WorldWideScience

Sample records for southeast asia region

  1. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  2. Nuclear safety cooperation in Southeast Asia. Lessons from Asia's regional networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajano, Julius Cesar I.

    2017-01-01

    Debate has been ongoing among key stakeholders on whether South-east Asia should use or reject nuclear power. However, there are still significant regional concerns over nuclear safety and security in South-east Asia. As some ASEAN countries plan to pursue nuclear power, they need to create and maintain a pool of local nuclear professionals with actual relevant experience in the nuclear industry. While the IAEA does not influence a country's decision on introducing nuclear power, it supports Member States' efforts to evaluate all options towards making a knowledgeable decision. Nuclear safety is the responsibility of every nation that utilizes nuclear technology. National governments are responsible for regulations that govern how safety at nuclear facilities is maintained, as well as to reduce radiation risks, including emergency response and recovery actions. But nuclear energy has transboundary/ regional implications if nuclear safety in each member state is not strengthened. ASEAN countries share a common goal in achieving high level of public safety and confidence in nuclear and radiation related issues. Can regional cooperation help ASEAN Member-States strengthen nuclear safety? The paper examines the importance of regional cooperation on nuclear energy governance and the role of regional organisations in Asia in strengthening nuclear safety cooperation and emergency preparedness and response in Southeast Asia. (author)

  3. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular

  4. INDIA’S GROWING INFLUENCE IN STABILIZING REGIONAL SECURITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    East Policy’ focusing on engagement with Southeast Asia .2 Following the reforms, Indian economy grew rapidly with an...civilizational neighbors in Southeast Asia and East Asia .”19 Thus, LEP and recognition of India’s economic, political, security and cultural potential by ASEAN...point. 21 During the 10th East Asia Summit, Prime Minister Modi emphasized the importance of South East Asian region and informed that his

  5. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  6. Regional modelling of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, M.; Leong, C. P.

    A co-operative research project between the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) focussing on the usage of an atmospheric transport and chemistry model, has just been initiated. Here, we describe the main features of the dispersion model and discuss a first set of calculations in light of available measurements of sulphuric species in Southeast Asia. According to our results, anthropogenic sulphur concentrations and depositions are particularly high near the large cities of the region, around a metal smelter in the southern Philippines, and in a region extending from northern Vietnam into southeastern China. These areas coincide with the high-emissions regions of Southeast Asia and we tentatively conclude that regional transport of acidifying species is not as far-reaching as in the mid-latitudes. From our calculations, and from supporting measurements we conclude that most of rural Southeast Asia is not yet severely affected by anthropogenic sulphur, but given the rapid rate of economical development in this region the situation may deteriorate quickly. Areas that are particularly at risk include the large cities, northern Vietnam, most of central Thailand, most of peninsular Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and parts of Java, all of which receive total-sulphur depositions in excess of 0.5 g S m -2 yr -1. Our model simulates sulphate in precipitation in accordance with measurements, but it has a tendency to overestimate atmospheric SO 2. It remains to be investigated whether this is a problem in the model formulation or a result of unrepresentative sampling. An immediate continuation of this study should be performed with higher spatial resolution than the currently used 100×100 km 2. Other imperfections in this model study, which should be addressed in future work, include parameterised vertical transport in deep convective clouds, the influence of natural emissions (primarily from volcanoes) on the

  7. Indonesia's Transformation and the Stability of Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel

    2001-01-01

    ... and straits, Indonesia is the key to Southeast Asian security. Therefore, Indonesia's choices and its evolution will frame the future of Southeast Asia and influence the balance of power in the broader Asia-Pacific region...

  8. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Gongal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies.

  9. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Iqra Anugrah; Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University

    2014-01-01

    "Three recent works provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies." (author's abstract). Review of: 1. Ford, Michele (ed.): Social Activism in Southeast Asia. Series: Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia. London, New York: Routledge 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-63059-7. 2. Petras, James...

  10. Governance in Southeast Asia: Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Eduardo T.; Mendoza, Magdalena L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze governance systems in Southeast Asia and proposes some policy suggestions that can improve governance practices in the region. It also discusses the links between governance and official development assistance and the role of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. To put the discussion on governance systems in a proper context, the paper discusses the governance and growth nexus in Southeast Asia; describes the operating governance systems in Southeast As...

  11. A Regional Decision Support Scheme for Pest Risk Analysis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; MacLeod, A; Mumford, J D; Nghiem, T P L; Tan, H T W; Papworth, S K; Corlett, R T; Carrasco, L R

    2016-05-01

    A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade. We review existing decision support schemes for PRAs and, following international standards for phytosanitary measures, propose new methods that adapt existing practices to suit the unique characteristics of Southeast Asia. Using a formal written expert elicitation survey, a panel of regional scientific experts was asked to identify and rate unique traits of Southeast Asia with respect to PRA. Subsequently, an expert elicitation workshop with plant protection officials was conducted to verify the potential applicability of the developed methods. Rich biodiversity, shortage of trained personnel, social vulnerability, tropical climate, agriculture-dependent economies, high rates of land-use change, and difficulties in implementing risk management options were identified as challenging Southeast Asian traits. The developed methods emphasize local Southeast Asian conditions and could help support authorities responsible for carrying out PRAs within the region. These methods could also facilitate the creation of other PRA schemes in low- and middle-income tropical countries. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  13. Global evidence directing regional preventive strategies in Southeast Asia for fighting TB/HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Moolphate, Saiyud; Paudel, Damodar; Jayathunge Ph, Mangalasiri; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Wangdi, Kinley; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Higuchi, Kazue

    2013-03-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemics form a huge burden of disease in the Southeast Asia region. Five out of eleven nations in this region are high TB/HIV burden countries: Myanmar, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Nepal. The trends of TB incidence in these countries have been rising in recent years, in contrast to a falling global trend. Experts in the field of TB control and health service providers have been perplexed by the association of TB and HIV infections which causes a mosaic clinical presentation, a unique course with poor treatment outcomes including death. We conducted a review of contemporary evidence relating to TB/HIV control with the aims of assisting integrated health system responses in Southeast Asia and demystifying current evidence to facilitate translating it into practice.

  14. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmy Bin Agam

    1992-01-01

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  15. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of China and the United States in the Southeast Asia Region under the Obama Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s rapid rise and the implementation of the Obama Administration’s ”Return to the Asia Pacific” strategy, both China and the United States have significantly changed their relations with Southeast Asia in recent years. Also, the influence of China and the United States in this region has changed too. Both China and the United States have strengthened relations with the Southeast Asia region in terms of political, economic, military, cultural and other aspects, and their influence has also risen in varying degrees. In comparison, China has a greater impact on the economy of Southeast Asia, while the US has more influence on its military and security. China vigorously implements the neighborhood diplomacy featuring amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. The United States actively promotes the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy. The Southeast Asian countries continue to choose the balance of power strategy, relying on China regarding the economy, relying on the United States regarding the security. This has resulted in the continuous game between China and the United States in the Southeast Asian region.

  17. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  18. Regional fuel cycle centres for South and South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    A brief preliminary analysis of the economic feasibility of regional fuel cycle centres in South and South-East Asia is presented. The indicative break-even costs and break-even plant sizes for the various fuel cycle services are estimated and the timing for their establishment on the basis of IAEA and ESCAP nuclear power projections in the region are shown. The paper discusses the need for achieving regional self-sufficiency for nuclear fuel services and suggests that a detailed study should be undertaken by the IAEA in close co-operation with the countries of the region to find out their requirements for nuclear fuel services. (author)

  19. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  20. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  1. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  2. Southeast Asia activity on the rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.; Johnston, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region has gained favor in the increasingly competitive global market for drilling funds and technology. The level of activity in the region contrasts to the U.S., where political, fiscal, and geological conditions have caused an industry-wide depression. Consolidation and restructuring of the oil industry have also affected the Asia-Pacific area, but not as adversely as North America. The shifting focus of most U.S. oil companies to the international sector has increased attention on Southeast Asia. The number of production-sharing contracts and exploration licenses in the region has increased to almost 800, covering an area of 7 million sq km

  3. EMIGRATION FROM RUSSIA TO SOUTHEAST ASIA: FACTORS, GEOGRAPHY AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the geographical features and trends of emigration of Russian citizens to the countries of Southeast Asia on the basis of a comparative analysis of domestic and foreign statistics. The results of sociological research in these countries have been used: interviews with experts and migrant citizens of various countries of the former USSR who live or stay in Southeast Asia for more than six months. In the course of the study, a comprehensive methodology was developed and the degree of favorableness of the migration and visa regimes of the Southeast Asian countries for Russian citizens has been assessed for a number of characteristics. Factors attracting Russian citizens to the countries of the region in the context of the migration theory of the factors of “pull and push” have been revealed. The socio-demographic structure of migration flows and the geographical features of the resettlement of Russian citizens in the Southeast Asian countries have been considered. The main channels of migration of Russian citizens to the region are given: temporary labor migration, migration for permanent residence, and tourism. Several groups of Russian-speaking migrants in the Southeast Asian countries have been singled out: migrants who have moved to permanent residence, as a rule, opened their own businesses; temporary migrant workers who work for several years in Southeast Asia, are tied to work and are planning to return to Russia after some time; temporary migrants who live in Southeast Asia for several months and periodically return to Russia; Russian women who married citizens of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and other Southeast Asian countries – former students who studied in the USSR and Russia. On the basis of expert assessments, the types of migration and visa regimes of the countries of Southeast Asia for Russian citizens have been highlighted. Specifics of the formation of Russian-speaking communities in the countries of the

