WorldWideScience

Sample records for southeast asian group

  1. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  2. Culture in Southeast Asian Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    A view of the status of Southeast Asian language programs in American schools leads the author to comment on five interrelated issues. They include: (1) the importance of Southeast Asian language and culture teaching and learning, (2) integrating culture in Southeast Asian language classes, (3) teaching techniques, (4) staffing, and (5)…

  3. CO/sub 2/ emission and agricultural productivity in southeast asian region: a pooled mean group estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.; Kazi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Frequent natural calamities, extreme climatic events and unexpected seasonal changes are the obvious examples of global warming. Carbon emissions by industrial units all over the world are believed to be the major contributor of the global warming that can lead to reduced agricultural productivity. This paper examines the impact of CO emission on agricultural productivity in Southeast Asian countries. It investigates the dynamic relationship between CO emission (along with other control-variables) and agricultural output using panel data set comprising data from Southeast Asian countries. Following the dynamic heterogeneous panel techniques developed by Pesaran and Shin (1999) for estimating the short- run and long-run effects using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model in the error correction form, the study then estimated the empirical model based on pooled mean group (PMG) estimator. The study found that increased CO emission resulted in higher agricultural productivity because of the fact that farmers around the globe quickly adapt to climate change. In addition, use of submersible pump and other capital machineries significantly increased agricultural yield and led to reduced dependency on human capital, while use of chemical fertilizers increased productivity in short-run but had a harmful impact in the long-run. (author)

  4. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  5. Understanding the Southeast Asian haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Karthik K. R.; Baikie, T.; T, Mohan Dass E.; Huang, Y. Z.; Guet, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Southeast Asian region had been subjected to a drastic reduction in air quality from the biomass burnings that occurred in 2013 and 2015. The smoke from the biomass burnings covered the entire region including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, with haze particulate matter (PM) reducing the air quality to hazardous levels. Here we report a comprehensive size-composition-morphology characterization of the PM collected from an urban site in Singapore during the two haze events. The two haze events were a result of biomass burning and occurred in two different geographical source regions. We show the similarities and variations of particle size distribution during hazy and clear days during the two haze events. Sub-micron particles (method is used to determine the fractal dimensions of the PM, and the dimensionality varied for every classification from 1.79 to 1.88. We also report the complexities of particles and inconsistencies in the existing approaches to understand them.

  6. Cultural Patterns of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    An overview of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans is discussed to aid teachers in understanding behaviors exhibited by Asian students. Culture influences in the following areas are explored: family relationships, respect for age, social interaction, communication style, family expectations, humility, school situations, decision making, and…

  7. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  8. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  9. Participation in Southeast Asian pollution control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, Dave; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Although public awareness of environmental issues in Southeast Asian countries has increased dramatically during the nineties, there has not been a corresponding rise in the level of participation in environmental decision-making. Public participation often takes places at the end of a

  10. Changes in Financial Practices: Southeast Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents research on changes over a two-year period in the use of new, Western financial practices by Southeast Asian refugees and in variables affecting those changes. Significant interaction effects showed that increased use of new practices was affected by age, education, work experience, and changes in English ability. (JOW)

  11. Answer Markup Algorithms for Southeast Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Typical markup methods for providing feedback to foreign language learners are not applicable to languages not written in a strictly linear fashion. A modification of Hart's edit markup software is described, along with a second variation based on a simple edit distance algorithm adapted to a general Southeast Asian font system. (10 references)…

  12. Southeast Asian Studies in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua; Platt, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    from this approach, this article calls for an examination of one important concept in innovative education, that is, context sensitive education. The case study of an annual joint Singapore-Denmark-America summer school programme to teach and study Southeast Asia in Context is discussed here.......As pressures mount to adopt new or alternative instructional delivery methods to achieve innovative education, there has been a strong orientation towards emphasising the need to integrate the latest technological applications to achieve the best in teaching and learning experiences. Moving away...

  13. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  14. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  15. Cultural barriers to health care for southeast Asian refugees.

    OpenAIRE

    Uba, L

    1992-01-01

    Many Southeast Asians now living in the United States experience severe health problems, attributable to physical trauma and inadequate health care in Asia, and low socioeconomic status in this country. Evidence indicates that despite their health problems, Southeast Asian refugees underuse the American health care system. Cultural reasons for this underuse are examined. Southeast Asian cultural attitudes toward suffering, such as beliefs that suffering is inevitable or that one's life span i...

  16. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-Ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-06-23

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions.

  17. Southeast Asian Fathers’ Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Detzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the fathering experiences of Southeast Asian immigrant men who are parenting their adolescent children in the United States. Focus group discussions were conducted with twenty-two Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese immigrant fathers. The study found that most fathers wanted to become closer to their children and be more involved in their children’s daily activities. Common fathering roles such as the family provider, teacher, supervisor, and disciplinarian also emerged from the analyses. Parent educators, social service providers, policy makers, and practitioners who work with Southeast Asian families should understand the complex and critical roles of fathers and includethem when designing, developing, and delivering programs and services for families.

  18. Parental Contributions to Southeast Asian American Adolescents' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung

    2008-01-01

    Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…

  19. Parent refugee status, immigration stressors, and Southeast Asian youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Le, Thao N

    2006-10-01

    To assess the effects of parents' experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents' refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies to reduce youth violence. Obtained cross-sectional, face-to-face interview data including peer delinquency, parental engagement, parental discipline, serious violence, and family/partner violence from a sample of 329 Chinese and Southeast Asian adolescents. Measures of socioeconomic status, refugee status, and immigration stressors were collected from their respective parents. Data were analyzed using LISREL 8.54 for structural equation modeling. Findings show that parents' refugee status facilitated serious violence, and was fully mediated by peer delinquency and parental engagement, but for Vietnamese only. Parents' refugee status was also significantly related to family/partner violence, and mediated by peer delinquency. This relationship was not observed among the other Asian ethnic groups. The immigration stress variable had no significant effects on either serious violence or family/partner violence. Refugee communities may not transform easily into stereotypical immigrant Asian communities characterized by little youth violence. Results suggest that the refugee process, as experienced second-hand through the children of refugees, has a strong effect on externally oriented violence (serious violence) and on family/partner violence for particular subgroups. Therefore, community-oriented policy makers should join social workers in developing programs to address youth violence in Southeast Asian families and communities. Findings have implications for other forms of community trauma such as natural disasters.

  20. Globalization and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that…

  1. Lessons Learned from Southeast Asian Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, R.; Tanaka, S.

    2009-04-01

    At certain scales, flood has always been the lifeline of many people from Southeast Asian countries. People are traditionally accustomed to living with such floods and their livelihood is adjusted accordingly to optimize the benefits from the floods. However, large scale flood occasionally turns into the disaster and causes massive destruction not only in terms of human causalities but also damage to economic, ecological and social harmonies in the region. Although economic growth is prevailing in a relative term, the capacity of people to cope with such extreme events is weakening therefore the flood disaster risk is increasing in time. Recent examples of flood disaster in the region clearly show the increasing severity of disaster impact. This study reveals that there are many factors, which directly or indirectly influence the change. This paper considers the most prominent natural and socio-economic factors and analyzes their trend with respect to flood disasters in each country's context. A regional scale comparative analysis further helps to exchange the know how and to determine what kind of strategy and policy are lacking to manage the floods in a long run. It is also helpful in identifying the critical sectors that should be addressed first to mitigate the potential damage from the floods.

  2. Southeast Asian Adolescents’ Perceptions of Immigrant Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Blong Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In their countries of origin, immigrant youth are unlikely to question the age-old child-rearing practices of their elders; however, the parenting of adolescents in an adopted country can become a major source of family conflict. The purpose of this study is to investigate how Southeast Asian adolescents growing up in the United States perceive their parents’ practices in six areas of parenting responsibility identified by the National Extension Parent Education Model: caring for self, understanding, guiding, nurturing, motivating, and advocating. Four focus groups were conducted with 37 Southeast Asian (Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 14 to 19 years to ascertain how they perceived parenting behaviors. An analytic induction procedure was used to analyze transcripts from in-depth focus group discussions. Results indicate wide divergence between the idealized practices of the model, the parents’ actual practices, and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices. The study has important implications for the growing number of immigrant families from diverse cultures who are parenting adolescents in unfamiliar cultural contexts and for the educators, human service providers, and others who work with them.

  3. Teaching East and Southeast Asia through Asian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy C. Barrett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colonialism and indigenous responses to its varied forms dominate modern Asian historiography and imbue the history of the region with rich and multifaceted connections to world history. As a result, the histories of East and Southeast Asian nation-states since 1500 cannot be viewed outside of the context of global affairs. Imagining Asian peoples and cultures during this time is problematic for students, who typically approach colonialism from a western perspective. This presentation explores various means of incorporating into the classroom pedagogical materials and diverse media sources that facilitate a more grounded examination of East and Southeast Asian colonies, peoples, and nation-states.It pays special attention to teaching colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and transnationalism from the perspective of Southeast Asia’s indigenous peoples.

  4. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  5. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Development of East Asia's petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia's petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry

  7. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  8. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  9. Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

    1988-01-01

    Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

  10. Cigarette price level and variation in five Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Ratanachena, Sophapan; Dorotheo, E Ulysses; Foong, Kin

    2015-06-01

    To monitor and analyse impacts of the interaction between tobacco excise tax policy and industry price strategy, on the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam). Prices of cigarette sold by sticks and packs were collected through an in-person survey of retailers during 2011. Mean cigarette prices and price variation were calculated in each study country for single cigarettes, whole packs and brand groups. Price variation of whole packs was greater in countries with ad-valorem excise tax structures (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam) than in countries with multitiered specific excise taxes (Indonesia and the Philippines). The price variation for single sticks appeared to be driven by local currency denomination. Cigarettes sold individually cost more per stick than cigarettes sold in whole packs in every brand group except for Indonesia's domestic brands. Tobacco industry strategy and excise tax structure drove the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in packs, while currency denominations influence the selling price of single sticks. To maximise the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies, countries should adopt specific excise tax structures to decrease cigarette price variation, which would minimise opportunities for smokers to 'trade down' to a cheaper brand to avoid a tax-driven price increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  12. The Impact of Social Capital on the Access, Adjustment, and Success of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…

  13. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  14. Improving communication skills in the Southeast Asian health care context

    OpenAIRE

    Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors’, patients’, medical students’ and nurses’ perceptions on the c...

  15. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE and subtype B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyomopito, Rebecca A; Chen, Yen-Ju; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantor, Rami; Merati, Tuti; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Sirisanthana, Thira; Li, Patrick CK; Kantipong, Pacharee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lee, Chris KC; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ditangco, Rossana; Huang, Szu-Wei; Sohn, Annette H; Law, Matthew; Chen, Yi Ming A

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multi-centre prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV-exposure, patient gender, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of males within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p <0.001). After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men-who-have-sex with-men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (OR = 2.4, p <0.001). We further describe four transmission clusters of 8–15 treatment naive, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE). Risk-group sub-populations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had a higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focussing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola. PMID:26362956

  16. Physical disorders among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, K; Westermeyer, J; Neider, J

    1996-09-01

    The study assessed the prevalence and duration of axis III physical disorders and the resulting level of disability among Southeast Asian refugee outpatients with axis I psychiatric disorders. A total of 266 consecutive patients who were evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic were assessed for the presence of axis III conditions through questions about physical symptoms, a medical history and review of records, physical examination, and laboratory screening. The sample included 158 Hmong, 58 Laotian, 43 Vietnamese, and seven Cambodian patients. Fifty-five percent of the patients had one or more axis III disorders, most of which were chronic and were not associated with extreme disability. Neurological conditions were most common, and the sequelae of war-related trauma were prominent. No associations were found between the presence of axis III conditions and age, gender, marital status, or ethnic group. In 48 cases, the axis III condition may have caused or exacerbated the axis I condition. Routine medical history and a physical examination, including a neurological examination, are recommended for all psychiatric patients, including outpatients.

  17. The 2030 Architecture of Association of Southeast Asian Nations Free Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Suthiphand Chirathivat; Piti Srisangnam

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates and analyzes the present status, potential, and prospects of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) free trade agreements (FTAs). It begins with a review of the historical evolution of ASEAN FTAs, which captures the achievements of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) and the efforts meant to lead to a further step of deeper integration, i.e., the realization of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015. The paper then offers a view on how the grouping adopte...

  18. Ancient genomes document multiple waves of migration in Southeast Asian prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Mark; Cheronet, Olivia; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Oxenham, Marc; Pietrusewsky, Michael; Pryce, Thomas Oliver; Willis, Anna; Matsumura, Hirofumi; Buckley, Hallie; Domett, Kate; Hai, Nguyen Giang; Hiep, Trinh Hoang; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Win, Tin Tin; Pradier, Baptiste; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Changmai, Piya; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Harney, Eadaoin; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Kutanan, Wibhu; Michel, Megan; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Zhang, Zhao; Flegontov, Pavel; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2018-05-17

    Southeast Asia is home to rich human genetic and linguistic diversity, but the details of past population movements in the region are not well known. Here, we report genome-wide ancient DNA data from eighteen Southeast Asian individuals spanning from the Neolithic period through the Iron Age (4100-1700 years ago). Early farmers from Man Bac in Vietnam exhibit a mixture of East Asian (southern Chinese agriculturalist) and deeply diverged eastern Eurasian (hunter-gatherer) ancestry characteristic of Austroasiatic speakers, with similar ancestry as far south as Indonesia providing evidence for an expansive initial spread of Austroasiatic languages. By the Bronze Age, in a parallel pattern to Europe, sites in Vietnam and Myanmar show close connections to present-day majority groups, reflecting substantial additional influxes of migrants. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Dalen, Jan Van; Van Der Vleuten, Cees Pm

    2011-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30 internal medicine residents with 7-10 patients each in the internal medicine outpatient clinics. The patients were categorized into a group with a high and a group with a low educational level. We ranked the data into 41 RIAS utterances and RIAS-based composite categories in order of observed frequency during consultations. The residents invariantly used a paternalistic style irrespective of patients' educational background. The RIAS utterances and the composite categories show no significant relationship between communication style and patients' educational level. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country use a paternalistic communication style during consultations, regardless of patients' educational background. To approach a more partnership doctor-patient communication, culture and clinical environment concern of Southeast Asian should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing Common Competencies for Southeast Asian General Dental Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenjitwongsa, Supachai; Poolthong, Suchit; Bullock, Alison; Oliver, Richard G

    2017-09-01

    Current policy in Southeast Asian dental education focuses on high-quality dental services from new dental graduates and the free movement of dental practitioners across the region. The Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Dental Councils have proposed the "Common Major Competencies for ASEAN General Dental Practitioners" to harmonize undergraduate dental education. This article discusses how the ASEAN competencies were developed and established to assist the development of general dental practitioners with comparable knowledge, skills, and attitudes across ASEAN. The competencies were developed through four processes: a questionnaire about current national oral health problems, a two-round Delphi process that sought agreement on competencies, a panel discussion by representatives from ASEAN Dental Councils, and data verification by the representatives after the meeting. Key themes of the ASEAN competencies were compared with the competencies from the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. A total of 33 competency statements, consistent with other regions, were agreed upon and approved. Factors influencing the ASEAN competencies and their implementation include oral health problems in ASEAN, new knowledge and technology in dentistry, limited institutional resources, underregulated dental schools, and uneven distribution of dental practitioners. The ASEAN competencies will serve as the foundation for further developments in ASEAN dental education including policy development, curriculum revision, quality assurance, and staff development. Collaboration amongst stakeholders is essential for successful harmonization of ASEAN dental education.

  1. Examining the Academic Achievement-Delinquency Relationship Among Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura

    2018-05-01

    The extent to which poor academic achievement is strongly related to delinquency among Southeast Asian Americans (SEAA) remains unclear; reasons are methodological limitations and aggregated findings for Asian Americans, which mask evidence that SEAA have a higher prevalence of criminality and poor academic performance than other Asian American groups. The present study examines the academic achievement-delinquency relationship in a diverse group of 1,214 SEAA using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to make causal inferences and assess whether poor academic achieving SEAA, after being matched with higher academic achieving SEAA, displayed a higher prevalence of delinquency. Findings showed that, even after matching, poor academic achieving SEAA were still more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior than those who performed academically better. Interventions targeting SEAA communities will need to focus more on improving academic achievement to directly prevent and decrease delinquent behavior.

  2. Cultural Community Connection and College Success: An Examination of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Shiroma, Kiana; Dizon, Jude Paul

    2016-01-01

    Low rates of college success continue to be a persisting problem in the United States, particularly among Southeast Asian Americans and other populations of color. The purpose of the current inquiry was to understand how cultural community connections influence the success of Southeast Asian American college students. Qualitative methods were…

  3. Incidence and risk factors for breast cancer subtypes in three distinct South-East Asian ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and natives of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, C R Beena; Tang, Tieng Swee; Corbex, Marilys

    2012-12-15

    We determined the incidences of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) subtypes among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia and their correlation with various risk factors in the three ethnic groups: Chinese, Malay and native. Subtype status was ascertained for 1,034 cases of female breast cancer (93% of all cases diagnosed since 2003), and the age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of each subtype were inferred. Case-case comparisons across subtypes were performed for reproductive risk factors. We found 48% luminal A (ER+/PR+/HER2-), 29% triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-), 12% triple-positive (ER+/PR+/HER2+) and 11% HER2-overexpressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+) subtypes, with ASRs of 10.6, 6.0, 2.8 and 2.8 per 100,000, respectively. The proportions of subtypes and ASRs differed significantly by ethnic groups: HER2-positive cases were more frequent in Malays (29%; 95% CI [23;35]) than Chinese (22%; [19;26] and natives (21%; [16;26]); triple-negative cases were less frequent among Chinese (23%; [20;27]) than Malays (33%; [27;39]) and natives (37%; [31;43]). The results of the case-case comparison were in accordance with those observed in western case series. Some uncommon associations, such as between triple-negative subtype and older age at menopause (OR, 1.59; p < 0.05), were found. The triple-negative and HER2+ subtypes predominate in our region, with significant differences among ethnic groups. Our results support the idea that the risk factors for different subtypes vary markedly. Westernized populations are more likely to have factors that increase the risk for the luminal A type, while risk factors for the triple-negative type are more frequent in local populations. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. A Stochastic Climate Generator for Agriculture in Southeast Asian Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, A. M.; Allis, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    We extend a previously-described method for generating future climate scenarios, suitable for driving agricultural models, to selected domains in Lao PDR, Bangladesh and Indonesia. There are notable differences in climatology among the study regions, most importantly the inverse seasonal relationship of southeast Asian and Australian monsoons. These differences necessitate a partially-differentiated modeling approach, utilizing common features for better estimation while allowing independent modeling of divergent attributes. The method attempts to constrain uncertainty due to both anthropogenic and natural influences, providing a measure of how these effects may combine during specified future decades. Seasonal climate fields are downscaled to the daily time step by resampling the AgMERRA dataset, providing a full suite of agriculturally relevant variables and enabling the propagation of climate uncertainty to agricultural outputs. The role of this research in a broader project, conducted under the auspices of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), is discussed.

  5. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  6. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  7. Differential preservation of vertebrates in Southeast Asian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Louys

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caves have been an important source of vertebrate fossils for much of Southeast Asia, particularly for the Quaternary. Despite this importance, the mechanisms by which vertebrate remains accumulate and preserve in Southeast Asian caves has never been systematically reviewed or examined. Here, we present the results of three years of cave surveys in Indonesia and Timor-Leste, describing cave systems and their attendant vertebrate accumulations in diverse geological, biogeographical, and environmental settings. While each cave system is unique, we find that the accumulation and preservation of vertebrate remains are highly dependent on local geology and environment. These factors notwithstanding, we find the dominant factor responsible for faunal deposition is the presence or absence of biological accumulating agents, a factor directly dictated by biogeographical history. In small, isolated, volcanic islands, the only significant accumulation occurs in archaeological settings, thereby limiting our understanding of the palaeontology of those islands prior to human arrival. In karstic landscapes on both oceanic and continental islands, our understanding of the long-term preservation of vertebrates is still in its infancy. The formation processes of vertebrate-bearing breccias, their taphonomic histories, and the criteria used to determine whether these represent syngenetic or multiple deposits remain critically understudied. The latter in particular has important implications for arguments on how breccia deposits from the region should be analysed and interpreted when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  8. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Naramura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods: A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD, the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent. The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results: In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse' principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates.

  9. Huperzine alkaloids from Australasian and southeast Asian Huperzia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Han; Goodger, Jason Q D; Field, Ashley R; Holtum, Joseph A M; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-09-01

    The pharmaceutical alkaloid huperzine A (HupA), currently used in herbal supplements and medicines worldwide, is predominantly sourced from the Chinese lycopod Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. (Lycopodiaceae), which on average contains only 0.08 mg HupA g(-1) dry weight, and is experiencing a rapid decline in China due to over-harvesting. To find a high-yielding, natural source of HupA and/or the related huperzine B (HupB) that could potentially be used as the starting material in a commercial propagation program. We surveyed 17 Huperzia species (15 indigenous to Australia and southeast Asia) for their foliar HupA and HupB concentrations. We also studied intra-specific variation for the huperzines in four species that were available in sufficient numbers, and determined tissue-specific accumulation in larger specimens. HupA was detected in 11 Australasian and southeast Asian species, with eight also containing HupB, albeit at much lower concentrations. A H. elmeri (Herter) Holub plant from the Philippines had one of the highest HupA concentrations recorded (1.01 mg g(-1) dry wt) and it also had the highest HupB content of all plants surveyed (0.34 mg g(-1) dry wt). Intra-specific HupA and HupB concentrations were extremely variable, and at the intra-plant level, reproductive strobili were found to accumulate the highest HupA concentrations. Select Huperzia species from Australia and southeast Asia have potential as the starting material for establishing commercial HupA plantations, but the high intra-specific variability observed suggests that detailed screening is needed to isolate high huperzine-yielding individuals.

  10. Regional Commonalities and Regional Identities: Forging a Normative Understanding of Southeast Asian Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, most of the IR academia’s attention on Southeast Asian regionalism utilised constructivism and/or realism and has focused on ASEAN and its derivatives. This article aims to skew this angle by elaborating a possible relationship between Asian values and a normative understanding of Southeast Asian identity. The major reason for this article’s focus on a normative interpretation is that a practical application of Southeast Asian identity is not very achievable due to various ethnic, cultural, political, territorial, and historical diversities. While the region is diverse, there are also a number of commonalities among its states. Asian values, from a Confucian perspective, account for some of these commonalities. By using constructivists’ claims on both the links between norms and identity and the dynamic interaction between values and norms, this article argues that Asian values could contribute to the development of Amitav Acharya’s widely cited normative/ideational format of Southeast Asian identity. The article takes ASEAN identity as a case study and aims to show why a normative identity is more achievable than a practical identity among Southeast Asians, and how Asian values might contribute to the creation of this shared identity.

  11. Maritime archaeology of Kalinga and the contact with southeast Asian countries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    During the last five thousand years in the maritime history of India, Kaling played an important role in diffusing the Indian culture in Southeast Asian countries. Archaeological exploration and excavations, epigraphical evidences and literary...

  12. For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Diabetes Blood Tests for People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Descent Introduction ... care. What are some common hemoglobin variants? Most people have only one kind of hemoglobin, called hemoglobin ...

  13. Performance of technical trading rules: evidence from Southeast Asian stock markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tharavanij, Piyapas; Siraprapasiri, Vasan; Rajchamaha, Kittichai

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the profitability of technical trading rules in the five Southeast Asian stock markets. The data cover a period of 14 years from January 2000 to December 2013. The instruments investigated are five Southeast Asian stock market indices: SET index (Thailand), FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLC index (Malaysia), FTSE Straits Times index (Singapore), JSX Composite index (Indonesia), and PSE composite index (the Philippines). Trading strategies investigated include Relative Strength Index...

  14. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  16. Population structure of the Southeast Asian river catfish Mystus nemurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, S; Tan, S G; Siraj, S S; Yusoff, K

    2003-12-01

    A total of 143 microsatellites were isolated from Mystus nemurus using a 5' anchored polymerase chain reaction technique or the random amplified hybridization microsatellite method, the first set of microsatellite markers developed for the Southeast Asian river catfish. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci were used as markers for population characterization of M. nemurus from six different geographical locations in Malaysia (Perak, Kedah, Johor, UPM, Sarawak and Terengganu). The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11 with 6.3 as the average number of alleles per locus. Characterization of the populations showed relatively high levels of genetic variation compared with previous studies using allozyme markers. The highest genetic similarity was found between Perak and Kedah, while the highest genetic distance was found between Terengganu and Kedah. The majority of clustering was in accordance with geographical locations and the histories of the populations. Microsatellite analysis indicated that the Sarawak population might be genetically closer to the Peninsular Malaysian populations than has been previously shown by other molecular marker studies.

  17. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  18. Training Southeast Asian Women for Employment: Public Policies and Community Programs, 1975-1985. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers Number Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah R.

    This paper evaluates the effect of Federal resettlement policy on Southeast Asian refugee women's employment training programs and describes the extent to which this training contributed to the refugees' economic mobility and acculturation. The report is divided into three major sections. Part 1 introduces the study by discussing its background,…

  19. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)

  20. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author).

  1. Evolutionary history of continental southeast Asians: "early train" hypothesis based on genetic analysis of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinam, Timothy A; Hong, Lih-Chun; Phipps, Maude E; Stoneking, Mark; Ameen, Mahmood; Edo, Juli; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-11-01

    The population history of the indigenous populations in island Southeast Asia is generally accepted to have been shaped by two major migrations: the ancient "Out of Africa" migration ∼50,000 years before present (YBP) and the relatively recent "Out of Taiwan" expansion of Austronesian agriculturalists approximately 5,000 YBP. The Negritos are believed to have originated from the ancient migration, whereas the majority of island Southeast Asians are associated with the Austronesian expansion. We determined 86 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete genome sequences in four indigenous Malaysian populations, together with a reanalysis of published autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data of Southeast Asians to test the plausibility and impact of those migration models. The three Austronesian groups (Bidayuh, Selatar, and Temuan) showed high frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups, which originated from the Asian mainland ∼30,000-10,000 YBP, but low frequencies of "Out of Taiwan" markers. Principal component analysis and phylogenetic analysis using autosomal SNP data indicate a dichotomy between continental and island Austronesian groups. We argue that both the mtDNA and autosomal data suggest an "Early Train" migration originating from Indochina or South China around the late-Pleistocene to early-Holocene period, which predates, but may not necessarily exclude, the Austronesian expansion.

  2. Regional Integration of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community: An Analysis of Malaysia - Association of Southeast Asian Nations Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Irwan Shah Zainal; Haseeb, Muhammad; Islam, Rabiul

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapid growing economy especially in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The exports with ASEAN countries plays vital role in economic growth and development of Malaysia. Additionally, current chairmanship of ASEAN makes Malaysia more prominent in the region. Consequently, exploring the determinants of Malaysia – ASEAN-5 countries, namely Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippine and Vietnam exports performance is a fundamental objective of this study. The...

  3. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation Among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East and Southeast Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual adolescents were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs. Particularly, sexual minority girls were at increased risk fo...

  4. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  5. International Marriages and Marital Citizenship. Southeast Asian Women on the Move

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnoza-Flot, A.; Ricordeau, G.

    2017-01-01

    While marriage has lost its popularity in many developed countries and is no longer an obligatory path to family formation, it has gained momentum among binational couples as states reinforce their control over human migration. Focusing on the case of Southeast Asian women who have been epitomized

  6. Southeast Asian International Students Adjusting to Jordanian Universities: Views from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzi, Khaled; Al-Jarrah, Abdelnaser

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative research methodology, we interviewed 20 Southeast Asian undergraduate students from Malaysia and Indonesia attending universities in northern Jordan to identify any adjustment problems they may have been facing. These international students experienced pressure to succeed from their sponsoring agencies and families, a very…

  7. Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Tonnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale--Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and…

  8. Doctors in a Southeast Asian country communicate sub-optimally regardless of patients' educational background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Dalen, J.V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the style of doctor-patient communication and patients' educational background in a Southeast Asian teaching hospital setting using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). METHODS: We analyzed a total of 245 audio-taped consultations involving 30

  9. Doctor-Patient Communication in a Southeast Asian Setting: The Conflict between Ideal and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Utarini, Adi; Soebono, Hardyanto; Van Dalen, Jan; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Doctor-patient communication has been extensively studied in non-Western contexts and in relation to patients' cultural and education backgrounds. This study explores the perceived ideal communication style for doctor-patient consultations and the reality of actual practice in a Southeast Asian context. We conducted the study in a teaching…

  10. Ready or Not: The Academic College Readiness of Southeast Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Chia S.

    2014-01-01

    The educational experiences of Southeast Asian Americans, particularly Cambodian Americans, Hmong Americans, Laotian Americans, and Vietnamese Americans, are characterized by numerous challenges, which can be attributed to their migration history, socioeconomic status, and English proficiency. By the end of 11th grade, a high percentage of…

  11. Pollen of Southeast Asian Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), with an overview of the pollen fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulalacao, L.J.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollen morphological descriptions of Alchornea in the literature, which are almost completely based on African and American species, the pollen of eight Southeast Asian species of Alchornea was investigated, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Very little variation

  12. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  13. New trends and lessons from southeast Asian natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, E.

    1993-01-01

    Within the current world context of the growth of reserves and consumption of natural gas, the Southeast Asia area is due for special analysis for several reasons. In particular, an effort must be made to understand the mutations taking place and the stakes in the growing interest producers and consumers are showing in this energy source. The economic performances of combined-cycle power plants make natural gas a competitive energy source for use in generating electricity. Many countries in the area have to cope with a very fast increase in the demand for electricity. Consumption by the electric sector effectively markes it possible for all these countries to consume this energy in industrial and residential-tertiary sectors where its specific qualities are readily apparent. For the industrialized countries (Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong), this opportunity is a way of getting around the difficulties linked to the meeting of the demand for electricity involving giving consideration to pollutant emissions resulting from the use of coal and the mistrust of public opinion with regard to nuclear energy. For the LDCs (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia), the low capital intensity involved in generating electricity by this type of power plant and the short lead times for installing such equipment are extremely attractive in a period of capital scarcity and fat growth that is difficult to anticipate concerning the demand for electricity. The dynamics of regional flows of natural gas is characterized by a sharp increase in the amounts of LNG imported by the industrialized countries and coming from the LDCs having the natural-gas resources in the area. The countries in this latter group are finding a new development vector in the domestic use of this energy resource. 9 refs., 1 fig

  14. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Lee Grismer, L; Das, Indraneil; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2012-11-01

    The closed-canopy forests of Southeast Asia are home to an impressive number of vertebrates that have independently evolved morphologies that enhance directed aerial descent (gliding, parachuting). These assemblages include numerous mammal, frog, snake, and lizard clades. Several genera of gekkonid lizards, in particular, have evolved specialized structures such as cutaneous expansions, flaps, and midbody patagia, that enhance lift generation in the context of unique gliding and parachuting locomotion. The genus Ptychozoon represents arguably the most morphologically extreme, highly specialized clade of gliding geckos. Despite their notoriety and celebrated locomotor ability, members of the genus Ptychozoon have never been the subject of a species-level molecular phylogenetic analysis. In this paper, we utilize molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments to estimate the evolutionary relationships of this unique group of flying geckos. Capitalizing on the recent availability of genetic samples for even the rarest of known species, we include the majority of known taxa and use model-based phylogenetic methods to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Because one species, P. kuhli, exhibits an unusually wide distribution coupled with an impressive range of morphological variation, we additionally use intensive phylogeographic/population genetic sampling, phylogenetic network analyses, and Bayesian species delimitation procedures to evaluate this taxon for the possible presence of cryptic evolutionary lineages. Our results suggest that P. kuhli may consist of between five and nine unrecognized, distinct species. Although we do not elevate these lineages to species status here, our findings suggest that lineage diversity in Ptychozoon is likely dramatically underestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Aenictus ceylonicus species group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Aenictinae from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeyawat Jaitrong Jaitrong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aenictus is a diverse group of army ants in the Old World tropics and subtropics. The Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus ceylonicus group are revised to include twenty-three species (4 named and 19 new species: Aenictus appressipilosus sp. n., A. baliensis sp. n., A. brevipodus sp. n., A. concavus sp. n., A. cylindripetiolus sp. n., A. eguchii sp. n., A. formosensis Forel, 1913 stat. n., A. fuchuanensis Zhou, 2001, A. gonioccipus sp. n., A. itoi sp. n., A. jawadwipa sp. n., A. khaoyaiensis sp. n., A. lifuiae Terayama, 1984, A. longicephalus sp. n., A. maneerati sp. n., A. minipetiolus sp. n., A. pilosus sp. n., A. pinkaewi sp. n., A. sundalandensis sp. n., A. thailandianus Terayama & Kubota, 1993, A. watanasiti sp. n., A. wilaiae sp. n., and A. wiwatwitayai sp. n. Aenictus ceylonicus var. formosensis Forel is removed from synonymy with A. ceylonicus and raised to full species. Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for A. ceylonicus. Redescriptions of Aenictus ceylonicus (Mayr, 1866 (India and Sri Lanka and A. doryloides Wilson, 1964 (India are provided. The queen of A. cylindripetiolus is described. A key to the Southeast Asian species of the group is given based on the worker caste. Most of the Southeast Asian species of this species group have more or less limited distribution ranges. This may be due to the poor dispersal ability generally seen among the Aenictus species, in which the propagule (reproductive unit is an apterous queen plus accompanying workers.

  16. Genomic copy number variations in three Southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chee-Seng; Pawitan, Yudi; Sim, Xueling; Ong, Rick T H; Seielstad, Mark; Lee, Edmund J D; Teo, Yik-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Salim, Agus

    2010-07-01

    Research on the role of copy number variations (CNVs) in the genetic risk of diseases in Asian populations has been hampered by a relative lack of reference CNV maps for Asian populations outside the East Asians. In this article, we report the population characteristics of CNVs in Chinese, Malay, and Asian Indian populations in Singapore. Using the Illumina Human 1M Beadchip array, we identify 1,174 CNV loci in these populations that corroborated with findings when the same samples were typed on the Affymetrix 6.0 platform. We identify 441 novel loci not previously reported in the Database of Genomic Variations (DGV). We observe a considerable number of loci that span all three populations and were previously unreported, as well as population-specific loci that are quite common in the respective populations. From this we observe the distribution of CNVs in the Asian Indian population to be considerably different from the Chinese and Malay populations. About half of the deletion loci and three-quarters of duplication loci overlap UCSC genes. Tens of loci show population differentiation and overlap with genes previously known to be associated with genetic risk of diseases. One of these loci is the CYP2A6 deletion, previously linked to reduced susceptibility to lung cancer. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Integrating Buddhism and HIV prevention in U.S. southeast Asian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, S; Lane, S D; Lloyd, L S; Loh, L

    1999-02-01

    Asian Pacific Islander communities in the United States have experienced an alarming increase in HIV infection over the past few years, possibly due to a lack of knowledge and the relative absence of appropriate educational interventions. The authors propose a new approach to the development of HIV prevention programs in U.S. southeast Asian communities. This article reviews the cultural and economic factors that may facilitate HIV transmission within these communities. Relying on the basic precepts of Buddhism, the dominant religion of many southeast Asian populations in the United States, the health belief model is utilized to demonstrate how recognizable, acceptable religious constructs can be integrated into the content of HIV prevention messages. This integration of religious concepts with HIV prevention messages may increase the likelihood that the message audience will accept the prevention messages as relevant. This nuanced approach to HIV prevention must be validated and refined through field research.

  18. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Thi Hong Le; Ha Thi Cam Huynh; Hong Thi Thu Dinh

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the...

  19. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  20. Review of insulin-associated hypoglycemia and its impact on the management of diabetes in Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Su-Yen; Hussein, Zanariah; Rudijanto, Achmad

    2017-09-01

    Although the incidence of diabetes is rising in Southeast Asia, there is limited information regarding the incidence and manifestation of insulin-associated hypoglycemia. The aim of the present review was to discuss what is currently known regarding insulin-associated hypoglycemia in Southeast Asia, including its known incidence and impact in the region, and how the Southeast Asian population with diabetes differs from other populations. We found a paucity of data regarding the incidence of hypoglycemia in Southeast Asia, which has contributed to the adoption of Western guidelines. This might not be appropriate, as Southeast Asians have a range of etiological, educational and cultural differences from Western populations with diabetes that might place them at greater risk of hypoglycemia if not managed optimally. For example, Southeast Asians with type 2 diabetes tend to be younger, with lower body mass indexes than their Western counterparts, and the management of type 2 diabetes with premixed insulin preparations is more common in Southeast Asia. Both of these factors might result in higher rates of hypoglycemia. In addition, Southeast Asians are often poorly educated about hypoglycemia and its management, including during Ramadan fasting. We conclude there is a need for more information about Southeast Asian populations with diabetes to assist with the construction of more appropriate national and regional guidelines for the management of hypoglycemia, more closely aligned to patient demographics, behaviors and treatment practices. Such bespoke guidelines might result in a greater degree of implementation and adherence within clinical practice in Southeast Asian nations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Engineering analysis of ERTS data for southeast Asian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, H. L.; Mcnair, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The present program focuses on rice because of its importance world-wide as a food. Specifically, the focus is on rice fields in the Philippines. Two primary program objectives are: (1) to establish the feasibility of extracting from ERTS imagery the areas where rice is grown, and (2) to determine those measurements on the imagery which enable the assessment of crop condition. Achieving these objectives with procedures which can be cost-effective can lead the way toward yield prediction, irrigation system management, and similar functions which are known to be important needs in Southeast Asia.

  2. Neighbour Programme: The Mixture of Southeast Asian Visual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Wijaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neighbour Programme was initiated in 2010 by three institutions from Southeast Asia: Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand; then Indonesia joined them a year later in 2011. These institutions, which specialise in art and design, decided to develop a project about cultural exchange that aimed to reconnect art and design in the form of a dialogue and research as practice. This project also intended to include forming mutual networks to organise exchange programmes, creating cultural collisions within this mixture. Based on thought that Southeast Asia’s countries have the same root of art, culture and heritage, Neighbour focused on searching a different topic each year that could be explored and developed into knowledge and understanding for both students and lecturers, and hopefully to publics about their own visual culture. Neighbour has running since 2010 and still developing until present. This project has used different methods, such as Constructivist Learning that gave new perspective of gaining knowledge; and hopefully Neighbour will keep trying to find a new method to engage art, design, and culture with publics internationally. 

  3. Acculturation, gender, and mental health of Southeast Asian immigrant youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilario, Carla T; Vo, Dzung X; Johnson, Joy L; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    The relationships between mental health, protective factors and acculturation among Southeast Asian youth were examined in this study using a gender-based analysis. Population-based data from the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey were used to examine differences in extreme stress and despair by acculturation. Associations between emotional distress and hypothesized protective factors were examined using logistic regression. Stratified analyses were performed to assess gender-related differences. Recent immigrant youth reported higher odds of emotional distress. Family connectedness and school connectedness were linked to lower odds of extreme stress and despair among girls. Family connectedness was associated with lower odds of extreme stress and despair among boys. Higher cultural connectedness was associated with lower odds of despair among boys but with higher odds of extreme stress among girls. Findings are discussed in relation to acculturation and gender-based patterns in protective factors for mental health among Southeast Asian immigrant youth.

  4. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Thi Hong Le

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the panel data and, then, a GMM estimator is employed to ensure the consistency of the estimates. The results point out that the exchange rate exposure of these countries is asymmetric. At market level, for a rise in the exchange rate (or local currency depreciates, the average stock returns tend to decrease. However, due to the favourable impact of currency depreciation on the net export position, the reduction speed of stock returns is faster than the rising speed of the exchange rate.

  5. Killing Me Softly: Remembering and Reproducing Violence in Southeast Asian Refugees (Two Times)

    OpenAIRE

    Keovisai, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the ways in which Southeast Asian refugee narratives have been produced and replicated through institutions for the purpose of supporting legitimizing and justifying U.S. imperialism and war violence. It interrogates the limitations of institutionalized modes of memorialization and seeks to offer new forms of remembering and circumventing narratives of remembering. Furthermore, it seeks to connect different forms of state violence together to yield a greater analysis and ...

  6. Determinants of economic freedom of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation economic community

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Debbie C. Magallon

    2016-01-01

    One of the determinants of the well-being of people across the world is economic freedom. It is the freedom to choose the ways to produce, sell, and use your private resources, while respecting rights of the other to practice the same. The primordial intention of the study was to investigate the factors affecting economic freedom in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community. Human Development Index (HDI), Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and GDP per capita are...

  7. Attitude towards Community Building in Association of Southeast Asian Nations: A Public Opinion Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran Moorthy; Guido Benny

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) envisioned an integrated regional community by the year 2015, following the European Union model. However, unlike the European Community which was formed after years of discussion at different levels of society, institutions and government, ASEAN was rather quick to conceptualize this initiative, without seeking the feedbacks for the public. Consequently, ASEAN Community initiative has been criticized for being elitist in i...

