducing the boundary surface temperature. Meanwhile, warm advection associated with the easterly anomalies from the African continent leads to warming over the MBL cloud region at 700 hPa. Such warming and the surface cooling increase the atmospheric static stability, favoring growth of the MBL clouds. The anomalous diabatic cooling associated with the growth of the MBL clouds dynamically excites an anomalous anticyclone to its north and contributes to strengthening of the NASH circulation in its southeast flank. The dynamical and thermodynamical couplings and their associated variations in the NASH, MBL clouds, and SSTs constitute an important aspect of the summer climate variability over the North Atlantic.

  9. Copper effects on bacterial activity of estuarine silty sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Fernandes, Sandra; Sobral, Paula; Alcântara, Fernanda

    2007-07-01

    Bacteria of silty estuarine sediments were spiked with copper to 200 μg Cu g -1 dry weight sediment in order to assess the impact of copper on bacterial degradation of organic matter and on bacterial biomass production. Bacterial density was determined by direct counting under epifluorescence microscopy and bacterial production by the incorporation of 3H-Leucine. Leucine turnover rate was evaluated by 14C-leucine incorporation and ectoenzymatic activities were estimated as the hydrolysis rate of model substrates for β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. The presence of added copper in the microcosms elicited, after 21 days of incubation, generalised anoxia and a decrease in organic matter content. The non-eroded surface of the copper-spiked sediment showed, when compared to the control, a decrease in bacterial abundance and significant lower levels of bacterial production and of leucine turnover rate. Bacterial production and leucine turnover rate decreased to 1.4% and 13% of the control values, respectively. Ectoenzymatic activities were also negatively affected but by smaller factors. After erosion by the water current in laboratory flume conditions, the eroded surface of the control sediment showed a generalised decline in all bacterial activities. The erosion of the copper-spiked sediment showed, however, two types of responses with respect to bacterial activities at the exposed surface: positive responses of bacterial production and leucine turnover rate contrasting with slight negative responses of ectoenzymatic activities. The effects of experimental erosion in the suspended cells were also different in the control and in the copper-spiked sediment. Bacterial cells in the control microcosm exhibited, when compared to the non-eroded sediment cells, decreases in all activities after the 6-h suspension. The response of the average suspended copper-spiked sediment cell differed from the control by a less sharp decrease in ectoenzymatic activities and

  10. The impact of the subtropical South Atlantic SST on South American precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Taschetto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Community Climate Model (CCM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR is used to investigate the effect of the South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on interannual to decadal variability of South American precipitation. Two ensembles composed of multidecadal simulations forced with monthly SST data from the Hadley Centre for the period 1949 to 2001 are analysed.

    A statistical treatment based on signal-to-noise ratio and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF is applied to the ensembles in order to reduce the internal variability among the integrations. The ensemble treatment shows a spatial and temporal dependence of reproducibility. High degree of reproducibility is found in the tropics while the extratropics is apparently less reproducible. Austral autumn (MAM and spring (SON precipitation appears to be more reproducible over the South America-South Atlantic region than the summer (DJF and winter (JJA rainfall. While the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ region is dominated by external variance, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ over South America is predominantly determined by internal variance, which makes it a difficult phenomenon to predict. Alternatively, the SACZ over western South Atlantic appears to be more sensitive to the subtropical SST anomalies than over the continent.

    An attempt is made to separate the atmospheric response forced by the South Atlantic SST anomalies from that associated with the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Results show that both the South Atlantic and Pacific SSTs modulate the intensity and position of the SACZ during DJF. Particularly, the subtropical South Atlantic SSTs are more important than ENSO in determining the position of the SACZ over the southeast Brazilian coast during DJF. On the other hand, the ENSO signal seems to influence the intensity of the SACZ not only in DJF but especially its oceanic branch during MAM. Both local and

  11. Atlantic CFC data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steinfeldt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. In order to provide a consistent data set, all data have been examined for systematic biases and adjusted if necessary (secondary quality control (QC. The CARINA data set is divided into three regions: the Arctic/Nordic Seas, the Atlantic region and the Southern Ocean. Here we present the CFC data for the Atlantic region, including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The methods applied for the secondary quality control, a crossover analyses, the investigation of CFC ratios in the ocean and the CFC surface saturation are presented. Based on the results, the CFC data of some cruises are adjusted by a certain factor or given a "poor'' quality flag.

  12. Home range utilisation and long-range movement of estuarine crocodiles during the breeding and nesting season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available The estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus is the apex-predator in waterways and coastlines throughout south-east Asia and Australasia. C. porosus pose a potential risk to humans, and management strategies are implemented to control their movement and distribution. Here we used GPS-based telemetry to accurately record geographical location of adult C. porosus during the breeding and nesting season. The purpose of the study was to assess how C. porosus movement and distribution may be influenced by localised social conditions. During breeding, the females (2.92 ± 0.013 metres total length (TL, mean ± S.E., n = 4 occupied an area<1 km length of river, but to nest they travelled up to 54 km away from the breeding area. All tagged male C. porosus sustained high rates of movement (6.49 ± 0.9 km d(-1; n = 8 during the breeding and nesting period. The orientation of the daily movements differed between individuals revealing two discontinuous behavioural strategies. Five tagged male C. porosus (4.17 ± 0.14 m TL exhibited a 'site-fidelic' strategy and moved within well-defined zones around the female home range areas. In contrast, three males (3.81 ± 0.08 m TL exhibited 'nomadic' behaviour where they travelled continually throughout hundreds of kilometres of waterway. We argue that the 'site-fidelic' males patrolled territories around the female home ranges to maximise reproductive success, whilst the 'nomadic' males were subordinate animals that were forced to range over a far greater area in search of unguarded females. We conclude that C. porosus are highly mobile animals existing within a complex social system, and mate/con-specific interactions are likely to have a profound effect upon population density and distribution, and an individual's travel potential. We recommend that impacts on socio-spatial behaviour are considered prior to the implementation of management interventions.

  13. Effects of local and large-scale climate patterns on estuarine resident fishes: The example of Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitrai, Daniel; Martinho, Filipe; Dolbeth, Marina; Rito, João; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale and local climate patterns are known to influence several aspects of the life cycle of marine fish. In this paper, we used a 9-year database (2003-2011) to analyse the populations of two estuarine resident fishes, Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus, in order to determine their relationships with varying environmental stressors operating over local and large scales. This study was performed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Firstly, the variations in abundance, growth, population structure and secondary production were evaluated. These species appeared in high densities in the beginning of the study period, with subsequent occasional high annual density peaks, while their secondary production was lower in dry years. The relationships between yearly fish abundance and the environmental variables were evaluated separately for both species using Spearman correlation analysis, considering the yearly abundance peaks for the whole population, juveniles and adults. Among the local climate patterns, precipitation, river runoff, salinity and temperature were used in the analyses, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and sea surface temperature (SST) were tested as large-scale factors. For P. microps, precipitation and NAO were the significant factors explaining abundance of the whole population, the adults and the juveniles as well. Regarding P. minutus, for the whole population, juveniles and adults river runoff was the significant predictor. The results for both species suggest a differential influence of climate patterns on the various life cycle stages, confirming also the importance of estuarine resident fishes as indicators of changes in local and large-scale climate patterns, related to global climate change.

  14. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm"−"3) fraction of coarse-size (200–2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of “hot spots” in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts. - Highlights: • Concentrations of DDTs were elevated in coarse and high-density fractions. • The desorption rates of DDTs from coarse and high-density fraction were extreme slow. • DDTs-containing antifouling

  15. Biophysical processes leading to the ingress of temperate fish larvae into estuarine nursery areas: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Paris, Claire B.; Wolanski, Eric; Morais, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    A series of complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain the recruitment of marine and temperate pelagic fish larvae originated from pelagic eggs in coastal environments. In this review, we propose a new and complementary hypothesis describing the biophysical processes intervening in the recruitment of temperate fish larvae into estuaries. This new hypothesis, the Sense Acuity And Behavioral (SAAB) hypothesis, recognizes that recruitment is unlikely if the larvae drift passively with the water currents, and that successful recruitment requires the sense acuity of temperate fish larvae and their behavioral response to the estuarine cues present in coastal areas. We propose that temperate fish larvae use a hierarchy of sensory cues (odor, sound, visual and geomagnetic cues) to detect estuarine nursery areas and to aid during navigation towards these areas. The sensorial acuity increases along ontogeny, which coincides with increased swimming capabilities. The swimming strategies of post-flexion larvae differ from offshore areas to the tidal zone. In offshore areas, innate behavior might lead larvae towards the coast guided by a sun compass or by the earth's geomagnetic field. In areas under limited influence of estuarine plumes (either in energetic nearshore areas or offshore), post-flexion larvae display a searching swimming behavior for estuarine disconnected patches (infotaxis strategy). After finding an estuarine plume, larvae may swim along the increasing cue concentration to ingress into the estuary. Here, larvae exhibit a rheotaxis behavior and avoid displacement by longshore currents by keeping bearing during navigation. When larvae reach the vicinity of an estuary, merging diel rhythms with feeding and predator avoidance strategies with tidally induced movements is essential to increase their chances of estuarine ingress. A fish larva recruitment model developed for the Ria Formosa lagoon supports the general framework of the SAAB hypothesis. In

  16. Habitat selection and quality for multiple cohorts of young-of-the-year bluefish ( Pomatomus saltatrix): Comparisons between estuarine and ocean beaches in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L.; Nichols, Ryan S.; Able, Kenneth W.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, seasonal and annual variability in the use of estuarine and ocean beaches by young-of-the-year bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, was evaluated by indices of abundance in coastal areas of southern New Jersey (1998-2000). Biological and physical factors measured at specific sites were correlated with bluefish abundance to determine the mechanisms underlying habitat selection. In addition, integrative and discrete indicators of bluefish growth were used to examine spatio-temporal dynamics in habitat quality and its effect on habitat selection by multiple cohorts of bluefish. Intra-annual recruitment to coastal areas of southern New Jersey was episodic, and resulted from the ingress of spring-spawned bluefish (hatch-date ˜April) to estuarine beaches in late May to early June, followed by the recruitment of summer-spawned fish (hatch-date ˜early July) to ocean beaches from July to October. Bluefish utilized estuarine and ocean beaches in a facultative manner that was responsive to dynamics in prey composition and temperature conditions. The recruitment and residency of bluefish in the estuary (1998-1999) and ocean beaches (1998), for example, was coincidental with the presence of the Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia and bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, the principal prey species for bluefish occupying these respective habitat-types. Bluefish abundance in the estuary (2000) and ocean beaches (1999-2000) was also correlated with water temperature, with the greatest catches of juveniles coinciding with their optimal growth temperature (24 °C). Bluefish growth, estimated as the slope of age-length relationships and daily specific growth rates, equaled 1.27-2.63 mm fork length (FL) d -1 and 3.8-8.7% body length increase d -1, respectively. The growth of sagittal otoliths was also used as a proxy for changes in bluefish size during and shortly before their time of capture. Accordingly, otolith growth rates of summer-spawned bluefish were greater at ocean

  17. Land scale biogeography of arsenic biotransformation genes in estuarine wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Yu; Su, Jian-Qiang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhao, Yi; Ding, Junjun; Chen, Yong-Shan; Shen, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Rensing, Christopher; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-06-01

    As an analogue of phosphorus, arsenic (As) has a biogeochemical cycle coupled closely with other key elements on the Earth, such as iron, sulfate and phosphate. It has been documented that microbial genes associated with As biotransformation are widely present in As-rich environments. Nonetheless, their presence in natural environment with low As levels remains unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the abundance levels and diversities of aioA, arrA, arsC and arsM genes in estuarine sediments at low As levels across Southeastern China to uncover biogeographic patterns at a large spatial scale. Unexpectedly, genes involved in As biotransformation were characterized by high abundance and diversity. The functional microbial communities showed a significant decrease in similarity along the geographic distance, with higher turnover rates than taxonomic microbial communities based on the similarities of 16S rRNA genes. Further investigation with niche-based models showed that deterministic processes played primary roles in shaping both functional and taxonomic microbial communities. Temperature, pH, total nitrogen concentration, carbon/nitrogen ratio and ferric iron concentration rather than As content in these sediments were significantly linked to functional microbial communities, while sediment temperature and pH were linked to taxonomic microbial communities. We proposed several possible mechanisms to explain these results. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dissolved Vanillin as Tracer for Estuarine Lignin Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelkraut, F.