  4. Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Dash, A P; Parnell, B; Bhattacharya, S K; Barua, S; Bhatia, R; Savioli, L

    2010-03-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which affect the very poor, pose a major public health problem in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Although more than a dozen NTDs affect the region, over the past five years four of them in particular - leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and yaws - have been targeted for elimination. These four were selected for a number of reasons. First, they affect the WHO South-East Asia Region disproportionately. For example, every year around 67% of all new leprosy cases and 60% of all new cases of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide occur in countries of the region, where as many as 850 million inhabitants are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. In addition, several epidemiological, technological and historical factors that are unique to the region make each of these four diseases amenable to elimination. Safe and effective tools and interventions to achieve these targets are available and concerted efforts to scale them up, singly or in an integrated manner, are likely to lead to success. The World Health Assembly and the WHO Regional Committee, through a series of resolutions, have already expressed regional and global commitments for the elimination of these diseases as public health problems. Such action is expected to have a quick and dramatic impact on poverty reduction and to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. This paper reviews the policy rationale for disease control in the WHO South-East Asia Region, the progress made so far, the lessons learnt along the way, and the remaining challenges and opportunities.

  5. Confidence- and security-building in South-East Asia. Working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappa, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion in the Working Group II focused on the following subjects: the establishment of a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality in South-East Asia; the establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone in South-East Asia; the Cambodian conflict; regional co-operation; military security confidence-building measures

  6. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.

    2016-01-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  7. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  8. Regional security in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Amba

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the weapons of mass destruction have become an international currency of power, the efforts for their control and elimination have also developed simultaneously, as an important stream in international politics. Countries all over the globe have strived to evolve various devices to ensure security against these weapons at international, regional as well as national levels. One such regional effort for nuclear arms control is the creation of nuclear-free zone. The nuclear free zones present a potentially effective option to supplement the global nuclear disarmament regime. This is an endeavour towards crisis management, reducing the threat perception, common security and confidence building. In addition, they help in creating a regional security order by developing a code of conduct which binds external actors as well as the regional countries. They are meant to reduce if not eliminate the likelihood of a region getting involved into the war of mass destruction. It is in this context the cases of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific nuclear-free zones have been discussed in this book

  9. South-East Asia: Emerging Regional Identity. Interview with prof. Dmitry Mosyakov (Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н С Куклин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dmitry Mosyakov, leading Russian expert on South-East Asia, graduated from the History and Philology Department of Institute of Asian and African Countries at Lomonosov Moscow State Uni-versity, majoring as an interpreter of the Khmer language in 1979. In 1979-1983 he studied in the post-graduate school of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1983 he defended his thesis on the problems of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. He works for the Institute of Oriental Studies (IOS since 1985. In 1991, he was trained at the Yale University (USA. In 1994 he defended his doctoral dissertation on the modern history of Cambodia. He is the organizer of the multi-year project “Monitoring of the Modern History of Southeast Asian Countries”, within which the IOS hosts the annual inter-institute conference and, according to the results of the conferences, its materials are published in the peer-reviewed academic journal “Southeast Asia: To-pical Problems of Development”. Dmitry Mosyakov is an editor-in-chief of this journal. He is also the head of the center of South-Eastern Asia, Australia and Oceania of IOS, a member of the Academic Council of the IOS. He is a member of the dissertation council for historical sciences at the IOS, Moscow State Uni-versity, and of the editorial board of the journal “Asia and Africa Today”. Since 2001 he is a Professor and the head of the department of regional studies at the Moscow Humanitarian University (part-time. In 2015, Dmitry Mosyakov was the provisional director of the IOS. Since 2013 he is a member of Editorial Board of Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. The interview includes following topics: the state of development of the South-East Asian studies in Russia and abroad, the perception of international processes in the region, the contemporary problems of the South-East Asia, and the cooperation of Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union countries and integration

  10. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  12. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  13. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott B. Halstead

    2006-01-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65 000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II ampli...

  14. Decadal-scale relationship between measurements of aerosols, land-use change, and fire over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake Cohen, Jason; Lecoeur, Eve; Loong Ng, Daniel Hui

    2017-01-01

    A simultaneous analysis of 13 years of remotely sensed data of land cover, fires, precipitation, and aerosols from the MODIS, TRMM, and MISR satellites and the AERONET network over Southeast Asia is performed, leading to a set of robust relationships between land-use change and fire being found on inter-annual and intra-annual scales over Southeast Asia, reflecting the heavy amounts of anthropogenic influence over land-use change and fires in this region of the world. First, we find that fires occur annually, but with a considerable amount of variance in their onset, duration, and intensity from year to year, and from two separate regions within Southeast Asia. Second, we show that a simple regression model of the land-cover, fire, and precipitation data can be used to recreate a robust representation of the timing and magnitude of measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multiple measurements sources of this region using either 8-day (better for onset and duration) or monthly (better for magnitude) measurements, but not daily measurements. We find that the reconstructed AOD matches the timing and intensity from AERONET measurements to within 70 to 90 % and the timing and intensity of MISR measurements to within 50 to 95 %. This is a unique finding in this part of the world since cloud-covered regions are large, yet the model is still robustly capable, including over regions where no fires are observed and hence no emissions would be expected to contribute to AOD. Third, we determine that while Southeast Asia is a source region of such intense smoke emissions, portions of it are also impacted by smoke transported from other regions. There are regions in northern Southeast Asia which have two annual AOD peaks, one during the local fire season and the other, smaller peak corresponding to a combination of some local smoke sources as well as transport of aerosols from fires in southern Southeast Asia and possibly even from anthropogenic sources in South Asia. Overall

  15. The Appreciation and Study of Qur’an Manuscripts from Southeast Asia: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Teh Gallop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is not on theological aspects of the Qur’an, or on the study of the Qur’anic sciences in Southeast Asia over the past centuries, but rather to attempt to trace the path of the appreciation of old copies of the Qur’an in Southeast Asia as part of the historical record of the Islamic heritage of the region.  In this light, Qur’an manuscripts are viewed as objects of material culture which can cast light on the societies which produced them, and as works of art which testify to the heights of artistic creativity in the region, for illuminated Qur’an manuscripts represent the pinnacle of achievements in the arts of the book in Southeast Asia. This historical record can be measured through a survey of how, where, when and by whom Qur’an manuscripts in Southeast Asia were collected, documented, studied and published, both in Southeast Asia itself and in the west.

  16. Energy in Southeast Asia: from Networks to Markets Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic regions and experiences strong economic and energy demand growth rates. In this context, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is seeking to interconnect the electric grids and gas networks of the countries through two initiatives, the Asean Power Grid and the Trans-Asean Gas Pipeline, in order to pool resources and optimize energy markets integration in the region

  17. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  18. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  19. Impact of human Campylobacter infections in Southeast Asia: The contribution of the poultry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara Mudiyanselage Krishanthi Jayarukshi Kumari; Satharasinghe, Dilan Amila; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-12-12

    Campylobacter is globally recognized as a major cause of foodborne infection in humans, whilst the development of antimicrobial resistance and the possibility of repelling therapy increase the threat to public health. Poultry is the most frequent source of Campylobacter infection in humans, and southeast Asia is a global leader in poultry production, consumption, and exports. Though three of the world's top 20 most populated countries are located in southeast Asia, the true burden of Campylobacter infection in the region has not been fully elucidated. Based on published data, Campylobacter has been reported in humans, animals, and food commodities in the region. To our knowledge, this study is the first to review the status of human Campylobacter infection in southeast Asia and to discuss future perspectives. Gaining insight into the true burden of the infection and prevalence levels of Campylobacter spp. in the southeast Asian region is essential to ensuring global and regional food safety through facilitating improvements in surveillance systems, food safety regulations, and mitigation strategies.

  20. Emerging Pollutant of Concern: Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Asia with Particular Preference to Southeast Asia Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia countries were developing countries, with the rapid development for a better living condition leads to longer life expectancy, which increased total population. It may result in increased the demand of pharmaceutical in domestic use and or in hospital. Although most wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs met the local authority’s regulatory requirement, there are still many pharmaceutical compound incompletely removed and discharge to the water stream and enter the environment. Recently many studies and researches have published on the occurrence and source as well as the fate of pharmaceuticals all over the world including Asia. As part of Asia region, Southeast Asia countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Brunei, Cambodia, and Lao PDR seem has lack of research knowledge and information regarding this emerging pollutant issues compared to developed Asia country as China, Korea and Hong Kong. In this paper, it will review recent studies occurrences (surface and wastewater on most common pharmaceuticals with several recommendations to overcome and thus summarise the actual situation in Southeast Asia.