  8. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  9. Biowaste fuels South-East Asian COGEN schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the COGEN Programme of the European Commission in association with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and considers the benefits of using biowaste for the production of energy using cogeneration with the corresponding reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. The substitution of rice husks for the fuel in a cogeneration plant at a Thai rice mill, and the combustion of wood in the cogeneration plant at the Homet Raya plant in Malaysia are described, and details are given of the backgrounds to the projects, locations, the technologies used, and the process economics. The next phase of the COGEN programme due to start in 1998 which will see the programme expanded to include coal-fired and gas-fired cogeneration projects is discussed

  10. Mathematics Research in Association of Southeast Asian Nations Countries: A Scientometric Analysis of Patterns and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao P. Ho-Le

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at mapping the trend and impact of mathematics research originated from Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries by using a scientometric approach. We extracted the Web of Science’s article-level data of all publications concerning mathematics research during the period of 2006–2015 for ASEAN countries. The impact of research was assessed in terms of citation, and the pattern of international collaboration was mapped by the presence of coauthorship and international affiliations. During the coverage period, ASEAN countries had published 9,890 papers in mathematics, accounting for 3.8% of total ISI-indexed publications from the region. Almost 95% of the mathematics publication was from Singapore (4,107 papers, Vietnam (2,046, Malaysia (1,927, and Thailand (1,317. Approximately 54% of mathematics papers from ASEAN countries had international coauthorship, and these papers had greater yearly citation rate than those without international collaboration. With the exception of Singapore, the citation rate for other ASEAN countries was below the world average by 8–30%. The most important predictor of citations was journal impact factor, which accounted for 5.2% of total variation in citations between papers. These findings suggest that the contribution of ASEAN countries as a group to mathematics research worldwide is modest in terms of research output and impact.

  11. Unpacking Racial Identities: The Salience of Ethnicity in Southeast Asian-American Youth's Schooling Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Phitsamay Sychitkokhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reconceptualizes white teachers' notion of their Asian-American students' racial identity. Forty urban Southeast Asian-American (SEAA) students and seven of their white European-American teachers were examined to determine how the students responded to the white teachers' assumptions about their identity. This study provides an…

  12. Cultural Values and Communication Online: Chinese and Southeast Asian Students in a Taiwan International MBA Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Clyde A.; Chen, Judy F.; Caskey, D'Arcy

    2005-01-01

    Whereas many researchers have examined differences in values and behavior between Westerners and Asians, fewer have investigated differences within Asian cultural groups. A recent government initiative in Taiwan to encourage international education has led to the development of an international MBA program at the National Cheng Kung University in…

  13. Psychotherapy with Southeast Asian refugees: implications for treatment of Western patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, L

    1994-01-01

    Working with Southeast Asian refugees in psychotherapy can teach Western psychotherapists how our culture-impacted notions of health, psychopathology, and psychotherapy influence the way we hear, understand, and respond to our patients. Western conceptions of individual boundaries, family ties, the relationship of mind and body, and ways of knowing are among the issues that arise for the Western psychotherapist who works with Southeast Asian refugees. While we in the West have seen rapid technological advances, we also have suffered dislocations, change, and the loss of traditional bases of meaning. Yet despite the differences, there are also elements within Western culture that resonate with what are usually considered "Asian" ways. These include the self-in-relation concepts described by feminist writers and the attitude of therapist as learner described by some contemporary psychoanalysts as well as by a contemporary Western philosopher. Refugees and Western patients alike want their unique faces "seen" and hope to birth new and expanded meanings in their psychotherapeutic dialogues.

  14. Evolution of gliding in Southeast Asian geckos and other vertebrates is temporally congruent with dipterocarp forest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Greenbaum, Eli; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2012-12-23

    Gliding morphologies occur in diverse vertebrate lineages in Southeast Asian rainforests, including three gecko genera, plus frogs, snakes, agamid lizards and squirrels. It has been hypothesized that repeated evolution of gliding is related to the dominance of Asian rainforest tree floras by dipterocarps. For dipterocarps to have influenced the evolution of gliding in Southeast Asian vertebrates, gliding lineages must have Eocene or later origins. However, divergence times are not known for most lineages. To investigate the temporal pattern of Asian gliding vertebrate evolution, we performed phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses. New sequence data for geckos incorporate exemplars of each gliding genus (Cosymbotus, Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon), whereas analyses of other vertebrate lineages use existing sequence data. Stem ages of most gliding vertebrates, including all geckos, cluster in the time period when dipterocarps came to dominate Asian tropical forests. These results demonstrate that a gliding/dipterocarp correlation is temporally viable, and caution against the assumption of early origins for apomorphic taxa.

  15. Performance of technical trading rules: evidence from Southeast Asian stock markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharavanij, Piyapas; Siraprapasiri, Vasan; Rajchamaha, Kittichai

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the profitability of technical trading rules in the five Southeast Asian stock markets. The data cover a period of 14 years from January 2000 to December 2013. The instruments investigated are five Southeast Asian stock market indices: SET index (Thailand), FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLC index (Malaysia), FTSE Straits Times index (Singapore), JSX Composite index (Indonesia), and PSE composite index (the Philippines). Trading strategies investigated include Relative Strength Index, Stochastic oscillator, Moving Average Convergence-Divergence, Directional Movement Indicator and On Balance Volume. Performances are compared to a simple Buy-and-Hold. Statistical tests are also performed. Our empirical results show a strong performance of technical trading rules in an emerging stock market of Thailand but not in a more mature stock market of Singapore. The technical trading rules also generate statistical significant returns in the Malaysian, Indonesian and the Philippine markets. However, after taking transaction costs into account, most technical trading rules do not generate net returns. This fact suggests different levels of market efficiency among Southeast Asian stock markets. This paper finds three new insights. Firstly, technical indicators does not help much in terms of market timing. Basically, traders cannot expect to buy at a relative low price and sell at a relative high price by just using technical trading rules. Secondly, technical trading rules can be beneficial to individual investors as they help them to counter the behavioral bias called disposition effects which is the tendency to sell winning stocks too soon and holding on to losing stocks too long. Thirdly, even profitable strategies could not reliably predict subsequent market directions. They make money from having a higher average profit from profitable trades than an average loss from unprofitable ones.

  16. Hemoglobin Constant Spring among Southeast Asian Populations: Haplotypic Heterogeneities and Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Jomoui

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS is an abnormal Hb caused by a mutation at the termination codon of α2-globin gene found commonly among Southeast Asian and Chinese people. Association of Hb CS with α°-thalassemia leads to a thalassemia intermedia syndrome commonly encountered in the region. We report chromosome background and addressed genetic origins of Hb CS observed in a large cohort of Hb CS among Southeast Asian populations.A study was done on 102 Vietnamese (aged 15-49 year-old and 40 Laotian (aged 18-39 year-old subjects with Hb CS and results compared with 120 Hb CS genes in Thailand. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis. Hb CS mutation and thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Six DNA polymorphisms within α-globin gene cluster including 5'Xba I, Bgl I, Inter-zeta HVR, AccI, RsaI and αPstI 3', were determined using PCR-RFLP assay.Nine different genotypes of Hb CS were observed. In contrast to the Thai Hb CS alleles which are mostly linked to haplotype (+-S + + -, most of the Vietnamese and the Laotian Hb CS genes were associated with haplotype (+-M + + -, both of which are different from that of the European Hb CS.Hb CS is commonly found in combination with other thalassemias among Southeast Asian populations. Accurate genotyping of the cases requires both hematologic and DNA analyses. At least two independent origins are associated with the Hb CS gene which could indirectly explain the high prevalence of this Hb variant in the region.

  17. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

    2012-07-22

    The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

  18. Choice of Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes: A Southeast Asian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Thai, Hong Quang; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Su-Yen, Goh; Mohamed, Mafauzy; Latt, Tint Swe; Aye, Than Than; Latif, Zafar Ahmed; Katulanda, Prasad; Khun, Touch; Satha, Sum; Vongvandy, Vadsana

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia faces a diabetes epidemic, which has created significant challenges for health care. The unique Asian diabetes phenotype, coupled with peculiar lifestyle, diet, and healthcare-seeking behavior, makes it imperative to develop clinical pathways and guidelines which address local needs and requirements. From an insulin-centric viewpoint, the preparations prescribed in such pathways should be effective, safe, well tolerated, nonintrusive, and suitable for the use in multiple clinical situations including initiation and intensification. This brief communication describes the utility of premixed or dual action insulin in such clinical pathways and guidelines.

  19. Choice of insulin in type 2 diabetes: A Southeast Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia faces a diabetes epidemic, which has created significant challenges for health care. The unique Asian diabetes phenotype, coupled with peculiar lifestyle, diet, and healthcare-seeking behavior, makes it imperative to develop clinical pathways and guidelines which address local needs and requirements. From an insulin-centric viewpoint, the preparations prescribed in such pathways should be effective, safe, well tolerated, nonintrusive, and suitable for the use in multiple clinical situations including initiation and intensification. This brief communication describes the utility of premixed or dual action insulin in such clinical pathways and guidelines.

  20. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  1. ‘Borderless’ Southeast Asia historiography: New scholarship on the interactions and exchanges between Southeast Asia and its South Asian and Chinese neighbours in the pre-1500 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Hall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Nola Cooke, Li Tana and James A. Anderson (eds, The Tongking Gulf through history. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, x + 223 pp. [Encounters with Asia Series.] ISBN 9780812243369. Price: USD 59.95 (hardback.Derek Heng, Sino-Malay trade and diplomacy from the tenth through the fourteenth century. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009, xiii + 286 pp. [Research in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 121.] ISBN 9780896802711. Price: USD 28.00 (paperback.Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany and Vijay Sakhuja (eds, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola naval expeditions to Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009, xxv + 337 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789812509365, price: USD 39.90 (hardback; 9789812309372, USD 59.90 (paperback.Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade (eds, Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on cross-cultural exchange. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011, xxxi + 514 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789814345101, price USD 49.90 (paperback; 9789814311168, USD 59.90 (hardback. [India Hardcover Edition co-published with Manohar Publishers and Distributors, India.]Geoff Wade and Sun Laichen (eds, Southeast Asia in the fifteenth century: The China factor. Singapore: NUS Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, xii + 508 pp. ISBN 9789971694487. Price: USD 32.00.

  2. The impact of thalassemia on Southeast Asian and Asian Indian families in the United States: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Robert I; Gilgour, Brynnan; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Mason, Maryann; Thompson, Alexis A

    2011-01-01

    To describe the challenges, including sociocultural and socioeconomic barriers, faced by an urban immigrant population in the United States affected by thalassemia major. Ethnographic, semi-structured, 1-on-1 interviews using an interview guide developed for this study. Digital recordings were transcribed and data analyzed using constant comparative method. University-based, Comprehensive Thalassemia Program at Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA. Fourteen Southeast Asian and Asian Indian parents of children with transfusion dependent thalassemia. Qualitative descriptions of parental experiences, frequency of codes applied to interviews and emergent themes. Thalassemia has its greatest impact on the emotional and social well-being of affected children and their parents. Current and future concerns were related to disease-specific complications and challenges with management such as transfusions and chelation therapy. These perceptions were tied to parental hope for a cure, a frequently coded coping mechanism. Despite their availability, few parents relied on support systems beyond immediate family members due to perceived public knowledge gaps about thalassemia. Culturally based past experiences and barriers did not emerge as dominant themes in our analysis. The impact of thalassemia is tremendous for affected children and their parents and is due more to factors that were either disease-specific or common to other chronic disease models rather than those influenced by culture. The unmet needs of these families require additional investigation to facilitate the development of initiatives aimed at improving quality of life and lessening overall impact of thalassemia

  3. 'Smoking': use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts among Southeast Asian American youth and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J P; Battle, R S; Lipton, R; Soller, B

    2010-02-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban population. We conducted in-person interviews with 164 Southeast Asians, smokers and non-smokers, in two low-income urban communities in Northern California, collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis of the quantitative data indicated distinct use patterns for blunts, cigars and other forms of marijuana in terms of associations with generation in the United States. The use of these items was also found to be related: ever having smoked cigarettes or blunts increased the risk of ever having smoked the other three items. Qualitative data found indications of all three hypothesized relationships between tobacco and marijuana for youths but not for older adults. For youths in the study, 'smoking' was found to constitute a social construct within which use of cigarettes, cigars and blunts were somewhat interchangeable. Youths in similar settings may initiate into and progress through smoking as an activity domain rather than any one of these items.

  4. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  5. Southeast Asian Medicinal Plants as a Potential Source of Antituberculosis Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all of the control strategies, tuberculosis (TB is still a major cause of death globally and one-third of the world’s population is infected with TB. The drugs used for TB treatment have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and emergence of resistance strains. Plant-derived medicines have since been used in traditional medical system for the treatment of numerous ailments worldwide. There were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from plants in the last 17 years. However, none is focused on Southeast Asian medicinal plants. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting the medicinal plants of Southeast Asian origin evaluated for anti-TB. This review is based on literatures published in various electronic database. A total of 132 plants species representing 45 families and 107 genera were reviewed; 27 species representing 20.5% exhibited most significant in vitro anti-TB activity (crude extracts and/or bioactive compounds 0–<10 µg/ml. The findings may motivate various scientists to undertake the project that may result in the development of crude extract that will be consumed as complementary or alternative TB drug or as potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel anti-TB drug.

  6. Response of Southeast Asian Muslims to the increasingly globalized world: discourse and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iik Arifin Mansurnoor

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Habiéndose desarrollado a partir de una orientación global, el Islam en el sudeste asiático se ha vuelto global desde sus inicios. El sudeste musulmán de Asia siempre ha aceptado y participado en el mundo globalizado, aunque manteniendo una cierta atención sobre el origen y el objetivo de la acción y del diseño global. Históricamente el sudeste musulmán de Asia se enfrenta a la globalización y al colonialismo con una crítica formal. El Islam ha encontrado dos importantes bases de apoyo para su traducción en el sudeste asiático: el Estado y los líderes religiosos autónomos. Con la creciente sofisticación y penetración del colonialismo occidental, las organizaciones musulmanas modernas poco a poco han asumido el papel social de los desaparecidos estados indígenas y otras instituciones. El Sudeste musulmán de Asia ha mostrado su visión moral del mundo globalizado y su diseño para lograrlo. En este artículo, se hace hincapié en las principales tendencias de la espiritualidad centradas en los movimientos del sudeste musulmán de Asia, representados por las organizaciones de masas, las instituciones tradicionales reformadas, y los movimientos sociales más significativos en esta región. A pesar de que la hegemonía del estado y la presencia cada vez más decisiva de la shari'a, a veces interfieren y matizan las actividades de estos movimientos, ellos han sin lugar a dudas demostrado la viabilidad y el potencial del movimiento de espiritualidad centrado en la reestructuración de los rápidos cambios que hoy en día ocurre en el mundo globalizado._____________ABSTRACT:Having itself grown out of a global orientation, Islam in Southeast Asia has gone global since its inception. Southeast Asian Muslims always welcome and participate in the globalized world, even though they are vigilant to the origin and aim of global action and design. Historically Southeast Asian Muslims faced globalization and colonialism with responsible

  7. Taiwan experience suggests that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary in southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The high frequency of RhD (D) antigen among Taiwanese persons (99.67%) often imposes unnecessary risks of under-transfusion on D- patients awaiting D- blood. Also because of the rare occurrence of anti-D among Taiwanese persons, routine pretransfusion D typing has been discontinued in the Mackay Memorial Hospital since 1988. This report is the retrospective evaluation of the outcome of abolishing RhD typing for Taiwanese. More than 10 years of alloantibody data at Mackay Memorial Hospital Blood Bank were reviewed. The cases with anti-D were further used to analyze the potency of D antigen and to observe whether there were differences in the incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine D typing among Taiwanese individuals. The incidence of anti-D before and after discontinuation of routine pretransfusion D typing has remained unchanged. The immunogenicity of D and "Mi(a)" in Taiwanese persons is found to be similar. In terms of opportunity for immunization, however, the "Mi(a)" antigen (phenotype frequency 7.3% in Taiwanese persons) has become the most important blood group antigen in Taiwan. The results strongly support the exclusion of D typing from routine compatibility testing for individuals of Taiwanese origin. Because the low incidence of D- and relatively high incidence of "Mi(a)"+ phenotypes are common findings throughout southeast Asia, and because a population genetic study revealed that the Taiwanese people are genetically related to southern Asian populations, it is suggested that RhD typing for blood transfusion is unnecessary among southeast Asian populations.

  8. Study on the change and acculturation of dietary pattern of Southeast Asian workers living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Seung-Joo

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed the dietary pattern of Southeast Asian workers (Vietnamese, Thais, Cambodians and Myanmar) living in South Korea in order to recognize the dietary changes after they moved to South Korea. Questionnaires were completed by 251 Southeast Asian workers living in South Korea. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we assessed the diets before and after living in the hometown and in South Korea. Significant changes observed in the Southeast Asian workers were decreased in consumption frequency of fresh fruits, cooked vegetables, rice noodles, green tea and glutinous rice, and increase in consumption of Kimchi, seaweed, milk, coffee and pizza. These changes were attributed to rapid dietary acculturation. The frequencies of eating homemade food were significantly decreased after they came to Korea except for Thais. Thais showed the highest frequencies of eating homemade food daily among others. 28.2% of respondents said their health condition had deteriorated after living in South Korea due to difficulties to adapt Korean food, increased frequencies of eating instant food, and lacking exercises. By providing understanding of the dietary patterns of Southeast Asian workers, these results can be used for preliminary data to develop a program for their Korean food adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics and Pedagogical Behaviours of Good EFL Instructors: The Views of Selected Southeast Asian and Mexican SLTE Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kenneth G.; Lara Herrera, Romero

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the views of selected Southeast Asian and Mexican second language teacher education students regarding the characteristics and pedagogical behaviours of good EFL instructors. A total of 116 participants from Mexico, Brunei, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Cambodia, and Vietnam took part in the…

  10. Understanding How Key Institutional Agents Provide Southeast Asian American Students with Access to Social Capital in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Mueller, M. Kalehua.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on understanding how institutional agents can and do foster success among Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students in higher education. Specifically, qualitative methods were utilized to examine the experiences of 34 SEAA undergraduate students at 5 public 4-year colleges and universities across the United States and…

  11. Cross-sectional study of Hepatitis B Awareness among Chinese and Southeast Asian Canadians in the Vancouver-Richmond community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Cheung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV is endemic and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Asia. British Columbia has the highest proportion of Chinese and Southeast Asians among all Canadian provinces. The present study was designed to evaluate the degree of concern for and knowledge of HBV in this high-risk community.

  12. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  13. Using group learning to promote integration and cooperative learning between Asian and Australian second-year veterinary science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Paul C; Woodall, Peter F; Bellingham, Mark; Noad, Michael; Lloyd, Shan

    2007-01-01

    There is a tendency for students from different nationalities to remain within groups of similar cultural backgrounds. The study reported here used group project work to encourage integration and cooperative learning between Australian students and Asian (Southeast Asian) international students in the second year of a veterinary science program. The group project involved an oral presentation during a second-year course (Structure and Function), with group formation engineered to include very high, high, moderate, and low achievers (based on previous grades). One Asian student and three Australian students were placed in each group. Student perceptions of group dynamics were analyzed through a self-report survey completed at the end of the presentations and through group student interviews. Results from the survey were analyzed by chi-square to compare the responses between Asian and Australian students, with statistical significance accepted at p learning experience. Asian students expressed a greater preference for working in a group than for working alone (p = 0.001) and reported more frequently than Australian students that teamwork produces better results (p = 0.01). Australian students were more likely than Asian students to voice their opinion in a team setting (p = 0.001), while Asian students were more likely to depend on the lecturer for directions (p = 0.001). The results also showed that group project work appeared to create an environment that supported learning and was a successful strategy to achieve acceptance of cultural differences.

  14. A regional cooperative clinical study of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in east and south-east Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo; Cao, Jianping; Zhou Juying; Susworo, Raden; Supriana, Nana; Sato, Shinichiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Suto, Hisao; Nakamura, Yuzuru; Cho, Chul-Koo; Ismail, Fuad B.; Calaguas, Miriam J.C.; Reyes, Rey H. de los; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Thephamongkhol, Kullathom; Nguyen Ba Duc; To Anh Dung; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia

  15. An Approach to Building Capacity for Nuclear Security and Safeguards in Thailand and the Southeast Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengvanich, P.; Chanyotha, S.; Nilsuwankosit, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: A master’s degree programme in nuclear security and safeguards has been developed and offered at Chulalongkorn University for the first time in 2013 in order to develop necessary human resources in the fields of nuclear security and safeguards who can continue to work, conduct research, or serve as educators in these fields in Thailand and the Southeast Asian region. The first group of 20 students joined the programme in 2013 and recently graduated. The programme was one-of-its-kind, as there have not been many similar specialized programmes in nuclear security and safeguards in the past. In this paper, challenges and lessons learned throughout the programme are reported. Experience from the pilot programme will be used to improve the next round of the programme which is expected to start in 2017. With this program, more nuclear knowledge can be shared and maintained among the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries to ensure the peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the region. (author

  16. Paleo-drainage basin connectivity predicts evolutionary relationships across three Southeast Asian biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Rüber, Lukas; Nylinder, Stephan; Stelbrink, Björn; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Lavoué, Sébastien; Tan, Heok Hui; Nugroho, Estu; Wowor, Daisy; Ng, Peter K L; Siti Azizah, M N; Von Rintelen, Thomas; Hall, Robert; Carvalho, Gary R

    2013-05-01

    Understanding factors driving diversity across biodiversity hotspots is critical for formulating conservation priorities in the face of ongoing and escalating environmental deterioration. While biodiversity hotspots encompass a small fraction of Earth's land surface, more than half the world's plants and two-thirds of terrestrial vertebrate species are endemic to these hotspots. Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia displays extraordinary species richness, encompassing four biodiversity hotspots, though disentangling multiple potential drivers of species richness is confounded by the region's dynamic geological and climatic history. Here, we use multilocus molecular genetic data from dense multispecies sampling of freshwater fishes across three biodiversity hotspots, to test the effect of Quaternary climate change and resulting drainage rearrangements on aquatic faunal diversification. While Cenozoic geological processes have clearly shaped evolutionary history in SE Asian halfbeak fishes, we show that paleo-drainage re-arrangements resulting from Quaternary climate change played a significant role in the spatiotemporal evolution of lowland aquatic taxa, and provide priorities for conservation efforts.

  17. Above Canopy Emissions of Isoprene and Monoterpenes from a Southeast Asian Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Johnson, C.; Cai, Z.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Bai, J.; Li, Q.

    2003-12-01

    Fluxes of isoprene were measured using the eddy covariance technique and an ozone chemiluminescence isoprene sensor above a secondary tropical forest/rubber tree plantation located in the Xishuangbanna region of southern China during the wet and dry seasons. Fluxes of monoterpenes were inferred from ambient boundary layer concentrations (wet season) and from relaxed eddy accumulation measurements (dry season). Isoprene emissions were comparable to what has been observed from other tropical forests in Africa and South America. In this forest, monoterpene emissions were much higher during the wet season due to the senescence of the rubber trees during the dry season. These flux measurements represent the first ecosystem level flux measurements reported from Southeast Asian tropical forests.

  18. Diabetes and Anemia: International Diabetes Federation (IDF) - Southeast Asian Region (SEAR) position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Kalra, Sanjay; Badani, Rajesh; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Bhoraskar, Anil; Das, A K; Dhorepatil, Bharati; Ghosh, Sujoy; Jeloka, Tarun; Khandelwal, Deepak; Latif, Zafar Ahmed; Nadkar, Milind; Pathan, Md Faruque; Saboo, Banshi; Sahay, Rakesh; Shimjee, Suleiman; Shrestha, Dina; Siyan, Ali; Talukdar, Shamim Hayder; Tiwaskar, Mangesh; Unnikrishnan, A G

    2017-12-01

    Anemia is often associated with diabetes mellitus and is known to intensify the risk of developing diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular complications. There is paucity in understanding of co-existence of these conditions, especially in Southeast Asian countries. Iron and/or erythropoietin deficiencies are the major causes of anemia in diabetes, and diabetic kidney disease plays a key role. Patients with diabetes need to be screened for anemia along with other risk factors and anemia should be corrected appropriately to improve overall clinical outcomes. This position statement aims to provide a comprehensive overview and an algorithm for appropriate management of anemia in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Going up, going down: the experience, control and management of gestational diabetes mellitus among Southeast Asian migrant women living in urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirojwong, Sansnee; Brownhill, Suzanne; Dahlen, Hannah G; Johnson, Maree; Schmied, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed In many developed countries the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for Asian-born women is higher than other groups. Studies suggest that some women have limited knowledge of the disease and poor self-management leading to health problems for themselves and their baby. Few studies report the experience of GDM among Southeast Asian migrant women living in Australia and factors that influence their management of the disease. Methods A qualitative interpretive design was used to explore Southeast Asian migrant women's experience and management of GDM. Women diagnosed with the disease during pregnancy were recruited from an antenatal clinic at two Sydney metropolitan hospitals. Nineteen women were interviewed in their first language. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results A diagnosis of GDM conferred an unanticipated 'up and down' experience for this group of Southeast Asian women. Their experience of the disease, likened to an elevator ride, was modulated by 'insulin' and 'information' used to control the disease and manage blood glucose levels, dietary levels, exercise levels and anxiety levels. Conclusions Health promotion material that captures the fluctuating experience of GDM has the potential to help women, particularly at the time of diagnosis, to be better prepared, and health professionals to be better informed to control and manage the disease more effectively. So what? GDM is a serious problem. The model generated from our study has the potential to better inform health professionals to prepare women for the inevitable fluctuating physical and emotional effects of the disease. Culturally sensitive material and an educational strategy based on the model may also facilitate women's lifestyle changes and compliance, and improve migrant women's relationship with, and trust in, health professionals involved in their GDM care.

  20. Evaluation of the 2013 Southeast Asian Haze on Solar Generation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammadreza; Hizam, Hashim; Gomes, Chandima; Hajighorbani, Shahrooz; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP) and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FFP). Data analysis was conducted on 2,190 samples at 30 min intervals from 01st June 2013, when both arrays were washed, until 30th June 2013. The performance was evaluated by using environmental data (irradiation, temperature, dust thickness, and air pollution index), power output, and energy yield. Multiple regression models were predicted in view of the environmental data and PV array output. Results showed that the fixed flat system was more affected by air pollution than the tracking flat plate. The contribution of this work is that it considers two types of photovoltaic arrays under the Southeast Asian pollution 2013.

  1. Evaluation of the 2013 Southeast Asian Haze on Solar Generation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammadreza; Hizam, Hashim; Gomes, Chandima; Hajighorbani, Shahrooz; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP) and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FFP). Data analysis was conducted on 2,190 samples at 30 min intervals from 01st June 2013, when both arrays were washed, until 30th June 2013. The performance was evaluated by using environmental data (irradiation, temperature, dust thickness, and air pollution index), power output, and energy yield. Multiple regression models were predicted in view of the environmental data and PV array output. Results showed that the fixed flat system was more affected by air pollution than the tracking flat plate. The contribution of this work is that it considers two types of photovoltaic arrays under the Southeast Asian pollution 2013. PMID:26275303

  2. Tracing the phylogeographic history of Southeast Asian long-tailed macaques through mitogenomes of museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Li, Hongjie; Martin, Robert D; Moreau, Corrie S; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-11-01

    The biogeographical history of Southeast Asia is complicated due to the continuous emergences and disappearances of land bridges throughout the Pleistocene. Here, we use long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), which are widely distributed throughout the mainland and islands of Southeast Asia, asa model for better understanding the biogeographical patterns of diversification in this geographically complex region. A reliable intraspecific phylogeny including individuals from localities on oceanic islands, continental islands, and the mainland is needed to trace relatedness along with the pattern and timing of colonization in this region. We used high-throughput sequencing techniques to sequence mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from 95 Southeast Asian M. fascicularis specimens housed at natural history museums around the world. To achieve a comprehensive picture, we more than tripled the mitogenome sample size for M. fascicularis from previous studies, and for the first time included documented samples from the Philippines and several small Indonesian islands. Confirming the result from a previous, recent intraspecific phylogeny for M. fascicularis, the newly reconstructed phylogeny of 135 specimens divides the samples into two major clades: Clade A includes haplotypes from the mainland and some from northern Sumatra, while Clade B includes all insular haplotypes along with lineages from southern Sumatra. This study resolves a previous disparity by revealing a disjunction in the origin of Sumatran macaques, with separate lineages originating within the two major clades, suggesting that at least two major migrations to Sumatra occurred. However, our dated phylogeny reveals that the two major clades split ∼1.88Ma, which is earlier than in previously published phylogenies. Our new data reveal that most Philippine macaque lineages diverged from the Borneo stock within the last ∼0.06-0.43Ma. Finally, our study provides insight into successful sequencing of DNA

  3. Influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the atmospheric persistent organic pollutants observed at near sources and receptor site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs are bio-accumulative, toxic, and susceptible to long-range transport (LRT). This study is the first that comprehensively discusses the long-range atmospheric transport behavior of these five groups of POPs. The main goal is to investigate the atmospheric characteristics of these POPs at the biomass burning sites of Chiang Mai in Thailand, and Da Nang in Vietnam, as well as the influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in Taiwan. Biomass burning in Southeast Asia is usually carried to remove the residues of agricultural activities. The ambient air in Da Nang seems to be more seriously affected by the local biomass burnings than that in Chiang Mai. The elevated atmospheric brominated POP (PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs) concentrations in Da Nang were attributed to the biomass burning and viewed as mostly unrelated to the local use of brominated flame retardants. In the spring of 2010, the mean atmospheric concentrations in LABS during the first and second Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) were 0.00428 and 0.00232 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 for PCDD/Fs, 0.000311 and 0.000282 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 for PCBs, 0.000379 and 0.000449 pg TEQ Nm-3 for total PBDD/Fs, 0.0208 and 0.0163 pg Nm-3 for total PBBs, and 109 and 18.2 pg Nm-3 for total PBDEs, respectively. These values represent the above concentrations due to the Southeast Asian biomass burnings. The affected atmospheric POP concentrations at the LABS were still at least one order lower than those in other atmospheric environments, except for the PBDE concentrations during the first IOP (109 pg Nm-3), which was surprisingly higher than those in Taiwanese metal complex areas (93.9 pg Nm-3) and urban areas (34.7 pg Nm-3). Atmospheric POP concentrations do not seem to dramatically decrease during long-range transport, and the reasons for this need to be further investigated.

  4. Borneo and Indochina are major evolutionary hotspots for Southeast Asian biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Stelbrink, Björn; Morley, Robert J; Hall, Robert; Carvalho, Gary R; Cannon, Charles H; van den Bergh, Gerrit; Meijaard, Erik; Metcalfe, Ian; Boitani, Luigi; Maiorano, Luigi; Shoup, Robert; von Rintelen, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia harbors extraordinary species richness and in its entirety comprises four of the Earth's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Here, we examine the assembly of the SE Asian biota through time and space. We conduct meta-analyses of geological, climatic, and biological (including 61 phylogenetic) data sets to test which areas have been the sources of long-term biological diversity in SE Asia, particularly in the pre-Miocene, Miocene, and Plio-Pleistocene, and whether the respective biota have been dominated by in situ diversification, immigration and/or emigration, or equilibrium dynamics. We identify Borneo and Indochina, in particular, as major "evolutionary hotspots" for a diverse range of fauna and flora. Although most of the region's biodiversity is a result of both the accumulation of immigrants and in situ diversification, within-area diversification and subsequent emigration have been the predominant signals characterizing Indochina and Borneo's biota since at least the early Miocene. In contrast, colonization events are comparatively rare from younger volcanically active emergent islands such as Java, which show increased levels of immigration events. Few dispersal events were observed across the major biogeographic barrier of Wallace's Line. Accelerated efforts to conserve Borneo's flora and fauna in particular, currently housing the highest levels of SE Asian plant and mammal species richness, are critically required. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Deciphering Corporate Governance and Environmental Commitments among Southeast Asian Transnationals: Uptake of Sustainability Certification

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    Jean-Marc Roda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting tropical forest sustainability among corporate players is a major challenge. Many tools have been developed, but without much success. Southeast Asia has become a laboratory of globalization processes, where the development and success of agribusiness transnationals raises questions about their commitment to environmental concerns. An abundance of literature discusses what determines the behavior of Asian corporations, with a particular emphasis on cultural factors. Our hypothesis is that financial factors, such as ownership structure, may also have a fundamental role. We analyzed the audited accounts of four major Asian agribusiness transnationals. Using network analysis, we deciphered how the 931 companies relate to each other and determine the behavior of the transnationals to which they belong. We compared various metrics with the environmental commitment of these transnationals. We found that ownership structures reflect differences in flexibility, control and transaction costs, but not in ethnicities. Capital and its control, ownership structure, and flexibility explain 97% of the environmental behavior. It means that existing market-based tools to promote environmental sustainability do not engage transnationals at the scale where most of their behavior is determined. For the first time, the inner mechanisms of corporate governance are unraveled in agricultural and forest sustainability. New implications such as the convergence of environmental sustainability with family business sustainability emerged.

  6. Carbon emissions from Southeast Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedasa, Lahiru S; Sloan, Sean; Page, Susan E; Clements, Gopalasamy R; Lupascu, Massimo; Evans, Theodore A

    2018-06-01

    Carbon emissions from drained peatlands converted to agriculture in Southeast Asia (i.e. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo) are globally significant and increasing. Here, we map the growth of Southeast Asian peatland agriculture and estimate CO 2 emissions due to peat drainage in relation to official land-use plans with a focus on the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) related Indonesian moratorium on granting new concession licenses for industrial agriculture and logging. We find that, prior to 2010, 35% of Southeast Asian peatlands had been converted to agriculture, principally by smallholder farmers (15% of original peat extent) and industrial oil palm plantations (14%). These conversions resulted in 1.46-6.43 GtCO 2 of emissions between 1990 and 2010. This legacy of historical clearances on deep peat areas will contribute 51% (4.43-11.45 GtCO 2 ) of projected peatland CO 2 emissions over the period 2010-2130. In Indonesia, which hosts most of the region's peatland and where concession maps are publicly available, 70% of peatland conversion to agriculture occurred outside of known concessions for industrial plantation development, with smallholders accounting for 60% and industrial oil palm accounting for 34%. Of the remaining Indonesian peatswamp forest (PSF), 45% is not protected, and its conversion would amount to CO 2 emissions equivalent to 0.7-2.3% (5.14-14.93 Gt) of global fossil fuel and cement emissions released between 1990-2010. Of the peatland extent included in the moratorium, 48% was no longer forested, and of the PSF included 40-48% is likely to be affected by drainage impacts from agricultural areas and will emit CO 2 over time. We suggest that recent legislation and policy in Indonesia could provide a means of meaningful emission reductions if focused on revised land-use planning, PSF conservation both inside and outside agricultural concessions, and the development of agricultural practices based on

  7. Carbon sequestration in Southeast Asian tropical peatlands over the Holocene period: large-scale hydrological controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommain, R.; Couwenberg, J.; Cobb, A.; Gandois, L.; Kai, F.; Su'ut, N.; Abu Salim, K.; Harvey, C. F.; Glaser, P. H.; Joosten, H.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical peatlands are recognized as a significant sink of carbon dioxide and an important source of methane. Low latitude peatlands contain an estimated pool of 90 Pg C, of which ca. 70 Pg C is stored in Southeast Asian peatlands. However, the Holocene development of this carbon reservoir is poorly established. Here we provide a synthesis of carbon uptake rates by tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia across millennial timescales for the past 11,000 years. Our reconstruction of the carbon accumulation history for Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia is based on a synthesis of radiocarbon dated peat profiles, modeling of peatland extent, and a new carbon accumulation record from Brunei (NW-Borneo). During the early Holocene the first peatlands formed in southern Borneo under the influence of a strong monsoon and rapid rise in sea-level. The carbon accumulation rate (CAR) in these peatlands was on average 60 g C m-2 yr-1 at this time. Peatlands started to spread across the coastal lowlands of Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia after 8000 cal BP only when the rate of rising sea-level decreased. The major phase of coastal peatland initiation lasted from 7000 to 4000 cal BP. This period was marked by a Holocene precipitation maximum, suppressed El Niño activity, and the Holocene maximum in sea-level on the Sunda Shelf. The mean CAR of coastal peatlands at this time was 80 g C m-2 yr-1, with a Holocene peak of ~100 g C m-2 yr-1 from 4900 to 4500 cal BP. Significantly, atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured in the Taylor Dome Antarctic ice core indicate a plateau during this period of otherwise rising CO2 concentrations. During the Late Holocene CAR declined both in coastal peatlands (ca. 70 g C m-2 yr-1) and in southern Borneo (ca. 20 g C m-2 yr-1) in response to falling sea-levels and increased El Niño frequency and intensity. In fact, several peatlands in southern Borneo have stopped accumulating peat-carbon under higher El Niño activity. These results

  8. Depositor Discipline and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence From the South-East Asian Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kabir Hassan; M. Ershad Hussain

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether the risk-taking behavior of commercial banks in five countries of South-East Asia changed after the Asian Crises of 1997. The paper utilizes the framework created by Gruben et al (1997, 1998, and 2003). It also examines the connection between the risk-taking behavior and depositor discipline of these banks after the Asian Crises of 1997. Based on bank level data from the Bank Scope, 2005 CD, he paper presents evidence that the state of depositor discipline is very ...

  9. Group Composition of Cooperative Learning: Does Heterogeneous Grouping Work in Asian Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong; Gillies, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Constructing an appropriate group is important to teamwork success. Although, heterogeneous grouping is widely recommended in Western countries, this method of grouping is questioned in Asian classrooms because Asian and Western students have different cultures of learning. Unfortunately, this issue has not been addressed in any research to date.…

  10. Reflections on attitudes, experiences, and vulnerability of intimate partner violence among Southeast Asian college women living in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Buseh, Aaron; Arunothong, Wachiraporn

    2015-12-01

    To provide culturally sensitive intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs for ethnic groups, a basic foundational understanding of Southeast Asian (SEA) women living in the United States is vital. The purpose of this study was to describe SEA college women's perceptions of IPV and how the women recognize their vulnerability to such violent situations. Qualitative methods using focus group discussions were employed to elicit participants' perceptions. Participants included 18 SEA college women, ages 18-34 (Mean=22; SD=7.22). Transcriptions were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Five themes emerged: recognition of IPV; perception of individual vulnerability to IPV; experience and responses to IPV; help seeking and support system; and strategies used for prevention of IPV. Findings yielded an understanding of intertwined issues of cultural norms associated with IPV, social and economic disparities, and challenges for IPV prevention in SEA communities. Culturally sensitive prevention programs will be more effective by reforming cultural values, while at the same time promoting non-violent relationships and increasing access to services. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic re...

  12. Coexistence of Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and beta-thalassemia: a molecular and hematological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Singsanan, Sanita; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan

    2007-05-01

    We describe hematological and molecular characterization of a Thai female who had Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) associated with beta+-thalassemia trait. The proband had mild microcytosis with Hb 12.9 g/dl, Hct 35.8%, MCV 74.4 fl, MCH 26.8 pg, MCHC 36.0 g/dl, and elevated Hb A2 (5.6%), characteristics of beta-thalassemia trait. Peripheral blood film examination revealed prominent ovalocytosis. However, a one-tube osmotic fragility (OF) test commonly used for thalassemia screening was negative and a normal OF curve was observed. Further polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses identified the beta(-28A-G) mutation in the beta-globin gene and a 27 bp deletion in erythrocyte band 3 protein gene, indicating a genetically compound heterozygote. Hematological data of the proband was comparatively presented with those of eight female and 15 male carriers of pure beta-thalassemia with the same mutation. The finding demonstrates that although the association of the SAO and beta-thalassemia does not produce a more severe clinical picture, this could lead to a mis-screening of beta-thalassemia using an OF test as a primary screening test. Additional blood film examination followed by PCR could help in the detection of this unusual genetic interaction in the region. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pathogenic waterborne free-living amoebae: An update from selected Southeast Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Mahboob, Tooba; Mong, Brandon G. J.; Jaturas, Narong; Richard, Reena Leeba; Tian-Chye, Tan; Phimphila, Anusorn; Mahaphonh, Panomphanh; Aye, Kyaw Nyein; Aung, Wai Lynn; Chuah, Joon; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yasiri, Atipat; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2017-01-01

    Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Each water sample was filtered and cultured onto non-nutrient agar seeded with live suspension of Escherichia coli and incubated at room temperature. Morphological identification was conducted for both trophozoites and cysts via microscopic stains (Giemsa and immunofluorescence). The presence of Naegleria-like structures was the most frequently encountered in both treated and untreated water samples, followed by Acanthamoeba-like and Vermamoeba-like features. To identify the pathogenic isolates, species-specific primer sets were applied for molecular identification of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba. The pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba lenticulata and A. triangularis were detected from untreated water samples, while Vermamoeba vermiformis was found in both treated and untreated water samples. Our results suggested that poor water quality as well as inadequate maintenance and treatment might be the cause of this alarming problem since chlorine disinfection is ineffective in eradicating these amoebas in treated water samples. Regular monitoring and examination of water qualities are necessary in order to control the growth, hence, further preventing the widespread of FLA infections among the public. PMID:28212409

  14. Nursing qualification and workforce for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Economic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Nursalam, N; Kurniati, Anna; Gunawan, Joko

    2018-01-23

    International nurse migration among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries has the potential to increase the effectiveness of health services and access for the ASEAN Economic Community. Providing equivalent nursing qualifications and licensure standards and increasing the availability of the nursing workforce has become a challenge for ASEAN members. The purpose of this study is: 1) to comparatively analyze information on nursing licensing examinations (NLE) across ASEAN countries; and 2) to present information on the human resources required for a successful nursing workforce. This study reviews all documents published on the subject within the ASEAN Economic Community. NLE systems exist in all ASEAN Member States (AMSs)s except Brunei, Vietnam, and Lao PDR. Nursing education systems also vary across ASEAN countries. Language as a means of general communication and nursing examinations also differs. The availability of a qualified health workforce at the regional level is above the threshold in some areas. However, at the national level, Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, and Lao PDR fall below the threshold. Professional licensure requirements differ among ASEAN nurses as a part of the process to become a qualified nurse in host and source countries. Mutual Recognition Agreements on nursing services should address the differences in NLE requirements as well as the availability of nurses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Variable number of tandem repeats of 9 Plasmodium vivax genes among Southeast Asian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Yun, Seung-Gyu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Yang; Han, Jin-Hee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Lim, Chae-Seung; Cao, Jun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Cui, Liwang; Han, Eun-Taek

    2017-06-01

    The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P. vivax genes (12.6%) were found. Of these, 9 VNTR fragments from 8 P. vivax genes were used for PCR amplification and sequence analysis to examine the genetic diversity among 134 isolates from four Southeast Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Myanmar) with different malaria endemicity. We confirmed the existence of extensive polymorphism of VNTR fragments in field isolates. This detection provides several suitable markers for analysis of the molecular epidemiology of P. vivax field isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

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    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  17. Determinants of economic freedom of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation economic community

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    Karen Debbie C. Magallon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the determinants of the well-being of people across the world is economic freedom. It is the freedom to choose the ways to produce, sell, and use your private resources, while respecting rights of the other to practice the same. The primordial intention of the study was to investigate the factors affecting economic freedom in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Economic Community. Human Development Index (HDI, Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI and GDP per capita are dimensions considered to characterize the level of a country’s economic freedom. Trend performance of AEC in these indexes was also determined. The empirical estimate was based on a panel dataset covering 6 member-countries of the ASEAN Economic Community from 2001 to 2010. The model was estimated through Ordinary Least Squares (OLS multiple linear regression analysis. For the trend performance of the indexes, Singapore found to have a remarkable performance. The empirical result strongly suggests that CPI and GDP per capita foster economic freedom. For every 1% decrease in CPI would lead to an increase in economic freedom index by.121 % and for every 1% increase in GDP per capita, EFI will increase by .019%.