    1996-12-01

    Lignin is produced only by vascular plants and therefore can be used as a tracer for terrestrial organic carbon input to the estuarine and marine environments. Lignin measurements have been done by analyses of the oxidation products such as vanillin or 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. In the Elbe Estuary, free dissolved vanillin was analysed in order to test whether such measurements yield information on terrestrial carbon inputs into the Estuary and on the vanillin derived from lignin oxidation. In the period 1990-1992, concentrations of dissolved vanillin in the Elbe ranged from 0 to 60 μ g l -1(mean: 8 μg l -1). Higher values were found in areas of increased microbial activity such as the turbidity zone and the river mouth where the water chemistry is influenced by large tidal flats. No correlation was found between dissolved vanillin and suspended matter concentrations, although lignin is normally associated with suspended particulate matter, nor was a covariance seen between dissolved vanillin and the terrestrial carbon inputs into the Estuary. Apparently, biological conversion of lignin was faster than the transport processes, and local sources were more dominant for the vanillin concentration than riverine sources. The dissolved vanillin turnover was fast and, consequently, a significant amount of lignin may be converted within an estuary. In sediments from the Estuary, the concentrations of dissolved vanillin were similar to those found in the water phase and showed no clear vertical profile. The sediment is unlikely to be the source for vanillin.

  19. Mid-depth temperature maximum in an estuarine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, V. M.; Repina, I. A.; Artamonov, A. Yu; Gorin, S. L.; Lykossov, V. N.; Kulyamin, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    The mid-depth temperature maximum (TeM) was measured in an estuarine Bol’shoi Vilyui Lake (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia) in summer 2015. We applied 1D k-ɛ model LAKE to the case, and found it successfully simulating the phenomenon. We argue that the main prerequisite for mid-depth TeM development is a salinity increase below the freshwater mixed layer, sharp enough in order to increase the temperature with depth not to cause convective mixing and double diffusion there. Given that this condition is satisfied, the TeM magnitude is controlled by physical factors which we identified as: radiation absorption below the mixed layer, mixed-layer temperature dynamics, vertical heat conduction and water-sediments heat exchange. In addition to these, we formulate the mechanism of temperature maximum ‘pumping’, resulting from the phase shift between diurnal cycles of mixed-layer depth and temperature maximum magnitude. Based on the LAKE model results we quantify the contribution of the above listed mechanisms and find their individual significance highly sensitive to water turbidity. Relying on physical mechanisms identified we define environmental conditions favouring the summertime TeM development in salinity-stratified lakes as: small-mixed layer depth (roughly, ~wind and cloudless weather. We exemplify the effect of mixed-layer depth on TeM by a set of selected lakes.

  20. Seagrass community dynamics in a subtropical estuarine lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A.; Roessler, M.A.

    1977-11-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of major plant and animal species were investigated for 4 years in south Biscayne Bay including Card Sound, Florida, a subtropical estuarine lagoon. This was part of a larger study including chemical, physical and geological investigations. The major species of plants were Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig, turtle grass, Laurencia poitei (Lamour.) Howe, a red macroalga and the green algae Penicillus capitatus Lamarck and Halimeda incrassata (Ellis) Lamour. Standing crop and production of plant material taken bi-weekly is given in detail for 16 stations in Card Sound for the 4-year period and for eight stations in Biscayne Bay for a 1-year period. The major animal species were not equally distributed; in the near-shore Thalassia community, species of Pagurus, Neopanope, Hippolyte, Cerithium, Bulla, Prunum and Modulus were dominant. In mid-bay, where patchy Thalassia plus green algae occurred, Thor and Chondrilla were the dominant animals. Near the fringing islands, where tidal flow caused more oceanic conditions, the community was dominated by sponges, urchins and corals. This highlights the structural differences in what is now termed the ''Thalassia community.'' Comparisons with other known Thalassia communities are made.

  1. Traits of estuarine marsh plants affect wave dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Ostermann, Tilla; Heuner, Maike; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2017-04-01

    Estuarine vegetation can attenuate hydrodynamic forces such as waves or flow velocities and therefore has an important role in natural tidal bank protection. This function depends on the degree of hydrodynamic forces, bank morphology and on plant traits of the dominant species. The traits vary between the species but also between different marsh sites. Biomass, stem density and biomechanical properties are crucial factors that influence the rate of wave dissipation. These properties illustrate the trade-offs a species is facing in such a dynamic habitat and highlight the ability of dominant species such as Bolboschoenus maritimus and Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani to protect the tidal bank. Along the Elbe estuary, traits of dominant marsh plant species were measured on different sites. The sites vary e.g. in their elevation, salt levels and inundation periods. To analyse the role that plant traits can play in wave dissipation, the structure of the vegetation as well as the composition was recorded. Biomechanical tests helped to understand the species traits regarding stem flexibility and to determine the effects of plant traits on wave dynamics and vice versa. On the conference, we will present how plant traits affect the wave dissipation on tidal marshes and why they vary.

  2. Estuarine and Coastal Wildlife Research at Cape Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyier, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Eric Reyier has been invited to give a 15-minute oral and Powerpoint presentation to the Florida Sport Fishing Association (north Chapter) regarding fisheries research and management in the greater Cape Canaveral region. The focus of the talk will center on the Florida Atlantic Coast Telemetry Array, a multi-agency network of submerged acoustic receivers used to track the movements of economically valuable sportfish, sharks, and sea turtles here at KSC and elsewhere along the US east coast. The talk has been given (in varying forms) several times before and is always a positive story for KSC.

  3. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  4. Challenges of Green Logistics in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beškovnik, Bojan; Jakomin, Livio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the trends towards green logistics in global aspect and challenges of adopting green logistics in the region of Southeast Europe. Modern logistics with supply chain management is experiencing a period of important evolution. From reversible logistics, we came to green logistics, which is a wider concept of environmentally friendly thinking. Reverse logistics includes processes of movements and transportation of waste from users to recycling plants; meanwhile, green logist...

  5. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  6. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Type.-Holotype male, Chiang Mai Prov., Thailand, 1933, O.R. Causey (on slide, Type in USNM). Southeast Asia Records.-- INDONESIA: Sulawesi (North...Kapit Dist., Nanga Pelagus (Traub). SINGAPORE: Kg. Chantek Bahru (Colless); Nee Soon (Colless). THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Causey); Chiang Rai (Causey...THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Notonanda, Scanlon). Cholburi, Bangphra,(Scanlon). Khon Kaen Prov., Ban Phai and Chum Phae (Manop R.). Loei Prov., Dan Sal, Ban

  7. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  8. Concentrations of stable elements and uranium in estuarine areas of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Hyoe; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The geochemistry of stable elements can be a good analogue for understanding the behavior of radionuclides in estuarine and coastal environments. In this study, the behavior of nutrients (NO 3 + NO 2 , PO 4 , Si(OH) 4 ), heavy metals, and U was observed in several estuarine and coastal waters of Japan. We also collected data on salinity, pH, and suspended particle matter (SPM). Nutrient concentrations followed conservative dilution lines in these estuaries, and concentrations of dissolved Fe decreased as salinity increased from 0 to 20. In general, most of the dissolved Fe in estuaries is in colloidal form. The behavior of dissolved Fe might reflect a loss of colloidal Fe through coagulation in this salinity range. Dissolved Co and Ni concentrations followed approximate dilution lines from the rivers to the seawater end-members, suggesting that they were quasi-conservative in these estuarine systems. A rapid increase in dissolved Cd concentrations was observed at low levels of salinity (<4). Estimated fluxes of dissolved Cd to the estuarine and coastal waters showed that the salt-induced desorption of Cd from particles constitutes a significant source of dissolved Cd in the estuarine and coastal waters. (author)

  9. Composition, sources, and bioavailability of nitrogen in a longitudinal gradient from freshwater to estuarine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Jariani; Toor, Gurpal S

    2018-06-15

    Nitrogen (N) transport from land to water is a dominant contributor of N in estuarine waters leading to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia. Our objectives were to (1) investigate the composition of inorganic and organic N forms, (2) distinguish the sources and biogeochemical mechanisms of nitrate-N (NO 3 -N) transport using stable isotopes of NO 3 - and Bayesian mixing model, and (3) determine the dissolved organic N (DON) bioavailability using bioassays in a longitudinal gradient from freshwater to estuarine ecosystem located in the Tampa Bay, Florida, United States. We found that DON was the most dominant N form (mean: 64%, range: 46-83%) followed by particulate organic N (PON, mean: 22%, range: 14-37%), whereas inorganic N forms (NO x -N: 7%, NH 4 -N: 7%) were 14% of total N in freshwater and estuarine waters. Stable isotope data of NO 3 - revealed that nitrification was the main contributor (36.4%), followed by soil and organic N sources (25.5%), NO 3 - fertilizers (22.4%), and NH 4 + fertilizers (15.7%). Bioassays showed that 14 to 65% of DON concentrations decreased after 5-days of incubation indicating utilization of DON by microbes in freshwater and estuarine waters. These results suggest that despite low proportion of inorganic N forms, the higher concentrations and bioavailability of DON can be a potential source of N for algae and bacteria leading to water quality degradation in the estuarine waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep-water Drilliinae, Cochlespirinae and Oenopotinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a soft-bottom community from the continental slope of Campos Basin, off southeast Brazil, were obtained between 2001 and 2003 by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge. A total of 177 samples were taken at depths ranging from 700 to 1950 m. Mollusks were present at all of the stations and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Within the family Cochlespirinae we found: Leucosyrinx tenoceras (Dall, 1889, L. verrillii (Dall, 1881, expanding the known distribution of the latter species farther south, and L.? subgrundifera (Dall, 1888, which is the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and the shallowest depth at which it has ever been found. Within the family Drilliinae we found Splendrillia centimata (Dall, 1889, also the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and its shallowest depth. Within the subfamily Oenopotinae we describe here three new species in the genus Oenopota Mörch, 1852: O. seraphina n. sp., O. diabula n. sp. and O. carioca n. sp.

  11. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. Young of the year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) as a bioindicator of estuarine health: Establishing a new baseline for persistent organic pollutants after Hurricane Sandy for selected estuaries in New Jersey and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Deshpande, Ashok D; Blazer, Vicki S; Dockum, Bruce W; Timmons, DeMond; Sharack, Beth L; Baker, Ronald J; Samson, Jennifer; Reilly, Timothy J

    2016-06-30

    Atlantic coastal bays of the US are essential habitat for young of year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Their residence in these estuaries during critical life stages, high lipid content, and piscivory make bluefish an ideal bioindicator species for evaluating estuarine health. Individual whole fish from four estuaries impacted by Hurricane Sandy were collected in August 2013, analyzed for a suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides and evaluated using health metrics. Concentrations in whole bluefish differed by estuary; however, concentrations for many POPs decreased or were similar to those observed prior to the hurricane. Prevalence of the ectoparasitic gill isopod (Lironeca ovalis) varied by estuary and no relationships between contaminants and lesions were observed. Bluefish should be considered for monitoring programs and, if sampled frequently, could be an effective bioindicator of incremental and episodic changes in contaminants within aquatic food webs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Variation in estuarine littoral nematode populations over three spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodda, M.

    1990-04-01

    The population characteristics of the nematode fauna from five replicate cores taken over four seasons at nine sites within mangroves, at three different estuaries on the south-east coast of Australia, are compared. Using cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis and other statistical techniques, the variation in nematode populations is identified as arising from several sources: temperature changes between the more northerly and southerly estuaries (5%); changes in grain size and organic content of the sediment between sites (22%); changes between sites in the frequency of samples containing certain types of food, particularly associated with pools of water and surface topography (30%); stochastic changes in nematode populations within individual samples, probably caused by small scale spatial and temporal variability in food sources (35%); and seasonal changes at all the sites and estuaries (8%). The implications of this pattern of variation for the biology of the nematodes is discussed.

  14. Trace elements and heavy metals in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Reserve in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve has the highest biotic diversity of habitats and offer a reserve of food resources and commercially significant species. Rapid human civilization has led to accumulation of heavy metals and trace elements in estuaries. The Grand Bay National Estuarin...