  1. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    by China. Even in 1994, the then-Malaysian Defense Minister Najib was careful to play down the security role of ASEAN as he still saw it as being... Razak Baginda. "Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Security: Towards Multilateralism Amid Uncertainty?" Military Technology (April 1994): 10- 16

  2. A nuclear-weapons-free zone in Southeast Asia : problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappa, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the idea of a nuclear-weapons-free zone was already recognised in the Kuala Lumpur Declaration of 1971 and has been on the Asean agenda since the late 1970s as a component of the package to realise a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality in Southeast Asia, the formal initiative to make the region a nuclear-weapons-free zone is of relatively recent origin. The security benefits that are likely to accrue from declaring Southeast Asia nuclear-weapons-free are rather marginal. Benefits, as there are, are in the political and diplomatic realm where the proposed agreement can be used to influence the conduct of international relations which in turn may have the potential to modify the strategic environment of Southeast Asia

  3. Regional Journalism in Southeast Asia and ASEAN Identity in Making: Asia News Network as a Case for International and Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş Başar Gezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Somehow in analogy with the European Union, 10 Southeast Asian countries are in the process of forming a political and economic union which is (ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations for decades. This process of regional integration goes in tandem with the regional media associations such as Asia News Network (ANN which is an Asian-German initiative that consists of daily newspapers from various Asian countries. As a regional association covering not only all ASEAN countries, but also ASEAN neighbors; ANN may serve a significant role for regional collaboration and integration. The network is instrumental to the promotion of freedom of speech which is not always easy to propound in some of these countries. This article analyzes news coverage and publication policy of ANN and discusses challenges and opportunities of regional journalism in SEA as a case for international and intercultural communication.

  4. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; ,; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Our aim was to produce a uniform ‘regional’ land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on ‘sub-regional’ mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project.Location  The ‘region’ of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east.Methods  The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998–2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’.Results  The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics.Main conclusions  The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub

  5. High resolution population distribution maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, Andrea E; Stevens, Forrest R; Linard, Catherine; Jia, Peng; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Spatially accurate, contemporary data on human population distributions are vitally important to many applied and theoretical researchers. The Southeast Asia region has undergone rapid urbanization and population growth over the past decade, yet existing spatial population distribution datasets covering the region are based principally on population count data from censuses circa 2000, with often insufficient spatial resolution or input data to map settlements precisely. Here we outline approaches to construct a database of GIS-linked circa 2010 census data and methods used to construct fine-scale (∼100 meters spatial resolution) population distribution datasets for each country in the Southeast Asia region. Landsat-derived settlement maps and land cover information were combined with ancillary datasets on infrastructure to model population distributions for 2010 and 2015. These products were compared with those from two other methods used to construct commonly used global population datasets. Results indicate mapping accuracies are consistently higher when incorporating land cover and settlement information into the AsiaPop modelling process. Using existing data, it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for Southeast Asia. The 2010 and 2015 datasets produced are freely available as a product of the AsiaPop Project and can be downloaded from: www.asiapop.org.

  6. High resolution population distribution maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Gaughan

    Full Text Available Spatially accurate, contemporary data on human population distributions are vitally important to many applied and theoretical researchers. The Southeast Asia region has undergone rapid urbanization and population growth over the past decade, yet existing spatial population distribution datasets covering the region are based principally on population count data from censuses circa 2000, with often insufficient spatial resolution or input data to map settlements precisely. Here we outline approaches to construct a database of GIS-linked circa 2010 census data and methods used to construct fine-scale (∼100 meters spatial resolution population distribution datasets for each country in the Southeast Asia region. Landsat-derived settlement maps and land cover information were combined with ancillary datasets on infrastructure to model population distributions for 2010 and 2015. These products were compared with those from two other methods used to construct commonly used global population datasets. Results indicate mapping accuracies are consistently higher when incorporating land cover and settlement information into the AsiaPop modelling process. Using existing data, it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for Southeast Asia. The 2010 and 2015 datasets produced are freely available as a product of the AsiaPop Project and can be downloaded from: www.asiapop.org.

  7. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring...

  8. Land rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A

    2003-01-01

    Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...

  9. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntra Suwantarat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and multidrug-resistant glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters, have emerged and spread throughout Southeast Asia. Methods We reviewed and summarized current critical knowledge on the epidemiology and molecular characterization of MDRGN in Southeast Asia by PubMed searches for publications prior to 10 March 2016 with the term related to “MDRGN definition” combined with specific Southeast Asian country names (Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Brunei. Results There were a total of 175 publications from the following countries: Thailand (77, Singapore (35, Malaysia (32, Vietnam (23, Indonesia (6, Philippines (1, Laos (1, and Brunei (1. We did not find any publications on MDRGN from Myanmar and Cambodia. We did not include publications related to Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., and Vibrio spp. and non-human related studies in our review. English language articles and abstracts were included for analysis. After the abstracts were reviewed, data on MDRGN in Southeast Asia from 54 publications were further reviewed and included in this study. Conclusions MDRGNs are a major contributor of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of ESBLs has been a major problem since 2005 and is possibly related to the development of carbapenem resistant organisms in this region due to the overuse of carbapenem therapy. Carbapenem–resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the most common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in this region followed by carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although Southeast Asia is not an endemic area for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, recently, the rate of CRE detection has been increasing. Limited infection control measures, lack of antimicrobial control, such as the presence of

  10. Assessment of CMIP5 historical simulations of rainfall over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Liu, Jiandong; Nguyen, Ngoc Son; Vu, Minh Tue; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2018-05-01

    We present preliminary analyses of the historical (1986-2005) climate simulations of a ten-member subset of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models over Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the general circulation models' performance in simulating the mean state of climate over this less-studied climate vulnerable region, with a focus on precipitation. Results indicate that most of the models are unable to reproduce the observed state of climate over Southeast Asia. Though the multi-model ensemble mean is a better representation of the observations, the uncertainties in the individual models are far high. There is no particular model that performed well in simulating the historical climate of Southeast Asia. There seems to be no significant influence of the spatial resolutions of the models on the quality of simulation, despite the view that higher resolution models fare better. The study results emphasize on careful consideration of models for impact studies and the need to improve the next generation of models in their ability to simulate regional climates better.

  11. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  12. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  13. Relationship between trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning in Southeast Asia using satellite and emission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Maya; Kuji, Makoto

    2012-11-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the biggest regions of biomass burning with forest fires and slash-and-burn farming. From the fire events, a large amount of air pollutants are emitted such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and aerosol (black carbon; BC). Biomass burning generally causes not only local, but also transboundary air pollution, and influences the atmospheric environment in the world accordingly. However, impact of air pollutants' emissions from large-scale fire in Southeast Asia is not well investigated compared to other regions such as South America and Africa. In this study, characteristics of the atmospheric environment were investigated with correlative analyses among several satellite data (MOPITT, OMI, and MODIS) and emission inventory (GFEDv3) in Southeast Asia from October 2004 to June 2008 on a monthly basis. As a result, it is suggested that the transboundary air pollution from the biomass burning regions occurred over Southeast Asia, which caused specifically higher air pollutants' concentration at Hanoi, Vietnam in spring dry season.

  14. THE HISTORY OF JAMA‘AH TABLIGH IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: The Role of Islamic Sufism in Islamic Revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the history of Jama‘ah Tabligh in Southeast Asia, especially in Kuala Lumpur and Aceh. The author traces the historical background of this religious movement with particular reference to the birth place of Jama‘ah Tabligh, India. The author investigates the major role of Indian in disseminating Islam in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Many scholars believe that Islam came to Southeast Asia from India (Gujarat, and this is the reason why many Islamic traditions in this region were influenced by Indian culture. However, to analyze Islamic movement in Southeast Asia one should take into consideration the Middle East context in which various Islamic movements flourished. Unlike many scholars who believe that the spirit of revivalism or Islamic modernism in Southeast Asia was more influenced by Islam in the Middle East than Indian, the author argues that the influence of Indian Muslim in Southeast Asia cannot be neglected, particularly in the case of Jama‘ah Tabligh.

  15. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  16. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  17. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  18. Falls amongst older people in Southeast Asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, M H; Tan, M P; Mackenzie, L; Lovarini, M; Suttanon, P; Clemson, L

    2017-04-01

    The older population in the Southeast Asian region is accelerating and is expected to surpass the proportion of the ageing population in North America and Europe in the future. This study aims to identify the research literature related to falls among older people in Southeast Asia, to examine current practice and discuss the future direction on falls prevention and interventions in the region. A scoping review design was used. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Ageline, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Thai-Journal Citation Index, MyCite and trial registries databases. Thirty-seven studies and six study protocols were included, from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. One-sixth of the studies involved interventions, while the remainder were observational studies. The observational studies mainly determined the falls risk factors. The intervention studies comprised multifactorial interventions and single interventions such as exercises, educational materials and visual correction. Many of the studies replicated international studies and may not have taken into account features unique to Southeast Asia. Our review has revealed studies evaluating falls and management of falls in the Southeast Asian context. More research is required from all Southeast Asian countries to prepare for the future challenges of managing falls as the population ages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Building Maritime Security in Southeast Asia: Outsiders Not Welcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Najib Razak , has called for greater vigi- lance and intelligence sharing to combat piracy and prevent terrorism along the Malacca Strait.21 To improve...part a reward for its partnership in the war on terrorism. Weatherbee, International Rela- tions in Southeast Asia, p. 37. 18. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun...Abd Razak , “The Security of the Straits of Malacca and Its Im- plications to the South East Asia Regional Se- curity” (speech, Seoul, 13 March 2007

  20. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  1. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  2. Is a U.S. Military Presence in Southeast Asia Necessary in the Twenty-First Century?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siow, Terry

    2000-01-01

    For many years, the U.S. military presence in Southeast Asia (SEA) has served as an important stabilizing factor in region and has allow countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN...