  18. Southeast Asian refugee children: a school-based mental health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patricia G; Rossetti, Jeanette; Burns, Kenneth R; Popovich, Judith

    2005-09-01

    One particular focus of refugee studies in the United States has been the violence experience of Southeast Asian (S.E.A.) refugee children and its impact on mental health and school adaptation. Although virtually all researchers have found that the children have high rates of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder, findings concerning successful school adaptation have been inconclusive. Even so, concern has been generated on how to best meet the children's mental health needs. The purpose of our study was to provide an eight-week school-based program that was designed to reduce depression symptoms of S.E.A. refugee children. Specifically, this collaborative program addressed refugee adaptation issues, children's culture and the development of coping skills. All of the children were screened for depression using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Analysis of CDI data revealed that children's depression scores had a significant decrease between screening times 1 (approximately one month before the intervention) and 2 (fourth week of the intervention), 1 and 3 (eighth week of the intervention) and 1 and 4 (one month following the intervention). Globally, culturally sensitive mental health school-based programs may be an appropriate intervention to assist immigrant and refugee children in making a successful adaptation to host countries.

  19. Status of metal levels and their potential sources of contamination in Southeast Asian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the concentration and status of metal contaminants in four major Southeast Asian river systems, water were collected from the Tonle Sap-Bassac Rivers (Cambodia), Citarum River (Indonesia), lower Chao Phraya River (Thailand), and Saigon River (Vietnam) in both dry and wet seasons. The target elements were Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb and the concentrations exceeded the background metal concentrations by 1- to 88-fold. This distinctly indicates enrichment by human urban area activities. The results of a normalization technique used to distinguish natural from enriched metal concentrations confirmed contamination by Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Cluster analysis revealed the probable source of metals contamination in most sampling sites on all rivers studied to be anthropogenic, including industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Stable lead isotopes analyses applied to track the sources and pathways of anthropogenic lead furthermore confirmed that anthropogenic sources of metal contaminated these rivers. Discharges of wastewater from both industrial and household activities were major contributors of Pb into the rivers. Non-point sources, especially road runoff and street dust, also contributed contamination from Pb and other metals.

  20. Volatility Forecasting Models and Market Co-Integration: A Study on South-East Asian Markets

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    Erie Febrian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatility forecasting is an imperative research field in financial markets and crucial component in most financial decisions. Nevertheless, which model should be used to assess volatility remains a complex issue as different volatility models result in different volatility approximations. The concern becomes more complicated when one tries to use the forecasting for asset distribution and risk management purposes in the linked regional markets. This paper aims at observing the effectiveness of the contending models of statistical and econometric volatility forecasting in the three South-east Asian prominent capital markets, i.e. STI, KLSE, and JKSE. In this paper, we evaluate eleven different models based on two classes of evaluation measures, i.e. symmetric and asymmetric error statistics, following Kumar's (2006 framework. We employ 10-year data as in sample and 6-month data as out of sample to construct and test the models, consecutively. The resulting superior methods, which are selected based on the out of sample forecasts and some evaluation measures in the respective markets, are then used to assess the markets cointegration. We find that the best volatility forecasting models for JKSE, KLSE, and STI are GARCH (2,1, GARCH(3,1, and GARCH (1,1, respectively. We also find that international portfolio investors cannot benefit from diversification among these three equity markets as they are cointegrated.

  1. South China, East Vietnam or West Philippine? Comparative Framing Analysis of Regional News Coverage of Southeast Asian Sea Disputes

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    Freeman Bradley C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, the world paid scant attention to the sporadic skirmishes and sovereignty squabbles in what is known by many as the South China Sea. However, in the past few years, there have been several noteworthy happenings that have drawn the attention of media outlets, including a Chinese oil rig placement near Vietnam, a Philippineinternational court case, a U.S.–ASEAN summit, and Chinese reclamation projects. Many of the countries involved are members of the regional grouping known as ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This study examined Asean’s English-language press, looking at the amount, patterns, and tone of coverage given to regional maritime disputes. Results indicate that use of the term ‘South China Sea’ prevails in all countries except Vietnam. The Asean newspapers have devoted a consistent and substantial amount of space to covering the topic. Indonesia’s Jakarta Post tended to use neutral or positive language when mentioning Asean and the US, while China saw more negative associations in the coverage. Further research is suggested, taking into account mass communication theories and perspectives.

  2. When Indian crabs were not yet Asian - biogeographic evidence for Eocene proximity of India and Southeast Asia

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    Klaus Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The faunal and floral relationship of northward-drifting India with its neighboring continents is of general biogeographic interest as an important driver of regional biodiversity. However, direct biogeographic connectivity of India and Southeast Asia during the Cenozoic remains largely unexplored. We investigate timing, direction and mechanisms of faunal exchange between India and Southeast Asia, based on a molecular phylogeny, molecular clock-derived time estimates and biogeographic reconstructions of the Asian freshwater crab family Gecarcinucidae. Results Although the Gecarcinucidae are not an element of an ancient Gondwana fauna, their subfamily Gecarcinucinae, and probably also the Liotelphusinae, evolved on the Indian Subcontinent and subsequently dispersed to Southeast Asia. Estimated by a model testing approach, this dispersal event took place during the Middle Eocene, and thus before the final collision of India and the Tibet-part of Eurasia. Conclusions We postulate that the India and Southeast Asia were close enough for exchange of freshwater organisms during the Middle Eocene, before the final Indian-Eurasian collision. Our data support geological models that assume the Indian plate having tracked along Southeast Asia during its move northwards.

  3. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. © 2016 APJPH.

  4. Association of Tissue-Specific DNA Methylation Alterations with α-Thalassemia Southeast Asian Deletion

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    Tanapat Pangeson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the wild-type allele, DNA methylation levels of 10 consecutive CpG sites adjacent to the upstream 5′-breakpoint of α-thalassemia Southeast Asian (SEA deletion are not different between placenta and leukocytes. However, no previous study has reported the map of DNA methylation in the SEA allele. This report aims to show that the SEA mutation is associated with DNA methylation changes, resulting in differential methylation between placenta and leukocytes. Methylation-sensitive high-resolution analysis was used to compare DNA methylation among placenta, leukocytes, and unmethylated control DNA. The result indicates that the DNA methylation between placenta and leukocyte DNA is different and shows that the CpG status of both is not fully unmethylated. Mapping of individual CpG sites was performed by targeted bisulfite sequencing. The DNA methylation level of the 10 consecutive CpG sites was different between placenta and leukocyte DNA. When the 10th CpG of the mutation allele was considered as a hallmark for comparing DNA methylation level, it was totally different from the unmethylated 10th CpG of the wild-type allele. Finally, the distinct DNA methylation patterns between both DNA were extracted. In total, 24 patterns were found in leukocyte samples and 9 patterns were found in placenta samples. This report shows that the large deletion is associated with DNA methylation change. In further studies for clinical application, the distinct DNA methylation pattern might be a potential marker for detecting cell-free fetal DNA.

  5. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  6. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

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    B. Langford

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the OP3 field study of rainforest atmospheric chemistry, above-canopy fluxes of isoprene, monoterpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds were made by virtual disjunct eddy covariance from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest in Malaysia. Approximately 500 hours of flux data were collected over 48 days in April–May and June–July 2008. Isoprene was the dominant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from the forest, accounting for 80% (as carbon of the measured emission of reactive carbon fluxes. Total monoterpene emissions accounted for 18% of the measured reactive carbon flux. There was no evidence for nocturnal monoterpene emissions and during the day their flux rate was dependent on both light and temperature. The oxygenated compounds, including methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde, contributed less than 2% of the total measured reactive carbon flux. The sum of the VOC fluxes measured represents a 0.4% loss of daytime assimilated carbon by the canopy, but atmospheric chemistry box modelling suggests that most (90% of this reactive carbon is returned back to the canopy by wet and dry deposition following chemical transformation. The emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes, normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR, were 1.6 mg m−2 h−1 and 0.46mg m−2 h−1 respectively, which was 4 and 1.8 times lower respectively than the default value for tropical forests in the widely-used MEGAN model of biogenic VOC emissions. This highlights the need for more direct canopy-scale flux measurements of VOCs from the world's tropical forests.

  7. Refugees into Immigrants: Assessing the Adjustment of Southeast Asian Refugees in the U. S., 1975-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bruce Newbold

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Embodying a differential set of skills, refugees experience varying obstacles and reception upon entry into their host country. Starting in 1975, the U.S. received large numbers of refugees from Southeast Asia. Although these arrivals are no longer labeled as ‘refugees’, their initial immigration status raises interesting questions, including whether or not they match the attainment of those who arrived in the U.S. at the same time. Using the 1980 and 1990 Public Use Microdata Files (PUMS, this paper traces the adaptation of post-1975 Southeast Asians within the U.S. through the lens of segmented assimilation. Refugee flows are disaggregated into Sino-Vietnamese, Ethnic-Vietnamese, Hmong, Cambodians, and Laotian identities and contrasted to Chinese immigrants.

  8. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L

    2010-07-01

    In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay), gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health), and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services). The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women. Sexual harassment in the workplace and challenges in

  9. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Denise L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a subsequent pilot study of focus groups with beer promoters to review this agenda. Methods Participants of the research meeting representing beer promoters, academics, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, government and the beer industry from Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam collaborated in the development of three key research themes. The themes were verified in focus group discussions with beer promoters organized by local research partners in all four countries. The focus group participants were asked what they felt were the key sexual and reproductive health issues facing them in a non-directive and unstructured manner, and then asked to comment more specifically on the research priorities developed at the meeting. The focus groups were recorded digitally, transcribed, and translated into English. The data were analyzed by coding for common themes and then developing matrices to compare themes between groups. Results The participants of the meeting identified three key research themes: occupational health (including harassment and violence, working conditions, and fair pay, gender and social norms (focusing on the impact of power relations between the genders on women's health, and reproductive health (knowledge and access to reproductive health care services. The participants in the focus groups in all four countries agreed that these were key priorities for them, though the emphasis on the most important issues varied between groups of women

  10. Refugees into Immigrants: Assessing the Adjustment of Southeast Asian Refugees in the U. S., 1975-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbold, K. Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishEmbodying a differential set of skills, refugees experience varying obstaclesand reception upon entry into their host country. Starting in 1975, the U.S. received large numbers ofrefugees from Southeast Asia. Although these arrivals are no longer labeled as 'refugees', theirinitial immigration status raises interesting questions, including whether or not they match theattainment of those who arrived in the U.S. at the same time. Using the 1980 and 1990 Public UseMicrodata Files (PUMS, this paper traces the adaptation of post-1975 Southeast Asians within the U.S.through the lens of segmented assimilation. Refugee flows are disaggregated into Sino-Vietnamese,Ethnic-Vietnamese, Hmong, Cambodians, and Laotian identities and contrasted to Chineseimmigrants.FrenchPrésentant des compétences différentes, les réfugiés vivent des expériences et des accueils différents à leur arrivée dans leur pays hôte. Depuis 1975, les Etats-Unis ont reçu un grand nombre de réfugiés de l'Asie du Sud-Est. Bien que ces nouveaux arrivants ne soient plus étiquetés de " réfugiés ", leur statut d'immigrant soulève tout de même quelques questions intéressantes, à savoir s'ils obtiennent le même succès que ceux qui sont arrivés aux Etats-Unis au même moment. Ce document retrace, au moyen des fichiers de microdonnées à grande diffusion (FMGD de 1980 et de 1990, l'adaptation des immigrants de l'Asie du Sud-Est arrivés aux Etats-Unis après 1975 du point de vue de l'assimilation segmentée. Les groupes de courants de réfugiés sont divisés en Sino-vietnamiens, Vietnamiens ethniques, Hmong, Cambodgiens et Laotiens et comparés aux immigrants chinois.

  11. A Comparison of the Long Term Interdependence of Southeast Asian Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisul Islam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the equity market crisis contagion in major Asian economic markets. A comparative assessment of Asian markets during the Asian Financial Crisis and Global Financial crisis may clearly identify the changing nature of long term integration of major Asian markets. The selection criteria of specific Asian markets of different peripheries depend particularly on the roles and structure of these markets. The impact of the global financial contagion and the lingering financial linkage in the aftermath of crisis will explain the reaction of the majority of Asian markets to global linkage. While majority of the studies focused on dynamic short term association in European and MENA contagions in the post global financial crisis period; after the global financial crisis, attention paid to long term Asian contagion adds new perspective to hitherto disorganized theories.

  12. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fuh Yong, E-mail: fuhyong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Fuqiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Chen, John Ju [Department of Cancer Informatics, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Chiew Har [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Puay Hoon [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation.

  13. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fuh Yong; Wang, Fuqiang; Chen, John Ju; Tan, Chiew Har; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation

  14. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN: overview and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF. Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional

  15. Neglected tropical diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Strych, Ulrich; Chang, Li-Yen; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goodenow, Maureen M; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-04-01

    The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTDs; each helminthiasis is associated with approximately 100 million infections in the region. In addition, more than 10 million people suffer from either liver or intestinal fluke infections, as well as schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF). Intestinal protozoan infections are widespread, while leishmaniasis has emerged in Thailand, and zoonotic malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) causes severe morbidity in Malaysia. Melioidosis has emerged as an important bacterial NTD, as have selected rickettsial infections, and leptospirosis. Leprosy, yaws, and trachoma are still endemic in focal areas. Almost 70 million cases of dengue fever occur annually in ASEAN countries, such that this arboviral infection is now one of the most common and economically important NTDs in the region. A number of other arboviral and zoonotic viral infections have also emerged, including Japanese encephalitis; tick-borne viral infections; Nipah virus, a zoonosis present in fruit bats; and enterovirus 71 infection. There are urgent needs to expand surveillance activities in ASEAN countries, as well as to ensure mass drug administration is provided to populations at risk for intestinal helminth and fluke infections, LF, trachoma, and yaws. An ASEAN Network for Drugs, Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Traditional Medicines

  16. Confidence- and security-building in South-East Asia. Working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappa, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion in the Working Group II focused on the following subjects: the establishment of a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality in South-East Asia; the establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone in South-East Asia; the Cambodian conflict; regional co-operation; military security confidence-building measures

  17. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Why Immigrants choose to become self-employed? : A Qualitative study of South and Southeast Asian Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Umea City

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnya, Utsav; Parajuli, Nipesh

    2012-01-01

    After going through the literature on entrepreneurship we found that very little studies have been done whether culture and family business traditions influence the decisions of entrepreneurship. Most people from the South and Southeast Asia had cultural and family business backgrounds. The purpose of our study is to investigate if culture and family business traditions of South andSoutheast Asian immigrants affect their decision to become self-employed and if so how. This will enhance the un...

  18. Oral and Hand Hygiene Behaviour and Risk Factors among In-School Adolescents in Four Southeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oral and hand hygiene behaviour and risk factors among 13 to 15 year-old in-school adolescents in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 13,824 of school children aged 13 to 15 years in India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Results indicate that overall, 22.4% of school children reported sub-optimal oral hygiene (Southeast Asian countries found sub-optimal hygiene behaviour. Several determinants of sub-optimal hygiene behaviour were identified that can inform programmes in order to improve oral and hand hygiene behaviour of this adolescent population.

  19. Simulation of the Onset of the Southeast Asian Monsoon during 1997 and 1998: The Impact of Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yansen; Tao, W.-K.; Lau, K.-M.; Wetzel, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    The onset of the southeast Asian monsoon during 1997 and 1998 was simulated by coupling a mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) and a detailed, land surface model, PLACE (the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange). The rainfall results from the simulations were compared with observed satellite data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). The control simulation with the PLACE land surface model and variable sea surface temperature captured the basic signatures of the monsoon onset processes and associated rainfall statistics. Sensitivity tests indicated that simulations were sigmficantly improved by including the PLACE land surface model. The mechanism by which the land surface processes affect the moisture transport and the convection during the onset of the southeast Asian monsoon were analyzed. The results indicated that land surface processes played an important role in modifying the low-level wind field over two major branches of the circulation: the southwest low-level flow over the Indo-china peninsula and the northern, cold frontal intrusion from southern China. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes modified the low-level temperature distribution and gradient, and therefore the low-level wind due to the thermal wind effect. The more realistic forcing of the sensible and latent heat fluxes from the detailed, land surface model improved the low-level wind simulation apd associated moisture transport and convection.

  20. Fertility, Menstrual Characteristics, and Contraceptive Practices among White, Black, and Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared fertility and menstrual characteristics and contraceptive practices of adolescents in maternal and infant care program. Hmong subjects were more likely to have live birth; Asians were usually married while Whites and Blacks were not. Asians were less likely to have used contraceptives and Hmongs were less likely to choose contraception…

  1. Spinning droplets: non-first generation East and Southeast Asian Australian poets and the discourse of water

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Rosalind Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Poetry written by diasporic Asian groups in Australia has been gaining increasing attention, especially with the 2013 release of Contemporary Asian Australian Poets edited by Adam Aitken, Kim Cheng Boey and Michelle Cahill, the first anthology of this kind of work. This thesis aims to be the first instance of sustained critical attention paid to many of the poets included in this anthology, including Adam Aitken, Ivy Alvarez, Lachlan Brown, Lily Chan, Bella Li, Debbie Lim, Miriam Wei Wei Lo, ...

  2. Health literacy as the missing link in the provision of immigrant health care: A qualitative study of Southeast Asian immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2016-02-01

    Language and communication barrier are main contributors to poor health outcomes and improper use of health care among immigrants. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand specific language and communication problems experiences by Southeast Asian immigrant women in Taiwan. This qualitative study used focus groups and in-depth interviews to uncover the experiences of immigrant women regarding their access to and utilization of health care in Taiwan. Eight focus groups were conducted with 62 Southeast Asian immigrant women and 23 individual in-depth interviews with a wide range of stakeholders who had diverse background and intimate knowledge of immigrant-relating health care issues were performed. Directed content analysis was applied and identified four major themes concerning conditions that influenced immigrant women's use of health information and services: (1) gaining access to health information, (2) navigating in health care delivery system, (3) interactions during health care encounters, and (4) capability of using health information and services. Findings from this study suggest that, without basic language and literate skills, the majority of immigrant women had inadequate health literacy to manage health information and navigate the Taiwan health care system. Interpersonal communication gap between immigrant women and health care providers exists because of lack of health literacy in addition al language and cultural barriers. With limited language and health literacy skills, immigrant women face numerous challenges in navigating the health care system, interacting with health care providers, and gaining access to proper health care. Future efforts are necessary to enhance individual's health literacy and establish health literate environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Establishing multiple omics baselines for three Southeast Asian populations in the Singapore Integrative Omics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Woei-Yuh; Tantoso, Erwin; Begum, Husna; Zhou, Lihan; Zou, Ruiyang; He, Cheng; Chan, Sze Ling; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Wong, Lai-Ping; Xu, Wenting; Moong, Don Kyin Nwe; Lim, Yenly; Li, Bowen; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Peterson, Trevor A; Bielawny, Tomasz; Meikle, Peter J; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Lim, Wei-Yen; Luo, Ma; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Brunham, Liam R; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Too, Heng Phon; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus R; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2017-09-21

    The Singapore Integrative Omics Study provides valuable insights on establishing population reference measurement in 364 Chinese, Malay, and Indian individuals. These measurements include > 2.5 millions genetic variants, 21,649 transcripts expression, 282 lipid species quantification, and 284 clinical, lifestyle, and dietary variables. This concept paper introduces the depth of the data resource, and investigates the extent of ethnic variation at these omics and non-omics biomarkers. It is evident that there are specific biomarkers in each of these platforms to differentiate between the ethnicities, and intra-population analyses suggest that Chinese and Indians are the most biologically homogeneous and heterogeneous, respectively, of the three groups. Consistent patterns of correlations between lipid species also suggest the possibility of lipid tagging to simplify future lipidomics assays. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study is expected to allow the characterization of intra-omic and inter-omic correlations within and across all three ethnic groups through a systems biology approach.The Singapore Genome Variation projects characterized the genetics of Singapore's Chinese, Malay, and Indian populations. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study introduced here goes further in providing multi-omic measurements in individuals from these populations, including genetic, transcriptome, lipidome, and lifestyle data, and will facilitate the study of common diseases in Asian communities.

  4. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…

  5. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  6. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  7. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  8. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  9. Activism in Southeast Asian Ethnomusicology: Empowering Youths to Revitalize Traditions and Bridge Cultural Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooi Beng Tan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a short overview of the strategies and activities in applied ethnomusicology in Southeast Asia, this paper focuses on the development of a socially engaged approach to empower young people in Malaysia to address two concerns: revitalizing traditions and bridging cultural barriers in a multiethnic and multireligious society where tensions often occur. 

  10. Petroleum systems in rift basins – a collective approach in South-east Asian basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Sumner, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper synthesizes some of the main conclusions reached in a recent regional review of the Tertiary basins of Southeast Asia, carried out by Shell. Four distinctive types of petroleum systems, correlating with the four main stages of basin evolution (early to late syn-rift and early to late

  11. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  12. Simulating growth dynamics in a South-East Asian rainforest threatened by recruitment shortage and tree harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, P. [Centre for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, D-34109 Kassel (Germany); Huth, A. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Ecological Modelling, P.O. Box 500 136, D-04301 Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that the future recruitment in South-East Asian dipterocarp trees species depending on mast-fruiting events might be endangered by climate change or enhanced seed predation in forest fragments. Especially in combination with the ongoing tree harvesting in this region the recruitment threat imposes a severe danger on the species richness and forest structure of the whole area. We here assess with the process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 the impacts of common tree-logging strategies in those recruitment endangered forests. FORMIND2.0 is based on the calculations of the carbon balance of individual trees belonging to 13 different plant functional types. Even single logging events in those rainforests threatened by a lack of recruitment led to shifts in the abundances of species, to species loss, and to forest decline and dieback. The results show that current logging practices in South-East Asia seriously overuse the forests especially in the light of changing climate conditions.

  13. Evaluation of the URIT-2900 automated hematology analyzer for screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Pansuwan, Anupong; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of the URIT-2900 Hematology Analyzer for screening of hemoglobinopathies commonly found in Southeast Asian populations was examined. Appropriate cut-off values of MCV and MCH for screening of α(0) and β thalassemias were derived from the receiver operator characteristic curve conducted initially on 279 subjects with various thalassemia genotypes. Validation was performed additionally in a cohort of another unrelated 313 subjects. The best cut off values of MCV and MCH were found to be 78fL and 27pg, respectively. Using these cut off values in combination with the dichlorophenolindophenol test in screening of α(0) thalassemia, β thalassemia and Hb E in a cohort study revealed 100% sensitivity, 79.6% specificity, 80.0% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. The combined blood cell counting using the URIT-2900 Automated Hematology Analyzer and dichlorophenolindophenol test is suitable for population screening of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: implications for mantle dynamics in the southeast Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, H.; Fower, M.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, X.B.; Nguyen, T.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Cenozoic basalts in Indo-China are part of a regional melting episode along the rifted Eurasian margin. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts are used to place constraints on the extent of lithospheric and asthenosphere contributions to the melts and possible mantle dynamic implications. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb isotopic ratios of the basalts reflect minimal crustal wall rock reaction, and variable enrichment in EM1 and EM2 of a 208 Pb-rich MORB-like source. Some, but not all, of this variation corresponds to the age of lithospheric sector penetrated. Basalts erupted through a cratonic, central sector (e.g. at Quang Ngai, Pleiku, Song Cau, Kong Plong, and Buon Ma Thuot) and off-cratonic, southwest sector (e.g. Phuoc Long) resemble those of EM2-rich basalts from southern and southeaster China and the South China Sea. Basalts from an off-cratonic, southeast sector (e.g. from Dalat, Xuan Loc, and the offshore Ile des Cendres-Phu Cuy complex) reflect mixing between a low- 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, high- 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, EM1-like component, and resemble basalts from northwest Taiwan, eastern and northeastern China, and parts of the Japan Sea. While EM2 tends to characterise lithospheric sectors, presence of EM1 in off-cratonic rather than cratonic basalts implies an asthenosphere rather than lithospheric source. Pervasive presence of EM1 in southeast Asian and marginal basin asthenosphere corresponds with thermally-anomalous mantle and may involve delaminated cratonic substrate entrained by mobile, extruded asthenosphere. (authors)

  15. Enhancing School Asthma Action Plans: Qualitative Results from Southeast Minnesota Beacon Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Jason S.; Textor, Lauren; Knoebel, Erin; McWilliams, Deborah; Aleman, Marty; Yawn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explores ways southeast Minnesota schools currently address asthma problems, identifies areas for improvement, and assesses the potential value of asthma action plans (AAPs) in schools. Methods: Focus groups were used to query stakeholder groups on asthma care in schools. Groups were held separately for elementary school…

  16. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  17. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  18. Ethnoregional social dramas of Southeast Asian in globalism: recasting cultural heritage for ethnic revivals

    OpenAIRE

    Matondang, Saiful Anwar; Giordano, Christian; Colombijn, Freek

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an interpretative symbolic analysis of present global phenomenon that gives rise ethnic culture as regional identity. With a multi-sited ethnography (Marcus, 1995 and 1998), this book is a sort of comparative ethnographies which sought the collective identities of the Melayu Baru or Neo-Malay and Chinese Peranakan or Nanyang in two cities of Southeast Asia. The Neo-Malay with Islam solidarity (Ummah) is attached to ethnoregional community, in contrast, the Chinese Nanyang or ...

  19. ‘A Bazaar in the Coliseum': Marketing Southeast Asian Handicrafts in New York, 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay reconstitutes the meaning and significance of places, objects and people associated with an unstudied pavilion displaying handicrafts at the Southeast Asia Rehabilitation and Trade Development Exhibit held in the New York Coliseum from 25 June to 29 June, 1956. It pays particular attention to the ways the importance assigned to the pavilion correlates with general features of Orientalism that Edward Said analyzed in his book of the same name. Following its publication in 1978, some American cultural historians changed their focus from Europe to the United States, and from the West’s relationship with the Middle East to its relationship with Asia. In this essay, I move the geography of their scholarship from Asia to Southeast Asia and place emphasis on Vietnam. Furthermore, I identify the use of local material and visual culture in U.S. State Department aid programs active in the region, within American Cold War imperatives. The ‘tent-like enclosure’ featured in the Coliseum aimed to display ‘oriental objects’ in an environment that was to appear natural and convey the spirit of the places where they were made; it was to have ‘the atmosphere of an oriental bazaar’. The objects consisted of handicrafts that renowned American industrial designer Russel Wright collected during a recent trip he made to Southeast Asia on behalf of the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration. The ICA contracted Wright to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a multi-year program to produce and export handicrafts from there to the United States. I examine how Wright’s activity in Southeast Asia and New York City, along with the purpose, appearance and location of the pavilion in the Coliseum, prompted Wright, the pavilion’s designers, American government officials and the press to consider it ‘oriental,’ and its contents antithetical to characteristics of contemporary American culture yet also well-suited to

  20. CRISIS, SOCIAL SECTOR AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN SOME SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhaya, Pundarik

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the social impact of the recent Asian Economic crisis, drawing on the results of studies in two countries: Singapore and Thailand. The economic crisis had interrupted three decades of steady growth that had been accompanied by remarkable progress in poverty reduction and a betterment of social indicators like health and education. In particular, this crisis is feared to have a large negative effect on household welfare. It is found that absolute poverty became more acute i...

  1. Biodiversity Conservation in Southeast Asian Timber Concessions: a Critical Evaluation of Policy Mechanisms and Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona A. Dennis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation is leading to a loss of economically productive timber concessions, as well as areas with important environmental or socio-cultural values. To counteract this threat in Southeast Asia, sustainable forest management (SFM practices are becoming increasingly important. We assess the tools and guidelines that have been developed to promote SFM and the progress that has been made in Southeast Asia toward better logging practices. We specifically focus on practices relevant to biodiversity issues. Various regional or national mechanisms now inform governments and the timber industry about methods to reduce the impact of production forestry on wildlife and the forest environment. However, so many guidelines have been produced that it has become difficult to judge which ones are most relevant. In addition, most guidelines are phrased in general terms and lack specific recommendations targeted to local conditions. These might be reasons for the generally slow adoption of SFM practices in the region, with only a few countries having incorporated the guidelines into national legislation. Malaysia, Indonesia, and Laos are among the frontrunners in this process. Overall there is progress, especially in the application of certification programs, the planning and management of high conservation value forests, the regulation and control of hunting, and silvicultural management. To reduce further forest loss, there is a need to accelerate the implementation of good forest management practices. We recommend specific roles for governments, the forestry industry, and nongovernmental organizations in further promoting the implementation of SFM practices for biodiversity conservation.

  2. Diversity and human perceptions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in Southeast Asian megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wan, Tao; Lee, Ping-Shin; Li, Zong-Xu; Chen, Xing; Wang, Yun-Yu; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    Urbanization requires the conversion of natural land cover to cover with human-constructed elements and is considered a major threat to biodiversity. Bee populations, globally, are under threat; however, the effect of rapid urban expansion in Southeast Asia on bee diversity has not been investigated. Given the pressing issues of bee conservation and urbanization in Southeast Asia, coupled with complex factors surrounding human-bee coexistence, we investigated bee diversity and human perceptions of bees in four megacities. We sampled bees and conducted questionnaires at three different site types in each megacity: a botanical garden, central business district, and peripheral suburban areas. Overall, the mean species richness and abundance of bees were significantly higher in peripheral suburban areas than central business districts; however, there were no significant differences in the mean species richness and abundance between botanical gardens and peripheral suburban areas or botanical gardens and central business districts. Urban residents were unlikely to have seen bees but agreed that bees have a right to exist in their natural environment. Residents who did notice and interact with bees, even though being stung, were more likely to have positive opinions towards the presence of bees in cities.

  3. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Southeast Asian newborns: diagnostic assessment using capillary electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, Hataichanok; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Changtrakul, Yossombat; Komwilaisak, Patcharee; Fucharoen, Supan

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated the Capillarys 2 Hemoglobin testing system to assist in presumptive diagnosis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies commonly found in Southeast Asia. Study was conducted on 226 newborns. Hematological parameters were recorded and Hb profiles were examined on the Capillarys 2 Hemoglobin analyzer (SEBIA). DNA analyses were used to establish the final diagnoses. Among 226 newborns examined, 122 had thalassemias with 17 different genotypes. The capillary electrophoresis system could provide useful data for presumptive diagnoses of cases, especially those with Hb E and α-thalassemia. Hb E was found to be 2.6-6.2% in heterozygote whereas Hb Bart's were clearly observed in cases with compound heterozygous or homozygous α(+)-thalassemia and heterozygous α(0)-thalassemia. Hb H disease and other forms of α-thalassemia could be differentiated based on the presence of Hb Bart's and its percentage. The capillary electrophoresis system is applicable to newborn screening for common forms of thalassemia in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Population Structure of Pseudocercospora fijiensis in Costa Rica Reveals Shared Haplotype Diversity with Southeast Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Amanda; Charles, Melodi; Chavan, Suchitra; Muñoz, Miguel; Gómez-Alpizar, Luis; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2017-12-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis is the causal pathogen of black Sigatoka, a devastating disease of banana that can cause 20 to 80% yield loss in the absence of fungicides in banana crops. The genetic structure of populations of P. fijiensis in Costa Rica was examined and compared with Honduran and global populations to better understand migration patterns and inform management strategies. In total, 118 isolates of P. fijiensis collected from Costa Rica and Honduras from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed using multilocus genotyping of six loci and compared with a previously published global dataset of populations of P. fijiensis. The Costa Rican and Honduran populations shared haplotype diversity with haplotypes from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas but not Africa for all but one of the six loci studied. Gene flow and shared haplotype diversity was found in Honduran and Costa Rican populations of the pathogen. The data indicate that the haplotypic diversity observed in Costa Rican populations of P. fijiensis is derived from dispersal from initial outbreak sources in Honduras and admixtures between genetically differentiated sources from Southeast Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

  5. 'It Was about Claiming Space': Exposure to Asian American Studies, Ethnic Organization Participation, and the Negotiation of Self among Southeast Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Monica M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the growing number of Asian American Studies (AAS) programs and Asian ethnic organizations across colleges and universities since the 1970s, surprisingly little empirical research examines the role of these aspects of higher education on Asian American identity. How do the roles of AAS curriculum and Asian American student organizations…

  6. Suicidal behaviors and associated factors among university students in six countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Yi, Siyan; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-04-01

    A large data gap remains on suicidal behaviors among youth in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, despite the increasing rates of suicide in Asian cultures that may be related to rapid economic changes and the loss of social stability. This study was therefore conducted to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among university students in six ASEAN member states. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 4675 undergraduate university students, mean age 20.6 years (SD=2.7), range of 18-30 years, from Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The overall prevalence of ever suicidal ideation and ever suicide attempt among students in this study was 11.7% and 2.4%, respectively. Different rates of these suicidal behaviors were observed across the countries. In multivariable logistic regression models, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with psychosocial factors including childhood sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, involvement in physical fights, and poor academic performance as well as socio-environmental factors including living with parents or guardians and low involvement in organized religious activity. Suicide attempt was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, depressive symptoms, low involvement in organized religious activity and being underweight or overweight. Our findings suggest that individual-level strategies for suicide prevention should be targeted toward students with poor academic performance, mental health problems and a history of adverse childhood experiences. Particular attention should be paid to the role of families that could be a potential stressor in the lives of university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rainforest conifers of Eocene Patagonia: attached cones and foliage of the extant Southeast Asian and Australasian genus Dacrycarpus (Podocarpaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Eocene caldera-lake beds at Laguna del Hunco (LH, ca. 52.2 Ma) and Río Pichileufú (RP, ca. 47.7 Ma) in Argentine Patagonia provide copious information about the biological history of Gondwana. Several plant genera from these sites are known as fossils from southern Australia and New Zealand and survive only in Australasian rainforests. The potential presence of Dacrycarpus (Podocarpaceae) holds considerable interest due to its extensive foliage-fossil record in Gondwana, its remarkably broad modern distribution in Southeast Asian and Australasian rainforests, its high physiological moisture requirements, and its bird-dispersed seeds. However, the unique seed cones that firmly diagnose Dacrycarpus were not previously known from the fossil record. I describe and interpret fertile (LH) and vegetative (LH and RP) material of Dacrycarpus and present a nomenclatural revision for fossil Dacrycarpus from South America. Dacrycarpus puertae sp. nov. is the first fossil occurrence of the unusual seed cones that typify living Dacrycarpus, attached to characteristic foliage, and of attached Dacrycarpus pollen cones and foliage. Dacrycarpus puertae is indistinguishable from living D. imbricatus (montane, Burma to Fiji). Dacrycarpus chilensis (Engelhardt) comb. nov. is proposed for Eocene vegetative material from Chile. Modern-aspect Dacrycarpus was present in Eocene Patagonia, demonstrating an astonishingly wide-ranging paleogeographic history and implying a long evolutionary association with bird dispersers. Dacrycarpus puertae provides the first significant Asian link for Eocene Patagonian floras, strengthens the biogeographic connections from Patagonia to Australasia across Antarctica during the warm Eocene, and indicates high-rainfall paleoenvironments.

  8. Challenged by the state and the Internet: Struggles for professionalism in Southeast Asian journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lehmann-Jacobsen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As in other regions, journalism in Southeast Asia is under pressure. Journalists in many of the region’s emerging markets have to develop their profession while struggling with changing market conditions, increasingly more demanding audiences, different degrees of authoritative states and growing competition from the Internet. Based on qualitative interviews and drawing on a combination of role theory and Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, this article compares the role performances of journalists in Singapore and Vietnam by looking into the different expectations journalists in the two countries meet. The article illustrates how journalists continue to feel most conflicted about conforming with the states’ expectations to their profession. However, online actors imposing on the journalistic field are beginning to have a progressively bigger impact. Though they push the boundaries and set the media agenda, journalists fear they are changing the journalistic habitus, devaluing the journalistic capital and eroding years’ worth of professionalization progress.

  9. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbubani, K.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the continued ability of South-East Asia to remain as one of the most peaceful regions of the world hinges upon ASEAN's ability to remain an agile and viable organization, one that is sensitively attuned to the new challenges of the day and is able to rise to meet them. So far, ASEAN's track record has been quite remarkable, especially in comparison with other regions around the world. This Conference could usefully suggest that a greater effort be made to understand the mysterious reasons behind ASEAN's success, in the hope that it may hold lessons for other regions. ASEAN, for its part, must continue to remain humble and adaptable

  10. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S

    2001-01-01

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  11. International migration within and from the East and Southeast Asian region: a review essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on the trends and characteristics of international migration within and from East and Southeast Asia, with a focus on the past 25 years. "Five migration systems are described: settler, student, contract labor, skilled labor, and refugee. Settler migration to the U.S., Canada and Australia has consisted primarily of family members.... Contract labor migration, particularly to the Middle East, has provided jobs, foreign currency through remittances and greater participation of women, but also led to illegal migration, skills drain, and labor abuses. The hierarchy of development has led to intra-regional flows: (1) skilled labor mainly from Japan to other countries in the region, and (2) contract labor and illegal migration from the LDCs to the NIEs [newly industrializing economies] and Japan." excerpt

  12. Responses of soil fungi to logging and oil palm agriculture in Southeast Asian tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; D'Angelo, H; Brearley, F Q; Gedallovich, S M; Babar, N; Yang, N; Gillikin, C M; Gradoville, R; Bateman, C; Turner, B L; Mansor, P; Leff, J W; Fierer, N

    2015-05-01

    Human land use alters soil microbial composition and function in a variety of systems, although few comparable studies have been done in tropical forests and tropical agricultural production areas. Logging and the expansion of oil palm agriculture are two of the most significant drivers of tropical deforestation, and the latter is most prevalent in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to compare soil fungal communities from three sites in Malaysia that represent three of the most dominant land-use types in the Southeast Asia tropics: a primary forest, a regenerating forest that had been selectively logged 50 years previously, and a 25-year-old oil palm plantation. Soil cores were collected from three replicate plots at each site, and fungal communities were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Extracellular enzyme assays were assessed as a proxy for soil microbial function. We found that fungal communities were distinct across all sites, although fungal composition in the regenerating forest was more similar to the primary forest than either forest community was to the oil palm site. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are important associates of the dominant Dipterocarpaceae tree family in this region, were compositionally distinct across forests, but were nearly absent from oil palm soils. Extracellular enzyme assays indicated that the soil ecosystem in oil palm plantations experienced altered nutrient cycling dynamics, but there were few differences between regenerating and primary forest soils. Together, these results show that logging and the replacement of primary forest with oil palm plantations alter fungal community and function, although forests regenerating from logging had more similarities with primary forests in terms of fungal composition and nutrient cycling potential. Since oil palm agriculture is currently the mostly rapidly expanding equatorial crop and logging is pervasive across tropical ecosystems, these findings may have broad applicability.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene phylogeography of the Southeast Asian Blue Panchax killifish, Aplocheilus panchax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gary R.; Barlow, Axel; Rüber, Lukas; Hui Tan, Heok; Nugroho, Estu; Wowor, Daisy; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah; Herder, Fabian; Muchlisin, Zainal A.; de Bruyn, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The complex climatic and geological history of Southeast Asia has shaped this region’s high biodiversity. In particular, sea level fluctuations associated with repeated glacial cycles during the Pleistocene both facilitated, and limited, connectivity between populations. In this study, we used data from two mitochondrial and three anonymous nuclear markers to determine whether a fresh/brackish water killifish, Aplocheilus panchax, Hamilton, 1822, could be used to further understand how climatic oscillations and associated sea level fluctuations have shaped the distribution of biota within this region, and whether such patterns show evidence of isolation within palaeodrainage basins. Our analyses revealed three major mitochondrial clades within A. panchax. The basal divergence of A. panchax mitochondrial lineages was approximately 3.5 Ma, whilst the subsequent divergence timings of these clades occurred early Pleistocene (~2.6 Ma), proceeding through the Pleistocene. Continuous phylogeographic analysis showed a clear west-east dispersal followed by rapid radiation across Southeast Asia. Individuals from Krabi, just north of the Isthmus of Kra, were more closely related to the Indian lineages, providing further evidence for a freshwater faunal disjunction at the Isthmus of Kra biogeographic barrier. Our results suggest that Sulawesi, across the Wallace Line, was colonised relatively recently (~30 ka). Nuclear DNA is less geographically structured, although Mantel tests indicated that nuclear genetic distances were correlated with geographic proximity. Overall, these results imply that recent gene flow, as opposed to historical isolation, has been the key factor determining patterns of nuclear genetic variation in A. panchax, however, some evidence of historical isolation is retained within the mitochondrial genome. Our study further validates the existence of a major biogeographic boundary at the Kra Isthmus, and also demonstrates the use of widely distributed

  14. PATHOTYPE GROUPING OF Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ISOLATES FROM SOUTH SULAWESI AND SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Khaeruni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is an important rice disease, and has caused significant economic losses. This research aimed to determine the pathotype grouping and the distribution of Xoo isolates of South and Southeast Sulawesi. In order to obtain the information, 61 Xoo isolates of South Sulawesi and 29 isolates of Southeast Sulawesi were evaluated for their pathotype grouping against 5 diffential varieties. Research results showed that in South Sulawesi there were 2 pathotype groups, namely pathotype IV (32.79% and pathotype VIII(67.21%. Pathotype VIII was widely distributed over the Western and Central areas of South Sulawesi, whereas pathotype IV was widely distributed over the Southern area. In Southeast Sulawesi, it was found 5 pathotypes, namely pathotypes IV (27.58%, VI (10.34%, VIII (13.79%, IX (20.68%, and X (27.58%, with a limited and scattered distribution pattern on several areas. These results indicate that Xoo pathotype groups in South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi are varied and tend to sift to more virulent pathotypes.