  15. Environmental impact of aquaculture-sedimentation and nutrient loadings from shrimp culture of the southeast coastal region of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed; Das, Pranab

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient loadings were measured for surface seawater and bottom sediments of semi-intensive and improved extensive shrimp culture pond, adjacent estuary, and fallow land in the south-east coastal region of Bangladesh during August, 2000-January, 2001 to evaluate the impact of shrimp culture. The mean levels of nutrients found in the pond surface water were 108.780 mg/L for CaCO3, 0.526 mg/L for NH4+ -N, 3.075 wt% for organic carbon, 7.00 mg/L for PO4-P, 5.57 mg/L for NO3-N, and 7.33 mg/L for chlorophyll-a. The maximum mean value of H2S (0.232 mg/L) was found in estuarine water. Nutrients loading were found to be decreased with distance from the shrimp farm discharge unit in estuarine water. The mean level of organic matter, total nitrogen, and organic carbon were found in higher concentrations in sediments of cultured pond compared to bottom soil of adjacent fallow land at the same elevation. Extractable Ca values were found in higher concentration (550.33 ppt) in adjacent fallow land, as the shrimps for molting in shrimp ponds use extractable Ca. The relation between seawater H2S value and sediment pH (r = - 0.94); sediment organic carbon and sediment pH values (r = -0.76), sediment total nitrogen and sediment pH (r = -0.74) were found to be highly negatively correlated. Whereas the relation between seawater H2S value and sediment total nitrogen (r = 0.92), water NH4+ -N and sediment pH (r = 0.66) were found to be positively correlated. The results revealed that load of nutrients at eutrophic level in estuarine water, and decrease of soil pH; leading to acid sulphate soil formation indicates a negative impact of shrimp culture.

  16. 76 FR 13583 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Quotas and Atlantic Tuna Fisheries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... address concerns raised in a recent decision by a NOAA Administrative Law Judge (see Atlantic Tunas Transfer at Sea section for case reference). NMFS has prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA... subtraction of these allocations directly from the TAC, the recommendation allocates the remainder to the UK...

  17. Characterisation of the hydrology of an estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Catherine E.; Binning, Philip; Willgoose, Garry R.

    1998-11-01

    The intertidal zone of estuarine wetlands is characterised by a transition from a saline marine environment to a freshwater environment with increasing distance from tidal streams. An experimental site has been established in an area of mangrove and salt marsh wetland in the Hunter River estuary, Australia, to characterise and provide data for a model of intertidal zone hydrology. The experimental site is designed to monitor water fluxes at a small scale (36 m). A weather station and groundwater monitoring wells have been installed and hydraulic head and tidal levels are monitored over a 10-week period along a short one-dimensional transect covering the transition between the tidal and freshwater systems. Soil properties have been determined in the laboratory and the field. A two-dimensional finite element model of the site was developed using SEEP/W to analyse saturated and unsaturated pore water movement. Modification of the water retention function to model crab hole macropores was found necessary to reproduce the observed aquifer response. Groundwater response to tidal fluctuations was observed to be almost uniform beyond the intertidal zone, due to the presence of highly permeable subsurface sediments below the less permeable surface sediments. Over the 36 m transect, tidal forcing was found to generate incoming fluxes in the order of 0.22 m 3/day per metre width of creek bank during dry periods, partially balanced by evaporative fluxes of about 0.13 m 3/day per metre width. During heavy rainfall periods, rainfall fluxes were about 0.61 m 3/day per metre width, dominating the water balance. Evapotranspiration rates were greater for the salt marsh dominated intertidal zone than the non-tidal zone. Hypersalinity and salt encrustation observed show that evapotranspiration fluxes are very important during non-rainfall periods and are believed to significantly influence salt concentration both in the surface soil matrix and the underlying aquifer.

  18. Manganese and iron as oxygen carriers to anoxie estuarine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayner, F. M. M.; Matvienko, B.

    2003-05-01

    We studied the concentration of a series of transition metals including Mn and Fe in an estuarine fishpond. The pond is situated at latitude 8°10'S and longitude 34°55'W, in the Capibaribe River estuary, within the Recife city boundaries, which is located in Pernambuco, a state of the Brazilian Northeast Pond area is 1.5 ha and it bas a 0.5 m depth. It is separated from the river by dikes. Water temperature at 28° C is stable throughout the year. Light breezes keep the water aerated, but intense ongoing decomposition makes the sediment anoxie. The area, originally of mangrove type, has been changed by antropic action on its fauna and vegetation. The study focuses on changes in behaviour of heavy metals. Samples of bottom sediments wore collected by Eckman dredge sediment sampler and total metal concentration was determined by the lithium borate fusion method. Water, recent sediment, and consolidated sediment were examined in this fishpond where Mn and Fe are brought in periodically by water and then gradually go into the sediment at respective rates of 10.52 and 1332 mg m^{-2}a^{-1}. Strong bioturbation re-suspends sediment while simultaneously re-dissolution of these ions is going on fhrough reduction in the anoxie sédiment. As soluble species these ions migrate from sediment to water and are there continually oxidized by dissolved oxygen, becoming insoluble. With their precipitation, chemically bound oxygen is carried down to the sediment, constituting a parallel channel of transport in addition to migration into the sediment bydiffusion of the oxygen dissolved in the water. The estimated flow rates are 3.25 and 76 mg O2 m^{-2}a^{-1} due to Mn and Fe respectively. The rates were established using natural silicon as a tracer.

  19. Building a new regulatory paradigm for coastal and estuarine acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, J.; Cai, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean acidification regulation generally falls under the authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA, P.L. 92-500). The CWA has been a powerful tool to improve the country's water quality, but it is most adept at addressing point-source pollutants and contaminants. It requires policymakers to determine "natural levels" of the target pollutant and to attribute changes in water quality to a specific source, both of which are tough or impossible tests for the diffuse carbon imbalance that is associated with ocean acidification, even if we could easily identify the threshold level for harm to organisms (Boehm, 2015). Even where regulators have tried to apply CWA to address acidification, they have been confronted by a lack of baseline data, an inability to specifically identify sources within their jurisdiction, and the fact that existing water quality standards do not capture the impairments that are associated with ocean acidification (Cooley, 2015). In fact, there was a lawsuit brought by the Center for Biological Diversity against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) alleging the agency had failure to regulate this issue. In the end, the courts sided with the EPA, and it continues to struggle with how to use pH and/or saturation state to define a point at which a water body becomes impaired and a threat to sea-life and natural resources. We present an analysis of the complexities related to regulating ocean acidification, the history of work in this area, and suggest a solution that can be tailored to fit unique coastal and estuarine characteristics.

  20. Estuarine abandoned channel sedimentation rates record peak fluvial discharge magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.; Watson, E. B.

    2018-04-01

    Fluvial sediment deposits can provide useful records of integrated watershed expressions including flood event magnitudes. However, floodplain and estuarine sediment deposits evolve through the interaction of watershed/marine sediment supply and transport characteristics with the local depositional environment. Thus extraction of watershed scale signals depends upon accounting for local scale effects on sediment deposition rates and character. This study presents an examination of the balance of fluvial sediment dynamics and local scale hydro-geomorphic controls on alluviation of an abandoned channel in the Salinas River Lagoon, CA. A set of three sediment cores contained discrete flood deposits that corresponded to the largest flood events over the period of accretion from 1969 to 2007. Sedimentation rates scaled with peak flood discharge and event scale sediment flux, but were not influenced by longer scale hydro-meteorological activities such as annual precipitation and water yield. Furthermore, the particle size distributions of flood deposits showed no relationship to event magnitudes. Both the responsiveness of sedimentation and unresponsiveness of particle size distributions to hydro-sedimentological event magnitudes appear to be controlled by aspects of local geomorphology that influence the connectivity of the abandoned channel to the Salinas River mainstem. Well-developed upstream plug bar formation precluded the entrainment of coarser bedload into the abandoned channel, while Salinas River mouth conditions (open/closed) in conjunction with tidal and storm surge conditions may play a role in influencing the delivery of coarser suspended load fractions. Channel adjacent sediment deposition can be valuable records of hydro-meteorological and sedimentological regimes, but local depositional settings may dominate the character of short term (interdecadal) signatures.

  1. Tidally-driven Surface Flow in a Georgia Estuarine Saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.; Bruder, B. L.; Haas, K. A.; Webster, D. R.

    2016-02-01

    Estuarine saltmarshes are diverse, valuable, and productive ecosystems. Vegetation dampens wave and current energy, thereby allowing the estuaries to serve as a nursery habitat for shellfish and fish species. Tidally-driven flow transports nutrients into and out of the estuary, nourishing inshore and offshore vegetation and animals. The effects of vegetation on the marsh hydrodynamics and on the estuary creek and channel flow are, unfortunately, poorly understood, and the knowledge that does exist primarily originates from modeling studies. Field studies addressing marsh surface flows are limited due to the difficulty of accurately measuring the water surface elevation and acquiring concurrent velocity measurements in the dense marsh vegetation. This study partially bridges the gap between the model observations of marsh flow driven by water surface elevation gradients and flume studies of flow through vegetation. Three current meters and three pressure transducers were deployed for three days along a transect perpendicular to the main channel (Little Ogeechee River) in a saltmarsh adjacent to Rose Dhu Island (Savannah, Georgia, USA). The pressure transducer locations were surveyed daily with static GPS yielding highly accurate water surface elevation data. During flood and ebb tide, water surface elevation differences between the marsh and Little Ogeechee River were observed up to 15 cm and pressure gradients were observed up to 0.0017 m of water surface elevation drop per m of linear distance. The resulting channel-to-saltmarsh pressure gradients substantially affected tidal currents at all current meters. At one current meter, the velocity was nearly perpendicular to the Little Ogeechee River bank. The velocity at this location was effectively modeled as a balance between the pressure gradient and marsh vegetation-induced drag force using the Darcy-Weisbach/Lindner's equations developed for flow-through-vegetation analysis in open channel flow.

  2. Estuarine Human Activities Modulate the Fate of Changjiang-derived Materials in Adjacent Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, H.

    2017-12-01

    Mega constructions have been built in many river estuaries, but their environmental consequences in the adjacent coastal oceans were often overlooked. This issue was addressed with an example of the Changjiang River Estuary, which was recently built with massive navigation and reclamation constructions in recent years. Based on the model validations against cruises data and the numerical scenario experiments, it is shown that the estuarine constructions profoundly affected the fates of riverine materials in an indeed large offshore area. This is because estuarine dynamics are highly sensitive to their bathymetries. Previously, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) was thought to be responsible for some offshore environmental changes through modulating the river plume extension, but here we show that its influences are secondary. Since the TGD and the mega estuarine constructions were built during the similar period, their influences might be confused.

  3. Oceanographic and climatic evolution of the southeastern subtropical Atlantic over the last 3.5 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Benjamin; McClymont, Erin L.; Littler, Kate; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Clarkson, Matthew O.; Maslin, Mark; Röhl, Ursula; Shevenell, Amelia E.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2018-06-01

    The southeast Atlantic Ocean is dominated by two major oceanic systems: the Benguela Upwelling System, one of the world's most productive coastal upwelling cells and the Agulhas Leakage, which is important for transferring warm salty water from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Here, we present a multi-proxy record of marine sediments from ODP Site 1087. We reconstruct sea surface temperatures (U37K‧ and TEX86 indices), marine primary productivity (total chlorin and alkenone mass accumulation rates), and terrestrial inputs derived from southern Africa (Ti/Al and Ca/Ti via XRF scanning) to understand the evolution of the Southeast Atlantic Ocean since the late Pliocene. In the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, ODP Site 1087 was situated within the Benguela Upwelling System, which was displaced southwards relative to present. We recognize a series of events in the proxy records at 3.3, 3.0, 2.2, 1.5, 0.9 and 0.6 Ma, which are interpreted to reflect a combination of changes in the location of major global wind and oceanic systems and local variations in the strength and/or position of the winds, which influence nutrient availability. Although there is a temporary SST cooling observed around the initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (iNHG), proxy records from ODP Site 1087 show no clear climatic transition around 2.7 Ma but instead most of the changes occur before this time. This observation is significant because it has been previously suggested that there should be a change in the location and/or strength of upwelling associated with this climate transition. Rather, the main shifts at ODP Site 1087 occur at ca. 0.9 Ma and 0.6 Ma, associated with the early mid-Pleistocene transition (EMPT), with a clear loss of the previous upwelling-dominated regime. This observation raises the possibility that reorganisation of southeast Atlantic Ocean circulation towards modern conditions was tightly linked to the EMPT, but not to earlier climate transitions.