  3. Modern Political and Economic Aspects of the Oil and Gas Complex in the Southeast Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstracUThe article reviews the problems caused by the conflict of interests between certain Southeast Asian countries and other states, China foremost, which aroused from oil and gas field development on disputable offshore sections. At the same time the positions of the region's leading transnational corporations in the field of oil and gas policy and their relationships with the countries-ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations members are outlined. Separately are represented the foreign policy stands of Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia on territorial disputes over offshore oil and gas fields. These processes are pushing both European and American business to abandon the conventional schemes and accept the new conditions of their activity in Southeast Asia.

  4. Forest and Society: Initiating a Southeast Asia Journal for Theoretical, Empirical, and Regional Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Fisher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to our first edition. We are excited to provide a new, and what we believe, timely avenue for presenting research findings and publications in Southeast Asia, for scholars interested in Southeast Asia. Although Southeast Asia as a region of study has provided tremendous contributions to theory and practice regarding forests and society across the social and natural sciences, avenues for cultivating a scholarship of the region remain limited. We seek to engage on a broad set of themes through the application of targeted research related to timely issues affecting the human-environment interface in a diverse region that we have much to learn from. We take a broad understanding of the forest - as a politico-administrative unit, a geographic area, and as an ecological unit. We do not limit the forest to its boundaries but rather seek to engage on the dynamics of change in social and ecological processes. Under such an umbrella, new approaches and methods become possible. ‘Forest’ can be analyzed as land use, ecological process, divided across watersheds, as landscapes, mountains, and more. The lens of ‘society’ allows for opportunities to understand change, whether it is the interaction between a resource to be preserved, exploited, forgotten, or erased. Forests, therefore, operate as the clues of what once was, has become, and what can be. Particularly in the age of climate change, riddled by increasingly complex challenges, a new dimension also emerges for the forest. Different perspectives at different scales – from the local to the global – provide equally important dimensions, and are those which we seek to provide avenues to learn from, and communicate through this journal. As the reader will find in this inaugural issue, we have compiled an initial set of studies across multiple methods and geographies that help to set the terms of future editions. We examine: historical political ecologies of land use around opium

  5. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We

  6. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  7. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, H.

    2002-07-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  8. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri

    2002-08-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  10. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  11. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  12. Contribution of vegetation and peat fires to particulate air pollution in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddington, C L; Yoshioka, M; Arnold, S R; Spracklen, D V; Balasubramanian, R; Ridley, D; Toh, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    Smoke haze, caused by vegetation and peat fires in Southeast Asia, is of major concern because of its adverse impact on regional air quality. We apply two different methods (a chemical transport model and a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model) to identify the locations of fires contributing to the increased mass concentration of particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) in Singapore over the period 2004–09. We find that fires in southern Sumatra account for the greatest percentage of the total fire enhancement to PM 2.5 concentrations in Singapore (42–62%), with fires in central Sumatra and Kalimantan contributing 21–35% and 14–15%, respectively. Furthermore, we find that fires in these regions also increase PM 2.5 concentrations in other major cities across Southeast Asia. Our results suggest that acting to reduce fires in southern and central Sumatra (specifically in the eastern parts of the provinces of Jambi, South Sumatra, Lampung and Riau) and southwest Kalimantan (the southern extent of the provinces of West, Central and South Kalimantan) would have the greatest benefit to particulate air quality in Singapore and more widely across Southeast Asia. (letter)

  13. An Education in Entertainment – Possible Trends in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Entertainment Industry has been used interchangeably with the term Creative Industries and also has been suggested to be part of the creative industries. The creative industries seeks to provide commercially viable artistic and creative products, known as intellectual property, and in the process of such provision, contributes to the nation’s creative economy. From an education perspective in Southeast Asia, two observations can be made. Firstly, the focus of education in relation to the entertainment industry has always been technical. Secondly, the introduction of the concepts of the creative industries in Southeast Asia has spurred new trends in the education of the entertainment industry. Outside of Southeast Asia, there have been a growing number of academic programs in the field of Entertainment. From within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has taken the lead to introduce two new trends in the entertainment education – entertainment management and entertainment arts.

  14. From BASE-ASIA Toward 7-SEAS: A Satellite-Surface Perspective of Boreal Spring Biomass-Burning Aerosols and Clouds in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lau, William K.-M.; Li, Can; Gabriel, Philip M.; Ji, Qiang; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, E. Judd; Nguyen, Anh X.; Janjai, Serm; hide

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent field studies conducted by NASA's SMART-COMMIT (and ACHIEVE, to be operated in 2013) mobile laboratories, jointly with distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/ and MPLNET, http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) and other contributing instruments over northern Southeast Asia. These three mobile laboratories, collectively called SMARTLabs (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/, Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research & Testbed Laboratories) comprise a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that are pivotal in providing high spectral and temporal measurements, complementing the collocated spatial observations from various Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. A satellite-surface perspective and scientific findings, drawn from the BASE-ASIA (2006) field deployment as well as a series of ongoing 7-SEAS (2010-13) field activities over northern Southeast Asia are summarized, concerning (i) regional properties of aerosols from satellite and in situ measurements, (ii) cloud properties from remote sensing and surface observations, (iii) vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds, and (iv) regional aerosol radiative effects and impact assessment. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning, exhibits highly consistent spatial and temporal distribution patterns, with major variability arising from changes in the magnitude of the aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from the source regions, the tightly coupled-aerosolecloud system provides a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring the micro- and macro-scale relationships of the complex interactions. The climatic significance is presented through large-scale anti-correlations between aerosol and precipitation anomalies, showing spatial and seasonal variability, but their precise cause-and-effect relationships

  15. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    apparently to save ammunition, according to the BPP report . The attacks came after a battalion of Burmese troops had arrived at the border areas to...Manuel Pangilinan says. 17 It will be divided into five " strategic business units" (or SBU’s): commercial banking, which will include Hibernia and...065082 JPRS-SEA-84-173 14 December 1 984 Southeast Asia Report Reproduced From Best Available Copy 20000107 100 IIXTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 9

  16. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  17. The South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI) Update and Meeting Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Land Use/Cover Change (LU/CC) is one of the most important types of environmental change in South and Southeast Asian countries. Several studies suggest that LU/CC in these countries is in large part driven by population growth and economic development. In the region, changes that are most common include urban expansion, agricultural land loss, land abandonment, deforestation, logging, reforestation, etc. To address the research needs and priorities in the region, a regional initiative entitled South Southeast Asia Regional Initiative (SARI) has been developed involving US and regional scientists. The initiative is funded by NASA Land Cover, Land Use Change program. The goal of SARI is to integrate state-of-the-art remote sensing, natural sciences, engineering and social sciences to enrich LU/CC science in South Southeast Asian countries. In the presentation, LU/CC change research in SARI countries will be highlighted including the drivers of change. For example, in South Asia, forest cover has been increasing in countries like India, Nepal and Bhutan due to sustainable afforestation measures; whereas, large-scale deforestation in Southeast Asian countries is still continuing, due to oil palm plantation expansion driven by the international market demand in Malaysia and Indonesia. With respect to urbanization, South and Southeast Asian countries contain 23 megacities, each with more than 10 million people. Rapid urbanization is driving agricultural land loss and agricultural intensification has been increasing due to less availability of land for growing food crops such as in India, Vietnam, and Thailand. The drivers of LUCC vary widely in the region and include such factors as land tenure, local economic development, government policies, inappropriate land management, land speculation, improved road networks, etc. In addition, variability in the weather, climate, and socioeconomic factors also drive LU/CC resulting in disruptions of biogeochemical cycles

  18. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  19. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

  20. When Indian crabs were not yet Asian - biogeographic evidence for Eocene proximity of India and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The faunal and floral relationship of northward-drifting India with its neighboring continents is of general biogeographic interest as an important driver of regional biodiversity. However, direct biogeographic connectivity of India and Southeast Asia during the Cenozoic remains largely unexplored. We investigate timing, direction and mechanisms of faunal exchange between India and Southeast Asia, based on a molecular phylogeny, molecular clock-derived time estimates and biogeographic reconstructions of the Asian freshwater crab family Gecarcinucidae. Results Although the Gecarcinucidae are not an element of an ancient Gondwana fauna, their subfamily Gecarcinucinae, and probably also the Liotelphusinae, evolved on the Indian Subcontinent and subsequently dispersed to Southeast Asia. Estimated by a model testing approach, this dispersal event took place during the Middle Eocene, and thus before the final collision of India and the Tibet-part of Eurasia. Conclusions We postulate that the India and Southeast Asia were close enough for exchange of freshwater organisms during the Middle Eocene, before the final Indian-Eurasian collision. Our data support geological models that assume the Indian plate having tracked along Southeast Asia during its move northwards.

  1. Economic Transition and Natural Resource Management in East and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckmann, V.; Dung, N.H.; Shi, X.; Spoor, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and institutional reforms in East and Southeast Asia have caused impressive economic growth and improved the livelihood of millions of people. In several regions, however, this growth has been obtained at the expense of land quality or to the detriment of other natural resources. As a

  2. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Nam Q.; Barnes, Irene; Chen, ShuaiFei; Pham, Thu Q.; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of

  3. Geographies of knowing, geographies of ignorance: jumping scale in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    van Schendel, W.