  15. Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

  16. Socioeconomic impact of cancer in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): the ACTION study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Kingston, David; Monaghan, Helen; Sokha, Eav; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Bounxouei, Bounthaphany; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Khin, Myo; Cristal-Luna, Gloria; Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Hung, Nguyen Chan; Woodward, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Cancer can be a major cause of poverty. This may be due either to the costs of treating and managing the illness as well as its impact upon people's ability to work. This is a concern that particularly affects countries that lack comprehensive social health insurance systems and other types of social safety nets. The ACTION study is a longitudinal cohort study of 10,000 hospital patients with a first time diagnosis of cancer. It aims to assess the impact of cancer on the economic circumstances of patients and their households, patients' quality of life, costs of treatment and survival. Patients will be followed throughout the first year after their cancer diagnosis, with interviews conducted at baseline (after diagnosis), three and 12 months. A cross-section of public and private hospitals as well as cancer centers across eight member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will invite patients to participate. The primary outcome is incidence of financial catastrophe following treatment for cancer, defined as out-of-pocket health care expenditure at 12 months exceeding 30% of household income. Secondary outcomes include illness induced poverty, quality of life, psychological distress, economic hardship, survival and disease status. The findings can raise awareness of the extent of the cancer problem in South East Asia and its breadth in terms of its implications for households and the communities in which cancer patients live, identify priorities for further research and catalyze political action to put in place effective cancer control policies.

  17. Molecular changes in Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian liver fluke during the transition from the juvenile to the adult stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R Jex

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini chronically infects and affects tens of millions of people in regions of Asia, leading to chronic illness and, importantly, inducing malignant cancer (= cholangiocarcinoma. In spite of this, little is known, at the molecular level, about the parasite itself, its interplay with its hosts or the mechanisms of disease and/or carcinogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we generated extensive RNA-Seq data (Illumina representing adult and juvenile stages of O. viverrini, and combined these sequences with previously published transcriptomic data (454 technology for this species, yielding a combined assembly of significantly increased quality and allowing quantitative assessment of transcription in the juvenile and adult stage. CONCLUSIONS: This enhanced assembly reveals that, despite the substantial biological similarities between the human liver flukes, O. viverinni and Clonorchis sinensis, there are previously unrecognized differences in major aspects of their molecular biology. Most notable are differences among the C13 and cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases, which play key roles in tissue migration, immune evasion and feeding, and, thus, represent potential drug and/or vaccine targets. Furthermore, these data indicate that major lineages of cysteine peptidases of socioeconomically important trematodes have evolved through a process of gene loss rather than independent radiation, contrasting previous proposals.

  18. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic restrictions, and unequal educational and cultural treatment. According to Malaysia census data and natural population growth rate, this paper made estimation that by 201 0 a total of 1.13 million ethnic Chinese had migrated out of Malaysia. After deducting the number of ethnic Chinese moving to Malaysia, the Malaysian Chinese migrating abroad reached 1.05 million. Malaysian Chinese left Malaysia in the manner of permanent residents and short-term migrants. Permanent residents include those in the skill stream, family stream and those with special eligibility. Short-term migrants refer to visiting scholars, foreign students, guest labor, business expatriates and expatriate professionals. As a matter of fact, there has been a serious brain drain through Chinese remigration from Malaysia.

  19. Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahara Shu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with cagA-positive, cagA EPIYA motif ABD type, and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotype strains of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response and increased risk of gastroduodenal diseases. However, it is unclear whether the prevalence and virulence factor genotypes found in Southeast Asia are similar to those in Western countries. Here, we examined the cagA status and prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs and vacA genotypes among H. pylori strains found in Southeast Asia and examined their association with gastroduodenal disease. Methods To determine the cagA status, cagA EPIYA motifs, and vacA genotypes of H. pylori, we conducted meta-analyses of 13 previous reports for 1,281 H. pylori strains detected from several Southeast Asian countries. Results The respective frequencies of cagA-positive and vacA s1, m1, and i1 genotypes among examined subjects were 93% (1,056/1,133, 98% (1,010/1,033, 58% (581/1,009, and 96% (248/259, respectively. Stratification showed significant variation in the frequencies of cagA status and vacA genotypes among countries and the individual races residing within each respective country. The frequency of the vacA m-region genotype in patients infected with East Asian-type strains differed significantly between the northern and southern areas of Vietnam (p vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (odds ratio: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.12, p = 0.046 and 2.83, 1.50-5.34, p = 0.001, respectively in the examined Southeast Asian populations. Conclusions Both Western- and East Asian-type strains of H. pylori are found in Southeast Asia and are predominantly cagA-positive and vacA s1 type. In Southeast Asia, patients infected with vacA m1 type or cagA-positive strains have an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease. Thus, testing for this genotype and the presence of cagA may have clinical usefulness.

  20. The 13th South-East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise selected, edited papers that were presented at the 13th SOUTH EAST ASIAN CONGRESS OF MEDICAL PHYSICS with the theme of “Improving the quality of human health through physics”, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 10-12 December 2015. It was hosted by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN Sunan Kalijaga), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and University of Indonesia (UI) in association with the South East Asia Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP). Yogyakarta was the ancient capital of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. It is famous for the UNESCO world heritage site of Borobudur temple. This temple was built in the 9 th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty. The temple was designed in the Javanese Buddhist architectural style. The monument was restored by the Indonesian government with UNESCO's help in 1975 and 1982. The congress attracted about 241 participants from 13 countries. Twelve invited speakers delivered nine plenary lectures as well as four pre-congress workshops. A total of 86 oral and 65 poster presentations were given. A variety of topics were discussed, ranging from the most advanced topics such as proton therapy, image-guided radiotherapy, functional MRI to the more conventional ones such as dose distribution, simulation, dosimetry, quality assurance, etc. In this proceedings papers are published under five categories, namely therapeutics, diagnostics, nuclear medicine, biomedical engineering and biophysics. (paper)

  1. Clinical phenotype of South-East Asian temporomandibular disorder patients with upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, D K L; Pang, K P

    2018-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic characteristics of a subset of South East Asian temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) were documented in a multi-center prospective series of 86 patients (26 men and 60 women / mean age 35.7 years). All had excessive daytime sleepiness, high arousal index and Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia while 90·7% reported sleep bruxism (SB). Unlike patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), hypertension was uncommon (4·7%) while depression was prevalent at 68·6% with short REM latency of 25% documented in 79·6% and 57·6% of these depressed patients, respectively. 65·1% displayed a posteriorly displaced condyle at maximum intercuspation with or without TMJ clicking. Most exhibited a forward head posture (FHP) characterised by loss of normal cervical lordosis (80·2%), C0-C1 narrowing (38·4%) or an elevated hyoid position (50%), and 91·9% had nasal congestion. We postulate the TMD-UARS phenotype may have originally developed as an adaptive response to 'awake' disordered breathing during growth. Patients with persistent TMD and/or reporting SB should be screened for UARS and chronic nasal obstruction, especially when they also present with FHP. The lateral cephalogram is a useful tool in the differentiation of UARS from other OSA phenotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Children and adolescents' self-reported coping strategies during the Southeast Asian Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tine K; Ellestad, Ane; Dyb, Grete

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how Norwegian children on holiday in Southeast Asia coped when the tsunami hit December 26, 2004. The goal is to understand more about children and adolescents' immediate coping strategies when faced with a life-threatening situation. Acquiring more knowledge on coping strategies at different points in the recovery process can be useful for gaining insight to the relationship between coping and psychological adjustment. Semi-structured interviews of 56 children aged 6-18 years (36 girls and 20 boys) were conducted in their homes approximately 10 months after the tsunami. The interviews were analysed using qualitative methods. Two primary coping strategies were described and labelled as self-soothing thoughts and behavioural strategies. Self-soothing thoughts were divided into five categories: positive thinking; avoidant thinking; rational thoughts; and thoughts on parental competencies and parental protection. Behavioural strategies were divided into six categories: attachment seeking behaviour; distraction behaviour; helping others; seeking information and comfort; and talking. The children's coping responses point to the developmental aspects of coping and how children are dependent upon adults for guidance and protection. In addition, very few youth reported using problem-focused coping strategies that are normally thought of as helpful in the aftermath of trauma, whereas strategies often thought of as not so helpful such as distraction and avoidance, was more predominant. It may be that helpful immediate coping strategies are different from long-term coping strategies, and that coping strategies differ according to the degree of perceived control of the situation. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Detection of freshwater cyanotoxins and measurement of masked microcystins in tilapia from Southeast Asian aquaculture farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brett; Maul, Ronald; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-06-01

    Recently, there has been a rise in freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs) globally, as well as increasing aquaculture practices. HABs can produce cyanotoxins, many of which are hepatotoxins. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for nine cyanotoxins across three classes including six microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a. The method was used to analyse free cyanotoxin(s) in muscle (n = 34), liver (n = 17) and egg (n = 9) tissue samples of 34 fish sourced from aquaculture farms in Southeast Asia. Conjugated microcystin was analysed by Lemieux oxidation to ascertain the total amount of microcystin present in muscle. Some tilapia accumulated free microcystin-LR in the muscle tissue at a mean of 15.45 μg/kg dry weight (dw), with total microcystin levels detected at a mean level of 110.1 μg/kg dw, indicating that the amount of conjugated or masked microcystin present in the fish muscle accounted for 85% of the total. Higher levels of cyanotoxin were detected in the livers, with approximately 60% of those tested being positive for microcystin-LR and microcystin-LF, along with cylindrospermopsin. Two fish from one of the aquaculture farms contained cylindrospermopsin in the eggs; the first time this has been reported. The estimated daily intake for free and total microcystins in fish muscle tissue was 2 and 14 times higher, respectively, than the tolerable daily intake value. This survey presents the requirement for further monitoring of cyanotoxins, including masked microcystins, in aquaculture farming in these regions and beyond, along with the implementation of guidelines to safeguard human health. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  4. Dispersal, habitat differences, and comparative phylogeography of Southeast Asian seahorses (Syngnathidae: Hippocampus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, S A; Green, D M; Vincent, A C J

    2005-04-01

    Four distinct phylogeographical patterns across Southeast Asia were observed for four species of seahorse (genus Hippocampus) with differing ecologies. For all species, genetic differentiation (based on cytochrome b sequence comparisons) was significantly associated with sample site (Phi(ST) = 0.190-0.810, P < 0.0001) and with geographical distance (Mantel's r = 0.37-0.59, P < 0.019). Geographic locations of genetic breaks were inconsistent across species in 7/10 comparisons, although some similarities across species were also observed. The two shallow-water species (Hippocampus barbouri and Hippocampus kuda) have colonized the Sunda Shelf to a lesser degree than the two deeper-water species (Hippocampus spinosissimus and Hippocampus trimaculatus). In all species the presence of geographically restricted haplotypes in the Philippines could indicate past population fragmentation and/or long-distance colonization. A nested clade analysis (NCA) revealed that long-distance colonization and/or fragmentation were likely the dominant forces that structure populations of the two shallow-water species, whereas range expansion and restricted dispersal with isolation by distance were proportionally more important in the history of the two deeper-water species. H. trimaculatus has the most widespread haplotypes [average clade distance (D(c)) of nonsingleton haplotypes = 1169 km], indicating potentially high dispersal capabilities, whereas H. barbouri has the least widespread haplotypes (average D(c) = 67 km) indicating potentially lower dispersal capabilities. Pleistocene separation of marine basins and postglacial flooding of the Sunda Shelf are extrinsic factors likely to have contributed to the phylogeographical structure observed, whereas differences among the species appear to reflect their individual ecologies.

  5. Urban growth patterns in major Southeast Asian cities: Toward exposure mapping and vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapaka, Pradeep; Kamarajugedda, Shankar A.; Lo, Edmond Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is undergoing rapid urbanization, with urban population percentage increasing from 32% in 1990 to 48% in 2015. It is projected that by the year 2040, urban regions in SEA account for 60% of its total population. The region is home to 600 million people, with many densely populated cities, including megacities such as Jakarta, Bangkok, and Manila. The region has more than 20,000 islands, and many cities lie on coastal low-lands and floodplains. These geographical characteristics together with the increasing population, infrastructure growth, and changing climate makes the region highly vulnerable to natural hazards. This study assessed urban growth dynamics in major (defined as population exceeding 1 million) SEA cities using remotely sensed night-time lights (NTL) data. A recently proposed brightness gradient approach was applied on 21 years (1992-2012) of NTL annual composites to derive core-urban (CU) and peri-urban (PU) regions within each city. The study also assessed the sensitivity of above extracted urban categories to different NTL thresholds. The temporal trends in CU and PU regions were quantified, and compared with trends in socio-economic indicators. The spatial expansion of CU and PU regions were found to depend on geographical constraints and socio-economic factors. Quantification of urban growth spatial-temporal patterns, as conducted here contributes towards the understanding of exposure and vulnerability of people and infrastructures to natural hazards, as well as the evolving trends for assessment under projected urbanization conditions. This will underpin better risk assessment efforts for present and future planning.

  6. Exclusive breastfeeding plan of pregnant Southeast Asian women: what encourages them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nikmah Salamia; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Hidayati, Fatimah; Sapriani, Irma; Suradi, Rulina; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated factors involved in breastfeeding planning of pregnant Asian women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 207 pregnant women visiting the Budi Kemuliaan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, between June and August 2011. The planned breastfeeding duration and determinants were sought using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Most subjects had low income (84.1%) and education (79.7%). Women who had been informed about breastfeeding had a higher likelihood to plan longer (≥6 months) breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-3.75; p=0.04), whereas women who had breastfed previous children over a shorter period had a lower likelihood (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.59; p=0.001). Age, low education level, first pregnancy, and low income had no association with breastfeeding plans. Working mothers who had to return to work before 6 months and worked for >8 hours/day were less likely to plan longer breastfeeding (OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.83; p=0.03 vs. OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.17-1.63; p=0.27), whereas those intending to express their milk were more likely to breastfeed longer (OR 16.85; 95% CI 4.21-67.48; pwork, who had previously breastfed for a short period, and who are not well informed about breastfeeding tend to plan shorter breastfeeding. Among mothers who work, it is the length of maternal leave and required working hours that determine the plans.

  7. A review of biodiversity-related issues and challenges in megadiverse Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina von Rintelen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the ten member states of the economically and politically diverse regional organization of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN. Southeast Asia comprises four of the 25 global biodiversity hotspots, three of the 17 global megadiverse countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines and the most diverse coral reefs in the world. All member states are Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. We discuss ASEAN-wide joint activities on nature conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity that do not stop at national borders. The Indonesian archipelago comprises two of the world’s biodiversity hotspots (areas with a high degree of endemic species that are highly threatened by loss of habitats: Its insular character and complex geological history led to the evolution of a megadiverse fauna and flora on the global scale. The importance of biodiversity, e.g., in traditional medicine and agriculture, is deep-rooted in Indonesian society. Modern biodiversity pathways include new fields of application in technology, pharmacy and economy along with environmental policies. This development occurred not only in Indonesia but also in other biodiversity-rich tropical countries. This review summarizes and discusses the unique biodiversity of Indonesia from different angles (science, society, environmental policy, and bioeconomy and brings it into context within the ASEAN region. The preconditions of each member state for biodiversity-related activities are rather diverse. Much was done to improve the conditions for biodiversity research and use in several countries, primarily in those with a promising economic development. However, ASEAN as a whole still has further potential for more joint initiatives. Especially Indonesia has the highest biodiversity potential within the ASEAN and beyond, but likewise the highest risk of biodiversity loss. We conclude that Indonesia has not taken full advantage of this

  8. Current status of nutrition labelling and claims in the South-East Asian region: are we in harmony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-Siong; Tamin, Suryani; Ilyas, Rosmulyati; Ramos, Adelisa; Tan, Wei-Ling; Lai, Darwin Kah-Soon; Kongchuntuk, Hataya

    2002-01-01

    the region to enact regulations on nutrition claims. Recently enacted regulations or amendments to existing regulations of almost all the countries reviewed have included provisions for nutrition claims. Malaysia is in the process of gazetting regulations to clearly stipulate the permitted nutrition claims and the conditions required to make these claims along the guidelines of Codex Alimentarius Commission. Only two countries in the region permit health claims to be made - Indonesia and Philippines. Other countries in the region are following developments in Codex and examining the need for allowing these claims. There are more differences than similarities in the regulations on nutrition labelling and claims among countries in the South-East Asian region as no previous efforts have been made to address these. Hopefully, through this first regional meeting, countries can initiate closer interaction, with a view to working towards greater harmonization of nutrition labelling and health claims in the region.

  9. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  10. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Susan L., E-mail: schantz@illinois.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gardiner, Joseph C. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Aguiar, Andrea [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Sweeney, Anne M. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States); Peck, Jennifer D. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States); Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in

  11. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Aguiar, Andrea; Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in this region.

  12. Evaluating the Predictability of South-East Asian Floods Using ECMWF and GloFAS Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillosu, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Between July and September 2017, the monsoon season caused widespread heavy rainfall and severe floods across countries in South-East Asia, notably in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, with deadly consequences. According to the U.N., in Bangladesh 140 people lost their lives and 700,000 homes were destroyed; in Nepal at least 143 people died, and more than 460,000 people were forced to leave their homes; in India there were 726 victims of flooding and landslides, 3 million people were affected by the monsoon floods and 2000 relief camps were established. Monsoon season happens regularly every year in South Asia, but local authorities reported the last monsoon season as the worst in several years. What made the last monsoon season particularly severe in certain regions? Are these causes clear from the forecasts? Regarding the meteorological characterization of the event, an analysis of forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) for different lead times (from seasonal to short range) will be shown to evaluate how far in advance this event was predicted and start discussion on what were the factors that led to such a severe event. To illustrate hydrological aspects, forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) will be shown. GloFAS is developed at ECMWF in co-operation with the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) and with the support of national authorities and research institutions such as the University of Reading. It will become operational at the end of 2017 as part of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. GloFAS couples state-of-the-art weather forecasts with a hydrological model to provide a cross-border system with early flood guidance information to help humanitarian agencies and national hydro-meteorological services to strengthen and improve forecasting capacity, preparedness and mitigation of natural hazards. In this case GloFAS has shown good potential to become a useful tool for better and

  13. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A consensus plan for action to improve access to cancer care in the association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In many countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), cancer is an increasing problem due to ageing and a transition to Western lifestyles. Governments have been slow to react to the health consequences of these socioeconomic changes, leading to the risk of a cancer epidemic overwhelming the region. A major limitation to motivating change is the paucity of high-quality data on cancer, and its socioeconomic repercussions, in ASEAN. Two initiatives have been launched to address these issues. First, a study of over 9000 new cancer patients in ASEAN - the ACTION study - which records information on financial difficulties, as well as clinical outcomes, subsequent to the diagnosis. Second, a series of roundtable meetings of key stakeholders and experts, with the broad aim of producing advice for governments in ASEAN to take appropriate account of issues relating to cancer, as well as to generate knowledge and interest through engagement with the media. An important product of these roundtables has been the Jakarta Call to Action on Cancer Control. The growth and ageing of populations is a global challenge for cancer services. In the less developed parts of Asia, and elsewhere, these problems are compounded by the epidemiological transition to Western lifestyles and lack of awareness of cancer at the government level. For many years, health services in less developed countries have concentrated on infectious diseases and mother-and-child health; despite a recent wake-up call (United Nations, 2010), these health services have so far failed to allow for the huge increase in cancer cases to come. It has been estimated that, in Asia, the number of new cancer cases per year will grow from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030 (Sankaranarayanan et al., 2014). In the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), corresponding figures are 770 thousand in 2012 (Figure 1), rising to 1.3 million in 2030 (Ferlay et al., 2012). ASEAN

  15. The effectiveness of support groups in Asian breast cancer patients: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Chou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries. The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  16. The Effectiveness of Support Groups in Asian Breast Cancer Patients: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Yu; Lee-Lin, Frances; Kuang, Lily Y

    2016-01-01

    Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  17. Systematics and natural history of Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) with descriptions of eight new species from Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L; Anuar, Shahrul; Riyanto, Awal; Ahmad, Norhayati; Muin, Mohd A; Sumontha, Montri; Grismer, Jesse L; Onn, Chan Kin; Quah, Evan S H; Pauwels, Olivier S A

    2014-10-31

    A well-supported and well-resolved phylogeny based on a concatenated data set from one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, six morphological characters, and nine color pattern characters for 44 of the 50 species of the Southeast Asian Rock Geckos (genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887) is consistent with the previous taxonomy of Cnemaspis based solely on morphology and color pattern. Cnemaspis is partitioned into four major clades that collectively contain six species groups. The monophyly of all clades and species groups is strongly supported and they are parapatrically distributed across well-established, biogeographical regions ranging from southern Vietnam westward through southern Indochina, southward through the Thai-Malay Peninsula, then eastward to Borneo. Eight new species (Cnemaspis omari sp. nov. from the Thai-Malaysian border; C. temiah sp. nov. from Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia; C. stongensis sp. nov. from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, Malaysia; C. hangus sp. nov. from Bukit Hangus, Pahang, Malaysia; C. sundagekko sp. nov. from Pulau Siantan, Indonesia; C. peninsularis sp. nov. from southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, and C. mumpuniae sp. nov. and C. sundainsula sp. nov. from Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia) are described based on morphology and color pattern and all but C. sundagekko sp. nov. are included in the phylogenetic analyses. Cnemaspis kendallii is polyphyletic and a composite of six species. An updated taxonomy consistent with the phylogeny is proposed for all 50 species and is based on 25 morphological and 53 color pattern characters scored across 594 specimens. Cladogenetic events and biogeographical relationships within Cnemaspis were likely influenced by this group's low vagility and the cyclical patterns of geographical and environmental changes in Sundaland over the last 25 million years and especially within the last 2.5 million years. The phylogeny indicates that nocturnality, diurnality, substrate preferences, and the presence of

  18. Population burden of betel quid abuse and its relation to oral premalignant disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: an Asian Betel-quid Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.

  19. Attitudes Towards Prenatal Genetic Counseling, Prenatal Genetic Testing, and Termination of Pregnancy among Southeast and East Asian Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ginger J; Cameron, Carrie A; Czerwinski, Jennifer L; Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Peterson, Susan K; Noblin, Sarah Jane

    2017-10-01

    Recognizing the heterogeneity of the Asian population with regards to acculturation, education, health awareness, and cultural values is vital for tailoring culturally sensitive and appropriate care. Prior studies show that cultural values influence perceptions of genetics within Asian populations. The reputation of the family unit factors into decisions such as pregnancy termination and disclosure of family medical history, and the nondirective model of American genetic counseling may conflict with the historical Asian model of paternalistic health care. Previous studies also provide conflicting evidence regarding correlations between education, acculturation, age, and awareness and perceptions of genetic testing. The aims of this study were to describe attitudes towards prenatal genetics among Southeast and East Asian women living in the United States for varying amounts of time and to explore sociocultural factors influencing those attitudes. Twenty-three Asian women who were members of Asian cultural organizations in the United States were interviewed via telephone about their attitudes towards prenatal genetic counseling, prenatal genetic testing, and termination of pregnancy. Responses were transcribed and coded for common themes using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged. In general, participants: (1) had diverse expectations for genetic counselors; (2) tended to weigh risks and benefits with regards to genetic testing decisions; (3) had mixed views on termination for lethal and non-lethal genetic conditions; and (4) identified cultural factors which influenced testing and termination such as lack of available resources, societal shame and stigma, and family pressure. These findings may allow prenatal genetic counselors to gain a richer, more nuanced understanding of their Asian patients and to offer culturally tailored prenatal genetic counseling.

  20. The residential segregation of detailed Hispanic and Asian groups in the United States: 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Iceland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial and ethnic diversity continues to grow in communities across the United States,raising questions about the extent to which different ethnic groups will become residentially integrated. Objective: While a number of studies have examined the residential patterns of pan-ethnic groups, our goal is to examine the segregation of several Asian and Hispanic ethnic groups - Cubans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We gauge the segregation of each group from several alternative reference groups using two measures over the 1980 to 2010 period. Results: We find that the dissimilarity of Hispanics and Asians from other groups generally held steady or declined, though, because most Hispanic and Asian groups are growing, interaction with Whites also often declined. Our analyses also indicate that pan-ethnic segregation indexes do not always capture the experience of specific groups. Among Hispanics, Mexicans are typically less residentially segregated (as measured using the dissimilarity index from Whites, Blacks, Asians, and other Hispanics than are other Hispanic-origin groups. Among Asian ethnic groups, Japanese and Filipinos tend to have lower levels of dissimilarity from Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics than other Asian groups. Examining different dimensions of segregation also indicates that dissimilarity scores alone often do not capture to what extent various ethnic groups are actually sharing neighborhoods with each other. Finally, color lines vary across groups in some important ways, even as the dominant trend has been toward reduced racial and ethnic residential segregation over time. Conclusions: The overarching trend is that ethnic groups are becoming more residentially integrated,suggestive of assimilation, though there is significant variation across ethnic groups.

  1. Anchoring Singapore Philanthropy in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Already a number of other emerging Southeast Asian middle-income economies ... Management University, to investigate philanthropy in four Southeast Asian ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  2. Improving Southeast Asian Security within the ASEAN Framework - Insurgencies and Counterinsurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    control for society.‖ 69 It involves activities such as taxation , law enforcement, policy development and provision of public services. Effective...groups for the planning and preparation of operations. Although the Malaysian 70 government knew about the Thai Malay-Muslim insurgents and their safe...from 2005 as an increased number of Thai-Malay insurgents began crossing over to Malaysia to seek refuge. This time, the Malaysian government has

  3. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali; Sin, Shwe

    2014-01-01

    In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response "yes" to one or more of three questions, such as "Do you currently smoke cigarettes?" Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by 'svy' command. Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts.

  4. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Gezmu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  5. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  6. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (dRTA) Among Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO) Patients in Malaria Endemic Area of Sekotong, Lombok Island

    OpenAIRE

    Danuyanti, I Gusti Ayu Nyoman; -, Tasmini; Sadewa, Ahmad Hamim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO) is caused by 27 bp deletion of the band 3 protein gene in erythrocyte membrane and characterized by oval erythrocyte. The erythroid band 3 (AE1) gene isexpressed not only in erythrocyte membranes but also in the cell membrane of α-collecting renal tubular functions in the secretion of acid in renal tubules and HCO3 -/Cl- anion exchange. An alteration of the band 3 (AE1) gene functions in cell of α-collecting renal tubules reduces HCO3-/Cl- ion ...

  7. Tangled skeins: a first report of non-captive mating behavior in the Southeast Asian Paradise Flying Snake (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae: Chrysopelea paradisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich Kaiser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the courtship behavior of the Paradise Flying Snake, Chrysopelea paradisi, from a series of images taken near Sandakan, eastern Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. During the episode observed, four males moved together with a female in various states of entanglement, traveling at ground level and into a series of bushes.  The observations took place over the course of a 30-min period until the snakes were lost to view.  Our report is the first direct observation of mating behavior in C. paradisi in the wild and provides another rare glimpse of the multi-male courtship in Southeast Asian colubrids. 

  8. Associations between ethnicity, body composition, and bone mineral density in a Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P L S; Lu, Y; Khoo, C M; Leow, M K S; Khoo, E Y H; Teo, A; Lee, Y S; Das De, S; Chong, Y S; Gluckman, P D; Tai, E S; Venkataraman, K; Ng, C M A

    2013-11-01

    Chinese men in Singapore have a higher incidence of hip fractures than Malay and Indian men. We investigated whether there were corresponding ethnic differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) in young men and whether differences in body composition influenced peak BMD. This was a cross-sectional study of healthy volunteers in a tertiary medical center. A total of 100 Chinese, 82 Malay, and 80 Indian men aged 21 to 40 years, with body mass index between 18 and 30 kg/m(2) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess BMD, lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM), and magnetic resonance imaging to quantify abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Multiple linear regression models, with adjustment for age and height (as a proxy for skeletal size), were used. Malay and Indian men had significantly higher BMD than Chinese men at the lumbar spine (Malay: B, 0.06 ± 0.02, P = .001; Indian: B, 0.03 ± 0.02, P = .049), femoral neck (Malay: B 0.04 ± 0.02, P = .034; Indian: B, 0.04 ± 0.02, P = .041), hip (Malay: B, 0.05 ± 0.02, P = .016; Indian: B, 0.06 ± 0.02, P = .001), and ultradistal radius (Malay: B, 0.03 ± 0.01, P Malay men at the femoral neck and in Indian men at the ultradistal radius. LM was an important independent determinant of BMD at all sites, whereas FM, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and visceral adipose tissue were not significantly associated with BMD at any site. Lower peak BMD in Chinese men may partly explain the higher fracture incidence in this ethnic group. Further studies are needed to elucidate the reasons for these ethnic differences in bone accumulation.

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of illicit drug use among university students in the association of southeast Asian nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Susilowati, Indri Hapsari

    2017-04-06

    Illicit drug use among university students has been recognized as a global public health issue in recent years. It may lead to poor academic performance that in turn leads to poor productivity in their later life. This study explores prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among university students in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select undergraduate students from one or two universities in each country for self-administered questionnaire survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses was performed to explore risk factors related to illicit drug use. Participants included 7,923 students with a mean age of 20.6 years (SD = 2.8), ranging from 18-30 years. The overall prevalence of frequent (≥10 times), infrequent (1-9 times) and ever (at least once) illicit drug use in the past 12 months was 2.2, 14.7, and 16.9%, respectively. After adjustment, male students were significantly less likely to be infrequent (1-9 times vs. never), but significantly more likely to be ever users compared to females. Compared to those living with parents/guardians, students living away from parents/guardians were significantly less likely to be frequent (≥10 times vs. never) and infrequent users. Students from lower-middle-income countries were significantly more likely to be frequent and infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users compared to those from upper-middle or high-income countries. Students with poor subjective health status were significantly more likely to be frequent users compared to those who reported good subjective health status. Students who reported binge drinking in the past month were significantly more likely to be infrequent users, but significantly less likely to be ever users. Our

  10. Burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina, Susi Ari; Endarti, Dwi; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is an increasing problem in ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for many types of cancers. Evidence on burden of cancer attributable to tobacco is essential to raise public and political awareness of the negative effects of tobacco on cancer and to be used to stimulate political action aims at reducing smoking prevalence in ASEAN member countries. The objective of this study was to estimate burden of cancer attributable to tobacco smoking in ASEAN, 2012. In this study, smoking prevalence was combined with Relative Risks (RRs) of cancer to obtain Smoking Attributable Fractions (SAFs). Cancer incidence and mortality data among individuals aged 15 years and older were derived from GLOBOCAN 2012. Fourteen types of cancer were included in the analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the impact of the use of alternative RRs and the use of alternative prevalence of smoking in some countries. The findings showed that tobacco smoking was responsible for 131,502 cancer incidence and 105,830 cancer mortality in ASEAN countries in 2012. In other words, tobacco smoking was accounted for 28.4% (43.3% in male and 8.5% in female) of cancer incidence and 30.5% (44.2% in male and 9.4% in female) of cancer mortality in ASEAN. When looking at the types of cancer, lung cancer showed the strongest association with tobacco smoking. Incidence of cancer and cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking varied by countries due to the differences in size of population, background risk of cancer, and prevalence of smoking in each country. According to the sensitivity analyses, RRs of lung cancer, pharynx cancer, and larynx cancer used in the estimates have significant impact on the estimates. As about one-third of cancer incidence and mortality in ASEAN are attributable to tobacco smoking ASEAN member countries are strongly encouraged to put in place stronger tobacco control policies and to strengthen the

  11. Temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M.; Kosugi, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Kanemitsu, S.; Osaka, K.; Tani, M.; Nik, A. R.

    2010-09-01

    To clarify the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, we investigated these gas fluxes and environmental factors in a tropical rainforest in Peninsular Malaysia. Temporal variation of CO2 flux in a 2-ha plot was positively related to soil water condition and rainfall history. Spatially, CO2 flux was negatively related to soil water condition. When CO2 flux hotspots were included, no other environmental factors such as soil C or N concentrations showed any significant correlation. Although the larger area sampled in the present study complicates explanations of spatial variation of CO2 flux, our results support a previously reported bipolar relationship between the temporal and spatial patterns of CO2 flux and soil water condition observed at the study site in a smaller study plot. Flux of CH4 was usually negative with little variation, resulting in the soil at our study site functioning as a CH4 sink. Both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux were positively related to the soil water condition. Soil N concentration was also related to the spatial distribution of CH4 flux. Some hotspots were observed, probably due to CH4 production by termites, and these hotspots obscured the relationship between both temporal and spatial variations of CH4 flux and environmental factors. Temporal variation of N2O flux and soil N2O concentration was large and significantly related to the soil water condition, or in a strict sense, to rainfall history. Thus, the rainfall pattern controlled wet season N2O production in soil and its soil surface flux. Spatially, large N2O emissions were detected in wet periods at wetter and anaerobic locations, and were thus determined by soil physical properties. Our results showed that, even in Southeast Asian rainforests where distinct dry and wet seasons do not exist, variation in the soil water condition related to rainfall history controlled the

  12. Asian College Students’ Perceived Peer Group Cohesion, Cultural Identity, and College Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increase in Asian college student population, this group remains one of the most understudied, due to the myth of “model minority.” Many Asian students adjust well academically but often experience high levels of stress, anxiety, or depression due to factors such as acculturation to Western culture, pressure from parents to succeed, ethnic identity issues, intergenerational conflict, immigration status, racism, and discrimination. This study examined the role of five dimensions of...

  13. Group Counseling with South Asian Immigrant High School Girls: Reflections and Commentary of a Group Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore-Dunlap, Ulash; Van Velsor, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the U.S. school population speaks to a need to provide support for youth from various backgrounds. As a school-based mental health counselor, the first author observed that the South Asian immigrant students at her school did not utilize any of the counseling services provided. Because South Asians are typically collectivistic,…

  14. Testing the phylogenetic affinities of Southeast Asia's rarest geckos: Flap-legged geckos (Luperosaurus), Flying geckos (Ptychozoon) and their relationship to the pan-Asian genus Gekko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Das, Indraneil; Min, Yong

    2012-06-01

    Some of Southeast Asia's most poorly known vertebrates include forest lizards that are rarely seen by field biologists. Arguably the most enigmatic of forest lizards from the Indo Australian archipelago are the Flap-legged geckos and the Flying geckos of the genera Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon. As new species have accumulated, several have been noted for their bizarre combination of morphological characteristics, seemingly intermediate between these genera and the pan-Asian gecko genus Gekko. We used the first multilocus phylogeny for these taxa to estimate their relationships, with particular attention to the phylogenetic placement of the morphologically intermediate taxa Ptychozoon rhacophorus, Luperosaurus iskandari, and L. gulat. Surprisingly, our results demonstrate that Luperosaurus is more closely related to Lepidodactylus and Pseudogekko than it is to Gekko but that some species currently classified as Luperosaurus are nested within Gekko. The Flying Gecko genus Ptychozoon is also nested within Gekko, suggesting that higher-level taxonomic revision of the generic boundaries within Southeast Asian gekkonines will be a priority for the immediate future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disparities in abnormal mammogram follow-up time for Asian women compared to non-Hispanic Whites and between Asian ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, KH; Pasick, RJ; Stewart, SL; Kerlikowske, K; Karliner, LS

    2017-01-01

    Background Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. We examined abnormal screening mammogram follow-up differences for non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Asian women. Methods Prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System abnormal result of 0 or 3+ in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000–2010. We performed Kaplan-Meier estimation for median-days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test, and compared proportion with follow-up at 30, 60 and 90 days, and no follow-up at one-year for Asians overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHWs. We additionally assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time-to-follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipinas had the longest, and Japanese the shortest, median follow-up time (32, 28, 19 days, respectively) compared to NHWs (15 days). The proportion of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians vs NHWs (57% vs 77%, pAsian ethnic groups except Japanese. Asians had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHWs (aHR 0.70, 95% CI 0.69–0.72). Asians also had a higher rate than NHWs of no follow-up (15% vs 10%; pAsian ethnic groups, Filipinas had the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Conclusion Asian, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese, women were less likely than NHWs to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. PMID:28603859

  16. Social Determinants of Physical Self-Rated Health among Asian Americans; Comparison of Six Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing literature has revealed ethnic group differences in determinants and meanings of their self-rated health (SRH. Aim: To explore ethnic variations in the effects of socioeconomic determinants on poor physical SRH of Asians in the United States. Methods: Data came from the National Asian American Survey (NAAS, 2008, with 4977 non-U.S. born Asian Americans, including Asian Indian (n = 1150, Chinese (n = 1350, Filipino (n = 603, Japanese (n = 541, Korean (n = 614, and Vietnamese (n = 719 Americans. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; education, employment, income, and marital status, and physical SRH were measured. Ethnic-specific logistic regressions were applied for data analysis where physical SRH was the outcome and demographic and social determinants were predictors. Results: According to logistic regressions, no social determinant was consistently associated with physical SRH across all ethnic groups. Being married was associated with better physical SRH in Asian Indians and worse SRH in the Filipino group. Education was associated with better SRH in Asian Indian, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. High income was associated with better SRH in Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese Americans. Employment was associated with better SRH in Filipino Americans. Conclusion: Social determinants of physical SRH vary across ethnic groups of Asian Americans. Different ethnic groups are differently vulnerable to various social determinants of health. Application of single item SRH measures may be a source of bias in studies of health with ethnically diverse populations. Policy makers should be aware that the same change in social determinants may not result in similar change in the health of ethnic groups.

  17. Zooplankton, zooplanktivorous fish and their interactions in Southeast Asian waterbodies with special reference to Sri Lanka: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, J.