  4. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  5. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Iqra Anugrah; Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University

    2014-01-01

    "Three recent works provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies." (author's abstract). Review of: 1. Ford, Michele (ed.): Social Activism in Southeast Asia. Series: Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia. London, New York: Routledge 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-63059-7. 2. Petras, James...

  6. Cultural barriers to health care for southeast Asian refugees.

    OpenAIRE

    Uba, L

    1992-01-01

    Many Southeast Asians now living in the United States experience severe health problems, attributable to physical trauma and inadequate health care in Asia, and low socioeconomic status in this country. Evidence indicates that despite their health problems, Southeast Asian refugees underuse the American health care system. Cultural reasons for this underuse are examined. Southeast Asian cultural attitudes toward suffering, such as beliefs that suffering is inevitable or that one's life span i...

  7. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  8. Grenville age of basement rocks in Cape May NJ well: New evidence for Laurentian crust in U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain basement Chesapeake terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, R.E.; Maguire, T.J.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Volkert, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake terrane of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain basement is bounded on the northwest by the Salisbury positive gravity and magnetic anomaly and extends to the southeast as far as the Atlantic coast. It underlies the Coastal Plain of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey. Rubidium/Strontium dating of the Chesapeake terrane basement yields an age of 1.025 ?? 0.036 Ga. This age is typical of Grenville province rocks of the Middle to Late Proterozoic Laurentian continent. The basement lithologies are similar to some exposed Grenville-age rocks of the Appalachians. The TiO2 and Zr/P2O5 composition of the metagabbro from the Chesapeake terrane basement is overlapped by those of the Proterozoic mafic dikes in the New Jersey Highlands. These new findings support the interpretation that Laurentian basement extends southeast as far as the continental shelf in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The subcrop of Laurentian crust under the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain implies unroofing by erosion of the younger Carolina (Avalon) supracrustal terrane. Dextral-transpression fault duplexes may have caused excessive uplift in the Salisbury Embayment area during the Alleghanian orogeny. This extra uplift in the Salisbury area may have caused the subsequent greater subsidence of the Coastal Plain basement in the embayment.

  9. 75 FR 33531 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XW79 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine..., recent Large Pelagics Survey estimates indicate that charter/headboat BFT landings constitute...

  10. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  11. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-Ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-06-23

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions.

  12. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  13. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  14. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  15. The NAO Influence on the Early to Mid-Holocene North Atlantic Coastal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A.; Cachão, M.; Sousa, P.; Trigo, R. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal upwelling regions yield some of the oceanic most productive ecosystems, being crucial for the worldwide social and economic development. Most upwelling systems, emerging cold nutrient-rich deep waters, are located in the eastern boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific basins, and are driven by meridional wind fields parallel to the coastal shore. These winds are associated with the subsiding branch of the large-scale Anticyclonic high pressure systems that dominate the subtropical ocean basins, and therefore can be displaced or intensified within the context of past and future climate changes. However, the role of the current global warming influencing the coastal upwelling is, as yet, unclear. Therefore it is essential to derive a long-term perspective, beyond the era of instrumental measurements, to detect similar warm periods in the past that have triggered changes in the upwelling patterns. In this work, the upwelling dynamics in the Iberian North Atlantic margin during the early and mid-Holocene is reconstructed, using calcareous nannofossils from a decadally resolved estuarine sediment core located in southwestern Portugal. Results suggest that the coastal dynamics reflects changes in winds direction likely related to shifts in the NAO-like conditions. Furthermore, the reconstructed centennial-scale variations in the upwelling are synchronous with changes in solar irradiance, a major external forcing factor of the climate system that is known to exert influence in atmospheric circulation patterns. In addition, these proxy-based data interpretations are in agreement with wind field and solar irradiance simulation modelling for the mid-Holocene. Therefore, the conclusion that the solar activity via the NAO modulation controlled the North Atlantic upwelling of western Iberia during the early and mid-Holocene at decadal to centennial timescales can be derived. The financial support for attending this meeting was possible through FCT project UID/GEO/50019

  16. Foraminifera and Thecamoebians as hydrodynamic indicators for Amazon estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laut, L. L.; Figueiredo, A. G.; Santos, V. F.; Souza-Vieira, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Amazon mangrove forest in Brazilian territory is one of the most extended in the world. It goes from Ponta do Tubarao (4S e 43W) to Cape Orange (5N e 51W) along 2,250 km of coast line. Because the Amazon River System influence, it can be divided into two regions; one with river influence toward north and the other without river influence. In order to characterize the mangrove environment hydrodynamic on both sides of the Amazon River System, foraminifera and thecamoebians assemblages were investigated in the sediment of two estuaries; Araguari to the North (1 15S - 50 30W) and Caete to the South (0 50S - 46 30W). For both estuaries forams and thecamoebians species distribution are atypical relative to other world regions. In both, there are only few calcareous forams and almost all are small and possible of being transported in suspension. Typical estuarine species were not identified. The typical mangrove forams which are agglutinated species were dominant in both estuaries. However, the Caete estuary has a large number of forams species (29), indicating better efficiency in mixing fresh and salt water in comparison to the Araguari. On the other hand, the Araguari has big richness of thecamoebians species (15) indicating fresh water prevalence. The fresh water predominance is due to the Amazon water plume being diverted to the Amapa coast where the Araguari estuary is located. The foraminifera species was also used to determine the salt water penetration in the estuary. In the Caete estuary, salt water penetrates to about 40 km while in the Araguari it does coincide with the limit of the bore tide wave "pororoca" penetration, 45 km. Based on the species succession (forams to thecamoebians species) the Araguary estuary can be divided into three regions controlled by turbidity: the outer, middle and inner estuary. The Caete species succession is not that clear and only could be divided based on salinity into outer and inner estuary. In both estuaries forams and

  17. Airborne remote sensing of estuarine intertidal radionuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainey, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    The ability to map industrial discharges through remote sensing provides a powerful tool in environmental monitoring. Radionuclide effluents have been discharged, under authorization, into the Irish Sea from BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Pic.) sites at Sellafield and Springfields since 1952. The quantitative mapping of this anthropogenic radioactivity in estuarine intertidal zones is crucial for absolute interpretations of radionuclide transport. The spatial resolutions of traditional approaches e.g. point sampling and airborne gamma surveys are insufficient to support geomorphic interpretations of the fate of radionuclides in estuaries. The research presented in this thesis develops the use of airborne remote sensing to derive high-resolution synoptic data on the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in the intertidal areas of the Ribble Estuary, Lancashire, UK. From multidate surface sediment samples a significant relationship was identified between the Sellafield-derived 137 Cs and 241 Am and clay content (r 2 = 0.93 and 0.84 respectively). Detailed in situ, and laboratory, reflectance (0.4-2.5μm) experiments demonstrated that significant relationships exist between Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) simulated reflectance and intertidal sediment grain-size. The spectral influence of moisture on the reflectance characteristics of the intertidal area is also evident. This had substantial implications for the timing of airborne image acquisition. Low-tide Daedalus ATM imagery (Natural Environmental Research Council) was collected of the Ribble Estuary on May 30th 1997. Preprocessing and linear unmixing of the imagery allowed accurate sub-pixel determinations of sediment clay content distributions (r 2 = 0.81). Subsequently, the established relationships between 137 Cs and 241 Am and sediment grain-size enabled the radionuclide activity distributions across the entire intertidal area (92 km 2 ) to be mapped at a geomorphic scale (1.75 m). The accuracy of these maps

  18. Estuarine geochemistry of 224Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Desorption from river borne sediments is the most likely source of the excess 226 Ra. Laboratory mixing experiments on Pee Dee River sediments show an increase in 226 Ra desorption with increasing salinities with maximum desorption occurring at or above 20 0 /oo salinity. Desorption and diffusion are the sources for 226 Ra in the estuarine systems. In Winyah Bay the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio does not change significantly with salinity, averaging around 1.4, indicating desorption as the major source of 228 Ra. In the Yangtze River the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio is constant (approx.1.90) until increasing linearly above 16 0 /oo. A diffusive flux from regeneration by 232 Th decay in shelf sediments is the source of the increase. In Delaware Bay 228 Ra increases faster than 226 Ra in the less than or equal to22 0 /oo water, indicating a source in addition to desorption. The increase can be balanced by a 0.33 dpm/cm 2 -year flux over the upper part of the Bay where fine grained sediments predominate. 224 Ra behavior is controlled by its 3.64 day half-life. In Winyah Bay a flux of around 0.4 dpm/cm 2 -day is necessary to support the standing crop of non-desorbed 224 Ra in the water column. In Delaware Bay the nearly constant 224 Ra in concentration over the 2.5 0 /oo to 12 0 /oo salinity range are maintained by regeneration from 228 Th in the turbidity maximum zones and diffusion from bottom sediments. Water leaving on ebb tide from a salt marsh on Delaware Bay had increases in all three radium isotopes ( 224 Ra > 228 Ra > 226 Ra) compared to water coming in on the flood tide. Excess 222 Rn concentrations in a fresh water section of the Pee Dee River show a decreasing downstream gradient. Using these gradients to determine evasion rates, stagnant film thicknesses range from 21μ to 62μ

  19. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... The Council will consider input from the workgroup and workshops during its June meeting in Orlando... Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... public meeting and public workshop. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will...

  20. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... 130402317-3707-01] RIN 0648-XC611 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing opportunities for commercial shark...

  1. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  2. 75 FR 57235 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    .... 100825390-0431-01] RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures... on potential adjustments to the regulations governing the U.S. Atlantic shark fishery to address several specific issues currently affecting management of the shark fishery and to identify specific goals...

  3. 78 FR 26523 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    .... 130104009-3416-02] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013 and 2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... final specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including annual catch limits...

  4. 77 FR 25100 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... 120201086-2418-02] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual catch limit, total allowable landings...

  5. 77 FR 8776 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    .... 120201086-2085-01] RIN 0648-XA904 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2012 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2012 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including an annual...

  6. 78 FR 11809 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... 130104009-3099-01] RIN 0648-XC432 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Bluefish Fishery; 2013-2014 Atlantic Bluefish Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2013 and 2014 Atlantic bluefish fishery, including...

  7. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... AP will also review Amendment 19 to the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP regarding alternatives for bag...

  8. Genetic differentiation of Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758 and Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858, (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes from several estuarine systems of the Portuguese coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique N. Cabral

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differentiation of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis from several estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast was studied. Nine polymorphic isozyme loci (ACP-1*, ACP-2*, GPI-1*, GPI-2*, sMDH*, ME-1*, ME-2*, MPI* and PGM* were analysed using starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Differentiation between the species was high (mean average Nei distance of 0.93. The most efficient loci in the diagnosis of the two species were ACP-1*, ME-2* and GPI-2*. S. solea showed a higher genetic diversity than S. senegalensis. Within each species a low genetic differentiation between the samples analysed was found. Although with a low magnitude the interpopulational genetic differentiation of S. solea was higher than that of S. senegalensis. This could probably be explained by some particularities of the life cycles of these species, namely the more extended period of occurrence of larval stages of S. senegalensis in the plankton. Although no clear evidence about the population structure model emerged from the analysis of several Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of S. solea, the significant correlations obtained between genetic and geographical distances support an isolation by distance model.

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for two Atlantic oyster species: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. gasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Nathalia P; Solé-Cava, Antonio M; Lazoski, Cristiano; Cunha, Haydée A

    2013-12-01

    Using a CA/CAA enriched library screening procedure, we isolated and characterised a total of seventeen polymorphic microsatellite loci for two species of Crassostrea with recognised economic importance. Eleven microsatellite loci were developed for C. rhizophorae, a Western Atlantic species for which no microsatellites were previously known. Another six loci were developed for C. gasar, a species that occurs on both sides of the South Atlantic, adding to the ten loci previously described for the species. The levels of polymorphism were estimated using 24 C. rhizophorae from Southeast Brazil (São Paulo) and 23 C. gasar individuals from North Brazil (Maranhão). The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied from 3 to 27, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged between 0.174 and 0.958 and between 0.237 and 0.972 in C. rhizophorae and C. gasar, respectively. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any locus pair, and four of them exhibited deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Of the 17 loci developed, 8 cross-amplified in C. gigas and 13 in C. virginica. These markers are useful for evolution and population genetics studies of Crassostrea species and may provide fundamental data for the future cultivation of native oysters in Western Atlantic.