    2002-01-01

    'Area studies' use a geographical metaphor to visualise and naturalise particular social spaces as well as a particular scale of analysis. They produce specific geographies of knowing but also create geographies of ignorance. Taking Southeast Asia as an example, in this paper I explore how areas are imagined and how area knowledge is structured to construct area 'heartlands' as well as area `borderlands'. This is illustrated by considering a large region of Asia (here named Zomiatf) that did ...

  4. ‘Borderless’ Southeast Asia historiography: New scholarship on the interactions and exchanges between Southeast Asia and its South Asian and Chinese neighbours in the pre-1500 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Hall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Nola Cooke, Li Tana and James A. Anderson (eds, The Tongking Gulf through history. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, x + 223 pp. [Encounters with Asia Series.] ISBN 9780812243369. Price: USD 59.95 (hardback.Derek Heng, Sino-Malay trade and diplomacy from the tenth through the fourteenth century. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009, xiii + 286 pp. [Research in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 121.] ISBN 9780896802711. Price: USD 28.00 (paperback.Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany and Vijay Sakhuja (eds, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola naval expeditions to Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009, xxv + 337 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789812509365, price: USD 39.90 (hardback; 9789812309372, USD 59.90 (paperback.Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade (eds, Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on cross-cultural exchange. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011, xxxi + 514 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789814345101, price USD 49.90 (paperback; 9789814311168, USD 59.90 (hardback. [India Hardcover Edition co-published with Manohar Publishers and Distributors, India.]Geoff Wade and Sun Laichen (eds, Southeast Asia in the fifteenth century: The China factor. Singapore: NUS Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, xii + 508 pp. ISBN 9789971694487. Price: USD 32.00.

  5. International and Regional Institutional Dialogues for Human Rights for LGBT persons: The quest for recognition, anti-discrimination, and marriage in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich interplay between civil society organizations and institutions involved in human rights norm diffusion and the ‘ricochet’ of ideas at the regional level across Southeast Asia. There is a broad discussion occurring about human rights for LGBT persons and SOGI rights (Sexual

  6. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  7. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae in South and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Khan, Erum; Ghafur, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae, are escalating global public health threats. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of these carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among countries in South and Southeast Asia, where the rates of resistance are some of the highest in the world. These countries house more than a third of the world's population, and several are also major medical tourism destinations. There are significant data gaps, and the almost universal lack of comprehensive surveillance programs that include molecular epidemiologic testing has made it difficult to understand the origins and extent of the problem in depth. A complex combination of factors such as inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, overstretched health systems, and international travel (including the phenomenon of medical tourism) probably led to the rapid rise and spread of these bacteria in hospitals in South and Southeast Asia. In India, Pakistan, and Vietnam, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have also been found in the environment and community, likely as a consequence of poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. Considerable political will and effort, including from countries outside these regions, are vital in order to reduce the prevalence of such bacteria in South and Southeast Asia and prevent their global spread. PMID:27795305

  8. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae in South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Yang; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Khan, Erum; Suwantarat, Nuntra; Ghafur, Abdul; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae, are escalating global public health threats. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of these carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among countries in South and Southeast Asia, where the rates of resistance are some of the highest in the world. These countries house more than a third of the world's population, and several are also major medical tourism destinations. There are significant data gaps, and the almost universal lack of comprehensive surveillance programs that include molecular epidemiologic testing has made it difficult to understand the origins and extent of the problem in depth. A complex combination of factors such as inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, overstretched health systems, and international travel (including the phenomenon of medical tourism) probably led to the rapid rise and spread of these bacteria in hospitals in South and Southeast Asia. In India, Pakistan, and Vietnam, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have also been found in the environment and community, likely as a consequence of poor environmental hygiene and sanitation. Considerable political will and effort, including from countries outside these regions, are vital in order to reduce the prevalence of such bacteria in South and Southeast Asia and prevent their global spread. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. The democratizing potential of the Internet in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kevin J

    1997-01-01

    This thesis argues that the Internet is likely to he a strong, positive facilitating factor for the transition to and consolidation of democracy for states in Southeast Asia. U.S. policy makers intent on promoting democracy in Southeast Asia should consider the Internet's potential as a tool for promoting democratization. A review of the existing democratization literature, coupled with quantitative analysis of the societal impact of computer networking technologies, suggests that the level o...

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  11. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  12. Impacts of Particulate Pollution from Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burnings on the Air Quality and Human Health in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Iraqui, O.; Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Severe haze events in Southeast Asia have attracted the attention of governments and the general public in recent years, due to their impact on local economies, air quality and public health. Widespread biomass burning activities are a major source of severe haze events in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning also play an important role in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. These pollutants can be locally produced or brought in from neighboring regions by long-range transport. A better understanding of the respective contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality degradation becomes an urgent task in forming effective air pollution mitigation policies in Southeast Asia. In this study, to examine and quantify the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning aerosols to air quality and visibility degradation over Southeast Asia, we conducted three numerical simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem). These simulations were driven by different aerosol emissions from: (a) fossil fuel burning only, (b) biomass burning only, and (c) both fossil fuel and biomass burning. By comparing the simulation results, we examined the corresponding impacts of fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions, separately and combined, on the air quality and visibility of the region. The results also showed that the major contributors to low visibility days (LVDs) among 50 ASEAN cities are fossil fuel burning aerosols (59%), while biomass burning aerosols provided an additional 13% of LVDs in Southeast Asia. In addition, the number of premature mortalities among ASEAN cities has increased from 4110 in 2002 to 6540 in 2008, caused primarily by fossil fuel burning aerosols. This study suggests that reductions in both fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions are necessary to improve the air quality in Southeast Asia.

  13. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia). Recently, capacity development has regained a central place on the agenda of many donor organizations, including IDRC. The challenge is to measure the results of capacity development initiatives. In Asia, there are a few ongoing efforts to document ...

  14. The Rise of China and Foreign Direct Investment from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krislert Samphantharak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses foreign direct investment from Southeast Asia to China. With the exception of some government-linked companies, most investments from Southeast Asia have been dominated by the region’s overseas Chinese businesses. In addition to cheap labour costs, large domestic market and growing economy, China has provided business opportunities to investors from Southeast Asia thanks to their geographic proximity and ethnic connections, at least during the initial investment period. However, the network effects seem to decline soon after. As the Chinese economy becomes more globalised and more competitive, the success of foreign investment in China will increasingly depend on business competency rather than ethnic relations.

  15. State of rare disease management in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Supian, Azuwana; Lim, Jeremy; Zafra, Matt; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2016-08-02

    Rare diseases, also referred to as orphan diseases, are characterised by their low prevalence with majority of them are chronically debilitating and life threatening. Given the low prevalence and the widely dispersed but very small patient base for each disease, there may often be a disproportion in the availability of treatments and resources to manage patients, spur research and train experts. This is especially true in Southeast Asian countries that are currently in the process of implementing or revising their universal health coverage schemes. This paper aims to examine the status of rare disease management in Southeast Asian countries. It will serve as the basis for a more active discussion on how countries in the region can address an under-recognised rare disease burden and enhance national and regional capacities. The study consists of literature reviews and key stakeholders interviews in six focus countries, including the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand and five countries as best practice, comprising of France, Canada, Australia, Taiwan, and South Korea. Rare disease management initiatives across each country were examined based on the World Health Organization's framework for action in strengthening health systems. The results suggest rare disease management remains challenging across Southeast Asia, as many of the focus countries face fundamental issues from basic healthcare systems to funding. Nonetheless, there are substantial improvement opportunities, including leveraging best practices from around the world and organising a multi-stakeholder and regional approach and strategy. Southeast Asian countries have made significant progress in the management of rare disease, but there remain key areas for substantial development opportunities.

  16. Where and how are roads endangering mammals in Southeast Asia's forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Lynam, Antony J; Gaveau, David; Yap, Wei Lim; Lhota, Stanislav; Goosem, Miriam; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and overhunting are two major drivers of mammal population declines and extinctions in tropical forests. The construction of roads can be a catalyst for these two threats. In Southeast Asia, the impacts of roads on mammals have not been well-documented at a regional scale. Before evidence-based conservation strategies can be developed to minimize the threat of roads to endangered mammals within this region, we first need to locate where and how roads are contributing to the conversion of their habitats and illegal hunting in each country. We interviewed 36 experts involved in mammal research from seven Southeast Asian countries to identify roads that are contributing the most, in their opinion, to habitat conversion and illegal hunting. Our experts highlighted 16 existing and eight planned roads - these potentially threaten 21% of the 117 endangered terrestrial mammals in those countries. Apart from gathering qualitative evidence from the literature to assess their claims, we demonstrate how species-distribution models, satellite imagery and animal-sign surveys can be used to provide quantitative evidence of roads causing impacts by (1) cutting through habitats where endangered mammals are likely to occur, (2) intensifying forest conversion, and (3) contributing to illegal hunting and wildlife trade. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to identify specific roads threatening endangered mammals in Southeast Asia. Further through highlighting the impacts of roads, we propose 10 measures to limit road impacts in the region.