    2018-01-01

    Many countries in Southeast Asia have no natural lakes but reservoirs, flood-plains and rivers. The reservoirs are mainly inhabited by riverine fish species and introduced pelagic exotics. Benthivores, herbivores and detritivores dominate, whereas zooplanktivores are relatively rare (generally

  18. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  19. Prospects of nuclear power development in Southeast and South Asian nations, and the impacts of Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tomohiko; Nakasugi, Hideo; Wada, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake followed by Tsunami on March 11, 2011, has brought about strong socio-political impacts internationally including to Asian countries. This report provides updated information on nuclear energy development program in Asian countries. It also touches on impacts caused by the Fukushima Accident in Asian countries that plan to introduce nuclear power as well as those plan to expand their nuclear power programs. The article focuses on following countries in the regions: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam; India, and Pakistan. (author)

  20. Acculturation and the prevalence of pain amongst South Asian minority ethnic groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, B; Macfarlane, G; Afzal, C; Esmail, A; Silman, A; Lunt, M

    2007-06-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is reported more commonly by South Asians in the UK than by white Europeans. This may result from a variety of factors, including cultural differences, and thus we investigated the extent to which differences in the prevalence of pain within the South Asian population could be explained by differences in acculturation (the extent to which immigrants take on the culture of their host population). Nine hundred and thirty-three Europeans and 1914 South Asian (1165 Indian, 401 Pakistani and 348 Bangladeshi) subjects were recruited from the age-sex registers of 13 general practices in areas with high densities of South Asian populations (Bolton, Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne and Birmingham). A 28-item acculturation scale was developed, based, on aspects including use of language, clothing style, and use of own-culture media. Principle component analysis generated a score (range 0-100), which was validated against constructs expected to relate to acculturation, such as years of full time education and time spent in the UK. The presence of widespread pain was assessed by the answer to the question 'Have you suffered from pain all over the body in the past month?' Widespread pain was more common in all three South Asian ethnic groups than in the white Europeans [odds ratio (OR) = 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9-4.9], with this increase ranging from 2.7 to 5.8 in the different South Asian subgroups. There was a similar increase in consultation rates for pain. Within the South Asians, pooling all three groups, there was a strong negative association between acculturation score and widespread pain, which remained after adjusting for age and sex: [OR (95% CI) per standard deviation decrease in acculturation score -1.2 (1.0-1.3)]. Adjusting for acculturation accounted for some, but not all, of the differences between the ethnic groups in the prevalence of widespread pain: OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-3.0). Widespread pain is more commonly reported in South Asians

  1. Relationship between Ecological Species Groups and Environmental Factors (Case Study: Vezg Region in Southeast of Yasouj

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    R. Aghaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In applied studies, identification and study of vegetation, for management and protection of natural ecosystems, are very important. This study was carried out in Vezg forest with an area of 308 hectares located in southeast of Yasouj city. The purpose of this study was to classify ecological species groups and survey their relation to soil physic-chemical properties and physiographic attributes. For this purpose, the field data were obtained using 52 sample plots (15m×30m in a systematic random grid. In each sample plot, the cover percentage of tree, shrub and grass species type were recorded, by using Braun-Blanquet method. The TWINSPAN method and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA were used for the definition of ecological species groups and determintion of the relationship between ecological species groups and environmental properties. Results showed that, there were four ecological species groups in the study area. The First group included: Anchusa italic-Quercus brantii, the second group: Heteranthelium piliferum-Avena clauda, the third group: Teucrium polium and the fourth group: Salvia reautreana. The first group was in an area, where there was a higher percentage of Persian oak litter. The second group was located in site a with higher grass cover than the site of other groups in the area. The third and fourth groups, were located in the higher elevation and steep points. Results of CCA showed that soil properties were not in significant relation with ecological species groups. But, the relationships of ecological species groups with other environmental factors such as litter, altitude, grass cover and slope were significant. So, we can conclude that these properties are effective in the separation and distribution of ecological groups.

  2. Adaptation linguistique et culturelle: L'experience des refugies d'Asie du sud-est au Quebec (Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation: The Experience of Southeast Asian Refugees in Quebec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok B.; Dorais, Louis-Jacques

    A collection of papers, in English and French, on the adjustment processes and problems of Southeast Asian refugees in Quebec includes: "Prelude to Resettlement: A Clinical View on the Transit Camp Experience of Vietnamese Refugees" (David Loveridge, Kwok B. Chan); "Une communaute culturelle en situation de diglossie: Les…

  3. Diversification in a biodiversity hotspot--the evolution of Southeast Asian rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Stefan T; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The tree-frog family Rhacophoridae is a major group contributing to the high pecies richness and reproductive diversity among vertebrates of Sundaland. Nonetheless, rhacophorid evolution, specially on Borneo, has not been studied within a phylogenetic context. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 38 (out of 41) Bornean species of Rhacophoridae, in combination with data from previous phylogenetic studies. In the final super matrix of 91 species, we analyse sequence data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The resulting trees show the genus Rhacophorus as a paraphyletic assemblage. As a consequence, we transfer Rhacophorus appendiculatus and R. kajau to two other genera and propose the new phylogeny-based combinations--Kurixalus appendiculatus and Feihyla kajau, respectively. Furthermore, we use our phylogenetic hypotheses to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive modes in rhacophorid tree frogs. Direct development to the exclusion of a free larval stage evolved twice independently, once in an ancestor of the Pseudophilautus+Raorchestes clade in India and Sri Lanka, and once within Philautus in Southeast Asia. The deposition of egg clutches covered by a layer of jelly in Feihyla is also present in F. kajau and thus confirms our generic reassignment. The remarkably high diversity of rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo is the outcome of a complex pattern of repeated vicariance and dispersal events caused by past changes in the climatic and geological history of the Sunda shelf. We identified geographic clades of closely related endemic species within Rhacophorus and Philautus, which result from local island radiations on Borneo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycaemic responses to liquid food supplements among three Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Van Helvoort, Ardy; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    A limited number of studies have compared the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic responses (GR) to solid foods between Caucasians and Asians. These studies have demonstrated that Asians have greater GI and GR values for solid foods than Caucasians. However, no study has compared the GI and GR to liquids among various Asian ethnic groups. A total of forty-eight males and females (16 Chinese, 16 Indians, and 16 Malay) took part in this randomised, crossover study. Glycaemic response to the reference food (glucose beverage) was measured on three occasions, and GR to three liquids were measured on one occasion each. Liquids with different macronutrient ratio's and carbohydrate types were chosen to be able to evaluate the response to products with different GIs. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in duplicate at baseline (-5 and 0 min) and once at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the commencement of beverage consumption. There were statistically significant differences in GI and GR between the three liquids (P Chinese vs. Indian vs. Malay). The GR for three different types of liquid nutritional supplements did not differ between the three main ethnic groups in Asia. It appears that the GI of liquid food derived from one Asian ethnicity can be applicable to other Asian populations.

  5. SARS-Coronavirus ancestor's foot-prints in South-East Asian bat colonies and the refuge theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Teeling, Emma; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude

    2011-10-01

    One of the great challenges in the ecology of infectious diseases is to understand what drives the emergence of new pathogens including the relationship between viruses and their hosts. In the case of the emergence of SevereAcute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), several studies have shown coronavirus diversity in bats as well as the existence of SARS-CoV infection in apparently healthy bats, suggesting that bats may be a crucial host in the genesis of this disease. To elucidate the biogeographic origin of SARS-CoV and investigate the role that bats played in its emergence, we amplified coronavirus sequences from bat species captured throughout Thailand and assessed the phylogenetic relationships to each other and to other published coronavirus sequences. To this end, RdRp sequence of Coronavirinae was targeted by RT-PCR in non-invasive samples from bats collected in Thailand. Two new coronaviruses were detected in two bat species: one Betacoronavirus in Hipposideros larvatus and one Alphacoronavirus in Hipposiderosarmiger. Interestingly, these viruses from South-East Asia are related to those previously detected in Africa (Betacoronavirus-b) or in Europe (Alphacoronavirus & Betacoronavirus-b). These findings illuminate the origin and the evolutionary history of the SARS-CoV group found in bats by pushing forward the hypothesis of a Betacoronavirus spill-over from Hipposideridae to Rhinolophidae and then from Rhinolophidae to civets and Human. All reported Betacoronaviruses-b (SARS-CoV group) of Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae respectively cluster in two groups despite their broad geographic distribution and the sympatry of their hosts, which is in favor of an ancient and genetically independent evolution of Betacoronavirus-b clusters in these families. Moreover, despite its probable pathogenicity, we found that a Betacoronavirus-b can persistently infect a medium-sized hipposiderid bat colony. These findings illustrate the importance of the host

  6. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

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    Won Kim Cook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  7. Lifetime ultraviolet exposure estimates for selected population groups in south-east Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.V.; Meldrum, L.R.; Wong, J.C.F.; Fleming, R.A.; Aitken, J.

    1999-01-01

    The lifetime erythemal UV exposures received by selected population groups in south-east Queensland from birth up to an age of 55 years have been quantitatively estimated. A representative sample of teachers and other school workers received (64±22)x10 5 J m -2 to the neck compared with (4.1±1.4)x10 5 Jm -2 to the upper leg. A sample of indoor workers (bank officers, solicitors and psychologists) received approximately 2% less and a sample of outdoor workers (carpenters, tilers, electricians and labourers) received approximately 10% more to the neck than the school workers. These differences in erythemal UV exposures may influence the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. (author)

  8. Effects of duration of stay in temperate area on thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure in tropical south-east Asian males residing in Japan

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    Wijayanto Titis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigated the effects of duration of stay in a temperate area on the thermoregulatory responses to passive heat exposure of residents from tropical areas, particularly to clarify whether they would lose their heat tolerance during passive heat exposure through residence in a temperate country, Japan. Methods We enrolled 12 males (mean ± SE age 25.7 ± 1.3 years from south-east Asian countries who had resided in Japan for a mean of 24.5 ± 5.04 months, and 12 Japanese males (age 24.1 ± 0.9 years. Passive heat exposure was induced through leg immersion in hot water (42°C for 60 minutes under conditions of 28°C air temperature and 50% relative humidity. Results Compared with the Japanese group, the tropical group displayed a higher pre-exposure rectal temperature (P P = 0.03. Additionally, the tropical group showed a tendency towards a lower total sweat rate (P = 0.06 and lower local sweat rate on the forehead (P = 0.07. The tropical group also had a significantly longer sweating onset time on the upper back (P = 0.04 compared with the Japanese groups. The tropical group who stayed in Japan for > 23 months sweated earlier on the forehead and upper back than those who stayed in Japan P P = 0.03 for the forehead and upper back, respectively. There was a positive correlation between duration of stay in Japan and total sweat rate (r = 0.58, P r = −0.73, P = 0.01 and on the upper back (r = −0.66, P = 0.02. Other physiological indices measured in this study did not show any difference between the subjects in the tropical group who had lived in Japan for a shorter time and those who had lived there for a longer time. Conclusions We conclude that the nature of heat acclimatization of the sweating responses to passive heat exposure that are acquired from long-term heat acclimatization is decayed by a stay in a temperate area, as shown

  9. How Chinese are entrepreneurial strategies of ethnic Chinese business groups in Southeast Asia? : a multifaceted analysis of the Salim Group of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Maria Helena

    2007-01-01

    Family business groups are ubiquitous in most emerging markets. This book provides a richly documented analysis of the strategy of the Salim Group, one of the largest family conglomerates in Southeast Asia. It argues that the strategy of this group oscillated irregularly between a business model

  10. Sailing The Calm And Rough Seas: The Influence Of Wealth And Sovereignty In Southeast Asian Maritime Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    International Politics in the South China Sea: Towards a Cooperative Management Regime, ed. W. S. G. Bateman and Ralf Emmers, Routledge Security in...important roles. The next important point to address is undelimited maritime boundaries and ongoing maritime disputes in Southeast Asia. Sam Bateman ...by Malaysia and Singapore could be a good sign 301 Sam Bateman , Joshua Ho, and Jane Chan, Good

  11. TVET Initiatives in Southeast Asian Countries in Response to Increasing Labour Mobility within the Region and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryono

    2011-01-01

    The International Labour Organisation (ILO) report (2007) highlights that labour productivity, education and migration play important roles in shaping competitiveness, growth and development in Southeast Asia. The statistics also reveal interesting aspects of labour mobility. Thirteen and a half million migrants originate from countries in the…

  12. Asian Americans and Campus Climate: Investigating Group Differences around a Racial Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marc P.; Yeung, Fanny P. F

    2014-01-01

    Racially biased incidents pervade college campuses warranting further attention to their influence on campus climate. This study examines one such incident that targeted Asian American students, who are the largest racial group at the compositionally diverse institution. Using the Diverse Learning Environments survey and the "naturally…

  13. Medical care of hepatitis B among Asian American populations: perspectives from three provider groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jessica P; Roundtree, Aimee K; Engebretson, Joan C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2010-03-01

    Physicians can play a significant role in helping to decrease the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden among Asian Americans. Few studies have described knowledge and practice patterns in the medical community among different provider types regarding HBV and liver cancer. Our study explores the HBV beliefs, attitudes and practice patterns of medical providers serving Asian American communities. We conducted three focus groups with primary care providers, liver specialists, and other providers predominantly serving Asian American community. We asked about practices and barriers to appropriate medical care and outreach. We moderated three focus groups with 23 participants, 18 of whom completed and returned demographic surveys. Twelve were of Asian ethnicity and 13 spoke English as a second language. Only eight screened at least half of their patients, most (72%) using the hepatitis B surface antigen test. We used grounded theory methods to analyze focus group transcripts. Participants frequently discussed cultural and financial barriers to hepatitis care. They admitted reluctance to screen for HBV because patients might be unwilling or unable to afford treatment. Cultural differences were discussed most by primary care providers; best methods of outreach were discussed most by liver specialists; and alternative medicine was discussed most by acupuncturists and other providers. More resources are needed to lower financial barriers complicating HBV care and encourage providing guideline-recommended screenings. Other providers can help promote HBV screening and increase community and cultural awareness.

  14. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  15. Trends in presentation, management and survival of patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer in a Southeast Asian setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo Pathy, Nirmala; Verkooijen, Helena Marieke; Tan, Ern-Yu; Miao, Hui; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Brand, Judith S.; Dent, Rebecca A.; See, Mee-Hoong; Subramaniam, ShriDevi; Chan, Patrick; Lee, Soo-Chin; Hartman, Mikael; Yip, Cheng-Har

    2015-01-01

    Up to 25% of breast cancer patients in Asia present with de novo metastatic disease. We examined the survival trends of Asian patients with metastatic breast cancer over fifteen years. The impact of changes in patient's demography, tumor characteristics, tumor burden, and treatment on survival trend

  16. Integrating the issues of world animal health and world public health into the veterinary curriculum: a Southeast Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri-Saad, M; Romziah, S; Kunavongkrit, A; Valdez, C A; Thien, M

    2009-08-01

    The authors analysed the curricula of five veterinary schools in Southeast Asia to determine how successfully they integrate the issues of global animal health and global public health into their programmes. Two schools offer a five-year programme while the remaining three offer a six-year programme. The core courses within the curricula range from 145 to 224 credit hours, in total. In general, world animal health and world public health are well integrated into the veterinary curriculum. Most curricula allocate approximately 3% of their total credit hours to subjects associated with animal and public health, but other subjects that may contain discussions on these issues range between 6% and 10%. Most veterinary schools in Southeast Asia offer a Master's programme in Veterinary Public Health, with detailed emphasis on animal and public health but focusing principally on topics of local importance. At the same time, undergraduate and post-graduate veterinary students are exposed to current issues in animal and public health through regional and international scientific meetings.

  17. A New Chronology for the Bronze Age of Northeastern Thailand and Its Implications for Southeast Asian Prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F W; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G

    2015-01-01

    There are two models for the origins and timing of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia. The first centres on the sites of Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha in Northeast Thailand. It places the first evidence for bronze technology in about 2000 B.C., and identifies the origin by means of direct contact with specialists of the Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition of Central Eurasia. The second is based on the site of Ban Non Wat, 280 km southwest of Ban Chiang, where extensive radiocarbon dating places the transition into the Bronze Age in the 11th century B.C. with likely origins in a southward expansion of technological expertise rooted in the early states of the Yellow and Yangtze valleys, China. We have redated Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha, as well as the sites of Ban Na Di and Ban Lum Khao, and here present 105 radiocarbon determinations that strongly support the latter model. The statistical analysis of the results using a Bayesian approach allows us to examine the data at a regional level, elucidate the timing of arrival of copper base technology in Southeast Asia and consider its social impact.

  18. Caught in the Middle: Understanding Asian Pacific American Perspectives on Affirmative Action through Blumer's Group Position Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2003-01-01

    This study examines Asian Pacific American undergraduates' views on affirmative action and their perspectives on U.S. race relations through Herbert Blumer's (1958) theory of group position. Results indicate that Asian Pacific American (APA) students may perceive other minority student applicants as inferior to APA applicants and feel threatened…

  19. Disparities in abnormal mammogram follow-up time for Asian women compared with non-Hispanic white women and between Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim H; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Karliner, Leah S

    2017-09-15

    Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. In the current study, the authors examined differences in abnormal screening mammogram follow-up between non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian women. The authors used a prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging, Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) abnormal result of category 0 or 3-plus in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier estimation for the median number of days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test was performed, and the authors compared the percentage of women with follow-up at 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days and no follow-up at 1 year for Asian women overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHW women. In addition, the authors assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time to follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipina women had the longest, and Japanese women the shortest, median follow-up (32 days, 28 days, and 19 days, respectively) compared with NHW women (15 days). The percentage of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians versus NHWs (57% vs 77%; PAsian ethnic groups except Japanese. Asian women had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHW women (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.72). Asian women also had a higher rate of receiving no follow-up compared with NHW women (15% vs 10%; PAsian ethnic groups, Filipinas were found to have the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Asian women, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese women, were less likely than NHW women to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. Cancer 2017;123:3468-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Did the demise of Green Sahara play a role in the mid-to-late Holocene megadrought and `missing millennia' in southeast Asian societies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Johnson, K. R.; Pausata, F. S. R.; White, J.; Yang, H.; Henderson, G. M.; Conrad, C.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-to-late Holocene in eastern Africa and Eurasia was characterized by one of, if not the, largest climate anomalies of the past 10,000 years (i.e. the `4.2 ka event'), yet the cause of this event remains enigmatic. The nature and geographical extent of the event has been a topic of great interest because of its potential connections with societal upheavals in western Asia and northeastern Africa. However, while paleoclimate data from India and southern China show evidence for a large-scale megadrought during this period, there have hitherto been no high-resolution and well-dated records from mainland southeast Asia (MSEA) to document the regional footprint of this event. This is somewhat surprising given that this period also coincides with what has been termed the `missing millennia' in MSEA, which refers to the major gap in archeological evidence that may have some link with the broader Asian monsoon failure during this time. To help shed light on the potential connection between climate change and the missing millennia, we have compiled four new speleothem oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope records from Tham Doun Mai cave in northern Laos. The δ18O profiles show a general increasing trend through much of the Holocene which is interpreted to reflect an overall weakening of the Southeast Asian monsoon. This general trend is punctuated by a marked positive δ18O shift at 4-5 ka, signifying an overall reduction in monsoon strength that persisted until 3.5 ka. Interestingly, the onset of this anomaly coincides with the cessation in speleothem growth of three speleothems, and a 4 per mil increase in δ13C for the speleothem that continued to grow. We interpret this large and abrupt increase in δ13C to reflect enhanced CO2 degassing due to a much slower drip-rate (supported by a slower growth rate), and the hiatuses to reflect large groundwater deficits to those drip sites. The onset of this abrupt megadrought in northern Laos is consistent with abrupt

  1. High Incidence of Hepatitis B Infection-Associated Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Southeast Asian Patients with Portal Vein Thrombosis

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    Auewarakul Chirayu U

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is a rare condition associated with serious morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, clinical presentations, and risk factors of PVT from the set of data firstly collected among the Southeast Asian population. Methods A retrospective study was undertaken to identify patients diagnosed with thrombosis of the portal system and other abdominal veins. The hospital medical records were retrieved based on the selected ICD-10 codes. Clinical presentations were collected and risk factors determined. Results From 2000-2009, 467 hospital charts with designated ICD-10 codes of I81, I82.2, I82.3, I82.8, I82.9, or K55.0 were identified. PVT (I81 was the most common thrombosis (194 cases, 41.54%. The majority of PVT patients were males (65%, older than 40 years (75%, and presented with abdominal distension/ascites (69%, splenomegaly (54.6%, and abdominal pain (50.5%. Overall, the predominant risk factor was hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC (52.5%, followed by liver cirrhosis without cancer (9.3%, abdominal infection/inflammation (9.3%, cholangiocarcinoma (8.2%, and abdominal intervention (7.7%. In young patients, abdominal interventions including umbilical catheterization (23.1% and hepatectomy (7.7% were the most frequent risks whereas in older cases, primary hepatobiliary cancer and cirrhosis (78% were the major risks. Liver metastases from other organs were infrequently found. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection was the main etiology associated with cirrhosis/HCC leading to PVT in this cohort. A third of the older PVT patients (age >40 had HBV and very few carried hepatitis C virus (HCV whereas none of the young PVT patients (age Conclusion HBV is the major risk of PVT in the Southeast Asian population. Several risk factors identified in this population have rarely been described and some are remarkably different from those reported in the West. Host and

  2. Local Media in Global Conflict: Southeast Asian Newspapers and the Politics of Peace in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that local media are a potential deescalating tool in global conflict. This study examines how four leading newspapers in Southeast Asia (Star of Malaysia, Philstar of the Philippines, Jakarta Post of Indonesia, and The Nation of Thailand reported the Israeli-Palestinian conflict during the year after the 2009 Gaza War. A census of 536 reports was coded for tones (to detect alignment, frames (to detect characterization of the conflict, and sources (to examine correlation with coverage tones. The results show fragmented alignment of the newspapers with Palestine and Israel. Conflict frames on offensives, fighting, threats, military strategies, demonization, death, and destruction were most prevalent. Coverage tones were significantly correlated with sources, suggesting that the potential of local media to serve as deescalating tools in global conflicts is subject to the varying political contexts in which they operate in relation to specific conflicts.

  3. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Peltzer; Supa Pengpid

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13?15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking ...

  4. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  5. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  6. Linking data to tobacco control program action among students aged 13-15 in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirichotiratana, N; Sovann, S; Aditama, T Y; Krishnan, M; Kyaing, N N; Miguel-Baquilod, M; Hai, P T; Sinha, D N; Warren, C W; Jones, N R

    2008-12-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has made tobacco use prevention a primary health issue. All ASEAN countries except Indonesia have ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the world's first public health treaty on tobacco control. Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data were collected from representative samples of students in school grades associated with ages 13-15 in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos (Vientiane), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam (Hanoi). Current cigarette smoking ranged from less than 5% (Vietnam and Cambodia) to 20.2% in Malaysia. Current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was less than 10% in all countries. Boys were significantly more likely than girls to smoke cigarettes or use other tobacco products. Exposure to second-hand smoke in public places was greater than 50%, direct pro-tobacco advertising exposure was greater than 75% and over 10% of students were exposed to indirect advertising. Over 60% of students who currently smoked cigarettes wanted to stop, but 80% who tried to quit in the year prior to the survey failed. Efforts to reduce the current and projected harm caused by tobacco use in the ASEAN countries are urgently needed. ASEAN countries need to expand their national comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs and enforce those laws already passed. Without this effort little reduction can be expected in the burden of chronic diseases and tobacco-related mortality.

  7. Reciprocal Relations between Official Development Assistance Recipient and Donor Countries: Case of South Korean Overseas Construction Business and Southeast Asian Countries’ Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, official development assistance (ODA is generally perceived to be an alternative means to develop infrastructure. Donor countries may expect benefits such as increased construction project orders in recipient countries. However, it remains arguable whether ODA contributes to reciprocal relations between recipient and donor countries. The case of South Korea can provide empirical data given that its government has expanded the amount of ODA to encourage overseas construction business while supporting Southeast Asian countries. In this research, gross national income (GNI, gross domestic product (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI, and construction project orders awarded by South Korean construction companies in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are analyzed according to the variation of ODA awarded by South Korea. The analysis results show that the influence of ODA upon economic situation of recipient countries varies according to their economic volume and development policy. From the donor country’s perspective, enhanced performance of construction business can be expected by means of cooperation with local construction business.

  8. Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project: introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In April–July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest" (OP3 project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rainforest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~100 pptv/pptv, current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm−3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements that suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical rainforest and we continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  9. Prevalence, demographic and psychosocial correlates for school truancy among students aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-11-01

    Truancy among adolescents may negatively affect the achievement of academic goals. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of school truancy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 28 419 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN member states that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of past 30 day truancy across six ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 24.8%; ranging from below 20% in Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam to more than 30% in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors (older age, being male, the experience of hunger), externalising behaviour (tobacco use, alcohol use, having been in a physical fight, being bullied, having sustained an injury), and lack of protective social-familial factors (lack of peer support and lack of parental or guardian support) were found to be associated with truancy. High rates of truancy were found in ASEAN member states calling for interventions aimed to reduce truancy considering identified associated factors.

  10. The Rising Burden of Diabetes and Hypertension in Southeast Asian and African Regions: Need for Effective Strategies for Prevention and Control in Primary Health Care Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To review the available literature on burden of diabetes mellitus (DM and hypertension (HTN and its coexistence in Southeast Asian (SEA and the African (AFR regions and to suggest strategies to improve DM and HTN prevention and control in primary health care (PHC in the two regions. Methods. A systematic review of the papers published on DM, HTN, and prevention/control of chronic diseases in SEA and AFR regions between 1980 and December 2012 was included. Results. In the year 2011, SEA region had the second largest number of people with DM (71.4 million, while the AFR region had the smallest number (14.7 million. Screening studies identified high proportions (>50% of individuals with previously undiagnosed HTN and DM in both of the SEA and AFR regions. Studies from both regions have shown that DM and HTN coexist in type 2 DM ranging from 20.6% in India to 78.4% in Thailand in the SEA region and ranging from 9.7% in Nigeria to 70.4% in Morocco in the AFR region. There is evidence that by lifestyle modification both DM and HTN can be prevented. Conclusion. To meet the twin challenge of DM and HTN in developing countries, PHCs will have to be strengthened with a concerted and multipronged effort to provide promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services.

  11. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in gastric cancer in a south-east Asian population by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, A.Y-F; Chow, P.K.H.; Yu, W-K.; Ho, J.M.S.; Chan, H-S.; Wong, W-K.; Soo, K-C.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of gastric cancer. There is a great variability in seropositivity and histological frequency of H. pylori in gastric cancer. The present prospective study investigates the prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastric cancer patients using 14C-urea breath testing. Patients with endoscopic biopsy-proven gastric cancer were fasted for 6 h prior to ingesting 18.5 x 104 Bq of 14C-urea cocktail orally. Breath samples were collected after 20 min by AS/King them to blow into a hyamine solution and measurements were read in a scintillation counter. Fifty out of 51 patients (98%) with gastric cancer were positive on the 14C-urea breath test compared to 29 patients (61%) who were positive on histology. There was no association between sex, age or tumour site, stage, differentiation, Lauren type and H. pylori status. The test was negative in one patient with cardiac tumour in which histology of the resected specimen was also negative for the bacteria. Active H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in gastric cancer in a South-East Asian population. The 14C-urea breath test is a highly sensitive method for detecting the presence of H. pylori even in gastric adenocarcinoma irrespective of the stage

  12. Is healthcare a 'Necessity' or 'Luxury'? an empirical evidence from public and private sector analyses of South-East Asian countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir Am; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam

    2015-01-01

    South-East Asian Regional (SEAR) countries range from low- to middle-income countries and have considerable differences in mix of public and private sector expenditure on health. This study intends to estimate the income-elasticities of healthcare expenditure in public and private sectors separately for investigating whether healthcare is a 'necessity' or 'luxury' for citizens of these countries. Panel data from 9 SEAR countries over 16 years (1995-2010) were employed. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate income-elasticity of public, private and total healthcare expenditure. Results showed that one percent point increase in GDP per capita increased private expenditure on healthcare by 1.128%, while public expenditure increased by only 0.412%. Inclusion of three-year lagged variables of GDP per capita in the models did not have remarkable influence on the findings. The citizens of SEAR countries consider healthcare as a necessity while provided through public sector and a luxury when delivered by private sector. By increasing the public provisions of healthcare, more redistribution of healthcare resources can be ensured, which can accelerate the journey of SEAR countries towards universal health coverage.

  13. Suicidal ideation and associated factors among students aged 13-15 years in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess suicidal ideation and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the cross-sectional global school-based student health survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation in the past 12 months across seven ASEAN countries was 12.3%, significantly higher in girls (15.1%) than boys (9.3%). Among seven ASEAN countries with the highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was in the Philippines (17.0%) and Vietnam (16.9%) and the lowest in Myanmar (1.1%) and Indonesia (4.2%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, female gender, older age (14 or 15 years), living in a lower middle income country, having no friends, loneliness, bullying victimisation, having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, lack of parental or guardian support, tobacco use and having a history of ever got drunk were associated with suicidal ideation. Different rates of suicidal ideation were observed in ASEAN member states. Several risk factors for suicidal ideation were identified which can help guide preventive efforts.

  14. South-East Asian Fortified Stone Walls: Angkor Thom (Cambodia, Ho Citadel (Vietnam and Ratu Boko (Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Lluís Pérez Garcia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze three significant examples of defensive walls from South-East Asia made of solid stone blocks (both rock as well as stone-like laterite and provided with different but equivalent functions –a fortified imperial capital-city (Angkor Thom, in Cambodia, a fortified royal citadel (Ho Citadel, in the North of Vietnam and a royal palace with a partly fortified appearance (Ratu Boko, in Java Island, Indonesia–, focusing on their constructive and technical characteristics and establishing parallels between them and their closest counterparts, from China and India. We will see how their design and structure can be closely related to the fortifications of neighbouring empires, as places of origin of their strong cultural influences and, at the same time, we will try to identify the local particularities. We will pay special attention to the form of the fortified enceintes, considering the long tradition of the quadrangular plan in the walls of royal capitals, inspired in the ideal model of Chinese and Indian cities. Our research also make us think that the walls of Ratu Boko, despite their functions as symbolic limits or for retaining the soil, could also have had a defensive purpose, no matter if secondary, or at least they could be used to provide protection to the complex in case of external menace.

  15. Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Liu, Li-Kuo; Woo, Jean; Assantachai, Prasert; Auyeung, Tung-Wai; Bahyah, Kamaruzzaman Shahrul; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Lee, Jenny S W; Lee, Wei-Ju; Lee, Yunhwan; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Limpawattana, Panita; Lin, Chu-Sheng; Peng, Li-Ning; Satake, Shosuke; Suzuki, Takao; Won, Chang Won; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Wu, Si-Nan; Zhang, Teimei; Zeng, Ping; Akishita, Masahiro; Arai, Hidenori

    2014-02-01

    Sarcopenia, a newly recognized geriatric syndrome, is characterized by age-related decline of skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance. Previous studies have confirmed the association of sarcopenia and adverse health outcomes, such as falls, disability, hospital admission, long term care placement, poorer quality of life, and mortality, which denotes the importance of sarcopenia in the health care for older people. Despite the clinical significance of sarcopenia, the operational definition of sarcopenia and standardized intervention programs are still lacking. It is generally agreed by the different working groups for sarcopenia in the world that sarcopenia should be defined through a combined approach of muscle mass and muscle quality, however, selecting appropriate diagnostic cutoff values for all the measurements in Asian populations is challenging. Asia is a rapidly aging region with a huge population, so the impact of sarcopenia to this region is estimated to be huge as well. Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) aimed to promote sarcopenia research in Asia, and we collected the best available evidences of sarcopenia researches from Asian countries to establish the consensus for sarcopenia diagnosis. AWGS has agreed with the previous reports that sarcopenia should be described as low muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or low physical performance, and we also recommend outcome indicators for further researches, as well as the conditions that sarcopenia should be assessed. In addition to sarcopenia screening for community-dwelling older people, AWGS recommends sarcopenia assessment in certain clinical conditions and healthcare settings to facilitate implementing sarcopenia in clinical practice. Moreover, we also recommend cutoff values for muscle mass measurements (7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.4 kg/m(2) for women by using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.7 kg/m(2) for women by using bioimpedance analysis

  16. Revision of the Southeast Asian millipede genus Orthomorpha Bollman, 1893, with the proposal of a new genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natdanai Likhitrakarn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The large genus Orthomorpha is rediagnosed and is shown to currently comprise 51 identifiable species ranging from northern Myanmar and Thailand in the Northwest to Lombok Island, Indonesia in the Southeast. Of them, 20 species have been revised and/or abundantly illustrated, based on a restudy of mostly type material; further 12 species are described as new: O. atypica sp. n., O. communis sp. n., O. isarankurai sp. n., O. picturata sp. n., O. similanensis sp. n., O. suberecta sp. n., O. tuberculifera sp. n., O. subtuberculifera sp. n. and O. latiterga sp. n., all from Thailand, as well as O. elevata sp. n., O. spiniformis sp. n. and O. subelevata sp. n., from northern Malaysia. The type-species O. beaumontii (Le Guillou, 1841 is redescribed in due detail from male material as well, actually being a senior subjective synonym of O. spinala (Attems, 1932, syn. n. Two additional new synonymies are proposed: O. rotundicollis (Attems, 1937 = O. tuberculata (Attems, 1937, syn. n., and O. butteli Carl, 1922 = O. consocius Chamberlin, 1945, syn. n., the valid names to the left. All species have been keyed and all new and some especially widespread species have been mapped. Further six species, including two revised from type material, are still to be considered dubious, mostly because their paraterga appear to be too narrow to represent Orthomorpha species. A new genus, Orthomorphoides gen. n., diagnosed versus Orthomorpha through only moderately well developed paraterga, coupled with a poorly bi- or trifid gonopod tip, with at least some of its apical prongs being short spines, is erected for two species: O. setosus (Attems, 1937, the type-species, which is also revised from type material, and O. exaratus (Attems, 1953, both comb. n. ex Orthomorpha.

  17. Spatio-temporal variation of fish taxonomic composition in a South-East Asian flood-pulse system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Heng; Chevalier, Mathieu; Laffaille, Pascal; Lek, Sovan

    2017-01-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake (TSL) is a flood-pulse system. It is the largest natural lake in South-East Asia and constitutes one of the largest fisheries over the world, supporting the livelihood of million peoples. Nonetheless, the Mekong River Basin is changing rapidly due to accelerating water infrastructure development (hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and water supply) and climate change, bringing considerable modifications to the annual flood-pulse of the TSL. Such modifications are expected to have strong impacts on fish biodiversity and abundance. This paper aims to characterize the spatio-temporal variations of fish taxonomic composition and to highlights the underlying determinants of these variations. For this purpose, we used data collected from a community catch monitoring program conducted at six sites during 141 weeks, covering two full hydrological cycles. For each week, we estimated beta diversity as the total variance of the site-by-species community matrix and partitioned it into Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD) and Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD). We then performed multiple linear regressions to determine whether species richness, species abundances and water level explained the temporal variation in the contribution of site and species to beta diversity. Our results indicate strong temporal variation of beta diversity due to differential contributions of sites and species to the spatial variation of fish taxonomic composition. We further found that the direction, the shape and the relative effect of species richness, abundances and water level on temporal variation in LCBD and SCBD values greatly varied among sites, thus suggesting spatial variation in the processes leading to temporal variation in community composition. Overall, our results suggest that fish taxonomic composition is not homogeneously distributed over space and time and is likely to be impacted in the future if the flood-pulse dynamic of the system is

  18. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  19. Phylogenetic relationship among East Asian species of the Stegana genus group (Diptera, Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Gao, Jian-jun; Lu, Jin-ming; Ji, Xing-lai; Chen, Hong-wei

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship among 27 East Asian species of the Stegana genus group was reconstructed using DNA sequences of mitochondrial (COI and ND2) and nuclear (28S) genes. The results lent support to the current generic/subgeneric taxonomic classification in the genus group with the exceptions of the paraphyly of the genus Parastegana and the subgenus Oxyphortica in the genus Stegana. The ancestral areas and divergence times in the genus group were reconstructed/estimated, and accordingly, the biogeographical history of this important clade was discussed. It was proposed that, the evolution of the plant family Fagaceae, especially Quercus, may have played a certain role in facilitating the diversification of the Stegana genus group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Cord, Anna; Hearn, Andrew J; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J W; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-03-17

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key

  3. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  4. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%, NO (22% and total peroxy radicals (27%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with

  5. Incidence of lymphoid neoplasms by subtype among six Asian ethnic groups in the United States, 1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, J Daniel; Morton, Lindsay M; Devesa, Susan S; Clarke, Christina A; Gomez, Scarlett L; Glaser, Sally L; Sakoda, Lori C; Linet, Martha S; Wang, Sophia S

    2008-12-01

    To establish baseline data for lymphoid neoplasm incidence by subtype for six Asian-American ethnic groups. Incident rates were estimated by age and sex for six Asian ethnic groups--Asian Indian/Pakistani, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese--in five United States cancer registry areas during 1996-2004. For comparison, rates for non-Hispanic Whites were also estimated. During 1996-2004, Filipinos had the highest (24.0) and Koreans had the lowest incidence (12.7) of total lymphoid neoplasms. By subtype, Vietnamese and Filipinos had the highest incidence for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (8.0 and 7.2); Japanese had the highest incidence of follicular lymphoma (2.3). Although a general male predominance of lymphoid neoplasms was observed, this pattern varied by lymphoid neoplasm subtype. Whites generally had higher rates than all Asian ethnic groups for all lymphoid neoplasms and most lymphoma subtypes, although the magnitude of the difference varied by both ethnicity and lymphoma subtype. The observed variations in incidence patterns among Asian ethnic groups in the United States suggest that it may be fruitful to pursue studies that compare Asian populations for postulated environmental and genetic risk factors.

  6. Cloud Occurrence Measurements Over Sea during the 2nd 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) Field Campaign in Palawan Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Uy, S. N.; Caballa, K.; Lagrosas, N.

    2014-12-01

    averages of 66% or higher - 98% being the highest. This result would then give a general trend of how cloud occurrences over land and over sea differ in the South East Asian region. In this study, these cloud occurrences come from local convection and clouds brought about by Southwest Monsoon winds.

  7. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  8. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  9. Knowledge about, attitude toward, and practice of skin lightening products use and its social correlates among university students in five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge about, attitude toward, and use of skin lightening products (SLP) and its social and psychological correlates among university students from five Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. In a cross sectional survey, 3259 undergraduate university students (Mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.6) from five ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, poor mental health, and SLP use. Overall, 79.1% of the students were aware that the use of SLP can harm the skin, and 30.1% knew the active ingredients of SLP. Most students had a positive perception of having a lighter skin tone and SLP. Overall, the prevalence of SLP use over the past 12 months was 30.7%, 16.7% of male, and 30.0% of female students, ranging from 13.4% in Myanmar to 69.4% in Thailand. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, among women, older age, coming from a poorer family, residing in an upper middle income country, awareness of active skin lightening ingredients, and poor mental health were associated with SLP, while among men, not aware of the negative effects of SLP and awareness of active skin lightening ingredients and poor mental health were associated with SLP use. A high prevalence of SLP use was found in a large sample of ASEAN university students, and several social and mental health-related risk factors were found that may help in guiding interventions. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016

  11. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  12. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on quality of life in HIV-infected Southeast Asian children in the PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Vibol, Ung; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2013-11-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is an important antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcome. We compared QOL among 299 Thai and Cambodian children ages 1-12 years-old, CD4 15-24% randomized to early (ART at week 0, N=149) versus deferred groups (ART when at CD4 0.05) and at week 144 (all p>0.05). By multivariate analysis, the early-group had higher QOL score changes in five domains, including health perception (p=0.04), physical resilience (p=0.02), psychosocial well-being (p=0.04), social and role functioning (p<0.01), and symptoms (p=0.01) compared to the deferred group. QOL of HIV-infected children in both groups were lower than healthy control in all 7 domains at baseline (all p<0.05) and 5 of 7 domains at weeks 144 (p<0.01). In conclusion, no significant difference of QOL scores between treatment groups. Early ART commencement associated with greater increase of QOL scores over 144 weeks. QOL scores in HIV-infected children were lower than healthy controls.