  10. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  11. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  12. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  13. The flux of 226Ra from estuarine and continental shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.H.; Mathieu, G.; Biscaye, P.; Simpson, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A pronounced desorption phenomenon of 226 Ra from sediment was observed in the Hudson River estuary. Mass balance calculations indicate that the desorption of 226 Ra from the river-borne sediment in estuarine environment is an important source of 226 Ra to the oceans. (Auth.)

  14. Seasonal variations in secondary production of the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine system of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Selvakumar, R.A.; Nair, V.R.; Madhupratap, M.

    . In general, the saline period was more productive (12.9 mg dry wt/m3/day) compared to the low saline period (11 mg dry wt/m3/day). The average secondary production in the estuarine system was 21.4 mg dry wt/m3/day or 1078 tonnes carbon/yr. The coefficient...

  15. Assessing estuarine quality: A cost-effective in situ assay with amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Acevedo, Pelayo; Pais-Costa, Antónia Juliana; Taggart, Mark A; Martins, Irene; Ribeiro, Rui; Marques, João Carlos

    2016-05-01

    In situ assays based on feeding depression can be powerful ecotoxicological tools that can link physiological organism-level responses to population and/or community-level effects. Amphipods are traditional target species for toxicity tests due to their high sensitivity to contaminants, availability in the field and ease of handling. However, cost-effective in situ assays based on feeding depression are not yet available for amphipods that inhabit estuarine ecosystems. The aim of this work was to assess a short-term in situ assay based on postexposure feeding rates on easily quantifiable food items with an estuarine amphipod. Experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Echinogammarus marinus as the target individual. When 60 Artemia franciscana nauplii (as prey) were provided per individual for a period of 30 min in dark conditions, feeding rates could be easily quantified. As an endpoint, postexposure feeding inhibition in E. marinus was more sensitive to cadmium contamination than mortality. Assay calibration under field conditions demonstrated the relevance of sediment particle size in explaining individual feeding rates in uncontaminated water bodies. An evaluation of the 48-h in situ bioassay based on postexposure feeding rates indicated that it is able to discriminate between unpolluted and polluted estuarine sites. Using the harmonized protocol described here, the in situ postexposure feeding assay with E. marinus was found to be a potentially useful, cost-effective tool for assessing estuarine sediment and water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Organic Contaminants in an Estuarine System using a Random Forest Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling the magnitude and distribution of estuarine sediment contamination by pollutants of historic (e.g. PCB) and emerging concern (e.g., personal care products, PCP) is often limited by incomplete site knowledge and inadequate sediment contamination sampling. We tested a mode...

  17. Imtechella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Surendra, V.; Bhawana, P.; Suresh, K.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating bacterium, designated strain K1 sup(T), was isolated from an estuarine water sample collected from Kochi, Kerala, India. Colonies on marine agar were circular, 2.0-2.5 mm in diameter...

  18. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional idealized model that is specifically aimed at gaining insight in the physical mechanisms resulting in the formation of estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries. First, the three-dimensional equations for water motion and suspended sediment

  19. Tidal effects on net ecosystem exchange of carbon in an estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Guo; A. Noormets; B. Zhao; J. Chen; G. Sun; Y. Gu; B. Li; J. Chen

    2009-01-01

    One year of continuous data from two eddy-flux towers established along an elevation gradient incoastal Shanghai was analyzed to evaluate the tidal effect on carbon flux (Fc) over an estuarine wetland.The measured wavelet spectra and cospectra of Fc and other environmental factors demonstrated thatthe...

  20. Emission of carbon dioxide from a tropical estuarine system, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; DileepKumar, M.; Manerikar, M.

    Carbon dioxide species were studied in Mandovi-Zuari system, a tropical estuarine complex influenced by strong monsoonal run-off, with implications to build up and air-water exchange of CO sub(2) . Total carbon dioxide (TOC sub(2)) behaved...

  1. Herbicides from the Charente river and the estuarine zone (Marennes-Oleron) to the coastal seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scribe, P.; Chouakri, S.; Dupas, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial distribution of herbicides was investigated in the fluvial section, the estuary of the Charente river and the coastal zone (Marennes-Oleron). Monthly samplings were performed on a fluvial section from Angouleme to Saintes, at Chalonne, Nersac, Sireuil, Bourg and Brives from 1993 onwards. Estuarine and coastal sea-waters were sampled during two cruises in May 1991 and February 1992

  2. The Importance of Allochthonous Subsidies to an Estuarine Food Web along a Salinity Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuarine food webs function within a heterogeneous mosaic and are supported by a mix of primary producers from both local and distant sources. Processes governing the exchange and consumption of organic matter (OM), however, are poorly understood. To study the contribution of ...

  3. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS: A COMPARISON OF TWO ESTUARINE CONTINUUMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial diversity in estuarine sediments of the Altamaha and Savannah Rivers in Georgia were compared temporally and spatially using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Surface sediment samples collected along a salinity gradient were also analyzed for ATP, TOC, and C ...

  4. Bivalve grazing, nutrient cycling and phytoplankton dynamics in an estuarine ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.C.

    1996-01-01


    This thesis has considered the impact of the suspension feeding bivalve Mytilusedulis on nutrient cycling and phytoplankton in an estuarine ecosystem. The research was started within the framework of an extensive research project with the

  5. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of quantum dots in estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand their fate and transport in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in seawater were investigated. Hydrodynamic size increased from 40 to 60 nm to >1 mm within 1 h in seawater, and the aggregates were highly p...

  6. Role of Phragmites australis (common reed) for heavy metals phytoremediation of estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero-Fernández, Diego; Peña-Fernández, Manuel; Expósito-Camargo, Jose A; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Phragmites australis to take up heavy metals (Co, Ni, Mo, Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Hg) and other trace elements (As, Se, Ba), from estuarine sediments was investigated using a pilot plant experimental approach. Bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation factors (TF) were calculated in vegetative and senescence periods for two populations of P. australis, from contaminated (MIC) and non-contaminated (GAL) estuarine sediments, respectively, both growing in estuarine contaminated sediment (RIA) from ría del Carmen y Boo, Santander Bay, Spain. The highest BCF values were obtained for Ni (0.43), Ba (0.43) Mo (0.36), Cr (0.35), and Cd (0.31) for plants collected from site GAL following the senescence period. The highest BCF values recorded for plants collected from MIC following the senescence period were for Mo (0.22) and Cu (0.22). Following senescence, plants collected from GAL and MIC presented TF>1 for Ni, Mo, Se, and Zn, and in addition plants collected from MIC presented TF>1 for Ba, Cr, and Mn. A substantial increase of Micedo's rhizosphere, six times higher than Galizano's rhizosphere, suggested adaptation to contaminated sediment. The evaluated communities of P. australis demonstrated their suitability for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated estuarine sediments.

  7. Estuarine morphodynamic adaptation to sediment supply and human activities : A case study of turbidity maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, C.; Guo, L; Tian, B.; He, Q; Wang, Zhengbing

    2017-01-01

    Estuarine morphodynamics undergo significant changes due to declined sediment supply from river, rising sea-level, and human interferences (Syvitski and Saito, 2007; Syvitski et al., 2009). The Yangtze Estuary is such a case whose decadal morphodynamic evolution was broadly examined. It was

  8. Role of salinity in structuring the intertidal meiofauna of a tropical estuarine beach: Field evidence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Community structure of meiofauna was studied for 12 months (July 1991-June 1992) on an estuarine intertidal beach at Siridao, Goa (India). The temperature of the surf zone water ranged from 26.5 degrees to 30.7 degrees C; salinity from 8.3 to 34.4 x...

  9. Causes of extirpations in the Wadden Sea, an estuarine area in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, WJ

    The various causes of extirpation of marine and estuarine species were investigated for the Dutch Wadden Sea to gain an impression of their relative importance. I obtained data from geological, archaeological, historical, and biological publications. At least 10 species of algae, 10 invertebrates,

  10. Does estuarine health relate to catchment land-cover in the East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible links between catchment and buffer zone land-cover class composition and the health of the East Kleinemonde Estuary were explored. There was a relationship between catchment land-cover and estuarine health within all assessed catchment delineations. Natural land-cover was determined to be the best ...

  11. Fish community-based measures of estuarine ecological quality and pressure-impact relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vanessa F.; Vasconcelos, Rita P.; Gamito, Rita; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Gonçalves, Catarina I.; Costa, José L.; Costa, Maria J.; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2013-12-01

    Community-based responses of fish fauna to anthropogenic pressures have been extensively used to assess the ecological quality of estuarine ecosystems. Several methodologies have been developed recently combining metrics reflecting community structure and function. A fish community facing significant environmental disturbances will be characterized by a simplified structure, with lower diversity and complexity. However, estuaries are naturally dynamic ecosystems exposed to numerous human pressures, making it difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic-induced changes to the biological community. In the present work, the variability of several fish metrics was assessed in relation to different pressures in estuarine sites. The response of a multimetric index (Estuarine Fish Assessment Index) was also analysed. Overall, fish metrics and the multimetric index signalled anthropogenic stress, particularly environmental chemical pollution. The fish assemblage associated with this type of pressure was characterized by lower species diversity, lower number of functional guilds, lower abundance of marine migrants and of piscivorous individuals, and higher abundance of estuarine resident species. A decreased ecological quality status, based on the EFAI, was also determined for sites associated with this pressure group. Ultimately, the definition of each pressure groups favoured a stressor-specific analysis, evidencing pressure patterns and accounting for multiple factors in a highly dynamic environment.

  12. Simulating the indirect effects of power plant entrainment losses on an estuarine ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, J.K. (Versar, Inc., Columbia, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Entrainment caused by the operation of the Chalk Point Steam Electric Station has been shown to be a major source of mortality to the early life stages of forage fish populations in the Patuxent River, MD, USA. While direct losses to these populations are important as a source of reduction for population abundance, these losses also represent decreases in estuarine forage supplies and potential reductions in the abundances of estuarine predators. A simple estuarine trophic dynamics model was constructed to determine the magnitude of the potential losses to major estuarine consumers in the Patuxent River ecosystem due to the power plant-related losses of forage fish. Simulations were completed using two sets of feeding assumptions: feeding proportional to forage abundance, and feeding based on dietary preferences. The model demonstrates that striped bass, bluefish, and weakfish could experience significant losses (> 25%) to overall population production levels if they prefer to prey upon bay anchovy and silversides and entrainment losses to these forage populations is {>=} 70% of juvenile recruitment. The model also shows that indirect predator losses would be expected to be low (> 5%) if the majority of their diets consisted of forage other than bay anchovy and silversides. 2 figs., 31 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Winnowing and Flocculation in Bio-physical Cohesive Substrate: A Flume Experimental and Estuarine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L.; Parsons, D. R.; Manning, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Cohesive sediment, or mud, is ubiquitously found in most aqueous environments, such as coasts and estuaries. The study of cohesive sediment behaviors requires the synchronous description of mutual interactions of grains (e.g., winnowing and flocculation), their physical properties (e.g., grain size) and also the ambient water. Herein, a series of flume experiments (14 runs) with different substrate mixtures of sand-clay-EPS (Extracellular Polymeric Substrates: secreted by aquatic microorganisms) are combined with an estuarine field survey (Dee estuary, NW England) to investigate the behavior of suspensions over bio-physical cohesive substrates. The experimental results indicate that winnowing and flocculation occur pervasively in bio-physical cohesive flow systems. Importantly however, the evolution of the bed and bedform dynamics and hence turbulence production can be lower when cohesivity is high. The estuarine survey also revealed that the bio-physical cohesion provided by both the clay and microorganism fractions in the bed, that pervasively exists in many natural estuarine systems, plays a significant role in controlling the interactions between bed substrate and sediment suspension and deposition, including controlling processes such as sediment winnowing, flocculation and re-deposition. Full understanding of these processes are essential in advancing sediment transport modelling and prediction studies across natural estuarine systems and the work will report on an improved conceptual model for sediment sorting deposition in bio-physical cohesive substrates.