  17. Health claims on food products in Southeast Asia: regulatory frameworks, barriers, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Chan, M Y; Zhao, Xuejun; Stevenson, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. School Physics Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Chin Pin; Tee, Tan Boon

    1978-01-01

    Traces physics curriculum innovation in Southeast Asia since the 1950s. The unique features of such innovation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand are highlighted. Forecasts for the future of physics education in part of the world are also discussed. (Author/HM)

  19. Urban environments and obesity in southeast Asia: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Chenthanakij, Boriboon; Doyle, Pat; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors contribute to the rise in prevalence of obesity in populations but one key driver is urbanization. Countries in Southeast (SE) Asia have undergone rapid changes in urbanization in recent decades. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic review of studies exploring the relationship between living in an urban or rural environment (urbanicity) and obesity in Southeast Asia. In particular, the review will investigate whether the associations are uniform across countries and ages, and by sex. The literature search was conducted up to June 2014 using five databases: EMBASE, PubMed, GlobalHealth, DigitalJournal and Open Grey. Forty-five articles representing eight of the eleven countries in SE Asia were included in the review. The review found a consistent positive association between urbanicity and obesity in countries of Southeast Asia, in all age groups and both genders. Regional differences between the associations are partly explained by gross national income (GNI). In countries with lower GNI per capita, the association between urbanicity and obesity was greater. Such findings have implications for policy makers. They imply that population level interventions need to be country or region specific, tailored to suit the current stage of economic development. In addition, less developed countries might be more vulnerable to the negative health impact of urbanization than more developed countries.

  20. Comparison of seasonal variation between anthropogenic and natural emission inventory and Satellite observation in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, G.; Lalitaporn, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since the economic growth of the countries in Southeast Asia is significantly rapid, the emission of air pollutant from the anthropogenic activity, such as industry, power generation and transportation is rapidly increasing. Moreover, biomass burning due to unsuitable agricultural management, deforestation and expansion of farmland are discharging large amount of pollutants, such as Carbon monoxide, volatile organic compound and particulate matter. Especially, the particulate matter from biomass burning causes the serious haze pollution in surrounding area in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, the biomass fuel used for cooking at residential sector discharges harmful pollutants including a particulate matter, and causes the adverse health impact to people on indoor and outdoor. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution and the seasonal variation of emission inventory for Southeast Asia region by comparing with satellite observation data in order to improve the accuracy of the impact assessment of air pollution by regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF and CMAQ). As an emission inventory data, we used our original regional emission inventory for Southeast Asia region developed from detail transportation and industry data sets as well as a several existing emission inventories. As satellite observation data, the vertical column density of NO2, Particulate matter and Carbon monoxide obtained by various satellite, such as GOME, GOME2, SCIAMACY, OMI and so on. As a result of comparisons between satellite observation and emission inventories from 1996 to 2011, in the case of anthropogenic emission, seasonal variation was comparatively well in agreement with the seasonal variation of satellite data. However, the uncertainty of the seasonal variation was large on several large cities. In the case of emission from biomass burning, the seasonal variation was clear, but inter-annual variation was also large due to large scale climate condition.

  1. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Q. Pham

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Cylindrocladiella isolates from soils collected in forest nurseries and plantations in Vietnam and Malaysia. This was achieved using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological observations. The study revealed two previously described species, Cy. lageniformis and Cy. peruviana as well as five novel taxa, described here as Cy. arbusta sp. nov., Cy. malesiana sp. nov., Cy. obpyriformis sp. nov., Cy. parvispora sp. nov. and Cy. solicola sp. nov. A relatively small collection of isolates from a limited geographic sampling revealed an unexpectedly high level of Cylindrocladiella diversity suggesting that many more species in this genus await discovery in South-East Asia.

  2. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  3. Combating Taenia solium cysticercosis in Southeast Asia an opportunity for improving human health and livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, A Lee; Wu, Hai-Wei; Conlan, James; Satrija, Fadjar

    2010-01-01

    Cysticercosis caused by the zoonotic pork tapeworm Taenia solium is emerging as a constraint for the nutritional and economic well-being of small-holder farming communities in many underdeveloped areas of Southeast Asia. It occurs mainly in impoverished regions with inadequate sanitation, poor pig management practices and lack of meat inspection and control. Neurocysticercosis, the most serious form of the disease, is considered the most common parasitic infection of the human nervous system and the most frequent preventable cause of epilepsy in the developing world. Although theoretically easy to control and declared eradicable, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis remains a neglected disease. There is a lack of information and awareness of the burden and transmission of the disease at the regional and global level, partially explained by the unavailability of good quality diagnostic tools in field-applicable formats. These factors are further compounded by a lack of validated simple and sustainable intervention packages as part of integrated helminth control programmes. To date, T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis has not been eliminated from any region by a specific programme in Southeast Asia, and no national control programmes are yet in place except in parts of the People's Republic of China. The presence, distribution, public health importance and economic relevance of cysticercosis need to be better documented in Southeast Asia in order to bring it to the attention of affected communities, decision-makers and funding bodies. A number of proven cost-effective intervention tools for combating cysticercosis appear to be available but need to be field validated. The Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS(+)) serves as an important regional 'driving force' for managing research, capacity building, knowledge and stakeholder engagement essential for controlling cysticercosis in the Southeast Asian region while ensuring that

  4. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast As...... Asian titans in Myanmar and finally the conclusion wraps...

  5. Effect of climate change on seasonal monsoon in Asia and its impact on the variability of monsoon rainfall in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Yi Loo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change is one of the most extensively researched and discussed topical issues affecting the environment. Although there are enough historical evidence to support the theory that climate change is a natural phenomenon, many research scientists are widely in agreement that the increase in temperature in the 20th century is anthropologically related. The associated effects are the variability of rainfall and cyclonic patterns that are being observed globally. In Southeast Asia the link between global warming and the seasonal atmospheric flow during the monsoon seasons shows varying degree of fuzziness. This study investigates the impact of climate change on the seasonality of monsoon Asia and its effect on the variability of monsoon rainfall in Southeast Asia. The comparison of decadal variation of precipitation and temperature anomalies before the 1970s found general increases which were mostly varying. But beyond the 1970s, global precipitation anomalous showed increases that almost corresponded with increases in global temperature anomalies for the same period. There are frequent changes and a shift westward of the Indian summer monsoon. Although precipitation is observed to be 70% below normal levels, in some areas the topography affects the intensity of rainfall. These shifting phenomenon of other monsoon season in the region are impacting on the variability of rainfall and the onset of monsoons in Southeast Asia and is predicted to delay for 15 days the onset of the monsoon in the future. The variability of monsoon rainfall in the SEA region is observed to be decadal and the frequency and intensity of intermittent flooding of some areas during the monsoon season have serious consequences on the human, financial, infrastructure and food security of the region.

  6. Health spending, macroeconomics and fiscal space in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of

  7. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  8. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David

    2003-01-01

    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  9. THE PROBLEM OF ILLEGAL MIGRATION OF ETHNIC ROHINGYA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Сомкамнерд, Навапат

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of illegal migration of ethnic Rohingya in the region of South-East Asia, in some ASEAN countries, especially in Myanmar and Thailand. An overview focuses on the role of Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh and the role of international and regional organizations, especially the role of the UN and ASEAN in resolution of the problem of illegal migration of Rohingya. Particular emphasis is placed on activities of ASEAN and Thailand to tackle the problem of illegal...

  10. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting the Occurrence of Haze Events in Southeast Asia using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Chulakadabba, A.; Tonks, A.; Yang, Z.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Severe local- and regional-scale air pollution episodes typically originate from 1) high emissions of air pollutants, 2) poor dispersion conditions, and 3) trans-boundary pollutant transport. Biomass burning activities have become more frequent in Southeast Asia, especially in Sumatra, Borneo, and the mainland Southeast. Trans-boundary transport of biomass burning aerosols often lead to air quality problems in the region. Furthermore, particulate pollutants from human activities besides biomass burning also play an important role in the air quality of Southeast Asia. Singapore, for example, has a dynamic industrial sector including chemical, electric and metallurgic industries, and is the region's major petroleum-refining center. In addition, natural gas and oil power plants, waste incinerators, active port traffic, and a major regional airport further complicate Singapore's air quality issues. In this study, we compare five Machine Learning algorithms: k-Nearest Neighbors, Linear Support Vector Machine, Decision Tree, Random Forest and Artificial Neural Network, to identify haze patterns and determine variable importance. The algorithms were trained using local atmospheric data (i.e. months, atmospheric conditions, wind direction and relative humidity) from three observation stations in Singapore (Changi, Seletar and Paya Labar). We find that the algorithms reveal the associations in data within and between the stations, and provide in-depth interpretation of the haze sources. The algorithms also allow us to predict the probability of haze episodes in Singapore and to determine the correlation between this probability and atmospheric conditions.

  12. Aerosol Optical Properties in Southeast Asia From AERONET Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Boonjawat, J.; Le, H. V.; Schafer, J. S.; Reid, J. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.