  13. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  14. Paleontology to policy: the Quaternary history of Southeast Asian tapirs (Tapiridae) in relation to large mammal species turnover, with a proposal for conservation of Malayan tapir by reintroduction to Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranbrook, Earl Of; Piper, Philip J

    2013-03-01

    The Southeast Asian zoogeographical region is divided into Indochinese, Sundaic and Philippine subregions. Two clades of tapirs, Tapirus spp., have been recognized in Quaternary Southeast Asia. A review of sites at which they occurred shows that representatives of both clades, one of which was the ancestral Malayan tapir Tapirus indicus, co-existed with a diversity of other Pleistocene mammal megafauna. The process of replacement of archaic large mammals was progressive and prolonged through the Quaternary. Zooarcheological investigation has extended knowledge of the former occurrence and distribution of tapirs and other large mammals of the region, with discoveries beyond the outer limits of their previously known ranges. These large mammals were subjected to paleoenvironmental changes as a consequence of the Quaternary cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Archeological evidence suggests that hunting pressure has intensified the effects of altered environments, leading ultimately to the local disappearance of the Malayan tapir in most of Southeast Asia, including Borneo. The survival of the Malayan tapir through the Quaternary until the present shows that the species is both resilient to environmental change and flexible in its ecological re'uirements and, given proper protection, could continue to inhabit tropical Southeast Asia. To assist the species conservation, reintroduction is proposed from the remaining range of Malayan tapir in the wild, to suitable sites of past occurrence in Borneo, where these ancient survivors of the Quaternary megafauna can be accommodated and safeguarded alongside other forms of land usage. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  15. Cervical cancer prevention: Asian-American women's knowledge and participation in screening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Katina; Clark, Lindsay; Eng, Whitney; Wu, Lily; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Dizon, Don S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer knowledge and prevention strategy participation among Chinese-American women compared with Southeast-Asian-American women. We performed a cross-sectional survey of Chinese and Southeast Asian women in Rhode Island. Anonymous surveys were administered following informed consent. The survey included demographics and questions related to health care practices, cervical cancer, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Mean scores of correct answers on the knowledge questions were compared by Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Ninety-six Chinese women and 132 Southeast Asian women were included in the analysis. Sixty-seven percent of Chinese women had at least a college education compared with 37% of Southeast Asian women (p women reported annual household incomes of greater than $100,000 compared with 3% of Southeast Asian women (p = .0003). Twenty percent of Southeast Asian women did not have health insurance compared with 10% of Chinese women (p = .06). Among both groups, 25% of participants either never had a pap test or did not know if they ever had a pap test. There was a greater lack of knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese (mean 2.9 out of 8 questions) compared with Southeast Asian (mean 3.6 out of 8 questions; p = .02). Regardless of ethnic subgroup, education, or income, all participants had a poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV. This study supports the need for improvement in cervical cancer prevention education among all Asian women. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Theoretically informed correlates of hepatitis B knowledge among four Asian groups: the health behavior framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Stewart, Susan L; Glenn, Beth A; Wong, Weng Kee; Yasui, Yutaka; Chang, L Cindy; Taylor, Victoria M; Nguyen, Tung T; Chen, Moon S; Bastani, Roshan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined theoretically informed constructs related to hepatitis B (HBV) testing, and comparisons across studies are challenging due to lack of uniformity in constructs assessed. The present analysis examined relationships among Health Behavior Framework factors across four Asian American groups to advance the development of theory-based interventions for HBV testing in at-risk populations. Data were collected from 2007-2010 as part of baseline surveys during four intervention trials promoting HBV testing among Vietnamese-, Hmong-, Korean- and Cambodian-Americans (n = 1,735). Health Behavior Framework constructs assessed included: awareness of HBV, knowledge of transmission routes, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, doctor recommendation, stigma of HBV infection, and perceived efficacy of testing. Within each group we assessed associations between our intermediate outcome of knowledge of HBV transmission and other constructs, to assess the concurrent validity of our model and instruments. While the absolute levels for Health Behavior Framework factors varied across groups, relationships between knowledge and other factors were generally consistent. This suggests similarities rather than differences with respect to posited drivers of HBV-related behavior. Our findings indicate that Health Behavior Framework constructs are applicable to diverse ethnic groups and provide preliminary evidence for the construct validity of the Health Behavior Framework.

  18. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport from equatorial Southeast Asian Maritime Continent to the Philippines: First comparison of ensemble analysis with in situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Posselt, Derek J.; Xian, Peng; Hyer, Edward

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric transport of smoke from equatorial Southeast Asian Maritime Continent (Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia) to the Philippines was recently verified by the first-ever measurement of aerosol composition in the region of the Sulu Sea from a research vessel named Vasco. However, numerical modeling of such transport can have large uncertainties due to the lack of observations for parameterization schemes and for describing fire emission and meteorology in this region. These uncertainties are analyzed here, for the first time, with an ensemble of 24 Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations. The ensemble reproduces the time series of observed surface nonsea-salt PM2.5 concentrations observed from the Vasco vessel during 17-30 September 2011 and overall agrees with satellite (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)) and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data. The difference of meteorology between National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP's) Final (FNL) and European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF's) ERA renders the biggest spread in the ensemble (up to 20 μg m-3 or 200% in surface PM2.5), with FNL showing systematically superior results. The second biggest uncertainty is from fire emissions; the 2 day maximum Fire Locating and Modelling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) emission is superior than the instantaneous one. While Grell-Devenyi (G3) and Betts-Miller-Janjić cumulus schemes only produce a difference of 3 μg m-3 of surface PM2.5 over the Sulu Sea, the ensemble mean agrees best with Climate Prediction Center (CPC) MORPHing (CMORPH)'s spatial distribution of precipitation. Simulation with FNL-G3, 2 day maximum FLAMBE, and 800 m injection height outperforms other ensemble members. Finally, the global transport model (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS)) outperforms all WRF

  19. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  20. Indonesia's Transformation and the Stability of Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel

    2001-01-01

    ... and straits, Indonesia is the key to Southeast Asian security. Therefore, Indonesia's choices and its evolution will frame the future of Southeast Asia and influence the balance of power in the broader Asia-Pacific region...

  1. Organizational Life and Political Incorporation of Two Asian Immigrant Groups: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekar, Sofya

    2009-10-14

    Civil society is the foundation of a healthy democracy but its immigrant element has received little attention. This paper is a case study of immigrant organizations of highly-skilled Asian Indians and Chinese immigrants in a suburban town of Edison, New Jersey. I find that civic participation of Asian Indian immigrants spills over into political incorporation while Chinese immigrant organizations remain marginalized. I argue the local processes of racialization are central in explaining differences in political incorporation of immigrants. In the local context, the Chinese are seen as successful but conformist model minorities and Asian Indians as invaders and troublemakers. The racialization of Asian Indians has resulted in more political activity and higher levels of political visibility of their organizations. The results highlight shortcomings of current assimilation theories, which give little space to civic and political incorporation and view human capital in an unqualifiedly positive light.

  2. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.

  3. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia I - The Scutellaris Group of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    2 1, 2 p . I THAILAND. Chiang Mai : Huey Keo (4-H-1953, D. C. Thurman Jr.) Id, Id terminalia. 107/s, REMARKS. There are 3 larval and pupal skin...part of Thailand. In Southeast Asia, it is known from only Chiang Mai , Thailand and is recorded here for the first time from this country. BIOLOGY...1923, Bar- raud), 5d, 59, 1.d terminalia; Punjab: Rawalpindi, Murree, W. Kimal (1922, Gill), Id, 19. THAILAND. Chiang Mai : (4-IV-1953, Thurman), 3d

  4. EMIGRATION FROM RUSSIA TO SOUTHEAST ASIA: FACTORS, GEOGRAPHY AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the geographical features and trends of emigration of Russian citizens to the countries of Southeast Asia on the basis of a comparative analysis of domestic and foreign statistics. The results of sociological research in these countries have been used: interviews with experts and migrant citizens of various countries of the former USSR who live or stay in Southeast Asia for more than six months. In the course of the study, a comprehensive methodology was developed and the degree of favorableness of the migration and visa regimes of the Southeast Asian countries for Russian citizens has been assessed for a number of characteristics. Factors attracting Russian citizens to the countries of the region in the context of the migration theory of the factors of “pull and push” have been revealed. The socio-demographic structure of migration flows and the geographical features of the resettlement of Russian citizens in the Southeast Asian countries have been considered. The main channels of migration of Russian citizens to the region are given: temporary labor migration, migration for permanent residence, and tourism. Several groups of Russian-speaking migrants in the Southeast Asian countries have been singled out: migrants who have moved to permanent residence, as a rule, opened their own businesses; temporary migrant workers who work for several years in Southeast Asia, are tied to work and are planning to return to Russia after some time; temporary migrants who live in Southeast Asia for several months and periodically return to Russia; Russian women who married citizens of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and other Southeast Asian countries – former students who studied in the USSR and Russia. On the basis of expert assessments, the types of migration and visa regimes of the countries of Southeast Asia for Russian citizens have been highlighted. Specifics of the formation of Russian-speaking communities in the countries of the

  5. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  6. Emergence of the Asian 1 Genotype of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 in Viet Nam: In Vivo Fitness Advantage and Lineage Replacement in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ty Hang, Vu Thi; Holmes, Edward C.; Veasna, Duong; Quy, Nguyen Thien; Tinh Hien, Tran; Quail, Michael; Churcher, Carol; Parkhill, Julian; Cardosa, Jane; Farrar, Jeremy; Wills, Bridget; Lennon, Niall J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Buchy, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    A better description of the extent and structure of genetic diversity in dengue virus (DENV) in endemic settings is central to its eventual control. To this end we determined the complete coding region sequence of 187 DENV-2 genomes and 68 E genes from viruses sampled from Vietnamese patients between 1995 and 2009. Strikingly, an episode of genotype replacement was observed, with Asian 1 lineage viruses entirely displacing the previously dominant Asian/American lineage viruses. This genotype replacement event also seems to have occurred within DENV-2 in Thailand and Cambodia, suggestive of a major difference in viral fitness. To determine the cause of this major evolutionary event we compared both the infectivity of the Asian 1 and Asian/American genotypes in mosquitoes and their viraemia levels in humans. Although there was little difference in infectivity in mosquitoes, we observed significantly higher plasma viraemia levels in paediatric patients infected with Asian 1 lineage viruses relative to Asian/American viruses, a phenotype that is predicted to result in a higher probability of human-to-mosquito transmission. These results provide a mechanistic basis to a marked change in the genetic structure of DENV-2 and more broadly underscore that an understanding of DENV evolutionary dynamics can inform the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs. PMID:20651932

  7. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  8. Metabolic syndrome and psoriasis severity in South-East Asian patients: An investigation of potential association using current and chronological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Chaweekulrat, Pichanee

    2016-12-01

    Although studies regarding prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian psoriatic patients are limited and show varying results, a previous report describes a significant increase in prevalence of MS in Thai psoriatic patients, as compared with rates in the general population. However, no significant association between MS and psoriasis severity using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was found, which differs from the findings of Korean and Japanese studies. This study aimed at re-evaluating the association between MS and psoriasis severity in Thai patients using current assessment (PASI) and chronological assessment (historical course and interventions). A total of 273 psoriatic patients were recruited. After controlling for age and sex, 96 patients were assigned to the MS group and 96 patients to the non-MS group. Similar to the previous study, no significant differences were identified between metabolic and non-metabolic patients regarding PASI, age of onset, disease duration and family history of psoriasis. However, the numbers of hospitalizations (P = 0.018) and interventions (P = 0.028) were significantly higher in metabolic patients than in non-metabolic patients. Further, a greater number of metabolic components was significantly associated with a higher number of hospitalizations (P = 0.012), pustular or erythrodermic psoriasis episodes (P = 0.049), and interventions (P = 0.005). Body mass index of 23 kg/m 2 or more, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure were associated with an increased risk of treatment failure. Using chronological assessment, our study supported that MS negatively affects psoriasis severity and treatment outcomes. Screening for MS is highly recommended for psoriatic patients. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. Two species of Southeast Asian cats in the genus Catopuma with diverging histories: an island endemic forest specialist and a widespread habitat generalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Riddhi P; Förster, Daniel W; Kitchener, Andrew C; Rayan, Mark D; Mohamed, Shariff W; Werner, Laura; Lenz, Dorina; Pfestorf, Hans; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Fickel, Jörns; Wilting, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Background. The bay cat Catopuma badia is endemic to Borneo, whereas its sister species the Asian golden cat Catopuma temminckii is distributed from the Himalayas and southern China through Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Based on morphological data, up to five subspecies of the Asian golden cat have been recognized, but a taxonomic assessment, including molecular data and morphological characters, is still lacking. Results. We combined molecular data (whole mitochondrial genomes), morphological data (pelage) and species distribution projections (up to the Late Pleistocene) to infer how environmental changes may have influenced the distribution of these sister species over the past 120 000 years. The molecular analysis was based on sequenced mitogenomes of 3 bay cats and 40 Asian golden cats derived mainly from archival samples. Our molecular data suggested a time of split between the two species approximately 3.16 Ma and revealed very low nucleotide diversity within the Asian golden cat population, which supports recent expansion of the population. Discussion. The low nucleotide diversity suggested a population bottleneck in the Asian golden cat, possibly caused by the eruption of the Toba volcano in Northern Sumatra (approx. 74 kya), followed by a continuous population expansion in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene. Species distribution projections, the reconstruction of the demographic history, a genetic isolation-by-distance pattern and a gradual variation of pelage pattern support the hypothesis of a post-Toba population expansion of the Asian golden cat from south China/Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Our findings reject the current classification of five subspecies for the Asian golden cat, but instead support either a monotypic species or one comprising two subspecies: (i) the Sunda golden cat, distributed south of the Isthmus of Kra: C. t. temminckii and (ii) Indochinese, Indian, Himalayan and Chinese golden cats

  10. 學位論文形構南洋籍婚姻移民論述之分析 A Discourse Analysis of Taiwanese Theses and Dissertations on Southeast Asian Marriage-Based Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    許誌庭 Chih-Ting Hsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 1990年代勞力短缺及婚配失衡現象日益嚴重,南洋籍勞工及女性婚姻移民入臺遂蔚為風潮。相較於單純付出勞力的行業勞工,婚姻移民與臺灣社會有著更為多樣且重大的聯結,而受到社會廣泛的凝視,藉由蒐羅與南洋籍婚姻移民相關的碩博士論文共702篇,本文運用論述分析法,探討學位論文對南洋籍婚姻移民進行論述建構的過程,研究結論如下: 1.參與論文產製的系所眾多,對南洋籍婚姻移民進行全面問題化的檢視。 2.論文主題未盡然符合學門屬性且重複性高,引發學術從眾行為。 3.對南洋籍婚姻移民形構出「社會論述」、「教育論述」、「醫療論述」及「批判論述」四種類型。 4.過度強調個人層面,政策制度面的研究較為不足。 5.以負面假設為主要檢證方向,然研究結果仍未有定論,而得以提供持續研究的合理性。 In the 1990s, an increasing labor shortage led to a surge in the number of Southeast Asian laborers in Taiwan. At the same time, a low marriage rate, caused by gender imbalances in the population, brought about a rapid increase in the number of female marriage-based immigrants. Compared to laborers, who simply provide labor services, marriage-based immigrants possess more diverse and significant links with Taiwanese society, thereby attracting substantial social scrutiny. In this study, 702 master’s degree theses and doctoral dissertations on topics related to Southeast Asian marriage-based immigrants in Taiwan were examined. Discourse analysis was conducted to explore the process of discourse development in master’s and doctoral studies related to Southeast Asian marriage-based immigrants. The research results were as follows: 1.Relevant theses and dissertations have been developed in numerous departments and graduate institutes, indicating an emphasis on and full-scale problematization of marriage

  11. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David

    2003-01-01

    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  12. Southeast Asia: Of Tigers and Turmoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, Jeff; Morris, James; Syrett, Ann; Szeles, Erno

    1997-01-01

    .... Economic growth has been phenomenal for most Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, while Cambodia and Vietnam are struggling to provide a basic economic foundation to feed their people...

  13. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts: implications for mantle dynamics in the southeast Asian region; Compositions isotopiques et en elements en trace des basaltes vietnamiens: implications pour la dynamique du manteau en Asie du Sud-Est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H.; Fower, M. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Nguyen, H. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Nguyen, X.B.; Nguyen, T.Y. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    1996-12-31

    Cenozoic basalts in Indo-China are part of a regional melting episode along the rifted Eurasian margin. Trace element and isotopic compositions of Vietnamese basalts are used to place constraints on the extent of lithospheric and asthenosphere contributions to the melts and possible mantle dynamic implications. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb isotopic ratios of the basalts reflect minimal crustal wall rock reaction, and variable enrichment in EM1 and EM2 of a {sup 208}Pb-rich MORB-like source. Some, but not all, of this variation corresponds to the age of lithospheric sector penetrated. Basalts erupted through a cratonic, central sector (e.g. at Quang Ngai, Pleiku, Song Cau, Kong Plong, and Buon Ma Thuot) and off-cratonic, southwest sector (e.g. Phuoc Long) resemble those of EM2-rich basalts from southern and southeaster China and the South China Sea. Basalts from an off-cratonic, southeast sector (e.g. from Dalat, Xuan Loc, and the offshore Ile des Cendres-Phu Cuy complex) reflect mixing between a low- {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, high-{sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, EM1-like component, and resemble basalts from northwest Taiwan, eastern and northeastern China, and parts of the Japan Sea. While EM2 tends to characterise lithospheric sectors, presence of EM1 in off-cratonic rather than cratonic basalts implies an asthenosphere rather than lithospheric source. Pervasive presence of EM1 in southeast Asian and marginal basin asthenosphere corresponds with thermally-anomalous mantle and may involve delaminated cratonic substrate entrained by mobile, extruded asthenosphere. (authors) 85 refs.

  14. Differences in health insurance and health service utilization among Asian Americans: method for using the NHIS to identify unique patterns between ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruy, Hosihn; Young, Wendy B; Kwak, Hoil

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to outline a method to identify the characteristics of socioeconomic variables in determining the differences in health insurance coverage and health services utilization patterns for different ethnic groups, using the behavioural model of health service utilization. A sample drawn from Asian American adult respondents to the 1992, 1993, and 1994 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) in the USA formed the data set. The results showed Asian Americans as not being homogeneous. There were distinctly different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between six Asian American ethnic groups that affect health insurance coverage and health service utilization. The study method is useful for constructing health policy and services to address the general public need without adversely affecting smaller minority groups. Secondary analysis of well-constructed national data sets such as the specific Asian ethnic groups in NHIS, offers a rich method for predicting the differential impact of specific health policies on various ethnic groups.

  15. Evidence-Based Literacy Interventions for East/Southeast Asian English Language Learners: A Review of the Research and Recommendations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneville, Margaret A.; Li, Chieh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: There is a notable dearth of interventions that have been specifically designed for Asian English Language Learner (ELL) students, and the existing research on ELL students often lacks population validity and sample diversity. In response to this need, this paper aims to review current research on literacy interventions for East/Southeast…

  16. IUCN situation analysis on East and Southeast Asian intertidal habitats, with particular reference to the Yellow Sea (including the Bohai Sea).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKinnon, John; Verkuil, Yvonne I; Murray, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The IUCN Species Survival Commission and IUCN Asia Regional Office commissioned this independent report to assess the state and condition of intertidal habitats along the East Asian- Australasian Flyway (EAAF), in response to growing concerns expressed by IUCN members over observed declines in

  17. Group psychological intervention for postnatal depression: a nested qualitative study with British South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Yumna; Lovell, Karina; Lunat, Farah; Atif, Najia; Waheed, Waquas; Rahman, Atif; Mossabir, Rahena; Chaudhry, Nasim; Husain, Nusrat

    2015-11-25

    Postnatal depression affects 10-15 % of all mothers in Western societies and remains a major public health concern for women from diverse cultures. British Pakistani and Indian women have a higher prevalence of depression in comparison to their white counterparts. Research has shown that culturally adapted interventions using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) may be acceptable and may help to address the needs of this population. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and overall experience of the Positive Health Programme by British South Asian mothers. This was a nested qualitative study, part of an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally-adapted intervention (Positive Health Programme or PHP) for postnatal depression in British South Asian women. In-depth interviews (N = 17) were conducted to determine the views of the participants on the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. The participants found the intervention acceptable and experienced an overall positive change in their attitudes, behaviour, and increased self-confidence. The findings suggest that the culturally adapted Positive Health Programme is acceptable to British South Asian women. These results support that culturally sensitive interventions may lead to better health outcomes and overall satisfaction. Protocol registered on Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01838889.

  18. Marchés gaziers du Sud-Est asiatique : évolutions et enseignements New Trends and Lessons from Southeast Asian Natural Gas Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delafosse E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le contexte et les évolutions observés dans le Sud-Est asiatique constituent des objets d'analyse privilégiés pour l'identification des facteurs de développement des marchés du gaz naturel à l'échelle de la planète. Après avoir explicité la croissance des consommations nationales dans la région, tant dans les pays industrialisés que dans les Pays en Voie de Développement (PVD, nous verrons ce qui en découle du point de vue de la dynamique régionale des échanges de gaz naturel. Cette analyse nous conduira à détailler l'intérêt et les conditions d'un recours accru au gaz naturel dans les PVD. Au terme de cette démarche, l'obstacle fondamental aux développements gaziers dans ce groupe de pays sera mis en évidence. Within the current world context of the growth of reserves and consumption of natural gas, the Southeast Asia area is due for special analysis for several reasons. In particular, an effort must be made to understand the mutations taking place and the stakes in the growing interest producers and consumers are showing in this energy source. The economic performances of combined-cycle power plants make natural gas a competitive energy source for use in generating electricity. Many countries in the area have to cope with a very fast increase in the demand for electricity and have been led to introduce this type of equipment in their plans to expand their electric power plants. This policy enables them to make use of an energy source to which access is initially constrained by necessity, because of the presence of economies of scale, to consume large volumes. Consumption by the electric sector effectively markes it possible for all these countries to consume this energy in industrial and residential-tertiary sectors where its specific qualities are readily apparent. The introduction of natural gas is also a way of diversifying energy supplies. For the industrialized countries (Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong

  19. Corporate governance and corruption : A comparative study of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijayati, Nureni; Hermes, Niels; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The weak corporate governance framework in Indonesia, as in other countries in Southeast Asia, was deemed a crucial factor in deepening the financial and economic crisis in the late 1990s. Over a decade after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries have made

  20. Doctor-Patient Communication in Southeast Asia: A Different Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative…

  1. Asian American mothers' perception of their children's weight: a comparison with other racial/ethnic groups in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.

  2. Ethnic-group socioeconomic status as an indicator of community-level disadvantage: A study of overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Tam, Christina; John, Iyanrick; Lui, Camillia

    2017-07-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. Informed by a wide socioeconomic diversity among Asian American ethnic groups, this study explored ethnic-group socioeconomic status (SES) as an indicator of community-level disadvantage that may influence overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. We hypothesized that ethnic-group SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1525 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from pooled 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data. Age, gender, nativity, individual-level SES (income and education), and two lifestyle variables (fast food consumption and physical activity) were controlled for. We found that adolescents in high- or middle-level SES ethnic groups were far less likely to be overweight/obese than those in low-SES ethnic groups. Further, these relationships were more pronounced for foreign-born adolescents but not significant for U.S.-born adolescents. Ethnic-group SES may be a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans and, potentially, other populations with high proportions of immigrants of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement Invariance and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Asian International and Euro American Cultural Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollock, David; Lui, P Priscilla

    2016-10-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), assessing the five-factor model (FFM) of personality among Euro American (N = 290) and Asian international (N = 301) students (47.8% women, Mage = 19.69 years). The full 60-item NEO-FFI data fit the expected five-factor structure for both groups using exploratory structural equation modeling, and achieved configural invariance. Only 37 items significantly loaded onto the FFM-theorized factors for both groups and demonstrated metric invariance. Threshold invariance was not supported with this reduced item set. Groups differed the most in the item-factor relationships for Extraversion and Agreeableness, as well as in response styles. Asian internationals were more likely to use midpoint responses than Euro Americans. While the FFM can characterize broad nomothetic patterns of personality traits, metric invariance with only the subset of NEO-FFI items identified limits direct group comparisons of correlation coefficients among personality domains and with other constructs, and of mean differences on personality domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in

  5. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  6. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  7. Comparing Asian American Women's Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Risk of Heart Attack to Other Racial and Ethnic Groups: The mPED Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lisha, Nadra E; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare knowledge and awareness of heart attacks/heart disease and perceived risk for future heart attack in Asian/Pacific Islander women, compared to other racial and ethnic groups. In this cross-sectional study, 318 women enrolled in a mobile phone-based physical activity education trial were analyzed. Heart attack knowledge, self-efficacy for recognizing and responding to heart attack symptoms, and perceived risk for a future heart attack were measured. Analyses were conducted using logistic, proportional odds, and linear regression models, depending on the outcome and adjusting for age. Pairwise differences between Asian/Pacific Islanders and the other four groups were assessed using a Bonferroni correction (p Asian/Pacific Islander women had significantly lower total scores for knowledge of heart attack and self-efficacy for heart attack recognition and care seeking behavior compared to the Caucasian women (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). However, perceived risk did not differ among the groups. Forty-six percent of the Asian American women, compared to 25% of Caucasian women, falsely believed "breast cancer is the number one cause of death for women (p = 0.002)." In addition, Asian/Pacific Islander women were less likely to report "arm pain, numbness, tingling, or radiating" as one of the heart attack symptoms compared to the Caucasian and the multiracial group (34%, 63% [p Asian/Pacific Islander women and Caucasian women.

  8. British Asian families and the use of child and adolescent mental health services: a qualitative study of a hard to reach group \\ud \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Bradby, Hannah; Varyani, Maya; Oglethorpe, Rachel; Raine, Wendy; White, Ishbel; Helen, Minnis

    2007-01-01

    We explored attitudes to and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) among families of South Asian origin who are underrepresented as service-users in an area of a Scottish city with a high concentration of people of South Asian origin. Six community focus groups were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with families who had used CAMHS and with CAMHS professionals involved in those families’ cases. Lastly, parents of children who had problems usually r...

  9. Genetic relatedness of indigenous ethnic groups in northern Borneo to neighboring populations from Southeast Asia, as inferred from genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chee Wei; Hoque, Mohd Zahirul; Pugh-Kitingan, Jacqueline; Minsong, Alexander; Voo, Christopher Lok Yung; Ransangan, Julian; Lau, Sophia Tiek Ying; Wang, Xu; Saw, Woei Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Phipps, Maude E; Kumar, S Vijay

    2018-07-01

    The region of northern Borneo is home to the current state of Sabah, Malaysia. It is located closest to the southern Philippine islands and may have served as a viaduct for ancient human migration onto or off of Borneo Island. In this study, five indigenous ethnic groups from Sabah were subjected to genome-wide SNP genotyping. These individuals represent the "North Borneo"-speaking group of the great Austronesian family. They have traditionally resided in the inland region of Sabah. The dataset was merged with public datasets, and the genetic relatedness of these groups to neighboring populations from the islands of Southeast Asia, mainland Southeast Asia and southern China was inferred. Genetic structure analysis revealed that these groups formed a genetic cluster that was independent of the clusters of neighboring populations. Additionally, these groups exhibited near-absolute proportions of a genetic component that is also common among Austronesians from Taiwan and the Philippines. They showed no genetic admixture with Austro-Melanesian populations. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that they are closely related to non-Austro-Melansian Filipinos as well as to Taiwan natives but are distantly related to populations from mainland Southeast Asia. Relatively lower heterozygosity and higher pairwise genetic differentiation index (F ST ) values than those of nearby populations indicate that these groups might have experienced genetic drift in the past, resulting in their differentiation from other Austronesians. Subsequent formal testing suggested that these populations have received no gene flow from neighboring populations. Taken together, these results imply that the indigenous ethnic groups of northern Borneo shared a common ancestor with Taiwan natives and non-Austro-Melanesian Filipinos and then isolated themselves on the inland of Sabah. This isolation presumably led to no admixture with other populations, and these individuals therefore underwent

  10. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care need...

  11. The social formation and cultural identity of Southeast Asian frontier society: Focused on the concept of maritime Zomia as frontier in connection with the ocean and the inland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Seok-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the applicability of the Zomia concept for social scientific studies of the Malaysian region, with a focus on the Malaysian port cities, including Melaka. While for both empirical and socio-cultural reasons the term Zomia itself may not be entirely appropriate to the Malaysian Melaka region, the analytical implications that are based on James C. Scott’s usage of it, particularly the emphasis on the cultural dynamics of inter-ethnic, inter-national, and inter-religious relations of port areas, can be of great utility to those working in the Malaysian region. Zomia is a neologism gaining popularity with the publication of James C. Scott’s provocative book, The art of not being governed: an anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. The term of Zomia is designed to indicate the people who has not been governed by the nation-state and national regime.

  12. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on a feasibility survey of cooperation in relation to the joint implementation activities in Southeast Asian countries (6 nations); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Tonan Asia chiikikoku (rokkakoku) ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren no kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the COP3 Conference on Global Warming held in Kyoto in December 1997, the framework on greenhouse gases was agreed in discussions comprehensively made among Japan, the U.S. and the E.U. As a result, it is for 6 gases including CO2 and methane, and total emissions in developed countries are to be reduced 5% at least during 2008-2012 from the 1990 level. Target of each country is determined by gaps, and Japan`s reduction target is 6%. Therefore, to pass the numerical target agreed, it is necessary to take measures such as rationalization of the energy use by energy saving, etc. in the country and also measures such as promotion of the greenhouse gas emission control in developing countries. Accordingly, for the future development of NEDO`s AIJ project, a possibility of cooperation in the joint implementation was surveyed such as the state of greenhouse gas emissions of countries which are objects of GAP in Southeast Asian countries and neighboring countries, policies of the countries after the COP3 agreement, technological transfer for the emission control, etc. Countries for survey are Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam and Myanmar. 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved.

  15. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Sarcopenia in Suburb-dwelling Older Chinese Using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Suxing; Wang, Xiuyang; Dong, Renwei; Ma, Yixuan; Shi, Yu; Shi, Zhiyang; Li, Hongquan; Li, Chen; Ma, Yige; Wang, Liancheng; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a common condition in older people. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in an elderly Chinese suburb-dwelling population. This study was conducted on 1,069 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, as well as medical conditions, were considered independent variables to determine factors associated with sarcopenia using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.4% in men and 11.5% in women. Age was a significant factor in both sexes. In addition, presence of sarcopenia was inversely associated with BMI for both sexes. The odds ration and 95% confidence interval for factors statistically significantly associated with sarcopenia were 5.04 (1.70-14.89) and 2.36 (1.06-5.25) for diabetes in males and females, respectively; 10.60 (1.75-64.24) for daily consumption of alcohol (daily drinkers), 5.58 (2.13-14.59) for peptic ulcer in female (not statistically significant in males). The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criterion is useful for defining sarcopenia, and our data suggest that the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general elderly suburb-dwelling Chinese population is high. Moreover, we find that high body mass index is inversely associated with the likelihood of being sarcopenic and that several others factors such as diabetes, peptic ulcer, and drinking habits increase the prevalence of sarcopenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Indoor human exposure to size-fractionated aerosols during the 2015 Southeast Asian smoke haze and assessment of exposure mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchi; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-11-01

    The 2015 smoke haze episode was one of the most severe and prolonged transboundary air pollution events ever seen in Southeast Asia (SEA), affecting the air quality of several countries within the region including Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The 24 h mean outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) concentrations ranged from 72-157 μg m-3 in Singapore during this episode, exceeding the WHO 24 h mean PM2.5 guidelines (25 μg m-3) several times over. The smoke haze episode not only affected ambient air quality, but also indoor air quality due to the migration of PM of different sizes from the outdoor to the indoor environment. Despite the frequent occurrence of smoke haze episodes over the years, their potential health impacts on indoor building occupants remain largely unknown in SEA due to the lack of systematic investigations and observational data. The current work was carried out in Singapore to assess human exposure to size-resolved PM during the 2015 smoke haze episode, and to evaluate the effectiveness of exposure mitigation measures in smoke-haze-impacted naturally ventilated indoor environments. The potential health risks associated with exposure to PM2.5 were assessed based on the concentrations of redox active particulate-bound trace elements, which are known to be harmful to human health, with and without exposure mitigation. Overall, it was observed that human health exposure to PM2.5 and its carcinogenic chemical components was reduced substantially by 62% (p health.

  17. Hemodialysis versus Peritoneal Dialysis: A Comparison of Survival Outcomes in South-East Asian Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available Studies comparing patient survival of hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD have yielded conflicting results and no such study was from South-East Asia. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD who started dialysis with HD and PD in Singapore.Survival data for a maximum of 5 years from a single-center cohort of 871 ESRD patients starting dialysis with HD (n = 641 or PD (n = 230 from 2005-2010 was analyzed using the flexible Royston-Parmar (RP model. The model was also applied to a subsample of 225 propensity-score-matched patient pairs and subgroups defined by age, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.After adjusting for the effect of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of death was higher in patients initiating dialysis with PD than those initiating dialysis with HD (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-2.59; p<0.001, although there was no significant difference in mortality between the two modalities in the first 12 months of treatment. Consistently, in the matched subsample, patients starting PD had a higher risk of death than those starting HD (HR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.30-2.28, p<0.001. Subgroup analysis showed that PD may be similar to or better than HD in survival outcomes among young patients (≤65 years old without diabetes or cardiovascular disease.ESRD patients who initiated dialysis with HD experienced better survival outcomes than those who initiated dialysis with PD in Singapore, although survival outcomes may not differ between the two dialysis modalities in young and healthier patients. These findings are potentially confounded by selection bias, as patients were not randomized to the two dialysis modalities in this cohort study.

  18. Size-resolved aerosol water uptake and cloud condensation nuclei measurements as measured above a Southeast Asian rainforest during OP3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the properties of fine particles on the formation of clouds and precipitation in the tropical atmosphere is of primary importance to their impacts on radiative forcing and the hydrological cycle. Measurements of aerosol number size distribution, hygroscopicity in both sub- and supersaturated regimes and composition were taken between March and July 2008 in the tropical rainforest in Borneo, Malaysia, marking the first study of this type in an Asian tropical rainforest. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF at 90 % relative humidity (RH for the dry diameter range D0 = 32–258 nm, supersaturated water uptake behaviour for the dry diameter range D0 = 45–300 nm and aerosol chemical composition were simultaneously measured using a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (HTDMA, a Droplet Measurement Technologies Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (CCNc and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS respectively.

    The hygroscopicity parameter κ was derived from both CCNc and HTDMA measurements, with the resulting values of κ ranging from 0.05–0.37, and 0.17–0.37, respectively. Although the total range of κ values is in good agreement, there are inconsistencies between CCNc and HTDMA derived κ values at different dry diameters. Results from a study with similar methodology performed in the Amazon rainforest report values for κ within a similar range to those reported in this work, indicating that the aerosol as measured from both sites shows similar hygroscopic properties. However, the derived number of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN were much higher in the present experiment than the Amazon, resulting in part from the increased total particle number concentrations observed in the Bornean rainforest. This contrast between the two environments may be of substantial importance in describing the impacts of particles in the tropical atmosphere.

  19. Shared epitope alleles remain a risk factor for anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA--positive rheumatoid arthritis in three Asian ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Chun-Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. METHODS: 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. RESULTS: The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia.

  20. Asian Values: Basic Contentions And Possible Counterarguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кирилл Вадимович Батыгин

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article provides a retrospective of the “Asian values” debate which can be traced to the late 20 th century with the contemporary topical statements from Southeast Asian political actors, most notably those of Singapore and Malaysia, acting as a starting point. The declamatory proclamations of Southeast Asian political leaders and the numerous articles by esteemed scholars provide a fascinating literary landscape which the author attempts to traverse in the aim of producing what could be considered the concept's most important principals. Still, it is the contention of the author that “Asian values” represent the reaction of a select number of political leaders and thinkers in light of the so-called "Southeast Asian economic miracle". Consequently, a review of various critical statements dealing with the viability of the concept provides the highlight of the article.

  1. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  2. MRI Fusion-Targeted Transrectal Prostate Biopsy and the Role of Prostate-Specific Antigen Density and Prostate Health Index for the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer in Southeast Asian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teck Wei; Png, Keng Siang; Lee, Chau Hung; Yuwono, Arianto; Yeow, Yuyi; Chong, Kian Tai; Lee, Yee Mun; Tan, Cher Heng; Tan, Yung Khan

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that targeted biopsy has a higher detection rate for clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) than systematic biopsy. We defined csPCa as any Gleason sum ≥7 cancer. In patients with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) 3 lesions, to determine if factors, such as prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) and prostate health index (PHI), can predict csPCa and help select patients for biopsy. We report the first series of targeted biopsies in Southeast Asian men, with comparison against systematic biopsy. Consecutive patients were registered into a prospective institutional review board-approved database in our institution. We reviewed patients who underwent biopsy from May 2016 to June 2017. Inclusion criteria for our study were patients with at least one PI-RADS ≥3, and who underwent both targeted and systematic biopsies in the same sitting. There were 115 patients in the study, of whom 74 (64.3%) had a previous negative systematic biopsy. Targeted biopsies detected significantly less Gleason 6 cancers than systematic biopsies (p < 0.01), and demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (NPV) for the detection of csPCa. For patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions, PHI and PSAD were found to be the best predictors for csPCa. PSAD <0.10 ng/mL/mL had an NPV of 93% and sensitivity of 92%, while allowing 20% of patients to avoid biopsy. PHI cutoff of <27 would allow 34% of patients to avoid biopsy, with both sensitivity and NPV of 100%. Targeted prostate biopsies were found to be significantly superior to systematic biopsies for the detection of csPCa, while detecting less Gleason 6 cancer. Usage of PSAD and PHI cutoff levels in patients with PI-RADS 3 lesions may enable a number of patients to avoid unnecessary biopsy.

  3. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Member States, 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old, coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN.

  4. Leisure Time Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle Correlates among Students Aged 13–15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States, 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported leisure time physical inactivity frequency and sedentary behaviour and lifestyle correlates among school children in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. The analysis included 30,284 school children aged 13–15 years from seven ASEAN countries that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The measure asked about overall physical activity, walking or biking to school, and on time spent sitting. Overall, the prevalence of physical inactivity was 80.4%, ranging from 74.8% in Myanmar to 90.7% in Cambodia and sedentary behaviour 33.0%, ranging from 10.5% in Cambodia and Myanmar to 42.7% in Malaysia. In multivariate logistic regression, not walking or biking to school, not attending physical education classes, inadequate vegetable consumption and lack of protective factors (peer and parental or guardian support) were associated with physical inactivity, and older age (14 and 15 years old), coming from an upper middle income country, being overweight or obese, attending physical education classes, alcohol use, loneliness, peer support and lack of parental or guardian supervision were associated with sedentary behaviour. In boys, lower socioeconomic status (in the form of having experienced hunger) and coming from a low income or lower middle income country were additionally associated with physical inactivity, and in girls, higher socioeconomic status, not walking or biking to school and being bullied were additionally associated with sedentary behaviour. In conclusion, a very high prevalence of leisure physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour among school going adolescents in ASEAN was found and several factors identified that may inform physical activity promotion programmes in school-going adolescents in ASEAN. PMID:26891312

  5. Comparison of major depressive disorder onset among foreign-born Asian Americans: Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Choi, Sunha; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-11-30

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1280 Asian Americans, we examined the extent to which major depressive disorder (MDD) onset differs by ethnicity and its associated factors for each of the three ethnic groups: Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese. We employed the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the survival and hazard functions for MDD onset by ethnicity, and cox proportional hazards models to identify socio-demographic and immigration-related factors associated with MDD onset. Approximately 7% of the entire sample had experienced MDD onset in their lifetime. Filipino immigrants showed the highest survival function, followed by Vietnamese immigrants over time. Those who were never-married or divorced were more likely to experience MDD onset when compared to their married or cohabiting counterparts. Those who immigrated at a younger age were more likely to experience MDD onset than were those who immigrated at an older age. However, there were ethnic variations in terms of the risk factors that were associated with MDD onset across these three ethnic groups. Findings from this study signal the importance of understanding the differing experiences of MDD onset by ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Ethnopsychopharmacology considerations for Asians and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Felicia K; Pi, Edmond H

    2012-03-01

    Asians comprise more than 60% of the world's population and are the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Today's psychiatrist must learn to recognize and appreciate the unique factors that influence mental health outcomes in this group. Asian Americans are affected by psychiatric disorders at similar rates as non-Asians, but are significantly underrepresented in psychiatric clinics. When Asians and Asian Americans do present for psychiatric treatment, they often do so with higher severity of illness, and variable levels of compliance. Studies over the past three decades have suggested that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of various psychotropic medications may be different in Asians, leading to differences in dosage requirements and side-effect profiles. These variations appear to be largely determined by genetic predisposition, but are also influenced by other factors such as environment, social support, cultural perceptions, and physicians' prescribing habits. In this paper, we provide an overview of biological and socio-cultural issues as they relate to psychopharmacology in Asians and Asian Americans, with the hope that a better understanding of these issues will lead to improved mental health care delivery to this population both in the United States, as well as in Asian countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Group dynamics and social interaction in a South Asian online learning forum for faculty development of medical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu; Sharma, M; Burdick, W P; Singh, T

    2010-04-01

    Group dynamics of online medical faculty development programs have not been analyzed and reported in literature. Knowledge of the types of content of posted messages will help to understand group dynamics and promote participation in an asynchronous learning environment. This paper assesses group dynamics and social interactivity in an online learning environment for medical teachers in the South Asian context. Participants of a medical education fellowship program conducted by the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) Regional Institute at Christian Medical College, Ludhiana (CMCL) in India interact on a listserv called the Mentoring-Learning Web (ML-Web). Monthly topics for online discussion are chosen by fellows through a standard tool called "multi-voting". Fellows volunteer to moderate sessions and direct the pace of the discussion. We analyzed the content and process of the discussion of one particular month. The emails were categorized as those that reflected cognitive presence (dealing with construction and exploration of knowledge), teacher presence (dealing with instructional material and learning resources), and social presence, or were administrative in nature. Social emails were further classified as: affective, cohesive and interactive. Social emails constituted one-third of the total emails. Another one-quarter of the emails dealt with sharing of resources and teacher presence, while cognitive emails comprised 36.2% of the total. More than half of the social emails were affective, while a little less than one-third were cohesive. Social posts are an inevitable part of online learning. These posts promote bonding between learners and contribute to better interaction and collaboration in online learning. Moderators should be aware of their presence and use them as tools to promote interactivity.

  9. Doctor?patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Studies of doctor?patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in in...

  10. Is a U.S. Military Presence in Southeast Asia Necessary in the Twenty-First Century?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siow, Terry

    2000-01-01

    For many years, the U.S. military presence in Southeast Asia (SEA) has served as an important stabilizing factor in region and has allow countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN...