  14. Modelling the effect of hydrological change on estuarine health: An Australian Perspective. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L. C.; Adiyanti, S.; Ruibal, A. L.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Estuaries provide an important role in the filtering and transformation of carbon and nutrients from coastal catchments into the marine environment. Global trends including climate change, increased population, industrialization and agriculture have led to the rapid deterioration of estuarine ecosystems across the world. Within the Australian context, a particular concern is how changes to hydrological regimes, due to both water diversions and climate variability, are contributing to increased stress and consequent decline in estuarine health. In this study we report the modeling output of five Australian estuaries, each with different hydrological regimes and alternative management issues relating to altered hydrology: 1) The Yarra River estuary is a highly urbanized system, also receiving agriculturally derived nutrients, where the concern is the role of periodic hypoxia in reducing the assimilation capacity of nitrogen and thus increased risk of algal blooms forming in the coastal environment; 2) The upper Swan River estuary in Western Australia, which experiences persistent anoxia and hypoxia brought about by reduced flows has led to the commissioning of several oxygenation plants to alleviate stress on biodiversity and overall estuarine health; 3) The health of the Caboolture estuary in Queensland has deteriorated in the past decade with the aim of model development to quantify the various sources of surface and groundwater derived nutrients; 4) The construction of an additional channel to increase flushing in the Peel Harvey estuary in Western Australia was designed to control persistent harmful algal blooms; and 5) The Lower River Murray estuary experienced a prolonged drought that led to the development of acid sulfate soils and acid drainage deteriorating water quality. For these applications we applied 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical models to determine underlying relationships between altered flow regimes, increased temperatures and the response of

  15. 7 CFR 1007.2 - Southeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Southeast marketing area. 1007.2 Section 1007.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  16. Corporate governance and corruption : A comparative study of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijayati, Nureni; Hermes, Niels; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The weak corporate governance framework in Indonesia, as in other countries in Southeast Asia, was deemed a crucial factor in deepening the financial and economic crisis in the late 1990s. Over a decade after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries have made

  17. Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of Aba River, southeast Nigeria was studied in four stations from November 2014 to August 2015 to identify the major anthropogenic activities and their impact on the water quality.

  18. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast As...... Asian titans in Myanmar and finally the conclusion wraps...

  19. Doctor-Patient Communication in Southeast Asia: A Different Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative…

  20. Parental Contributions to Southeast Asian American Adolescents' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung

    2008-01-01

    Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…

  1. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia. Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly ...

  2. Prevalence of HIV infection among premarital couples in southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Catholic Church in Nigeria offers premarital HIV screening to couples, yet instances of voluntary screening are rare in southeast Nigeria. This study examines the contribution of such tests to HIV detection, and evaluates the prevalence of HIV infection in southeast Nigeria among couples who are planning to marry.

  3. Recruitment of flatfish species to an estuarine nursery habitat (Lima estuary, NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2010-11-01

    One of the present concerns of fish biologists involves defining and identifying nursery habitats in the context of conservation and resource management strategies. Fish nursery studies usually report upon nursery occupation during the latter juvenile stages, despite the fact that recruitment to nurseries can start early in life, during the larval phase. Here we investigated the use of a temperate estuarine nursery area, the Lima estuary (NW Portugal), by initial development stages of flatfish species before and after metamorphosis, integrating the larval and juvenile phases. The Lima estuarine flatfish community comprised twelve taxa, seven of which were present as pelagic larvae, six as juveniles and three as adults. There was a general trend of increasing spring-summer abundance of both larvae and juveniles, followed by a sharp winter decrease, mainly of larval flatfishes. The Lima estuary was used by Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus and Solea solea as a nursery area, with direct settlement for the two first species. In contrast, indirect settlement was suggested for S. solea, with metamorphosis occurring outside the estuarine area. Estuarine recruitment of S. senegalensis varied between years, with young larvae occurring in the estuary throughout a prolonged period that lasted 6-9 months, corroborating the protracted spawning season. P. flesus, the second most abundant species, exhibited a typical spring estuarine recruitment, without inter-annual variations. Developed larvae arrived in the estuary during spring, whereas the 0-group juveniles emerged in the following summer period. The present study contributes new insight to our understanding of the economically important S. senegalensis, and highlights the importance of integrating the planktonic larval phase into traditional flatfish nursery studies.

  4. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  5. An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its

  6. Multiscale patterns in the diversity and organization of benthic intertidal fauna among French Atlantic estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Hugues; Gouillieux, Benoît; Alizier, Sandrine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Bachelet, Guy; Barillé, Anne-Laure; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Derolez, Valérie; Desroy, Nicolas; Grall, Jacques; Grémare, Antoine; Hacquebart, Pascal; Jourde, Jérôme; Labrune, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Meirland, Alain; Nebout, Thiebaut; Olivier, Frédéric; Pelaprat, Corine; Ruellet, Thierry; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Thorin, Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    Based on a parallel sampling conducted during autumn 2008, a comparative study of the intertidal benthic macrofauna among 10 estuarine systems located along the Channel and Atlantic coasts of France was performed in order to assess the level of fauna similarity among these sites and to identify possible environmental factors involved in the observed pattern at both large (among sites) and smaller (benthic assemblages) scales. More precisely this study focused on unraveling the observed pattern of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity observed at among-site scale by exploring both biotic and abiotic factors acting at the among- and within-site scales. Results showed a limited level of similarity at the among-site level in terms of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity. The observed pattern did not fit with existing transitional water classification methods based on fish or benthic assemblages developed in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). More particularly, the coastal plain estuaries displayed higher among-site similarity compared to ria systems. These coastal plain estuaries were characterized by higher influence of river discharge, lower communication with the ocean and high suspended particulate matter levels. On the other hand, the ria-type systems were more dissimilar and different from the coastal plain estuaries. The level of similarity among estuaries was mainly linked to the relative extent of the intertidal "Scrobicularia plana-Cerastoderma edule" and "Tellina tenuis" or "Venus" communities as a possible consequence of salinity regime, suspended matter concentrations and fine particles supply with consequences on the trophic functioning, structure and organization of benthic fauna. Despite biogeographical patterns, the results also suggest that, in the context of the WFD, these estuaries should only be compared on the basis of the most common intertidal habitat occurring throughout all estuarine systems

  7. Seafloor environments in the Long Island Sound estuarine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.; Signell, R.P.; Rendigs, R. R.; Poppe, L.J.; List, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    broad areas of the basin floor in the western part of the Sound. The regional distribution of seafloor environments reflects fundamental differences in marine-geologic conditions between the eastern and western parts of the Sound. In the funnel-shaped eastern part, a gradient of strong tidal currents coupled with the net nontidal (estuarine) bottom drift produce a westward progression of environments ranging from erosion or nondeposition at the narrow entrance to the Sound, through an extensive area of bedload transport, to a peripheral zone of sediment sorting. In the generally broader western part of the Sound, a weak tidal-current regime combined with the production of particle aggregates by biologic or chemical processes, cause large areas of deposition that are locally interrupted by a patchy distribution of various other environments where the bottom currents are enhanced by and interact with the seafloor topography.

  8. Phytoplankton primary production in the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Foster, S.Q.; Kleckner, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are biogeochemical hot spots because they receive large inputs of nutrients and organic carbon from land and oceans to support high rates of metabolism and primary production. We synthesize published rates of annual phytoplankton primary production (APPP) in marine ecosystems influenced by connectivity to land – estuaries, bays, lagoons, fjords and inland seas. Review of the scientific literature produced a compilation of 1148 values of APPP derived from monthly incubation assays to measure carbon assimilation or oxygen production. The median value of median APPP measurements in 131 ecosystems is 185 and the mean is 252 g C m−2 yr−1, but the range is large: from −105 (net pelagic production in the Scheldt Estuary) to 1890 g C m−2 yr−1 (net phytoplankton production in Tamagawa Estuary). APPP varies up to 10-fold within ecosystems and 5-fold from year to year (but we only found eight APPP series longer than a decade so our knowledge of decadal-scale variability is limited). We use studies of individual places to build a conceptual model that integrates the mechanisms generating this large variability: nutrient supply, light limitation by turbidity, grazing by consumers, and physical processes (river inflow, ocean exchange, and inputs of heat, light and wind energy). We consider method as another source of variability because the compilation includes values derived from widely differing protocols. A simulation model shows that different methods reported in the literature can yield up to 3-fold variability depending on incubation protocols and methods for integrating measured rates over time and depth. Although attempts have been made to upscale measures of estuarine-coastal APPP, the empirical record is inadequate for yielding reliable global estimates. The record is deficient in three ways. First, it is highly biased by the large number of measurements made in northern Europe (particularly the Baltic region) and North America. Of the 1148

  9. The Red Atlantic: Transoceanic Cultural Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jace

    2011-01-01

    The development of David Armitage's "white Atlantic" history parallels the Cold War origins of American studies with its mission to define and promote "American culture" or "American civilization." British scholar Paul Gilroy's "The Black Atlantic" served as a necessary corrective. Armitage's statement leads…

  10. Southeast Asia activity on the rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.; Johnston, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region has gained favor in the increasingly competitive global market for drilling funds and technology. The level of activity in the region contrasts to the U.S., where political, fiscal, and geological conditions have caused an industry-wide depression. Consolidation and restructuring of the oil industry have also affected the Asia-Pacific area, but not as adversely as North America. The shifting focus of most U.S. oil companies to the international sector has increased attention on Southeast Asia. The number of production-sharing contracts and exploration licenses in the region has increased to almost 800, covering an area of 7 million sq km

  11. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  12. Interactive effects of climate change with nutrients, mercury, and freshwater acidification on key taxa in the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Evers, David C.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horan, Jeffrey; Jones, Jess W.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Marshall, Harold G.; Milliken, Andrew; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schmerfeld, John J.; Sparling, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative LCC (NA LCC) is a public–private partnership that provides information to support conservation decisions that may be affected by global climate change (GCC) and other threats. The NA LCC region extends from southeast Virginia to the Canadian Maritime Provinces. Within this region, the US National Climate Assessment documented increases in air temperature, total precipitation, frequency of heavy precipitation events, and rising sea level, and predicted more drastic changes. Here, we synthesize literature on the effects of GCC interacting with selected contaminant, nutrient, and environmental processes to adversely affect natural resources within this region. Using a case study approach, we focused on 3 stressors with sufficient NA LCC region-specific information for an informed discussion. We describe GCC interactions with a contaminant (Hg) and 2 complex environmental phenomena—freshwater acidification and eutrophication. We also prepared taxa case studies on GCC- and GCC-contaminant/nutrient/process effects on amphibians and freshwater mussels. Several avian species of high conservation concern have blood Hg concentrations that have been associated with reduced nesting success. Freshwater acidification has adversely affected terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the Adirondacks and other areas of the region that are slowly recovering due to decreased emissions of N and sulfur oxides. Eutrophication in many estuaries within the region is projected to increase from greater storm runoff and less denitrification in riparian wetlands. Estuarine hypoxia may be exacerbated by increased stratification. Elevated water temperature favors algal species that produce harmful algal blooms (HABs). In several of the region's estuaries, HABs have been associated with bird die-offs. In the NA LCC region, amphibian populations appear to be declining. Some species may be adversely affected by GCC through higher temperatures

  13. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, H.

    2002-07-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  14. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri

    2002-08-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  15. Buildings energy efficiency in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, energy service providers from around the Southeastern United States gathered at the Shenandoah Environment and Education Center of Georgia Power Company, to discuss issues related to energy efficiency buildings in the region. The meeting was organized by an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the Atlanta Support Office of the DOE. The objectives of the Workshop were to provide a forum for regional energy service providers to discuss matters of mutual concern and to identify issues of particular relevance to the Southeast. What characterizes energy use in the Southeast Most lists would include rapid population growth, high temperatures and humidity, a large air conditioning load on utilities, a relatively clean environment, and regulatory processes that seek to keep energy prices low. There was less unanimity on what are the priority issues. No definitive list of priorities emerged from the workshop. Participants did identify several areas where work should be initiated: networking, training/certification/education, performance of technical measures, and studies of market forces/incentives/barriers. The most frequently mentioned context for these work areas was that of utility programs. Presentations given during the first morning provided attendees an overview of energy use in the region and of building energy conservation programs being implemented both by state agencies and by utilities. These were the base for breakout and plenary sessions in which attendees expressed their views on specific topics. The regional need mentioned most often at the workshop was for networking among energy service providers in the region. In this context, this report itself is a follow up action. Participants also requested a regional directory of energy program resources. DOE agreed to assemble a preliminary directory based upon input from workshop attendees. Because the response was quick and positive, a directory is part of this document.