    2003-12-01

    There is little published data available on measured optical properties of aerosols in the Southeast Asian region. The AERONET project and collaborators commenced monitoring of aerosol optical properties in February 2003 at four sites in Thailand and two sites in Viet Nam to measure the primarily anthropogenic aerosols generated by biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion/ industrial emissions. Automatic sun/sky radiometers at each site measured spectral aerosol optical depth in 7 wavelengths from 340 to 1020 nm and combined with directional radiances in the almucantar, retrievals were made of spectral single scattering albedo and aerosol size distributions. Angstrom exponents, size distributions and spectral single scattering albedo of primarily biomass burning aerosols at rural sites are compared to measurements made at AERONET sites in other major biomass burning regions in tropical southern Africa, South America, and in boreal forest regions. Additionally, the aerosol single scattering albedo and size distributions measured in Bangkok, Thailand are compared with those measured at other urban sites globally. The influences of aerosols originating from other regions outside of Southeast Asia are analyzed using trajectory analyses. Specifically, cases of aerosol transport and mixing from Southern China and from India are presented.

  13. Genetic diversity of Diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts across east and south-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Xu, Changbao; Tian, Mingyi; Deng, Xiaoling; Cen, Yijing; He, Yurong

    2017-10-01

    Diaphorina citri is the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the most widespread pathogen associated huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus. To enhance our understanding of the distribution and origin of the psyllid, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structures of 24 populations in Asia and one from Florida based on the mtCOI gene. Simultaneously, genetic diversity and population structures of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' and secondary endosymbiont (S-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' of D. citri were determined with the housekeeping genes. AMOVA analysis indicated that populations of D. citri and its endosymbionts in east and south-east Asia were genetically distinct from populations in Pakistan and Florida. Furthermore, P-endosymbiont populations displayed a strong geographical structure across east and south-east Asia, while low genetic diversity indicated the absence of genetic structure among the populations of D. citri and its S-endosymbiont across these regions. The 'Ca. C. ruddii' is more diverse and structured than the D. citri and the 'Ca. P. armatura' across east and south-east Asia. Multiple introductions of the psyllid have occurred in China. Management application for controlling the pest is proposed based on the genetic information of D. citri and its endosymbionts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Southeast Asia-South America interregionalism: a complement to bilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Rubiolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-state relations between the countries of South America and Southeast Asia (SEA have blossomed in the past 15 years, arousing the interest of a growing number of academics. Their interregional relations, on the other hand, have been less well examined, due, probably, to the fact that their development remains incipient, as well as sporadic and poorly institutionalised. The starting point for this work is the premise that in the case of non-central regions this level of connection complements and works as a feedback mechanism for bilateral links and encourages State-State, State-region and region-region rapprochement. It introduces notions of South American regionalism and centres on concepts related to non-triadic interregionalism in the initiatives between South America and SEA since 1999.

  15. Documentation for the Southeast Asia seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Haller, Kathleen; Dewey, James; Luco, Nicolas; Crone, Anthony; Lidke, David; Rukstales, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project originated in response to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M9.2) and the resulting tsunami that caused significant casualties and economic losses in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. During the course of this project, several great earthquakes ruptured subduction zones along the southern coast of Indonesia (fig. 1) causing additional structural damage and casualties in nearby communities. Future structural damage and societal losses from large earthquakes can be mitigated by providing an advance warning of tsunamis and introducing seismic hazard provisions in building codes that allow buildings and structures to withstand strong ground shaking associated with anticipated earthquakes. The Southeast Asia Seismic Hazard Project was funded through a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)—Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System to develop seismic hazard maps that would assist engineers in designing buildings that will resist earthquake strong ground shaking. An important objective of this project was to discuss regional hazard issues with building code officials, scientists, and engineers in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The code communities have been receptive to these discussions and are considering updating the Thailand and Indonesia building codes to incorporate new information (for example, see notes from Professor Panitan Lukkunaprasit, Chulalongkorn University in Appendix A).

  16. Influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales in southeast Asia: 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is a region with great potential for the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus. Global efforts to improve influenza surveillance in this region have documented the burden and seasonality of influenza viruses and have informed influenza prevention strategies, but little information exists about influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales. METHODS: To ascertain the existence of influenza vaccine guidelines and define the scope of vaccine sales, we sent a standard three-page questionnaire to the ten member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We also surveyed three multinational manufacturers who supply influenza vaccines in the region. RESULTS: Vaccine sales in the private sector were <1000 per 100,000 population in the 10 countries. Five countries reported purchasing vaccine for use in the public sector. In 2011, Thailand had the highest combined reported rate of vaccine sales (10,333 per 100,000. In the 10 countries combined, the rate of private sector sales during 2010-2011 (after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic exceeded 2008 pre-pandemic levels. Five countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam had guidelines for influenza vaccination but only two were consistent with global guidelines. Four recommended vaccination for health care workers, four for elderly persons, three for young children, three for persons with underlying disease, and two for pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of vaccine sales in Southeast Asia remains low, but there was a positive impact in sales after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic. Low adherence to global vaccine guidelines suggests that more work is needed in the policy arena.

  17. Why do we have such difficulty assessing aerosol impacts in Southeast Asia? Examining the representativeness of regional in situ, remote sensing, and modeling data using examples from a recent field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Lagrosas, N.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Campbell, J. R.; Chew, B.; Cook, J.; Di Girolamo, L.; Kuciauskas, A. P.; Johnson, R. S.; Jonsson, H.; Lynch, P.; Sessions, W.; Simpas, J. B.; Turk, F. J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia faces numerous climate change issues, and the interaction between aerosol particles, clouds, and precipitation is thought to impact the environment in this region at both weather and climate scales. Aerosol particles have direct radiative effects, indirect effects through interaction with clouds and precipitation, and also act as a tracer for other processes affecting the carbon cycle or atmospheric chemistry. Southeast Asia also hosts some of the most complex meteorological phenomenon of the world, challenging in situ, remote sensing and modeling systems. Indeed, there is more diversity in satellite based aerosol, fire, cloud, and precipitation products in Southeast Asia than perhaps anywhere else in the world outside of the poles. In addition to serious direct challenges to aerosol observability in Southeast Asia, such as persistent ubiquitous cloud cover, there are also contextual biases (such as for aerosol retrievals the classic clear sky bias). Contextual bias affects the representativeness of nearly all aerosol assessments in Southeast Asia. As part of the 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, a small intensive study was conducted in Singapore and the Palawan Archipelago in September 2011 to study the flow of biomass burning smoke through the South China/East Sea and into the summertime monsoonal trough. Analysis of field data coupled with multiple satellite and model products allowed us to investigate questions on the representativeness of data and to what extent they capture the 'true' state of the meteorological and aerosol environment. Four specific representativeness issues are presented based on IOP examples: 1) Individual biases in retrievals or model simulations; 2) Sampling biases at short time scales based on product coverage; 3) Temporal and spatial scale biases inherent in large and point based measurements; 4) Contextual biases that develop from the aggregation of data products. Considering all four of these issues we

  18. More Than We Bargained For: The Impact of Consumer Culture in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Katherine T.

    Advertising by multinational corporations in Southeast Asia is generating a growing resistance to its perceived role in creating a "consumer culture" damaging to indigenous values systems. Critics of advertising in Southeast Asia argue that when multinational advertisers or their multinational advertising agencies move into this foreign…

  19. Evapotranspiration of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia: RUBBER EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN SE ASIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W. [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Mudd, Ryan G. [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Liu, Wen [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Ziegler, Alan D. [Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore Singapore; Kobayashi, Nakako [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Kumagai, Tomo' omi [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Research Institute of East Asia Environments, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Lim, Tiva Khan [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Huang, Maoyi [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Fox, Jefferson [East-West Center, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Yin, Song [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Mak, Sophea Veasna [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Kasemsap, Poonpipope [Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok Thailand

    2016-02-01

    The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leaf area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.

  20. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia) ... for evaluating both the process and outcome of capacity development efforts in CBNRM. ... Cluster Case Studies Planning Workshop, Beijing, September 21-23, 2006; ...

  1. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    anshory

    Development Studies (CEDS), Padjadjaran University, for his excellent research assistance. ... Malaysia, and Philippines) are the most vulnerable to climate change. 2. ... system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), ... national administrative areas in seven countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., ...

  2. Impacts of air pollutants from fire and non-fire emissions on the regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-He; Iraqui, Oussama; Gu, Yefu; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chulakadabba, Apisada; Yiu-Ming Tonks, Adam; Yang, Zhengyu; Wang, Chien

    2018-05-01

    Severe haze events in Southeast Asia caused by particulate pollution have become more intense and frequent in recent years. Widespread biomass burning occurrences and particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning play important roles in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. In this study, numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem) to quantitatively examine the contributions of aerosols emitted from fire (i.e., biomass burning) versus non-fire (including fossil fuel combustion, and road dust, etc.) sources to the degradation of air quality and visibility over Southeast Asia. These simulations cover a time period from 2002 to 2008 and are driven by emissions from (a) fossil fuel burning only, (b) biomass burning only, and (c) both fossil fuel and biomass burning. The model results reveal that 39 % of observed low-visibility days (LVDs) can be explained by either fossil fuel burning or biomass burning emissions alone, a further 20 % by fossil fuel burning alone, a further 8 % by biomass burning alone, and a further 5 % by a combination of fossil fuel burning and biomass burning. Analysis of an 24 h PM2.5 air quality index (AQI) indicates that the case with coexisting fire and non-fire PM2.5 can substantially increase the chance of AQI being in the moderate or unhealthy pollution level from 23 to 34 %. The premature mortality in major Southeast Asian cities due to degradation of air quality by particulate pollutants is estimated to increase from ˜ 4110 per year in 2002 to ˜ 6540 per year in 2008. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of certain missing non-fire anthropogenic aerosol sources including anthropogenic fugitive and industrial dusts in causing urban air quality degradation. An experiment of using machine learning algorithms to forecast the occurrence of haze events in Singapore is also explored in this study. All of these