  11. Asian American mental health: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; Yan Cheng, Janice Ka; Saad, Carmel S; Chu, Joyce P

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General's report Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed since its publication in 2001. This article highlights advances and illuminates gaps in the knowledge gained about the mental health and psychotherapeutic treatment of Asian Americans in the past decade. Though larger epidemiological surveys point to lower prevalence rates of mental illness in Asian Americans, further advances are needed in culturally valid assessment and quantification of cultural biases in symptom reporting in order to draw definitive conclusions about the state of Asian American mental health. A focus on prevalence in Asian Americans as a whole also shrouds important subgroup elevations such as heightened suicide risk in Asian elderly women or greater posttraumatic stress disorder in Southeast Asian refugees. Despite important developments in our knowledge about mental health prevalence, help-seeking behaviors, and culturally competent treatments for Asian Americans, it appears that troublingly low rates of service utilization still remain even when one accounts for the seemingly low prevalence rates among Asian Americans. Some progress has been made in the cultural adaptations of psychotherapy treatments for Asian Americans. In order to reduce mental health care disparities, greater efforts are needed to provide outreach at the community level and to bridge the gap between mental health and other medical or alternative health facilities. We call for innovation and provide recommendations to address these issues in the next decade.

  12. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  14. Roflumilast for the treatment of COPD in an Asian population: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinping; Yang, Jinghua; Zhou, Xiangdong; Zhao, Li; Hui, Fuxin; Wang, Haoyan; Bai, Chunxue; Chen, Ping; Li, Huiping; Kang, Jian; Brose, Manja; Richard, Frank; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Zhong, Nanshan

    2014-01-01

    Roflumilast is the only oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor indicated for use in the treatment of COPD. Previous studies of roflumilast have predominantly involved European and North American populations. A large study was necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in a predominantly ethnic Chinese population. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase 3 study, patients of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity (N = 626) with severe to very severe COPD were randomized 1:1 to receive either roflumilast 500 μg once daily or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was change in prebronchodilator FEV1 from baseline to study end. Three hundred thirteen patients were assigned to each treatment. Roflumilast provided a sustained increase over placebo in mean prebronchodilator FEV1 (0.071 L; 95% CI, 0.046, 0.095 L; P < .0001). Similar improvements were observed in the secondary end points of postbronchodilator FEV1 (0.068 L; 95% CI 0.044, 0.092 L; P < .0001) and prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FVC (0.109 L; 95% CI, 0.061, 0.157 L; P < .0001 and 0.101 L; 95% CI, 0.055, 0.146 L; P < .0001, respectively). The adverse event profile was consistent with previous roflumilast studies. The most frequently reported treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (6.0% and 1.0% of patients in the roflumilast and placebo groups, respectively). Roflumilast plays an important role in lung function improvement and is well tolerated in an Asian population. It provides an optimal treatment choice for patients with severe to very severe COPD.

  15. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast As...... Asian titans in Myanmar and finally the conclusion wraps...

  16. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia. Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly ...

  17. Stakeholder views on factors influencing the wellbeing and health sector engagement of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Wong, Agnes; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, while the term 'Asians' in popular discourse means East and South-east Asian peoples, Statistics New Zealand's definition includes people of many nationalities from East, South and South-east Asia, all with quite different cultural norms, taboos and degrees of conservatism. In a context where 'Asian' youth data are typically presented in aggregate form, there are notable gaps in knowledge regarding the contextual determinants of health in this highly heterogeneous group. This qualitative study explored key stakeholder views on issues that would be most useful to explore on the health and wellbeing of Asian youth and processes that would foster engagement of Asian youth in health research. METHODS Interviews were conducted with six key stakeholders whose professional activities were largely focused on the wellbeing of Asian people. The general inductive approach was used to identify and analyse themes in the qualitative text data. FINDINGS Six broad themes were identified from the key stakeholder interviews framed as priority areas that need further exploration: cultural identity, integration and acculturation; barriers to help-seeking; aspects to consider when engaging Asian youth in research (youth voice, empowerment and participatory approach to research); parental influence and involvement in health research; confidentiality and anonymity; and capacity building and informing policy. CONCLUSION With stakeholders strongly advocating the engagement of Asian youth in the health research agenda this study highlights the importance of engaging youth alongside service providers to collaborate on research and co-design responsive primary health care services in a multicultural setting. KEYWORDS Asian youth; New Zealand; health research; minority health; Community and social participation.

  18. Type 2 Diabetes among 6 Asian Ethnic Groups in California: The Nexus of Ethnicity, Gender, and Generational Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z Jennifer; Zheng, Chaoyi

    2015-05-01

    We examined associations between generational status and age-adjusted type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Asians living in California. We abstracted data on 7,188 Asian Americans of six ethnicities from the 2007 and 2009 California Health Interview Survey. Age-and ethnicity-specific logistic regression analyses were used to model prevalence of T2DM based on 29 generational status and language spoken at home. Second-generation Asian men and first-generation Asian women had higher T2DM prevalence compared with their White peers. Such a trend was observed among Chinese and Filipino men, and Filipina and Korean women. In addition, Filipinas who spoke only English at home had lower odds of T2DM than other Filipinas (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-1.0) while the relationship was reversed among Filipino men (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.0-10.1). Associations between generational status and T2DM among Asian Americans are non-linear and strongly influenced by gender and ethnicity.

  19. ASCI 2010 appropriateness criteria for cardiac computed tomography: a report of the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Cardiac Computed Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guideline Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, I-Chen; Choi, Byoung Wook; Chan, Carmen; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Yong, Hwan Seok; Yu, Wei

    2010-02-01

    In Asia, the healthcare system, populations and patterns of disease differ from Western countries. The current reports on the criteria for cardiac CT scans, provided by Western professional societies, are not appropriate for Asian cultures. The Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging, the only society dedicated to cardiovascular imaging in Asia, formed a Working Group and invited 23 Technical Panel members representing a variety of Asian countries to rate the 51 indications for cardiac CT in clinical practice in Asia. The indications were rated as 'appropriate' (7-9), 'uncertain' (4-6), or 'inappropriate' (1-3) on a scale of 1-9. The median score was used for the final result if there was no disagreement. The final ratings for indications were 33 appropriate, 14 uncertain and 4 inappropriate. And 20 of them are highly agreed (19 appropriate and 1 inappropriate). Specifically, the Asian representatives considered cardiac CT as an appropriate modality for Kawasaki disease and congenital heart diseases in follow up and in symptomatic patients. In addition, except for some specified conditions, cardiac CT was considered to be an appropriate modality for one-stop shop ischemic heart disease evaluation due to its general appropriateness in coronary, structure and function evaluation. This report is expected to have a significant impact on the clinical practice, research and reimbursement policy in Asia.

  20. Miscellaneous notes on Southeast Asian Gramineae. VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    In Oryza a new combination for an Indian wild rice and a new specific record for Oryza minuta Presl for Australia are given. A new combination in Polytrias is proposed, due to which Ischaemum ciliare Retz. must be reinstated for I. indicum auct., non (Houtt.) Merr.

  1. Asian Youth Cultural Expression, Creativity, and Innovation on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Zinggara Hidayat

    2017-01-01

    Groups and intercommunity interactions form global society. This study aims to describe the global aspect in the local cultural expression or vice-versa on YouTube videos. The cultural expressions include language, dress, cuisine, festivals and leisure creativities, social customs and lifestyle. Qualitative descriptive approach is used to analyze ten videos made by Southeast Asian young people. This research found that the locality expression goes global. Cultural expressions communicate the ...

  2. Dorset and Thule divergence from East Central Asian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, E D; Jones, G

    1998-06-01

    The history of the immigration of East Asians to America during the last glacial period remains controversial. In an attempt to add critical data to this problem, a large sample of whole teeth derived from Southeast Asian, Mongolian, Thule, Western Inuit, and pre-Inca (Huari) people was quantified (N = 4,507 teeth from 495 individuals; approximately 30 variables per tooth). Multivariate analysis helped establish that all Native Americans were likely derived from one ancient, extinct population that resided in the region of Mongolia (east Central Asia), and that Mongolians and Southeast Asians are two independent groups. A controversial and enigmatic Central Canadian Arctic "Thule culture Inuit" group on Southampton Island that survived until 1902 was identified as a relic, mainly Paleoeskimo Dorset community. Surprisingly, there was little, or no, indication of Dorset-to-Thule gene flow. Cumulatively, the data suggest that a small population of Paleoindian founders remained resident in Beringia, may have blocked further immigration, and were the antecedents to the Thule/Inuit. With the confluence of the Arctic and Pacific oceans at the breakup of Beringia, the resulting increased availability of marine animal food sources allowed this population to increase in size and expand throughout the eastern Arctic.

  3. Driving forces of the diel distribution of phytoplankton functional groups in a shallow tropical lake (Lake Monte Alegre, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM. Rangel

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton vertical and diel dynamics in a small shallow lake (Lake Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo were investigated in two climatological periods: July 2001 (cool-dry season and March 2002 (warm-rainy season. Monte Alegre is a eutrophic reservoir, with a warm polymictic discontinuous circulation pattern. The lake was thermally stratified in both periods, although dissolved oxygen varied less in the cool-dry period. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the warm-rainy season and the vertical distribution was stratified in both seasons. Flagellate groups (Lm, Y, W1 and W2 and functional groups typical of shallow eutrophic environments (J, X1 and Sn were important throughout the study period. The lake's thermal pattern strongly influenced the vertical distribution of the phytoplankton community in both periods. Biomass, functional groups and size classes of phytoplankton also were determined by the presence of more efficient herbivores in the lake, especially during the cool-dry period when phytoplankton biomass decreased.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Characteristics and Phylogenetic Groups of Escherichia coli Isolated From Diarrheic Calves in Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedeh Naderi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the main challenges in diarrheal diseases in human and animals. Regardless to the main reason of the disease, approximately all antimicrobial actions including treatment, control and prevention are mostly centralized against Escherichia coli (E. coli strains. Objectives: This work purposed to antimicrobial resistance (AR and determinate virulence genes and phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolates (n=170 obtained from calves with diarrhea. Materials and methods: Isolates were molecular characterized for 17 AR genes and 3 phylogenetic sequences. AR phenotyping were performed on all strains for 12 antimicrobial agents by using disc diffusion method. Results: All AR genes but qnrS were identified with different prevalence in E. coli isolates that the most common genes were aadA (20%, blaTEM (11.7% and sulII (11.2 % belonging to aminoglycoside, β-lactamase and sulphonamide families, respectively. Resistance to the penicillin and sulphamethoxazole drugs was found in 100% of isolates and followed by tetracycline (73.5%, streptomycin (60%, trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole (56.5% and kanamycin (53.5%. The phylogenetic groups A and B1 considerably surrounded the majority of isolates with the frequency of 65.8% and 30.6%, respectively. Conclusions: In Iran, diarrheic calves have an important role as reservoir of resistant E. coli strains against the some drugs which are registered for treatment of calf diarrhea.

  5. British Asian families and the use of child and adolescent mental health services: a qualitative study of a hard to reach group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradby, Hannah; Varyani, Maya; Oglethorpe, Rachel; Raine, Wendy; White, Ishbel; Helen, Minnis

    2007-12-01

    We explored attitudes to and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) among families of South Asian origin who are underrepresented as service-users in an area of a Scottish city with a high concentration of people of South Asian origin. Six community focus groups were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with families who had used CAMHS and with CAMHS professionals involved in those families' cases. Lastly, parents of children who had problems usually referred to CAMHS but who had not used the service were interviewed. Qualitative analysis of transcripts and notes was undertaken using thematic and logical methods. Participants consisted of 35 adults who identified themselves as Asian and had children; 7 parents and/or the young service users him-herself; 7 health care professionals involved in the young person's care plus 5 carers of 6 young people who had not been referred to CAMHS, despite having suitable problems. Focus groups identified the stigma of mental illness and the fear of gossip as strong disincentives to use CAMHS. Families who had been in contact with CAMHS sought to minimise the stigma they suffered by emphasising that mental illness was not madness and could be cured. Families whose children had complex emotional and behavioural problems said that discrimination by health, education and social care professionals exacerbated their child's difficulties. Families of children with severe and enduring mental illness described tolerating culturally inappropriate services. Fear of gossip about children's 'madness' constituted a major barrier to service use for Asian families in this city. Given the widespread nature of the concern over the stigma of children's mental illness, it should be considered in designing culturally competent services for children's mental health.

  6. ASCI 2010 contrast media guideline for cardiac imaging: a report of the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging guideline working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Kakuya; Tsai, I-Chen; Chan, Carmen; Yu, Wei; Yong, Hwan Seok; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2010-01-01

    The use of contrast media for cardiac imaging becomes increasing as the widespread of cardiac CT and cardiac MR. A radiologist needs to carefully consider the indication and the injection protocol of contrast media to be used as well as the possibility of adverse effect. There are several guidelines for contrast media in western countries. However, these are focusing the adverse effect of contrast media. The Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging, the only society dedicated to cardiovascular imaging in Asia, formed a Working Group and created a guideline, which summarizes the integrated knowledge of contrast media for cardiac imaging. In cardiac imaging, coronary artery evaluation is feasible by non-contrast MR angiography, which can be an alternative examination in high risk patients for the use of iodine contrast media. Furthermore, the body habitus of Asian patients is usually smaller than that of their western counterparts. This necessitates modifications in the injection protocol and in the formula for calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate. This guideline provided fundamental information for the use of contrast media for Asian patients in cardiac imaging. PMID:20931289

  7. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  8. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.

    2016-01-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  9. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Sattler, U; Pilo, P; Waldvogel, A S

    2013-09-01

    A fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) and orthopoxvirus (OPXV) in Asian marmots (Marmota caudata) is reported in this article. A total of 7 Asian marmots from a small zoological garden in Switzerland were found dead in hibernation during a routine check in the winter of 2011. The marmots died in February 2011. No clinical signs of disease were observed at any time. The viruses were detected in all individuals for which the tissues were available (n = 3). Detection of the viruses was performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The most consistent gross lesion was a neck and thorax edema. A necrotizing pharyngitis and a multifocal necrotizing pneumonia were observed histologically. Numerous large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions were seen in the epithelial cells of the pharynx, of the airways, and in the skin keratinocytes. Brain lesions were limited to mild multifocal gliosis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the marmot CDV strain was closely related to the clusters of CDVs detected in Switzerland in wild carnivores during a local outbreak in 2002 and the 2009-2010 nationwide epidemic, suggesting a spillover of this virus from wildlife. The OPXV was most closely related to a strain of cowpoxvirus, a poxvirus species considered endemic in Europe. This is the first reported instance of CDV infection in a rodent species and of a combined CDV and OPXV infection.

  11. Real Estate and the Asian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests that activities in the real estate markets in Southeast and East Asian economies were an important contributing force to the financial crises of 1997 in the Asian economies. The analysis relies upon unpublished data reported contemporaneously by financial institutions and market watchers to document the extent of the imbalances in the real property market that were evident to informed observers at the time of the financial collapse. The analysis argues that a series of ref...

  12. Relapse patterns in WHO 2/3 nasopharyngeal cancer: Is there a difference between ethnic Asian vs. non-Asian patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, June; Fisher, Richard; Rischin, Danny; Peters, Lester J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether ethnicity is an independent prognostic factor in patients with World Health Organization (WHO) type 2 or 3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Specifically, we examined the patterns of relapse observed in patients classified as 'Asian' (born in southern China or southeast Asia) or 'non-Asian' (born in Australia, Europe, the Middle East, or the Pacific Islands). Methods and Materials: All patients planned for radical treatment at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre from April 1985 to December 1999 were included in this study. Pathology was reviewed to confirm WHO type 2 or 3 NPC. Patients were staged using the 1997 International Union Against Cancer (UICC) criteria. Mean potential follow-up time was 9.6 years (range, 1.0-18.5 years) Results: There were 158 patients: 86 Asian and 72 non-Asian. Stage groupings were: I-12 patients; II-32 patients; III-59 patients; and IV-55 patients. A staging computerized tomography was performed in 121 patients, and 53 (34%) also had a staging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Asian patients had significantly more women, more patients aged <45, and more with performance status 0 than the non-Asians. Other putative prognostic factors were not significantly different between the groups. The 5-year rates for freedom from local recurrence (FLR), failure-free survival (FFS), and overall survival (OS) for Asian and non-Asian patients were 74% vs. 82%, 61% vs. 55%, and 75% vs. 63%, respectively. Corresponding 10-year figures were: 62% vs. 82%, 43% vs. 48%, and 58% vs. 49%, respectively. Multifactor analysis showed stage and the use of MRI for staging to be significant prognostic factors for all three endpoints. Age was also significant for FFS and OS. There were no significant differences in FFS or OS between Asian and non-Asian patients. However, the FLR interval was significantly worse in the Asian group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-5.06), whereas

  13. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  14. Energy in Southeast Asia: from Networks to Markets Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic regions and experiences strong economic and energy demand growth rates. In this context, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is seeking to interconnect the electric grids and gas networks of the countries through two initiatives, the Asean Power Grid and the Trans-Asean Gas Pipeline, in order to pool resources and optimize energy markets integration in the region

  15. Land rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A

    2003-01-01

    Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...

  16. Analysis of National Forest Programs for REDD+ Implementation in six South and Southeast Asia countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar J Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To facilitate REDD+ implementation and identify relevant attributes for robust REDD+ policies, this study evaluated and synthesized information from national forest programs in South and Southeast Asian countries. Area of study: Data was collected from six countries: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Philippines, India and Thailand. Methods: The data sources for the evaluation was an in-depth desk review of relevant documents and focus group discussion among experts from each study country.   Main Results: We found out that diverse factors may influence program feasibility and the ability to achieve ‘triple benefits’: the nature of the forest targeted by the policy, the characteristics of the population affected by the policy, attributes of the policy instrument and the different actors involved. Research highlights: We argue that national policies and programs targeted for REDD+ implementation should focus on the identified features to achieve REDD+ goals. Keywords: policy evaluation; policy instruments; triple benefits; Southeast Asia.

  17. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  18. A War Too Long: The USAF in Southeast Asia, 1961-1975

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlight, John

    1996-01-01

    .... While Americans undoubtedly delayed a communist victory in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia long enough to spare Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries a similar fate, the American public grew...

  19. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal M. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n=34 or a control group (n=36 that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p<0.0005 and waist circumference (p=0.04 significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  20. Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Yin, Bang-Liang; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Li, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Health risks stemming from betel-quid (BQ) chewing are frequently overlooked by people. Updated epidemiological data on the increased BQ use among Asian populations using comparable data collection methods have not been widely available. To investigate the prevalence, patterns of practice and associated types of oral preneoplastic disorders, an intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (the ABC study) was conducted for Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A random sample of 8,922 subjects was recruited, and the data were analyzed using survey-data modules adjusted for the complex survey design. Chewing rates among men (10.7-43.6%) were significantly higher than women (1.8-34.9%) in Taiwan, Mainland China, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while women's rates (29.5-46.8%) were higher than that for men (9.8-12.0%) in Malaysia and Indonesia. An emerging, higher proportion of new-users were identified for Hunan in Mainland China (11.1-24.7%), where Hunan chewers have the unique practice of using the dried husk of areca fruit rather than the solid nut universally used by others. Men in the Eastern and South Asian study communities were deemed likely to combine chewing with smoking and drinking (5.6-13.6%). Indonesian women who chewed BQ exhibited the highest prevalence of oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia (9.1-17.3%). Lower schooling, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were identified as being associated with BQ chewing. In conclusion, the ABC study reveals the significant cultural and demographic differences contributing to practice patterns of BQ usage and the great health risks that such practices pose in the Asian region. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  1. Domains of health-related quality of life important and relevant to multiethnic English-speaking Asian systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Yen Ling Mandy; Thumboo, Julian; Cella, David; Cheung, Yin Bun; Yong Fong, Kok; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2011-06-01

    To identify health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains of importance to multiethnic Asian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, to identify content gaps in existing SLE-specific HRQOL measures, and to determine whether the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) item banks could serve as a core set of questions for HRQOL assessment among SLE patients. English-speaking patients with physician-diagnosed SLE from a specialist clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore and a patient support group were recruited. Thematic analysis was performed to distill themes from transcripts through open coding by 2 independent coders and axial coding for refinement of categories. Items from 3 existing SLE-specific measures and PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks were compared with identified subthemes. Twenty-seven female and 2 male participants (21 Chinese, 4 Malay, 3 Indian, 1 other) ages 23-62 years participated in 6 focus groups and 2 individual interviews, respectively. Twenty-one domains and 92 subthemes were identified. Domains of family, relationships, stigma and discrimination, and freedom were unaddressed by existing SLE-specific measures. Forty subthemes from 14 domains were addressed by the PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks (Physical Function, Pain, Fatigue, Sleep Disturbance, Sleep-Related Impairment, Anger, Anxiety, and Depression banks). Family and stigma and discrimination (identified as content gaps) may be accentuated in the Asian sociocultural context. PROMIS item banks have tremendous potential to serve as a core set of items for HRQOL assessment in SLE patients. Additional items may be written to fill the gaps in existing PROMIS item banks. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Maternal health and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Boyle, Jacqueline; Cheng, I-Hao; East, Christine; Knight, Michelle; Teede, Helena

    2015-05-01

    To compare maternal health, prenatal care, and pregnancy outcomes among women of refugee background (born in Asian humanitarian source countries [HSCs]) and non-refugee background (born in Asian non-HSCs) at Monash Health (Melbourne, VIC, Australia). In a retrospective study, data were obtained for women born in HSCs and non-HSCs from the same region who received government-funded health care for singleton pregnancies between 2002 and 2011. Multivariable regression analyses assessed associations between maternal HSC origin and pregnancy outcomes. Data were included for 1930 women from South Asian HSCs and 7412 from non-HSCs, 107 from Southeast Asian HSCs and 5574 from non-HSCs, 287 from West Asian HSCs and 990 from non-HSCs. Overweight, anemia, and teenage pregnancy were generally more common in the HSC groups. Birth in an HSC was independently associated with poor/no pregnancy care attendance (OR 4.2; 95% CI 2.5-7.3), late booking visit (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5), and post-term birth (OR 3.0; 95% CI 2.0-4.5) among women from South Asia. For Southeast Asia, HSC birth was independently associated with labor induction (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1-3.5). No independent associations were recorded for West Asia. Women born in Afghanistan, Bhutan, Iraq, and Myanmar had poorer general maternal health. Those from South Asian HSCs had increased risks of lower engagement in prenatal care, and post-term birth. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The association between body composition, 25(OH)D, and PTH and bone mineral density in black African and Asian Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaya A; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A; Crowther, N J

    2014-06-01

    There are few data on the contribution of body composition to bone mineral density (BMD) in non-Caucasian populations. We therefore studied the contribution of body composition, and possible confounding of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, to BMD at various skeletal sites in black African (BA) and Asian Indian (AI) subjects. This was a cross-sectional study in Johannesburg, South Africa. BMD, body fat, and lean mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal fat distribution by ultrasound in 714 healthy subjects, aged 18-65 years. Whole-body (subtotal), hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine (lumbar) BMD were significantly higher in BA than AI subjects (P < .001 for all). Whole-body lean mass positively associated with BMD at all sites in both ethnic groups (P < .001 for all) and partially explained the higher BMD in BA females compared with AI females. Whole-body fat mass correlated positively with lumbar BMD in BA (P = .001) and inversely with subtotal BMD in AI subjects (P < .0001). Visceral adiposity correlated inversely with subtotal BMD in the BA (P = .037) and with lumbar BMD in the AI group (P = .005). No association was found between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and BMD. PTH was inversely associated with hip BMD in the BA group (P = .01) and with subtotal (P = .002), hip (P = .001), and femoral BMD (P < .0001) in the AI group. Significant differences in whole-body and site-specific BMD between the BA and AI groups were observed, with lean mass the major contributor to BMD at all sites in both groups. The contribution of other components of body composition differed by site and ethnic group.

  4. Ethnicity-specific factors influencing childhood immunisation decisions among Black and Asian Minority Ethnic groups in the UK: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Rockliffe, Lauren; Chorley, Amanda J; Marlow, Laura A V; Bedford, Helen; Smith, Samuel G; Waller, Jo

    2017-06-01

    Uptake of some childhood immunisations in the UK is lower among those from some Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds. This systematic review of qualitative research sought to understand the factors that are associated with ethnicity that influence the immunisation decisions of parents from BAME backgrounds living in the UK. Databases were searched on 2 December 2014 for studies published at any time using the terms 'UK' and 'vaccination' and 'qualitative methods' (and variations of these). Included articles comprised participants who were parents from BAME backgrounds. Thematic synthesis methods were used to develop descriptive and higher order themes. Themes specific to ethnicity and associated factors are reported. Eight papers were included in the review. Most participants were from Black (n=62) or Asian (n=38) backgrounds. Two ethnicity-related factors affected immunisation decisions. First, factors that are related to ethnicity itself (namely religion, upbringing and migration, and language) affected parents' perceived importance of immunisations, whether immunisations were permitted or culturally acceptable and their understanding of immunisation/the immunisation schedule. Second, perceived biological differences affected decision-making and demand for information. Factors related to ethnicity must be considered when seeking to understand immunisation decisions among parents from BAME backgrounds. Where appropriate and feasible, vaccination information should be targeted to address beliefs about ethnic differences held by some individuals from some BAME backgrounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Variations in the occurrence of specific rpoB mutations in rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients of different ethnic groups in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Mutairi, Noura M; Mokaddas, Eiman

    2012-05-01

    Frequency of resistance-conferring mutations vary among isoniazid- and ethambutol-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from patients of various ethnic groups. This study was aimed to determine the occurrence of specific rpoB mutations in rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis patients of various ethnic groups in Kuwait. Rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates (n=119) from South Asian (n=55), Southeast Asian (n=23), Middle Eastern (n=39) and other (n=2) patients and 107 rifampicin-susceptible isolates were tested. Mutations in rpoB were detected by DNA sequencing. Polymorphisms at katG463 and gyrA95 were detected by PCR-RFLP for genetic group assignment. None of rifampicin-susceptible but 116 of 119 rifampicin-resistant isolates showed rpoB mutation(s). Mutations among isolates from South Asian patients were distributed at rpoB516 (20%), rpoB526 (24%) and rpoB531 (27%) while 78 and 51 per cent of isolates from Southeast Asian and Middle Eastern patients, respectively, contained a mutated rpoB531. All isolates with rpoB N-terminal and cluster II mutations were obtained from Middle Eastern and South Asian patients. Most isolates from South Asian (84%) and Southeast Asian (70%) patients belonged to genetic group I while nearly all remaining isolates belonged to genetic group II. Isolates from Middle Eastern patients were distributed among genetic group I (46%), genetic group II (33%) and genetic group III (21%). The occurrence of specific rpoB mutations varied considerably in rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from patients of different ethnic groups within the same country. The present data have important implications for designing region-specific rapid methods for detecting majority of rifampicin-resistant strains.

  6. Study of Bilingual-Bicultural Projects Involving Native American, Indo-European, Asian and Pacific Language Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Marie A.; And Others

    This is the final report of one of three studies in an overall project entitled "Evaluation of Bilingual Education Programs." This study was sponsored in response to a need for more information regarding bilingual-bicultural education for other than Spanish language groups. The study's objectives were to: (1) identify the major issues…

  7. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider before using Asian ginseng. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  8. The Prosea Programme (Plant Resources of Southeast Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Dr. A.J.G.H. Kostermans (BO) died on 10 July 1994. He became 88 years old and was buried in the Bogor Botanical Garden, close to the plants and the herbarium to which he devoted most of his life. The life and work of ‘Dok’ are well known to Southeast Asian botanists and various obituaries appeared

  9. Doctor-patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D F; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-03-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in internal medicine outpatient clinics of an Indonesian teaching hospital and two affiliated hospitals. During 26 weeks we engaged in an iterative interview and coding process to identify emergent factors. Patients were generally dissatisfied with doctors' communication style. The doctors indicated that they did not deliberately use a one-way style. Communication style appeared to be associated with characteristics of Southeast Asian culture, the health care setting and medical education. Doctor-patient communication appeared to be affected by cultural characteristics which fell into two broad categories representing key features of Southeast Asian culture, "social distance" and "closeness of relationships", and to characteristics categorized as "specific clinical context". Consideration of these characteristics could be helpful in promoting the use of a partnership communication style.

  10. Doctor-patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Nugraheni, M.D.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a

  11. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly women. Governments aim to facilitate these value chains ...

  12. The Nature of Values Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    In recent years, concern in several Southeast Asian nations about the deterioration of values within their societies has resulted in renewed efforts to teach values by means of special courses in the schools. This paper compares the current programs of values education in four of the nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Phillipines, and Singapore.…

  13. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  14. Falls amongst older people in Southeast Asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, M H; Tan, M P; Mackenzie, L; Lovarini, M; Suttanon, P; Clemson, L

    2017-04-01

    The older population in the Southeast Asian region is accelerating and is expected to surpass the proportion of the ageing population in North America and Europe in the future. This study aims to identify the research literature related to falls among older people in Southeast Asia, to examine current practice and discuss the future direction on falls prevention and interventions in the region. A scoping review design was used. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Ageline, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Thai-Journal Citation Index, MyCite and trial registries databases. Thirty-seven studies and six study protocols were included, from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. One-sixth of the studies involved interventions, while the remainder were observational studies. The observational studies mainly determined the falls risk factors. The intervention studies comprised multifactorial interventions and single interventions such as exercises, educational materials and visual correction. Many of the studies replicated international studies and may not have taken into account features unique to Southeast Asia. Our review has revealed studies evaluating falls and management of falls in the Southeast Asian context. More research is required from all Southeast Asian countries to prepare for the future challenges of managing falls as the population ages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Yomee

    2016-01-01

    Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports...

  16. GROWTH AFTER THE ASIAN CRISIS: WHAT REMAINS OF THE EAST ASIAN MODEL?

    OpenAIRE

    JOMO K.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the prospects for sustained development in the four East Asian economies most adversely affected by the crises of 1997/98. These include all three second-tier South-East Asian newly industrializing countries (NICs) – Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand – as well as the Republic of Korea, the most adversely affected of the first-generation newly industrialized economies (NIEs). The first section critically examines the East Asian model presented by the World Bank’s “East Asi...

  17. Association between grip strength and diabetes prevalence in black, South-Asian, and white European ethnic groups: a cross-sectional analysis of 418 656 participants in the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuk, U E; Celis-Morales, C A; Mackay, D F; Sattar, N; Pell, J P; Gill, J M R

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the extent to which ethnic differences in muscular strength might account for the substantially higher prevalence of diabetes in black and South-Asian compared with white European adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the UK Biobank study on 418 656 white European, black and South-Asian participants, aged 40-69 years, who had complete data on diabetes status and hand-grip strength. Associations between hand-grip strength and diabetes were assessed using logistic regression and were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Lower grip strength was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, independent of confounding factors, across all ethnicities in both men and women. Diabetes prevalence was approximately three- to fourfold higher in South-Asian and two- to threefold higher in black participants compared with white European participants across all levels of grip strength, but grip strength in South-Asian men and women was ~ 5-6 kg lower than in the other ethnic groups. Thus, the attributable risk for diabetes associated with low grip strength was substantially higher in South-Asian participants (3.9 and 4.2 cases per 100 men and women, respectively) than in white participants (2.0 and 0.6 cases per 100 men and women, respectively). Attributable risk associated with low grip strength was also high in black men (4.3 cases) but not in black women (0.4 cases). Low strength is associated with a disproportionately large number of diabetes cases in South-Asian men and women and in black men. Trials are needed to determine whether interventions to improve strength in these groups could help reduce ethnic inequalities in diabetes prevalence. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  18. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  19. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  20. Asian Youth Cultural Expression, Creativity, and Innovation on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinggara Hidayat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groups and intercommunity interactions form global society. This study aims to describe the global aspect in the local cultural expression or vice-versa on YouTube videos. The cultural expressions include language, dress, cuisine, festivals and leisure creativities, social customs and lifestyle. Qualitative descriptive approach is used to analyze ten videos made by Southeast Asian young people. This research found that the locality expression goes global. Cultural expressions communicate the cross-cultural understanding especially in mainland, peninsula, and islands. This youth creativity describes the “glocality” of Indian, Arabic, Chinese, Malay, Java, and the West cultures.

  1. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J

    1996-01-01

    We compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body (and subregions: arm, leg, and pelvis), hip, spine, lateral spine, wrist, and forearm among Caucasian and Asian women at four geographic centers (Honolulu, HI; Nottingham, UK; Portland, OR; Copenhagen, Denmark). Data were derived from...... the baseline examination of 1367 Caucasian and 162 Asian women enrolled in the 1609-subject Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort (EPIC) study. After adjusting for age, study site, years postmenopause, and years of estrogen use, BMD was approximately 4-6% lower (P Asian women at most...... skeletal sites, but there was no significant difference for wrist or forearm BMD. Adding height, lean body mass, fat mass, and/or quadriceps muscle strength to the regression models reduced the racial differences at most skeletal sites; after these additional adjustments, Asian women had significantly...

  2. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  3. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old.

  4. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  5. Policy and priorities for national cancer control planning in low- and middle-income countries: Lessons from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Costs in Oncology prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Evidence to guide policymakers in developing affordable and equitable cancer control plans are scarce in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 2012-2014 ASEAN Costs in Oncology Study prospectively followed-up 9513 newly diagnosed cancer patients from eight LMIC in Southeast Asia for 12 months. Overall and country-specific incidence of financial catastrophe (out-of-pocket health costs ≥ 30% of annual household income), economic hardship (inability to make necessary household payments), poverty (living below national poverty line), and all-cause mortality were determined. Stepwise multinomial regression was used to estimate the extent to which health insurance, cancer stage and treatment explained these outcomes. The one-year incidence of mortality (12% in Malaysia to 45% in Myanmar) and financial catastrophe (24% in Thailand to 68% in Vietnam) were high. Economic hardship was reported by a third of families, including inability to pay for medicines (45%), mortgages (18%) and utilities (12%), with 28% taking personal loans, and 20% selling assets (not mutually exclusive). Out of households that initially reported incomes above the national poverty levels, 4·9% were pushed into poverty at one year. The adverse economic outcomes in this study were mainly attributed to medical costs for inpatient/outpatient care, and purchase of drugs and medical supplies. In all the countries, cancer stage largely explained the risk of adverse outcomes. Stage-stratified analysis however showed that low-income patients remained vulnerable to adverse outcomes even when diagnosed with earlier cancer stages. The LMIC need to realign their focus on early detection of cancer and provision of affordable cancer care, while ensuring adequate financial risk protection, particularly for the poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Free Tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Seasonal Variations and Evidence for Enhanced Emissions from the Southeast Asian Tropical Fires of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Stephen, T. M.; Pougatchev, N. S.; Fishman, J.; David, S. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Novelli, P. C.; Jones, N. B.

    1999-01-01

    High spectral resolution (0.003 per cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5N, 155.6W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4-16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first 2 years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4-16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32'N and 45'S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4-16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997- 1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.

  7. Bone mineral accrual across growth in a mixed-ethnic group of children: are Asian children disadvantaged from an early age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Melonie; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Mirwald, Robert; Macdonald, Heather; McKay, Heather

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the contribution of ethnicity, physical activity, body composition, and calcium intake to bone accrual across 7 years of growth. We assessed 80 Caucasian and 74 Asian boys and 81 Caucasian and 64 Asian girls at baseline and retained 155 children across all 7 years. Ethnicity, physical activity, and calcium intake were assessed by questionnaire; fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (PF(TOT)), and femoral neck (FN) were measured using DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). We aligned children on peak height velocity and utilized multilevel modeling to assess bone mineral accrual. Height and lean mass accounted for 51.8% and 44.1% of BMC accrual in children. There was a significant difference in physical activity, calcium intake, and lean mass between Asians and Caucasian boys and girls at baseline and conclusion (p accrual at the FN. In girls, Asians had significantly lower PF(TOT) and FN BMC. Calcium was a significant predictor of WB BMC accrual in boys and girls. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ethnicity in pediatric studies. Physical activity, dietary calcium, and lean mass positively influence bone accrual and are lower in Asian compared to Caucasian children from a very young age.

  8. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had

  9. The political and scientific challenges in evaluating compulsory drug treatment centers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Nguyen, Nhu; Le, Giang; Shanahan, Marian; Ali, Robert; Ritter, Alison

    2017-01-11

    In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges. The aim of this paper is to discuss political challenges and methodological issues when conducting cost-effectiveness studies within the context of a non-democratic Southeast Asian country. A retrospective analysis of the political and scientific challenges that were experienced in the study design, sample size determination, government approval and ethics approvals, participant recruitment, data collection, and determination of sources, and quantification of cost and effectiveness data was undertaken. As a consequence of the non-randomized design, analysis of patient characteristics for both treatment types was undertaken to identify the magnitude of baseline group differences. Concordance between self-reported heroin use and urine drug testing was undertaken to determine the reliability of self-report data in a politically challenging environment. We demonstrate that conducting research around compulsory treatment in a non-democratic society is feasible, yet it is politically challenging and requires navigation between science and politics. We also demonstrate that engagement with the government decision makers in the research conception, implementation, and dissemination of the results increases the likelihood of research evidence being considered for change in a contentious drug policy area. Local empirical evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of CCT and MMT in a Southeast Asian setting is

  10. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  11. Identity, Empathy and "Otherness": Asian Women, Education and Dowries in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2009-01-01

    This article will examine Asian women's views on the practice of dowries in the UK. The research is based on 20 in-depth interviews with Asian women studying for a Social Sciences degree in a "new" (post-1992) university in the southeast of England. All of the interviews were tape-recorded and the data transcribed. The data was analysed…

  12. Diverse Asian American Families and Communities: Culture, Structure, and Education (Part 1: Why They Differ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…

  13. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  14. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  15. Implications of an ageing population in the Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1999-12-01

    Population aging is the increasing number and proportion of old persons aged 60 years and above in the developing countries and 65 years and above in the developed countries that exceeds 10% of the total population. In Asia, the last decade of the 20th century is marked by significant changes in the age structure due to the process of population aging. The implications of this aging population on the life of Asian countries has to be addressed since demographically the current situation is changing rapidly and there lie the future challenges that have to be answered. Due to the growing size of the elderly population, Asia will need better plans to prevent these elderly groups from turning into the socioeconomically vulnerable group of society. However, many governments are not prepared with effective policies, programs, and services that are particularly designed to care for the elderly. The provision of infrastructure and services, including education, employment, health and housing are necessary steps that need to be taken. Some of the suggested measures include: the Social Safety Net Programs; the implementation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Plan of Action on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication; and strengthen volunteerism and the role of private sector in human development. The role of the media in transmitting information concerning policies and programs intended to increase the welfare of the older persons is also very important.

  16. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  17. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  18. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  19. Adipocyte hypertrophy, fatty liver and metabolic risk factors in South Asians: the Molecular Study of Health and Risk in Ethnic Groups (mol-SHARE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S Anand

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if differences in the distribution and characteristics of adipose tissue between South Asians and white Caucasians account for differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 108 healthy South Asians (36.8 years and white Caucasians (34.2 years within three BMI strata. Body composition, adipocyte size, abdominal fat area, and hepatic adiposity were assessed and related to fasting glucose, insulin, lipids and adiponectin. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, South Asians compared to white Caucasians had higher ln fasting insulin (mean difference (MD: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.69, lower HDL cholesterol (md: -0.13; 95% CI:-0.26 to -0.01, and lower adiponectin (md: -2.38; 95% CI: -3.59 to -1.17. South Asians also had more body fat (md: 2.69; 95% CI: 0.70 to 4.69, lower lean muscle mass (md: -3.25; 95%CI: -5.35 to -1.14, increased waist to hip ratio (md: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.05, less superficial subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (md: -2.94; 95% CI: -5.56 to-0.32, more deep/visceral to superficial adipose tissue ratio (md 0.34; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.65, and more liver fat (md: 7.43%; 95% CI: 2.30 to 12.55%. Adipocyte area was increased in South Asians compared to white Caucasians (md: 64.26; 95% CI: 24.3 to 104.1 units(2. Adjustment for adipocyte area attenuated the ethnic differences in insulin (md: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.51, HDL (md: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.16 to 0.13 and adiponectin (md: -1.11; 95% CI: -2.61 to 0.39. Adjustment for differences in adipocyte area and fat distribution attenuated the ethnic difference in liver fat (md: 5.19; 95% CI: 0.31 to 10.06. CONCLUSION: South Asians have an increased adipocyte area compared to white Caucasians. This difference accounts for the ethnic differences in insulin, HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, and ectopic fat deposition in the liver.

  20. Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ... the low donor awareness of societal needs and the lack of donor education and skills development. ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... Supporting sustainable economic growth in ASEAN.