  16. Velocity Model for CO2 Sequestration in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollmann, J.; Knapp, C. C.; Almutairi, K.; Almayahi, D.; Knapp, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is emerging as a major player in offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. With 40% of the United States' anthropogenic CO2 emissions originating in the southeast, characterizing potential CO2 sequestration sites is vital to reducing the United States' emissions. The goal of this research project, funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), is to estimate the CO2 storage potential for the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin. Previous studies find storage potential in the Atlantic continental margin. Up to 16 Gt and 175 Gt of storage potential are estimated for the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Cretaceous formations, respectively. Considering 2.12 Mt of CO2 are emitted per year by the United States, substantial storage potential is present in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin. In order to produce a time-depth relationship, a velocity model must be constructed. This velocity model is created using previously collected seismic reflection, refraction, and well data in the study area. Seismic reflection horizons were extrapolated using well log data from the COST GE-1 well. An interpolated seismic section was created using these seismic horizons. A velocity model will be made using P-wave velocities from seismic reflection data. Once the time-depth conversion is complete, the depths of stratigraphic units in the seismic refraction data will be compared to the newly assigned depths of the seismic horizons. With a lack of well control in the study area, the addition of stratigraphic unit depths from 171 seismic refraction recording stations provides adequate data to tie to the depths of picked seismic horizons. Using this velocity model, the seismic reflection data can be presented in depth in order to estimate the thickness and storage potential of CO2 reservoirs in the Southeastern United States Atlantic Continental Margin.

  17. Mapping estuarine distributions of the non-indigenous Japanese Eelgrass Zostera japonica using Color Infrared Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes a technique for mapping distributions of the nonindigenous Japanese eelgrass Zostera japonica in estuarine ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest. The relatively broad distribution of this intertidal plant, often on very soft substrate, makes classical g...

  18. Anthropogenic Influences on Estuarine Sedimentation and Ecology: Examples from Varved Sediments of the Pettaquamscutt River Estuary, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries and lakes are undergoing anthropogenic alterations as development and industry intensify in the modern world. Assessing the ecological health of such water bodies is difficult because accurate accounts of pre-anthropogenic estuarine/lacustrine conditions do not exist. ...

  19. In Situ Enhancement of Anaerobic Microbial Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haeggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E; Kerkhof, Lee J

    2006-01-01

    ... that is associated with dredging, and decrease the cost of sediment management. Reductive dehalogenation is a promising mechanism for the removal of toxic organohalides from estuarine and marine sediments...

  20. In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing: A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    field and microcosms than they do under laboratory test conditions. In the case of tributyltin ( TBT ) exposures in San Diego Bay, he found that...TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in...Pacific TECHNICAL REPORT 1986 September 2009 In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in

  1. Superstorm Sandy-related Morphologic and Sedimentologic Changes in an Estuarine System: Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, J. L.; Ganju, N. K.; Navoy, A.; Nicholson, R.; Andrews, B.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the well-recognized ecological importance of back-barrier estuaries, the role of storms in their geomorphic evolution is poorly understood. Moreover, the focus of storm impact assessments is often the ocean shorelines of barrier islands rather than the exchange of sediment from barrier to estuary. In order to better understand and ultimately predict short-term morphologic and sedimentologic changes in coastal systems, a comprehensive research approach is required but is often difficult to achieve given the diversity of data required. An opportunity to use such an approach in assessing the storm-response of a barrier-estuary system occurred when Superstorm Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, New Jersey on 29 October 2012. Since 2011, the US Geological Survey has been investigating water circulation and water-quality degradation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) Estuary, the southern end of which is approximately 25 kilometers north of the landfall location. This effort includes shallow-water geophysical surveys to map the bathymetry and sediment distribution within BBLEH, airborne topo-bathymetric lidar surveys for mapping the shallow shoals that border the estuary, and sediment sampling, all of which have provided a recent picture of the pre-storm estuarine geomorphology. We combined these pre-storm data with similar post-storm data from the estuary and pre- and post-storm topographic data from the ocean shoreline of the barrier island to begin to understand the response of the barrier-estuary system. Breaches in the barrier island resulted in water exchange between the estuary and the ocean, briefly reducing residence times in the northern part of the estuary until the breaches were closed. Few morphologic changes in water depths greater than 1.5 m were noted. However, morphologic changes observed in shallower depths along the eastern shoreline of the estuary are likely related to overwash processes. In general, surficial estuarine sediments

  2. Carbon Stocks in Mangrove Ecosystems of Musi and Banyuasin Estuarine, South Sumatra Province (Stok Karbon Ekosistem Mangrove di Estuarin Musi dan Banyuasin, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki Melki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hutan mangrove di daerah estuari mampu menghasilkan stok karbon yang sangat besar sebagai daerah perlindungan dan pemulihan yang efektif sebagai strategi mitigasi perubahan iklim yang efektif. Pemilihan ekosistem pesisir dalam strategi mitigasi memerlukan kuantifikasi stok karbon untuk menghitung emisi atau penyerapan berdasarkan waktu. Penelitian ini menghitung stok karbon pada ekosistem Musi Estuari Waters (MEW dan Banyuasin Estuari Water (BEW, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan pada tipe vegetasi yang berbeda dan hubungan variabel lingkungan dengan stok karbon. Di tujuh lokasi dalam MEW dan BEW sampel vegetasi dan tanah. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah nilai yang lebih tinggi dari stok karbon di vegetasi dari lokasi III/MEW (7.600,92 mg.ha-1, stok karbon dalam tanah dari lokasi II/MEW (61.081,87 mg.ha-1 dan stok karbon di ekosistem dari lokasi II (64.548,54 mg.ha-1. Mangrove A. marina merupakan yang paling baik menyimpan stok carbon termasuk antara vegetasi dan tanah karena toleransi salinitas yang rendah. Kata kunci: mangrove, karbon, estuari, Musi, Banyuasin Mangrove forests in estuarines can have exceptionally large carbon stocks and their protection and restoration would constitute an effective mitigation strategy to climate change. Inclusion of coastal ecosystems in mitigation strategies require quantification of carbon stocks in order to calculate emissions or sequestration through time. This study quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of the Musi Estuarine Waters (MEW and Banyuasin Estuarine Water (BEW, Province of South Sumatra into different vegetation types and examined relationships of environmental variables with carbon stocks. At seven sites within MEW and BEW of vegetation and soil samples. The results that the higher value of carbon stock in vegetation from Site III/MEW (7.600,92 mg.ha-1, the carbon stock in soil from Site II/MEW (61.081,87 mg.ha-1 and carbon stock in ecosystem from Site II (64.548,54 mg.ha-1. Mangrove of A. marina the

  3. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  4. The relative importance of ENSO and tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies for seasonal precipitation over South America: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, L. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F. A.

    The role of tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies during ENSO episodes over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) is investigated using the CPTEC/COLA Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM). Four sets of integrations are performed using SST in El Niño and La Niña (ENSO) episodes, changing the SST of the Atlantic Ocean. A positive dipole (SST higher than normal in the tropical North Atlantic and below normal in the tropical South Atlantic) and a negative dipole (opposite conditions), are set as the boundary conditions of SST in the Atlantic Ocean. The four experiments are performed using El Niño or La Niña SST in all oceans, except in the tropical Atlantic where the two phases of the SST dipole are applied. Five initial conditions were integrated in each case in order to obtain four ensemble results. The positive SST dipole over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and El Niño conditions over the Pacific Ocean resulted in dry conditions over the Nordeste. When the negative dipole and El Niño conditions over the Pacific Ocean were applied, the results showed precipitation above normal over the north of Nordeste. When La Niña conditions over Pacific Ocean were tested together with a negative dipole, positive precipitation anomalies occurred over the whole Nordeste. Using the positive dipole over the tropical Atlantic, the precipitation over Nordeste was below average. During La Niña episodes, the Atlantic Ocean conditions have a larger effect on the precipitation of Nordeste than the Pacific Ocean. In El Niño conditions, only the north region of Nordeste is affected by the Atlantic SST. Other tropical areas of South America show a change only in the intensity of anomalies. Central and southeast regions of South America are affected by the Atlantic conditions only during La Niña conditions, whereas during El Niño these regions are influenced only by conditions in the Pacific Ocean.

  5. Variability of tropical cyclone rapid intensification in the North Atlantic and its relationship with climate variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Xidong; Weisberg, Robert H.; Black, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper uses observational data from 1950 to 2014 to investigate rapid intensification (RI) variability of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the North Atlantic and its relationships with large-scale climate variations. RI is defined as a TC intensity increase of at least 15.4 m/s (30 knots) in 24 h. The seasonal RI distribution follows the seasonal TC distribution, with the highest number in September. Although an RI event can occur anywhere over the tropical North Atlantic (TNA), there are three regions of maximum RI occurrence: (1) the western TNA of 12°N-18°N and 60°W-45°W, (2) the Gulf of Mexico and the western Caribbean Sea, and (3) the open ocean southeast and east of Florida. RI events also show a minimum value in the eastern Caribbean Sea north of South America—a place called a hurricane graveyard due to atmospheric divergence and subsidence. On longer time scales, RI displays both interannual and multidecadal variability, but RI does not show a long-term trend due to global warming. The top three climate indices showing high correlations with RI are the June-November ENSO and Atlantic warm pool indices, and the January-March North Atlantic oscillation index. It is found that variabilities of vertical wind shear and TC heat potential are important for TC RI in the hurricane main development region, whereas relative humidity at 500 hPa is the main factor responsible for TC RI in the eastern TNA. However, the large-scale oceanic and atmospheric variables analyzed in this study do not show an important role in TC RI in the Gulf of Mexico and the open ocean southeast and east of Florida. This suggests that other factors such as small-scale changes of oceanic and atmospheric variables or TC internal processes may be responsible for TC RI in these two regions. Additionally, the analyses indicate that large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variables are not critical to TC genesis and formation; however, once a tropical depression forms, large-scale climate

  6. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  7. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

  8. Accretion history and stratigraphy of mid-Holocene coral reefs from Southeast Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakopoulos, A.; Riegl, B. M.; Swart, P. K.

    2013-05-01

    The southeast Florida shelf is a well-studied coral reef region previously used in studies of late Quaternary sea-level, reef geomorphology, and paleoecology in the sub-tropical Atlantic. Situated on the shelf is the southeast Florida continental reef tract; a ~125 km long Holocene fringing/barrier coral reef complex, composed of three shore-parallel linear reefs ('outer', 'middle', and 'inner' reefs) of varying age. Since few detailed stratigraphic descriptions exist, drill cores were extracted to further understand the composition, character, and radiometric ages of reef material in order to reconstruct the accretion history. Sixteen reef cores from the shallow inner reef were collected along and across the reef axes and were combined with lidar bathymetric data for stratigraphic and geomorphologic analyses. Macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic thin sections) examinations of reef clasts were performed to identify coral and reef infauna species compositions, diagenetic facies, and taphonomic features for interpretation of former reef environments/zonation. The southeast Florida continental reef tract was characterized by dynamic reef terminations, backstepping, and re-initiation in response to post-glacial sea-level rise and flooding of topography suitable for reef initiation and growth. Results suggest that the outer reef accreted from ~10.6-8.0 ka cal BP, the middle reef from at least ~5.8-3.7 ka cal BP, and the inner reef from ~7.8-5.5 ka cal BP. The outer reef is the best-developed reef, followed by the inner reef, while the middle reef apparently has relatively little framework buildup. New data from this study and a lack of significant age overlaps confirm that reef backstepping from the outer to the inner reef occurred within a few hundred years after outer reef termination. This is consistent with temporal and spatial scales reported from backstepped reefs in St. Croix and Puerto Rico. The cause of the backstep is still unknown however some studies

  9. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.E.