  1. INDIA’S GROWING INFLUENCE IN STABILIZING REGIONAL SECURITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    East Policy’ focusing on engagement with Southeast Asia .2 Following the reforms, Indian economy grew rapidly with an...civilizational neighbors in Southeast Asia and East Asia .”19 Thus, LEP and recognition of India’s economic, political, security and cultural potential by ASEAN...point. 21 During the 10th East Asia Summit, Prime Minister Modi emphasized the importance of South East Asian region and informed that his

  2. Establishing a foot-and-mouth disease laboratory network in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has established an effective laboratory network in Southeast Asia to support the diagnostic requirements of the Southeast Asian Foot-and-mouth disease control campaign (SEAFMD). All laboratories have a capability to accurately detect and type foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in clinical specimens and to conduct the screening test for detection of serum antibodies against the endemic sero-types of the virus. (author)

  3. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  4. The Paradoxical Impact of Globalisation on Women’s Political Representation: A Review of Situations In Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azizah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The representation of women in a political system is a good test of its claims to democracy. Although there are some progress, the level of women political representation in Southeast Asian countries is still low. Women activists propose the adoption of gender quotas as a fast track to address this issue, but the implementation find many obstacles. This article base of my research which want to examine the impact of globalisation for women’s political representation in Southeast Asian countries. The discussion begin with the overview of women’s political representation issue and some theoretical framewoks for adressing that issue. It identified that globalisation has positive and negative impacts on women’s representation. On the one hand, it encourages the emergence of a global gender equality regime which influences pattern of women’s political representation among Southeast Asian countries. Yet, on the otherhand, itpromotes neo-liberalism ideology which is “inherently oppose to policy interventionism”and it also promotes liberal democratic practices, which oppose affirmative policy for women, included gender quota in parliament.We concludes that the paradoxical impact of globalisation causes progress for increasing women’s representation in Southeast Asian countries move slowly. The efforts for increasing women’s representation in some Southeast Asian countries have not been supported by governments’ “intervention” policies such as gender quota and social welfare policies. Southeast Asian countries are also trapped in a liberal democracy practice which promotes ‘one person one vote’ (equality of opportunity. Thus, the opposition to affirmative action (equality of result is so high. Although some Southeast Asian countries have women quota articles, the implementation has been undermined so far.

  5. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Dynamics and Structures of Terrorist Threats in Southeast Asia, Held at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanley, Jr., John T; Hassig, Kongdan O; Ziemke, Caroline F

    2005-01-01

    ... in the Southeast Asian region; to explore the possibilities of establishing more formal cooperative and collaborative links among academic, analytical, and government institutions dealing with the problem of countering terrorism...

  6. Unravelling the genetic history of Negritos and indigenous populations of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanian, Farhang; Yunus, Yushima; Naidu, Rakesh; Jinam, Timothy; Manica, Andrea; Hoh, Boon Peng; Phipps, Maude E

    2015-04-14

    Indigenous populations of Malaysia known as Orang Asli (OA) show huge morphological, anthropological, and linguistic diversity. However, the genetic history of these populations remained obscure. We performed a high-density array genotyping using over 2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in three major groups of Negrito, Senoi, and Proto-Malay. Structural analyses indicated that although all OA groups are genetically closest to East Asian (EA) populations, they are substantially distinct. We identified a genetic affinity between Andamanese and Malaysian Negritos which may suggest an ancient link between these two groups. We also showed that Senoi and Proto-Malay may be admixtures between Negrito and EA populations. Formal admixture tests provided evidence of gene flow between Austro-Asiatic-speaking OAs and populations from Southeast Asia (SEA) and South China which suggest a widespread presence of these people in SEA before Austronesian expansion. Elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and enriched homozygosity found in OAs reflect isolation and bottlenecks experienced. Estimates based on Ne and LD indicated that these populations diverged from East Asians during the late Pleistocene (14.5 to 8 KYA). The continuum in divergence time from Negritos to Senoi and Proto-Malay in combination with ancestral markers provides evidences of multiple waves of migration into SEA starting with the first Out-of-Africa dispersals followed by Early Train and subsequent Austronesian expansions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  8. Analysis of National Forest Programs for REDD+ Implementation in six South and Southeast Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A.J.; Inoue, M.; Shivakoti, G.P.; Nath, T.K.; Jashimuddin, M.; Zoysa, M.D.; Kaskoyo, H.; Pulhin, J.M.; Peras, R.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To facilitate REDD+ implementation and identify relevant attributes for robust REDD+ policies, this study evaluated and synthesized information from national forest programs in South and Southeast Asian countries. Area of study: Data was collected from six countries: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Philippines, India and Thailand. Methods: The data sources for the evaluation was an in-depth desk review of relevant documents and focus group discussion among experts from each study country. Main Results: We found out that diverse factors may influence program feasibility and the ability to achieve ‘triple benefits’: the nature of the forest targeted by the policy, the characteristics of the population affected by the policy, attributes of the policy instrument and the different actors involved. Research highlights: We argue that national policies and programs targeted for REDD+ implementation should focus on the identified features to achieve REDD+ goals. (Author)

  9. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with ethnicity and knee pain in a multi-ethnic South-East Asian nation: Results from Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Sumaiyah; Jaafar, Mohamad Hasif; Sockalingam, Sargunan; Raja, Jasmin; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Abbas, Azlina Amir; Chan, Chee Ken; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Cumming, Robert; Tan, Maw Pin

    2018-05-01

    To determine the association between vitamin D and knee pain among participants of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research (MELoR) study. This was a cross-sectional study from the MELoR study consisting of a representative group of 1011 community-dwelling older persons (57% female), mean age 86.5 (54-94) years; 313 were Malays, 367 Chinese and 330 Indians. Participants were asked if they had knee pain. Levels of serum 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25-[OH]D), an indicator of vitamin D status, were measured using routine laboratory techniques. In unadjusted analysis, presence of knee pain was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio [OR] 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.85, P 0.011). Vitamin D levels were significantly associated with ethnicity differences where Malays (OR 7.08; 95% CI 4.94-10.15) and Indians (OR 6.10; 95% CI 4.28-9.71) have lower levels of vitamin D compared to Chinese. Subsequent multivariate analysis revealed that the association between vitamin D deficiency and knee pain was confounded by ethnic differences. A previous study suggested that vitamin D deficiency was associated with knee pain. This relationship was reproduced in our study, but we further established that the association was explained by ethnic variations. As vitamin D status is dependent on skin tone, diet and sunlight exposure, which are all effected by ethnicity, future studies are now required to determine whether a true relationship exists between vitamin D and knee pain. © 2018 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  11. The novel primers for mammal species identification-based mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence: implication for reserved wild animals in Thailand and endangered mammal species in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Amano, Akira; Sukmak, Manakorn

    2018-01-01

    We presented the powerful techniques for species identification using the short amplicon of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence. Two faecal samples and one single hair sample of the Asian tapir were tested using the new cytochrome b primers. The results showed a high sequence similarity with the mainland Asian tapir group. The comparative sequence analysis of the reserved wild mammals in Thailand and the other endangered mammal species from Southeast Asia comprehensibly verified the potential of our novel primers. The forward and reverse primers were 94.2 and 93.2%, respectively, by the average value of the sequence identity among 77 species sequences, and the overall mean distance was 35.9%. This development technique could provide rapid, simple, and reliable tools for species confirmation. Especially, it could recognize the problematic biological specimens contained less DNA material from illegal products and assist with wildlife crime investigation of threatened species and related forensic casework.

  12. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  13. Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia – Part II : Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting, December 8 & 9, 2010, Muak Lek, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haartsen, L.; Lee, van der J.; Wouters, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The regional Dairy Expert Roundtable Meeting on “Competitive Dairy Value Chains in Southeast Asia” provided a forum for participants from six Southeast Asian countries to discuss how dairy value chains in this region can become more competitive and sustainable. The demand for dairy products in these

  14. Southeast Asian Space Programs: Motives, Cooperation, and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    specific use” after being launched into equatorial orbit on a SpaceX Falcon rocket in 2009; Malaysia sought to fill a niche for equatorial countries...with human users as part of a system,28 the “technique” by which rockets , satellites, and other accoutrements of space access are integrated into...independence and an archipelagic geography that incentivizes use of space as a big tent under which to strengthen national unity, Indonesia’s space

  15. Networking Among Southeast Asian Psychological Societies to Improve Services *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Supratiknya

    2015-09-01

    contained individual whose values and relations are the products of her or his own choice. Individuals are antecedent to the society in which they live and the possession of a self is given prior to its

  16. Relational Dynamics within a Southeast Asian Social Service Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing literature that describes the benefits and challenges of collaboration among schools, counsellors, and the families of students. This literature, however, is largely drawn from Western cultural settings and from situations where the different collaborators exist as essentially separate entities. This article seeks to add to and…

  17. Comparative economic value added on Southeast Asian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintang Dewanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the bank's performance comparison across countries in some ASEAN members which are listed in the stock exchange, as well as to analyse the influence of Economic Value Added (EVA and some financial ratios on the company stock return. Analysis suggests some results. In Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, the movement of EVA follows the movement of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. This study also finds that Earning per Share (EPS, only in Singapore, and Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA, only in the Philippines, have an influence on stock return. Only in the Philippines where EVA together with ROA has an effect on stock return.

  18. Southeast Asian Chokepoints. Keeping Sea Lines of Communication Open

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noer, John

    1996-01-01

    .... imports and exports would be directly affected. A serious blockage could cause a world-wide shipping shortage, and, at least in the short term, place severe pressure on the economies of region. The U.S...

  19. Borassodendron (Palmae) in the Southeast Asian fossil pollen record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maloney, B.K.

    2000-01-01

    Borassodendron machadonis pollen occurred throughout the Holocene pollen record of Nong Thale Song Hong, Thailand, until about 4000 BP. It was also present in one sample from Khok Phanom Di, Thailand, and in the Mahakam Delta, Kalimantan, records, but B. machadonis has not been reported from the

  20. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  1. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  2. Population and society in twentieth-century Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, C

    1994-09-01

    The historical demographic analysis in this article is a revision of a paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in 1988 at the University of Oregon. The author takes the view that fertility has remained high in the Southeast Asian region due to the dynamics of colonialism and the reinforcement of traditional society. Industrialization, urbanization, and advancing education was not favored by colonial policy. The shift to planting cash crops was labor-intensive work which reinforced large families. The fertility decline after the 1960s is attributed to population pressure and the lower limits of land and production per family. Incentives for smaller families are identified as the expansion of mass education, increased consumer aspirations, and opportunities for modern sector employment. The impact of population growth is viewed as multidimensional and indicative of the conflicts between resources, obligations, and aspirations. The historical record in Southeast Asia reveals a population shortage and the risk of losing the minimum supply of labor necessary for a subsistence economy. Traditional local authorities were in need of men for waging war and producing an economic surplus. Colonial administrators imported cheap labor. As mortality declined and population increased, the societal response was migration, usually to frontier areas. New zones of wet rice production were created in lower Burma, central Siam, and Cochin China due to increased demand. Other survival strategies are identified as infinite land subdivision and multiple job holding in the off-season. Densely populated areas appeared to have lower fertility. Over the past 20 years the strategy appears to have been lower fertility coupled with acceptance of family planning, higher female educational attainment, and higher age at marriage. Southeast Asian patterns are considered indicative of the impact of wars, crises, and economic change on

  3. State of rare disease management in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Supian, Azuwana; Lim, Jeremy; Zafra, Matt; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2016-08-02

    Rare diseases, also referred to as orphan diseases, are characterised by their low prevalence with majority of them are chronically debilitating and life threatening. Given the low prevalence and the widely dispersed but very small patient base for each disease, there may often be a disproportion in the availability of treatments and resources to manage patients, spur research and train experts. This is especially true in Southeast Asian countries that are currently in the process of implementing or revising their universal health coverage schemes. This paper aims to examine the status of rare disease management in Southeast Asian countries. It will serve as the basis for a more active discussion on how countries in the region can address an under-recognised rare disease burden and enhance national and regional capacities. The study consists of literature reviews and key stakeholders interviews in six focus countries, including the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand and five countries as best practice, comprising of France, Canada, Australia, Taiwan, and South Korea. Rare disease management initiatives across each country were examined based on the World Health Organization's framework for action in strengthening health systems. The results suggest rare disease management remains challenging across Southeast Asia, as many of the focus countries face fundamental issues from basic healthcare systems to funding. Nonetheless, there are substantial improvement opportunities, including leveraging best practices from around the world and organising a multi-stakeholder and regional approach and strategy. Southeast Asian countries have made significant progress in the management of rare disease, but there remain key areas for substantial development opportunities.

  4. Differences in Patient Characteristics and Midterm Outcome Between Asian and European Patients Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmans, Mark Christiaan, E-mail: m.c.burgmans@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: too.chow.wei@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Fiocco, Marta, E-mail: m.fiocco@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics (Netherlands); Kerbert, Annarein J. C., E-mail: a.kerbert@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology (Netherlands); Lo, Richard Hoau Gong, E-mail: richard.lo.h.g@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Schaapman, Jelte J., E-mail: j.j.schaapman@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Erkel, Arian R. van, E-mail: a.r.van-erkel@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology (Netherlands); Coenraad, Minneke J., E-mail: m.j.coenraad@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Tan, Bien Soo, E-mail: tan.bien.soo@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to compare patient characteristics and midterm outcomes after RFA for unresectable Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian and European cohorts.Materials and MethodsThe study was based on retrospective analysis of 279 patients (mean 64.8 ± 12.1 years; 208 males) treated with RFA for de novo HCC in tertiary referral centers in Singapore and the Netherlands, with median follow-up of 28.2 months (quartiles: 13.1–40.5 months). Cumulative incidence of recurrence and death were analyzed using a competing risk model.ResultsAge was higher in the Asian group: 66.5 versus 60.1 years (p < 0.0001). The most common etiology was hepatitis B in the Asian group (48.0 %) and alcohol-induced cirrhosis in Europeans (54.4 %); p < 0.001. Asian patients had less advanced disease: 35.5, 55.0, and 3.0 %, respectively, had BCLC 0, A, and B versus 21.5, 58.2, and 15.2 % in the European group (p = 0.01). The cumulative incidences of recurrence in the Asian group at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were 37.0, 56.4, 62.3, and 67.7 %, respectively, compared to 32.6, 47.2, 49.7, and 53.4 % in the European group (p = 0.474). At 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, the cumulative incidence rates of death in the Asian group were 2.0, 3.9, 4.9, and 4.9 %, respectively, corresponding to 7.7, 9.2, 14.1, and 21.0 % in the European group (p = 0.155).ConclusionSimilar short-term treatment outcomes are achieved with RFA in HCC patients in the South-East Asian and Northern-European populations. Midterm recurrence and death rates differ between the groups as a result of differences in baseline patient characteristics and patient selection. Our study provides insight relevant to the design of future international studies.

  5. Differences in Patient Characteristics and Midterm Outcome Between Asian and European Patients Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmans, Mark Christiaan; Too, Chow Wei; Fiocco, Marta; Kerbert, Annarein J. C.; Lo, Richard Hoau Gong; Schaapman, Jelte J.; Erkel, Arian R. van; Coenraad, Minneke J.; Tan, Bien Soo

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to compare patient characteristics and midterm outcomes after RFA for unresectable Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian and European cohorts.Materials and MethodsThe study was based on retrospective analysis of 279 patients (mean 64.8 ± 12.1 years; 208 males) treated with RFA for de novo HCC in tertiary referral centers in Singapore and the Netherlands, with median follow-up of 28.2 months (quartiles: 13.1–40.5 months). Cumulative incidence of recurrence and death were analyzed using a competing risk model.ResultsAge was higher in the Asian group: 66.5 versus 60.1 years (p < 0.0001). The most common etiology was hepatitis B in the Asian group (48.0 %) and alcohol-induced cirrhosis in Europeans (54.4 %); p < 0.001. Asian patients had less advanced disease: 35.5, 55.0, and 3.0 %, respectively, had BCLC 0, A, and B versus 21.5, 58.2, and 15.2 % in the European group (p = 0.01). The cumulative incidences of recurrence in the Asian group at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were 37.0, 56.4, 62.3, and 67.7 %, respectively, compared to 32.6, 47.2, 49.7, and 53.4 % in the European group (p = 0.474). At 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, the cumulative incidence rates of death in the Asian group were 2.0, 3.9, 4.9, and 4.9 %, respectively, corresponding to 7.7, 9.2, 14.1, and 21.0 % in the European group (p = 0.155).ConclusionSimilar short-term treatment outcomes are achieved with RFA in HCC patients in the South-East Asian and Northern-European populations. Midterm recurrence and death rates differ between the groups as a result of differences in baseline patient characteristics and patient selection. Our study provides insight relevant to the design of future international studies.

  6. A synthesis of the implementation ambivalence of REDD+ in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divine Odame Appiah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and associated benefits (REDD+, has received much attention as one of the most controversial climate change initiatives, especially by forest fringed community actors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Southeast Asia, (SEA who are skeptical of the scheme.The object of this paper is to examine the seeming potential benefits and accompanying risks and challenges of REDD+ on the livelihoods among smallholder farmers in SSA and SEA. The paper espouses the sustainability context of REDD+ projects as pro-poor forest management mechanisms; through the provision of alternative livelihood. This is achieved through critical review and critique of scientific articles, project reports and relevant documents on REDD+ interventions from a worldwide, regional to local scale. The paper identifies projects that seem to solidify claims that REDD+ projects are simply a new form of colonialism; which the West is using to take advantage of vulnerable groups in the South. The paper concludes with the need to actively engage sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian women in climate change mitigation benefit schemes on account of the expedient role women play in agricultural activities (which may involve deforestation and forest land degradation.

  7. The treaty on the South-East Asia nuclear-weapon-free zone (the Bangkok treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Bangkok Treaty was signed in 1995 during the Fifth ASEAN Summit by the 10 South-East Asian countries. It represents a commitment on the part of the signatories to the Treaty to maintain peace and stability in the region in the spirit of peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding and cooperation

  8. Validation of the CancerMath prognostic tool for breast cancer in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Hui; Hartman, Mikael; Verkooijen, Helena M; Taib, Nur Aishah; Wong, Hoong-Seam; Subramaniam, Shridevi; Yip, Cheng-Har; Tan, Ern-Yu; Chan, Patrick; Lee, Soo-Chin; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CancerMath is a set of web-based prognostic tools which predict nodal status and survival up to 15 years after diagnosis of breast cancer. This study validated its performance in a Southeast Asian setting. METHODS: Using Singapore Malaysia Hospital-Based Breast Cancer Registry, clinical

  9. Healthcare entitlements for citizens and trans-border mobile peoples in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Chan, Chee Khoon; Verghis, Sharuna

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on transborder issues shaping transitions in Southeast Asian countries’ health systems. In section 1, we address the regionalisation of health governance by examining economic and social policies and charters affecting health and healthcare within ASEAN. We look specifically at

  10. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  11. Changing Roles of the United States and Japan in the Security of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Mahatir Mohamad invoked the Internal Security Act (ISA) in 1981, which enabled him to detain his opponents without trial. He applied the ISA liberally and...since World War II, the reaction of Southeast Asian leaders was positive. Prime Minister Mahatir of Malaysia had "no problems whatsoever" with the

  12. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  15. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    apparently to save ammunition, according to the BPP report . The attacks came after a battalion of Burmese troops had arrived at the border areas to...Manuel Pangilinan says. 17 It will be divided into five " strategic business units" (or SBU’s): commercial banking, which will include Hibernia and...065082 JPRS-SEA-84-173 14 December 1 984 Southeast Asia Report Reproduced From Best Available Copy 20000107 100 IIXTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 9

  16. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...

  17. Riding the Asian Wave....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses strategies U.S. universities are using to deal with declining enrollments by Asian students, brought on by the Asian financial crisis. Strategies include recruiting students from other countries. (Author/VWL)

  18. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  19. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  20. Trends in Asian diesel fuel quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific petrol and diesel markets is presented covering the diesel demand and quality in the sub regions of Australia/New Zealand, East Asia (Japan, China), South Asia, and Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Singapore) and the trend towards lower sulphur diesels in Asia. Plots are presented illustrating Asia-Pacific diesel demand by regional submarket (1985-2005), the steady reductions in Asia-Pacific diesel sulphur levels (1990-2000), and the average sulphur content and tpd sulphur in Asian diesel

  1. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-04-19

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies ( n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity.

  2. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Lindsay, Ana; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L.; Wallington, Sherrie F.; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2–12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies (n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity. PMID:28422081

  3. Problems With the Collection and Interpretation of Asian-American Health Data: Omission, Aggregation, and Extrapolation

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Ariel T.; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2012-01-01

    Asian-American citizens are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Nevertheless, data on Asian American health are scarce, and many health disparities for this population remain unknown. Much of our knowledge of Asian American health has been determined by studies in which investigators have either grouped Asian-American subjects together or examined one subgroup alone (e.g., Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese). National health surveys that co...

  4. First direct comparison of clinical outcomes between European and Asian cohorts in transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the Massy study group vs. the PREVAIL JAPAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Hayashida, Kentaro; Takayama, Morimasa; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nanto, Shinsuke; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Kuratani, Toru; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lefèvre, Thierry; Sawa, Yoshiki; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in Asian populations were unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare directly the clinical outcomes of the first Japanese trial and a European single-center experience after TAVI. Between April 2010 and October 2011, 64 patients were included in the PREVAIL JAPAN multicenter trial which was set up to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Edwards SAPIEN XT™ (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) in high-risk Japanese patients with severe aortic stenosis. Between March 2010 and January 2012, 237 consecutive patients treated with TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN XT™ prosthesis at Institut Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud were prospectively included in the Massy cohort. We compared the clinical outcomes of these two cohorts. Patients were of similar age (83.4±6.6 years vs. 84.5±6.1 years, p=0.25), but logistic EuroSCORE was higher in the Massy cohort (20.2±11.7% vs. 15.6±8.0%, pPREVAIL JAPAN cohort (1.41±0.14m(2) vs. 1.72±0.18m(2); pPREVAIL JAPAN cohort (12.7±11.4mmHg vs. 10.1±3.6mmHg, p=0.01), but satisfactory improvement in 6-month functional status was obtained in both cohorts (76.5% vs. 77.2%, p=0.91). Clinical outcomes after TAVI in the patients included in the PREVAIL JAPAN trial were acceptable and as safe as that of a single-center European cohort. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thaksinomics: A New Asian Paradigm; Strategic Insights: v.2, issue 12 (December 2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights (December 2003), v.2 no.12 Prior to the Asian Economic Crisis sparked by the collapse of the Thai baht in 1997, Southeast Asia looked like a sure bet for a long period of high sustained economic growth. As a region, Southeast Asia's economies are the most open to international trade. While such openness spurred their growth for several decades, in the post 1997 period it has left them increasingly vulnerable to adverse economic and political sh...

  6. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  7. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The expectation from radiation breeding in the Southeast Asia - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S. III

    1996-01-01

    The induction of mutation by radiation and chemical mutagens is now will established. At times, it is the only way to increase genetic variation in the primary gene pool, as in asexually propagated plants or where the desired market type genotype is very heterozygous and selfing or out-crossing will lead to its breakdown. It was demonstrated that mutation breeding coupled with molecular and biotechnology is a very effective means to modify various traits such as protein and oil content and composition, plant architecture and habits and physiological processes especially resistance/tolerance to various stresses of biotic and abiotic nature and higher stabler yields with lower inputs of labour. It was also seen that mutation breeding is a practical method to produce the desired genetic variability, together with a wide range of additional favourable and unfavourable variation. The mutant alleles in the adapted variety may then be used directly by releasing an improved cultivar, or in cross breeding as the source of a desired gene. Some researchers in the Southeast Asian countries felt the need and the importance of specialized training because standard methodologies are often still lacking and must be developed by the researchers themselves for special crops. Exchange of informations, materials and techniques among involved Institutes should be encouraged. The Southeast Asian country's researcher should be able to utilize the research network and linkages to the maximum and thus benefit more from newly developed molecular and biotechnologies of mutation breeding and thus develop a more realistic and efficient mutation breeding technology and programmes. The present programmes on mutation breeding of most Southeast Asian countries and the aspiration for the contribution of mutation breeding for the coming century are discussed in the paper. (J.P.N.)

  9. Quality management practices in the south east Asian airlines' operations function

    OpenAIRE

    Subagyo, Toto Hardiyanto

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recent Asian economics crisis (1997-1998), air traffic volumes in Asia- Pacific will continue to grow over the next decade. As the market is becoming more and more attractive, the competition amongst the airlines operating in the region has challenged the Southeast Asian carriers. The demanded quality of product/service by the customer has become a crucial issue. The ability to provide quality products and services is increasingly becoming a key determinant of an...

  10. The Prospect for an Australian–Asian Power Grid: A Critical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Halawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is an energy net self-sufficient country rich in energy resources, from fossil-based to renewable energy. Australia, a huge continent with low population density, has witnessed impressive reduction in energy consumption in various sectors of activity in recent years. Currently, coal and natural gas are two of Australia’s major export earners, yet its abundant renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, and tidal, are still underutilized. The majority of Asian countries, on the other hand, are in the middle of economic expansion, with increasing energy consumption and lack of energy resources or lack of energy exploration capability becoming a serious challenge. Electricity interconnection linking two or more independent grids within a country or at cross-border or regional levels has found its way into electricity markets worldwide. This concept allows for electricity exchanges that lead to optimized use and sharing of electricity generated from different sources. The interconnection also enables the long distance exploitation of renewable energy which would otherwise be physically impossible. ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations and other regional groupings in Asia have initiated a number of interconnections to gain economic benefits. Asian’s hunger for energy for its economic development, climate change that has become a global and urgent issue to be solved, and Australia’s abundant renewable energy resources have all prompted increasing interest in a super-grid interconnection linking Australia to Asian grids, the Australian–Asian (Power Grid (AAG. This paper overviews the existing grid interconnections as well as current initiatives at domestic, sub-regional, and regional levels worldwide, with a particular focus on Asia. The paper concludes with a critical appraisal on the benefits, potential, challenges and issues to be encountered by the AAG initiative.

  11. A panel of 130 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms for ancestry assignment in five Asian populations and in Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Lin, Chih-Peng; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hsieh, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2017-06-01

    Ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (AISNP) panels for differentiating between East and Southeast Asian populations are scarce. This study aimed to identify AISNPs for ancestry assignment of five East and Southeast Asian populations, and Caucasians. We analyzed 145 autosomal SNPs of the 627 DNA samples from individuals of six populations (234 Taiwanese Han, 91 Filipinos, 79 Indonesians, 60 Thais, 71 Vietnamese, and 92 Caucasians) using arrays. The multiple logistic regression model and a multi-tier approach were used for ancestry classification. We observed that 130 AISNPs were effective for classifying the ethnic origins with fair accuracy. Among the 130 AISNPs, 122 were useful for stratification between these five Asian populations and 64 were effective for differentiating between Caucasians and these Asian populations. For differentiation between Caucasians and Asians, an accuracy rate of 100% was achieved in these 627 subjects with 50 optimal AISNPs among the 64 effective SNPs. For classification of the five Asian populations, the accuracy rates of ancestry inference using 20 to 57 SNPs for each of the two Asian populations ranged from 74.1% to 100%. Another 14 degraded DNA samples with incomplete profiling were analyzed, and the ancestry of 12 (85.7%) of those subjects was accurately assigned. We developed a 130-AISNP panel for ethnic origin differentiation between the five East and Southeast Asian populations and Caucasians. This AISNP set may be helpful for individual ancestral assignment of these populations in forensic casework.

  12. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  13. Mexico's commercial relations with asiatic southeast: agreements and social agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Carlos Zottele Allende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican state built a complex and thorough system of agreements with the countries that integrate the Pacific Basin. Despite this effort, there is an important and increasing deficit in commercial exchange with the Asian Southeast Nations. The global balance trade compensates this inequity with the sur-plus set up with the United States of America. There are a lot of aspects that contribute to the explanation of these phenomena, but here it will be take into consideration just the important matters, in order to explain why the Mexican exports have the "natural" tendency to satisfy some UsA demands, which is still the mayor world importer.

  14. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott B. Halstead

    2006-01-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65 000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II ampli...

  15. AHP 35: Review Essay: COMPARATIVE BORDERLANDS ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND ACROSS SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early in the colonial period, many studies examining upland Southeast Asia focused on ethnography and ecology as a means for the colonial state to better understand the region's geography. This process resulted in the construction of physical, social, and intellectual boundaries that sought to maintain control of the colonial enterprise. The natural borderlands of the region defied such easy definition – the highlands, the plains at the edges of deltas, and heavily forested regions – became a fascination of colonial study. In the climate of pending Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN integration, which promises to begin the process of loosening restrictions for border crossing between Southeast Asian states by area residents, the study of borderlands has risen again. Because many of these border areas have pockets of highlands culture, continued study of the uplands is particularly relevant to deepening an understanding of the region. This review of several books on the Southeast Asian uplands explores historical and cultural strategies of individuals, particularly in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, the Dayak community on the island of Borneo, and the Cham community in Vietnam and Cambodia, as well as some of the challenges that they face regarding 'the borderlands'. Putting these studies in conversation can help develop an interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in Anthropology, Political Science, Linguistics, Ethnomusicology, and History, allowing for a more integrated international perspective.

  16. A predictive model of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in UK white as well as black and Asian minority ethnic population groups for application in food fortification strategy development towards vitamin D deficiency prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Kiely, Mairead; Cox, Lorna; Meadows, Sarah; Goldberg, Gail; Prentice, Ann; Kift, Richard; Webb, Ann R; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    Within Europe, dark-skinned ethnic groups have been shown to be at much increased risk of vitamin D deficiency compared to their white counterparts. Increasing the dietary supply of vitamin D is potentially the only modifiable environmental component that can be used to prevent vitamin D deficiency among dark-skinned ethnic groups living at high latitude. Empirical data to support development of such strategies is largely lacking. This paper presents the development and validation of an integrated model that may be adapted within the UK population to design fortification strategies for vitamin D, for application in both white and black and Asian minority ethnic (BAME) population groups. Using a step-wise approach, models based on available ultraviolet B (UVB) data, hours of sunlight and two key components (the dose-response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to UVB in white and BAME persons and the dose-response of 25(OH)D to vitamin D) were used to predict changes population serum 25(OH)D concentrations throughout the year, stratified by ethnicity, 'via increases' in dietary intake arising from food fortification simulations. The integrated model successfully predicted measured average wintertime 25(OH)D concentrations in addition to the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D D that may arise from various dietary fortification approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  18. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  19. Replication analysis of genetic association of the NCAN-CILP2 region with plasma lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian and Pacific ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonvisut, Supichaya; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Saho; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Lkhagvasuren, Munkhtulga; Kagawa, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Sadahiko

    2016-01-13

    The Neurocan-cartilage intermediate layer protein 2 (NCAN-CILP2) region forms a tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and is associated with plasma lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in individuals of European descent but not in the Malay and Japanese ethnic groups. Recent genome-wide resequence studies identified a missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs58542926) of the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) gene in the NCAN-CILP2 region related to hepatic triglyceride content. This study aims to analyze the influences of SNPs in this region on NAFLD and plasma lipid levels in the Asian and Pacific ethnic groups and to reveal the reasons behind positive and negative genetic associations dependent on ethnicity. Samples and characteristic data were collected from 3,013 Japanese, 119 Palauan, 947 Mongolian, 212 Thai and 401 Chinese people. Hepatic sonography data was obtained from the Japanese individuals. Genotyping data of five SNPs, rs58542926, rs735273, rs1009136, rs1858999, and rs16996148, were used to verify the effect on serum lipid levels by multiple linear regression, and the association with NAFLD in the Japanese population was examined by logistic regression analysis. rs58542926 showed significant association with the plasma triglyceride (TG) level in Japanese (P = 0.0009, effect size = 9.5 (± 3.25) mg/dl/allele) and Thai (P = 0.0008, effect size = 31.6 (± 11.7) mg/dl/allele) study subjects. In Mongolian individuals, there was a significant association of rs58542926 with total cholesterol level (P = 0.0003, 11.7 (± 3.2) mg/dl/allele) but not with TG level. In multiple comparisons in Chinese individuals, rs58542926 was weakly (P = 0.022) associated with TG levels, although the threshold for statistical significance was not reached. In Palauan individuals, there was no significant association with the studied SNPs. rs58542926 also showed significant association with Japanese NAFLD. The minor allele (t) increased

  20. Hepatitis B ESL education for Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicky M; Gregory Hislop, T; Bajdik, Christopher; Teh, Chong; Lam, Wendy; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Yasui, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Asian communities in North America include large numbers of immigrants with limited English proficiency. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in most Asian countries and, therefore, Asian immigrant groups have high rates of chronic HBV infection. We conducted a group-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B English as a second language (ESL) educational curriculum for Asian immigrants. Eighty ESL classes were randomized to experimental (hepatitis B education) or control (physical activity education) status. Students who reported they had not received a HBV test (at baseline) completed a follow-up survey 6 months after randomization. The follow-up survey assessed recent HBV testing and HBV-related knowledge. Provider reports were used to verify self-reported HBV tests. The study group included 218 students who reported they had not been tested for HBV. Follow-up surveys were completed by 180 (83%) of these students. Provider records verified HBV testing for 6% of the experimental group students and 0% of the control group students (P = 0.02). Experimental group students were significantly (P ESL curriculum had a meaningful impact on HBV-related knowledge and a limited impact on HBV testing levels. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of ESL curricula for other immigrant groups and other health topics, as well as other intervention approaches to increasing levels of HBV testing in Asian immigrant communities.

  1. Comparison of Relative Waist Circumference between Asian Indian and US Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet S. Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relative to Europeans, Asian Indians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Whether differences in body composition may underlie these population differences remains unclear. Methods. We compared directly measured anthropometric data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES survey of southern Indians (I with those from three US ethnic groups (C: Caucasians, A: African Americans, and M: Mexican Americans from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15,733 subjects from CURES and 5,975 from NHANES III met inclusion criteria (age 20–39, no known diabetes. Results. Asian Indian men and women had substantially lower body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body surface area relative to US groups (P values <0.0001. In contrast, the mean (±se waist-weight ratio was significantly higher (P<0.001 in I (men 1.35 ± 0.002 and women 1.45 ± 0.002 than in all the US groups (1.09, 1.21, and 1.14 in A, M, and C men; 1.23, 1.33, and 1.26 in A, M, and C women (se ranged from 0.005 to 0.006. Conclusions. Compared to the US, the waist-weight ratio is significantly higher in men and women from Chennai, India. These results support the hypothesis that Southeast Asian Indians are particularly predisposed toward central adiposity.

  2. Explaining Asian Americans' academic advantage over whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Xie, Yu

    2014-06-10

    The superior academic achievement of Asian Americans is a well-documented phenomenon that lacks a widely accepted explanation. Asian Americans' advantage in this respect has been attributed to three groups of factors: (i) socio-demographic characteristics, (ii) cognitive ability, and (iii) academic effort as measured by characteristics such as attentiveness and work ethic. We combine data from two nationally representative cohort longitudinal surveys to compare Asian-American and white students in their educational trajectories from kindergarten through high school. We find that the Asian-American educational advantage is attributable mainly to Asian students exerting greater academic effort and not to advantages in tested cognitive abilities or socio-demographics. We test explanations for the Asian-white gap in academic effort and find that the gap can be further attributed to (i) cultural differences in beliefs regarding the connection between effort and achievement and (ii) immigration status. Finally, we highlight the potential psychological and social costs associated with Asian-American achievement success.

  3. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it.

  4. Identification of Ethnically Specific Genetic Variations in Pan-Asian Ethnos

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jin Ok; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Park, Seong-Jin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Kiejung; Lee, Byungwook

    2014-01-01

    Asian populations contain a variety of ethnic groups that have ethnically specific genetic differences. Ethnic variants may be highly relevant in disease and human differentiation studies. Here, we identified ethnically specific variants and then investigated their distribution across Asian ethnic groups. We obtained 58,960 Pan-Asian single nucleotide polymorphisms of 1,953 individuals from 72 ethnic groups of 11 Asian countries. We selected 9,306 ethnic variant single nucleotide polymorphism...

  5. The Heath government and British defence policy in Southeast Asia at the end of empire (1970-71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Benvenuti

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the rationale behind the Heath government's 1970 decision to negotiate a Five Power Defence agreement with Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Malaysia and to maintain a small British military contingent in Southeast Asia as a part of this new politico-military framework. It argues that while its overriding foreign policy concern was to end Britain's problematic relationship with the European Economic Community and to make membership of this grouping the cornerstone of its foreign policy, the Heath government was careful not to cast Britain's post-imperial future in purely European terms. The successful negotiation of the Five Power Defence Arrangements in 1970-71 was instrumental in achieving this by ensuring that London would maintain close links with key Commonwealth partners in the Asian region. In what was not only an attempt to neutralize potential domestic opposition to Britain's entry into the EEC, but also a lingering reluctance to do away with the rhetoric of Britain as a leading power with extra-European interests, Heath was eager to show that by making a contribution to the stability of Southeast Asia, Britain still had a role to play outside Europe.

  6. The effects of contact with Asians and Asian Americans on White American college students: attitudes, awareness of racial discrimination, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh T; Weinstein, Traci L; Nemon, Melissa; Rondeau, Sara

    2008-12-01

    On the basis of acculturation theory, explicating mutual influences between different cultural or ethnic groups coming into contact, this study focused "on the other side of acculturation" theory by examining the effects of intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans on the psychosocial experiences of White American college students. Participants (N = 315), undergraduates attending a public university located within the state of Massachusetts, completed a survey that assessed demographic and personal characteristics, acculturation (extent of intercultural contact with Asian people and Asian cultures), attitudes towards Asians and Asian Americans, awareness of institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues, and psychological distress. Results indicated that White American students' intercultural contact with Asians and Asian Americans contributed significant variance to the prediction of their attitudes towards this ethnic group and awareness of discrimination and racial issues, but not to psychological distress. This study provides implications for understanding mutual acculturative influences between different ethnic groups in the United States.

  7. FRACTURED CONSENSUS: Islamic Groups and the Perceived Military Politics in Post-Suharto Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Hakim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review:Book title:Military Politics, Islam, and the State in IndonesiaAuthor:Marcus MietznerNo. of Pages:xvi + 426Year:2009Publisher:Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore

  8. Priorities and approaches to investigating Asian youth health: perspectives of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Agnes; Peiris-John, Roshini; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2015-12-01

    The proportion of young people in New Zealand identifying with Asian ethnicities has increased considerably. Despite some prevalent health concerns, Asian youth are less likely than non-Asian peers to seek help. As preparatory research towards a more nuanced approach to service delivery and public policy, this qualitative study aimed to identify young Asian New Zealanders' perspectives on best approaches to investigate health issues of priority concern to them. Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 15 Asian youth leaders aged 18-24 years. Using an inductive approach for thematic analysis, key themes were identified and analysed. Study participants considered ethno-cultural identity, racism and challenges in integration to play significant roles influencing the health of Asian youth (especially mental health) and their access to health services. While emphasising the importance of engaging young Asians in research and service development so that their needs and aspirations are met, participants also highlighted the need for approaches that are cognisant of the cultural, contextual and intergenerational dimensions of issues involved in promoting youth participation. Research that engages Asian youth as key agents using methods that are sensitive to their cultural and sociological contexts can inform more responsive health services and public policy. This is of particular relevance in primary health care where culturally competent services can mitigate risks of unmet health needs and social isolation.

  9. Asian American Women's Retrospective Reports of Their Sexual Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…

  10. (Un)Necessary Toughness?: Those "Loud Black Girls" and Those "Quiet Asian Boys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Joy L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the process of identity construction and its relationship to discursive and representational acts in producing students as academic and social beings. Drawing on Judith Butler's work on gender performativity, the paper highlights African American female and southeast Asian American male high school students, analyzing the symbolic and…

  11. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  12. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  13. Bridging the San Francisco System: 21st Century Strategic Partnerships for the Asian Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    direct American participation, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ( ASEAN ), chartered by Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines...Broadly speaking, the United States’ foreign policy with China and the direction set forth by Washington policy makers progressed through three...more emphasis on the importance of economics, foreign investment ,

  14. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE

  15. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  16. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  17. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  18. Effective strategies for recruiting of Asian cancer patients in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Lin, Chia-Ju; Liu, Yi; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    This poster is aims to provide directions for effective strategies for recruiting Asian cancer patients in Internet study among Asian American cancer patients. In the study, we used four different strategies to recruit Asian cancer participants: (a) general and ethnic specific Internet cancer support groups; (b) Asian Internet communities/groups; (c) Asian physician clinics, Asian community and culture center; and (d) community consultants. The most effective recruitment strategy among them was the recruitment through community consultant. The findings support the importance of using key persons in ethnic minority communities to recruit ethnic minority participants.

  19. The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids

    OpenAIRE

    Sano-Franchini, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids, I examine representations of East Asian blepharoplasty in online video in order to gain a sense of how cultural values change over time. Drawing on scholarship in and around rhetorical theory, cultural rhetorics, Asian American rhetoric, cultural studies, Asian American studies, and postcolonial theory alongside qualitative data analysis of approximately fifty videos and the numerous viewer comments ...

  20. Cardiovascular disease mortality in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Powell O; Frank, Ariel T H; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Eggleston, Karen; Hastings, Katherine G; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-12-16

    Asian Americans are a rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Our current understanding of Asian-American cardiovascular disease mortality patterns is distorted by the aggregation of distinct subgroups. The purpose of the study was to examine heart disease and stroke mortality rates in Asian-American subgroups to determine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality within the United States. We examined heart disease and stroke mortality rates for the 6 largest Asian-American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) from 2003 to 2010. U.S. death records were used to identify race/ethnicity and cause of death by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision coding. Using both U.S. Census data and death record data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), relative SMRs (rSMRs), and proportional mortality ratios were calculated for each sex and ethnic group relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). In this study, 10,442,034 death records were examined. Whereas NHW men and women had the highest overall mortality rates, Asian Indian men and women and Filipino men had greater proportionate mortality burden from ischemic heart disease. The proportionate mortality burden of hypertensive heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, especially hemorrhagic stroke, was higher in every Asian-American subgroup compared with NHWs. The heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease mortality patterns among diverse Asian-American subgroups calls attention to the need for more research to help direct more specific treatment and prevention efforts, in particular with hypertension and stroke, to reduce health disparities for this growing population. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.