    1980-08-01

    As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.

  10. Pigment specific in vivo light absorption of phytoplankton from estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, A.; Markager, S.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photoacclimation and adaptation to natural growth conditions on the chlorophyll a-specific in vivo absorption coefficient (a* ph) was evaluated for samples collected in estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. Despite an overall gradient in the physio......-chemical environment from estuaries, over coastal, to oceanic waters, no clear relationships were found between a* ph and the prevailing light, temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations, indicating that short-term cellular acclimation was of minor importance for the observed variability in a* ph. The clear...... decline in a* ph from oceanic, over coastal, to estuarine waters was, however, strongly correlated with an increase in cell size and intracellular chlorophyll a (chl a) content of the phytoplankton, and a reduction of photosynthetic carotenoids relative to chl a. Variations in photoprotective carotenoids...

  11. The Biology of Heterotrophic N2-fixing Bacteria in Marine and Estuarine Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel

    Biological nitrogen (N)2 fixation is of paramount importance for marine N cycling and for life in the oceans in general. It represents the sole mechanism by which microorganisms can channel inert atmospheric N2 gas into biomass and hence it may fuel a significant fraction of primary production...... heterotrophic isolates, this thesis aims at addressing these unknowns. It was found that heterotrophic diazotrophs were present and active in environments previously not associated with N2 fixation e.g. suboxic basins of the Baltic Sea and estuarine surface waters. In these environments they contributed...... with significant amounts fixed N2, suggesting that a reevaluation of the significance of N fixation in suboxic waters and estuarine coastal waters is warranted. It was also documented that heterotrophic diazotrophs could be enriched in culture based on their ability to utilize N2 as the sole N source...

  12. Diversity and abundance of epibiota on invasive and native estuarine gastropods depend on substratum and salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Thomsen, Mads Solgaard; Brunbjerg, Ane Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    ,226 shells representing the common gastropod species in the estuary; Nassarius pauperatus, Bedeva paiva and Batillaria australs from various sites and habitats. Generalized linear models were used to model variability of richness and abundances of common functional groups and species for the above listed...... factors. The five factors accounted for 3-34% of the total deviance explained of the models, with shell type and salinity levels being the only significant factors in nine of 14 models. These results highlight an overwhelming importance of shell type and salinity in explaining estuarine epibiota......Epibiosis is a common life form in estuarine ecosystems, where shell structures in particular, provide important attachment substrate for sessile species. Many studies have quantified variation in epibiota communities against a few environmental factors, but rarely studies have accounted...

  13. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  14. Deformation of textural characteristics and sedimentology along micro-tidal estuarine beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Johnson, G.

    Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences Vol. 45 (11), November 2016, pp. 1432-1444 *Corresponding author Deformation of textural characteristics and sedimentology along micro- tidal estuarine beaches G. Udhaba Dora, V. Sanil Kumar*, C... sediment is a foremost parameter for a coastal researcher/engineer/designer due to its various applications for sorting out a coastal environment. Sedimentary process at foreshore zone is a highly dynamical whereas textural characteristics...

  15. Ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in estuarine waters of eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Courtney S; Hite, M Frances; Oliver, James D

    2003-06-01

    While several studies on the ecology of Vibrio vulnificus in Gulf Coast environments have been reported, there is little information on the distribution of this pathogen in East Coast waters. Thus, we conducted a multiyear study on the ecology of V. vulnificus in estuarine waters of the eastern United States, employing extensive multiple regression analyses to reveal the major environmental factors controlling the presence of this pathogen, and of Vibrio spp., in these environments. Monthly field samplings were conducted between July 2000 and April 2002 at six different estuarine sites along the eastern coast of North Carolina. At each site, water samples were taken and nine physicochemical parameters were measured. V. vulnificus isolates, along with estuarine bacteria, Vibrio spp., Escherichia coli organisms, and total coliforms, were enumerated in samples from each site by using selective media. During the last 6 months of the study, sediment samples were also analyzed for the presence of vibrios, including V. vulnificus. Isolates were confirmed as V. vulnificus by using hemolysin gene PCR or colony hybridization. V. vulnificus was isolated only when water temperatures were between 15 and 27 degrees C, and its presence correlated with water temperature and dissolved oxygen and vibrio levels. Levels of V. vulnificus in sediments were low, and no evidence for an overwintering in this environment was found. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vibrio levels were controlled primarily by temperature, turbidity, and levels of dissolved oxygen, estuarine bacteria, and coliforms. Water temperature accounted for most of the variability in the concentrations of both V. vulnificus (47%) and Vibrio spp. (48%).

  16. A study of lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.

    ., Campbell, M., Weir, E., 2002, Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure. CMAJ 166, 1287–1292. Stohs, S.J., Bagchi, D., 1995, Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 18... the kinetic speciation of Pb and Cd in the coastal and estuarine sediments of Bay of Bengal. Consider sediments samples of n different components, in which each component, M-Sediment i , exists in equilibrium with its dissociation products: the free metal...

  17. Methane and Trichloroethylene Oxidation by an Estuarine Methanotroph, Methylobacter sp. Strain BB5.1

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kelly S.; Costello, Andria M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    1998-01-01

    An estuarine methanotroph was isolated from sediment enrichments and designated Methylobacter sp. strain BB5.1. In cells grown on medium with added copper, oxidation of methane and trichloroethylene occurred with similar Ks values, but the Vmax for trichloroethylene oxidation was only 0.1% of the methane oxidation Vmax. Cells grown on low-copper medium did not oxidize trichloroethylene and showed a variable rate of methane oxidation.

  18. Life history and population dynamics of an estuarine amphipod, Eriopisa chilkensis Chilton (Gammaridae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravind, N.P.; Sheeba, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Life history and Population Dynamics of an Estuarine Amphipod –Eriopisa chilkensis Chilton (Gammaridae) Nisha. P. Aravind, P. Sheeba, K.K.C. Nair and C.T.Achuthankutty* National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Cochin 682018, India... of laboratory data to the field suggests that E. chilkensis in Cochin estuary has a multivoltine life cycle. Key words: - Eriopisa chilkensis, Amphipoda, life cycle, population dynamics, Cochin estuary, India 2 1. Introduction Life-history traits of 214 amphipod...

  19. Propagation of tides in the Cochin estuarine system, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; Revichandran, C.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Murukesh, N.

    analysis, (Heritage Publishers, New Delhi) 1988, pp. 400. 10 Srinivas K, Seasonal and interannual variability of sea level and associated surface meteorological parameters at Cochin, Ph.D. thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 1999.... 11 Joseph K A, Strait dynamics of tropical tidal inlets, Ph.D. thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, India, 1996. 12 Unnikrishnan A S, Shetye S R & Gouveia A D, Tidal propa- gation in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine network, west coast...

  20. Environmental influences on fish assemblage distribution of an estuarine coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Pombo, L.; Elliott, M.; Rebelo, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Fish assemblage was examined for patterns in spatial and seasonal structure within an estuarine coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro. Two years of variation in abiotic conditions were recorded to identify factors responsible for maintaining the structure of fish assemblages. Nine sites were sampled monthly with a traditional “chincha” beach-seine net between November 1998 and October 2000. Fish abundance and biomass changed significantly between sites. Temperature was found to be the most important ...

  1. Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... It is transmitted to humans and animals when they consume raw or undercooked fish. ... environment when contaminated feces enter local water sources. ... Emerging Disease Research Initiative (Eco EID) in Southeast Asia.

  2. Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ... This grant will allow a consortium of research centres in China, Indonesia, Thailand ... Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang.

  3. AFSC/ABL: Southeast Coastal Monitoring Project - CTD database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Alaska Coastal Monitoring (SECM) project in Alaska was initiated in 1997 by the Auke Bay Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, to study the...

  4. An Education in Entertainment – Possible Trends in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Entertainment Industry has been used interchangeably with the term Creative Industries and also has been suggested to be part of the creative industries. The creative industries seeks to provide commercially viable artistic and creative products, known as intellectual property, and in the process of such provision, contributes to the nation’s creative economy. From an education perspective in Southeast Asia, two observations can be made. Firstly, the focus of education in relation to the entertainment industry has always been technical. Secondly, the introduction of the concepts of the creative industries in Southeast Asia has spurred new trends in the education of the entertainment industry. Outside of Southeast Asia, there have been a growing number of academic programs in the field of Entertainment. From within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has taken the lead to introduce two new trends in the entertainment education – entertainment management and entertainment arts.

  5. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1603, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA ship Pisces departed Morehead city on 3 July 2016 for a Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) research cruise in continental shelf and shelf-break...

  6. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1402, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  7. AFSC/NMML: Southeast Alaska Cetacean Vessel Surveys, 1991 - 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1991, NMML initiated cetacean studies with vessel coverage throughout inland waters of Southeast Alaska. Between 1991 and 1993, line-transect methodology was used...

  8. Southeast Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for brown bears in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of bear concentrations....

  9. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  10. Southeast Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Southeast Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and rookery...

  11. AFSC/ABL: Ocean Acidification in Southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information from one primary project a Southeast Alaska (SEAK) environmental monitoring study. It also includes support analyses for Kodiak...

  12. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1304, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  13. Devolution of the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EEPSEA). EEPSEA is the only program in Southeast Asia dedicated to helping economists and environmental researchers gain expertise in environmental economics research. Since its inception, the program has been managed by IDRC from its ...

  14. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia) ... for evaluating both the process and outcome of capacity development efforts in CBNRM. ... Cluster Case Studies Planning Workshop, Beijing, September 21-23, 2006; ...

  15. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  16. Bringing It All Together: The Southeast Alaska Music Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Brad

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Southeast Alaska Music Festival discussing topics such as the role of the host school, the communities and schools within the region, and scoring procedures at the Festival. Includes a festival schedule. (CMK)

  17. DoD Workshop on Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berke, Philip; Brown, Robert; Elliott, Michael; Friday, Paul; Holst, Robert; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilkens, R. N

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings encompass outcomes from the DoD Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability Workshop, which took place in April 2007, and reflect the opinions and views of workshop participants...

  18. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1204, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  19. Exploring the diversity and distribution of neotropical avian malaria parasites--a molecular survey from Southeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Lacorte

    Full Text Available Southeast Brazil is a neotropical region composed of a mosaic of different tropical habitats and mountain chains, which allowed for the formation of bird-rich communities with distinct ecological niches. Although this region has the potential to harbor a remarkable variety of avian parasites, there is a lack of information about the diversity of malarial parasites. We used molecular approaches to characterize the lineage diversity of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus in bird communities from three different habitats in southeast Brazil based on the prevalence, richness and composition of lineages. We observed an overall prevalence of 35.3%, with a local prevalence ranging from 17.2% to 54.8%. Moreover, no significant association between prevalence and habitat type could be verified (p>0.05. We identified 89 Plasmodium and 22 Haemoproteus lineages, with 86% of them described for the first time here, including an unusual infection of a non-columbiform host by a Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus parasite. The composition analyses of the parasite communities showed that the lineage composition from Brazilian savannah and tropical dry forest was similar, but it was different from the lineage composition of Atlantic rainforest, reflecting the greater likeness of the former habitats with respect to seasonality and forest density. No significant effects of habitat type on lineage richness were observed based on GLM analyses. We also found that sites whose samples had a greater diversity of bird species showed a greater diversity of parasite lineages, providing evidence that areas with high bird richness also have high parasite richness. Our findings point to the importance of the neotropical region (southeast Brazil as a major reservoir of new haemosporidian lineages.

  20. Long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of two stands of an Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Écio Souza; Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Santos, Rubens Manoel; Gastauer, Markus; Garcia, Paulo Oswaldo; Fontes, Marco Aurélio Leite; Coelho, Polyanne Aparecida; Moreira, Aline Martins; Menino, Gisele Cristina Oliveira; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to report the long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of the tree community in a protected semideciduous Atlantic Forest in the South of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. The study was conducted in two stands (B and C), each with 26 and 38 10 m x 30 m plots. Censuses of stand B were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011, and stand C in 2001, 2006 and 2011. In both stands, the most abundant and important species for biomass accumulation over the inventories were trees larger than 20 cm of diameter, which characterize advanced successional stage within the forest. The two surveyed stands within the studied forest presented differences in structure, diversity and species richness over the time.