  3. Impacts of air pollutants from fire and non-fire emissions on the regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-H. Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe haze events in Southeast Asia caused by particulate pollution have become more intense and frequent in recent years. Widespread biomass burning occurrences and particulate pollutants from human activities other than biomass burning play important roles in degrading air quality in Southeast Asia. In this study, numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model coupled with a chemistry component (WRF-Chem to quantitatively examine the contributions of aerosols emitted from fire (i.e., biomass burning versus non-fire (including fossil fuel combustion, and road dust, etc. sources to the degradation of air quality and visibility over Southeast Asia. These simulations cover a time period from 2002 to 2008 and are driven by emissions from (a fossil fuel burning only, (b biomass burning only, and (c both fossil fuel and biomass burning. The model results reveal that 39 % of observed low-visibility days (LVDs can be explained by either fossil fuel burning or biomass burning emissions alone, a further 20 % by fossil fuel burning alone, a further 8 % by biomass burning alone, and a further 5 % by a combination of fossil fuel burning and biomass burning. Analysis of an 24 h PM2.5 air quality index (AQI indicates that the case with coexisting fire and non-fire PM2.5 can substantially increase the chance of AQI being in the moderate or unhealthy pollution level from 23 to 34 %. The premature mortality in major Southeast Asian cities due to degradation of air quality by particulate pollutants is estimated to increase from  ∼  4110 per year in 2002 to  ∼  6540 per year in 2008. In addition, we demonstrate the importance of certain missing non-fire anthropogenic aerosol sources including anthropogenic fugitive and industrial dusts in causing urban air quality degradation. An experiment of using machine learning algorithms to forecast the occurrence of haze events in Singapore is

  4. Health and health-care systems in southeast Asia: diversity and transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Phua, Kai Hong; Yap, Mui Teng; Pocock, Nicola S; Hashim, Jamal H; Chhem, Rethy; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; Lopez, Alan D

    2011-01-29

    Southeast Asia is a region of enormous social, economic, and political diversity, both across and within countries, shaped by its history, geography, and position as a major crossroad of trade and the movement of goods and services. These factors have not only contributed to the disparate health status of the region's diverse populations, but also to the diverse nature of its health systems, which are at varying stages of evolution. Rapid but inequitable socioeconomic development, coupled with differing rates of demographic and epidemiological transitions, have accentuated health disparities and posed great public health challenges for national health systems, particularly the control of emerging infectious diseases and the rise of non-communicable diseases within ageing populations. While novel forms of health care are evolving in the region, such as corporatised public health-care systems (government owned, but operating according to corporate principles and with private-sector participation) and financing mechanisms to achieve universal coverage, there are key lessons for health reforms and decentralisation. New challenges have emerged with rising trade in health services, migration of the health workforce, and medical tourism. Juxtaposed between the emerging giant economies of China and India, countries of the region are attempting to forge a common regional identity, despite their diversity, to seek mutually acceptable and effective solutions to key regional health challenges. In this first paper in the Lancet Series on health in southeast Asia, we present an overview of key demographic and epidemiological changes in the region, explore challenges facing health systems, and draw attention to the potential for regional collaboration in health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ... This grant will allow a consortium of research centres in China, Indonesia, Thailand ... Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang.

  6. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia, LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    1941 - 1991 JPRS Repor East Asia Southeast Asia LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure mom m £C QUALITY »ra^r...prostitution, will be impris- oned for three to five years. Article 124. Incest . Anyone who has sexual intercourse with parents, step- parents...This consists of facts which indicate whether there have been actions dangerous to society, the guilt of the per- sons who undertook the

  7. Hunter-gatherers in southeast Asia: from prehistory to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically modern hunter-gatherers expanded from Africa into Southeast Asia at least 50,000 years ago, where they probably encountered and interacted with populations of Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis and the recently discovered Denisovans. Simulation studies suggest that these hunter-gatherers may well have followed a coastal route that ultimately led to the settlement of Sahul, while archaeology confirms that they also crossed significant seas and explored well into the interior. They also adapted to marked environmental changes that alternated between relatively cool and dry conditions and warmer, wetter interludes. During the former, the sea fell by up to 120 m below its present level, which opened up a vast low-lying area known as Sundaland. Three principal alignments can be identified: the first involved the occupation of rock shelters in upland regions, the second has identified settlement on broad riverine floodplains, and the last concentrated on the raised beaches formed from about five millennia ago when the sea level was elevated above its present position. This cultural sequence was dislocated about 4 kya when rice and millet farmers infiltrated the lowlands of Southeast Asia ultimately from the Yangtze River valley. It is suggested that this led to two forms of interaction. In the first, the indigenous hunter-gatherers integrated with intrusive Neolithic communities and, while losing their cultural identity, contributed their genes to the present population of Southeast Asia. In the second, hunter-gatherers withdrew to rainforest refugia and, through selective pressures inherent in such an environment, survived as the small-bodied, dark-skinned humans found to this day in the Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand, and the Andaman Islands. Beyond the impact of expansive rice farmers in Melanesia and Australia, hunter-gatherers continued to dominate until they encountered European settlement. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press

  8. Freshwater Choices in China: Options That Will Impact South and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    economies in the world. To sustain this economic growth and transform chronic hunger into food self-sufficiency, both China and India have embarked...FRESHWATER CHOICES IN CHINA: OPTIONS THAT WILL IMPACT SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA A Monograph by Mr. Steven M. Nystrom...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Freshwater Choices in China: Options that will Impact South and Southeast Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  10. AHP 35: Review Essay: COMPARATIVE BORDERLANDS ACROSS DISCIPLINES AND ACROSS SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early in the colonial period, many studies examining upland Southeast Asia focused on ethnography and ecology as a means for the colonial state to better understand the region's geography. This process resulted in the construction of physical, social, and intellectual boundaries that sought to maintain control of the colonial enterprise. The natural borderlands of the region defied such easy definition – the highlands, the plains at the edges of deltas, and heavily forested regions – became a fascination of colonial study. In the climate of pending Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN integration, which promises to begin the process of loosening restrictions for border crossing between Southeast Asian states by area residents, the study of borderlands has risen again. Because many of these border areas have pockets of highlands culture, continued study of the uplands is particularly relevant to deepening an understanding of the region. This review of several books on the Southeast Asian uplands explores historical and cultural strategies of individuals, particularly in Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, the Dayak community on the island of Borneo, and the Cham community in Vietnam and Cambodia, as well as some of the challenges that they face regarding 'the borderlands'. Putting these studies in conversation can help develop an interdisciplinary dialogue between scholars in Anthropology, Political Science, Linguistics, Ethnomusicology, and History, allowing for a more integrated international perspective.

  11. Corporate governance and corruption : A comparative study of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijayati, Nureni; Hermes, Niels; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The weak corporate governance framework in Indonesia, as in other countries in Southeast Asia, was deemed a crucial factor in deepening the financial and economic crisis in the late 1990s. Over a decade after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries have made

  12. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia. Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly ...

  13. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  14. Use of GIS for estimating potential and actual forest biomass for continental South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Iverson; S. Brown; A. Prasad; H. Mitasova; A. J. R. Gillespie; A. E. Lugo

    1994-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate total biomass and biomass density of the tropical forest in south and southeast Asia because available data from forest inventories were insufficient to extrapolate biomass-density estimates across the region.

  15. Agricultural land acquisitions: a lens on Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polack, Emily

    2012-04-15

    Recent years have seen 'land grabbing' emerge as a big issue in media houses across the world, with reporters quick to write about deals involving millions of hectares, particularly within Africa. Yet large-scale land acquisitions are not a purely African phenomenon. Other parts of the world are also subject to the global land rush. Home to emerging economies with profit potential, Southeast Asia has become ever more appealing to investors from both within and beyond the region seeking to include agriculture in their portfolios. Regional agribusiness companies are booming. And rapid change in land ownership and use is already taking place. Set against a backdrop of insecure rights and weak land governance, land acquisitions here are posing significant threats to local livelihoods and environments alike.

  16. Diversification and autonomy: axes in Argentine rapprochement to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Rubiolo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 onwards, with the change of presidency in Argentina and the consolidation of the internal recovery, the orientation of foreign policy acquires more autonomist nuances. It is in this scenario that the links with less developed countries - or of the South - should be understood, including the ties with the economies of Southeast Asia. Our objective in this work is to analyze the current state of Argentina’s bilateral ties with Southeast Asia - with special emphasis on the Philippines -analyzing these bonds as an alternative for insertion within a strategy of selective diversification and extension of margins of autonomy.

  17. International and Regional Institutional Dialogues for Human Rights for LGBT persons: The quest for recognition, anti-discrimination, and marriage in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    There is a rich interplay between civil society organizations and institutions involved in human rights norm diffusion and the ‘ricochet’ of ideas at the regional level across Southeast Asia. There is a broad discussion occurring about human rights for LGBT persons and SOGI rights (Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity) including recognition, non-discrimination in employment, education, and housing, and partnership recognition and same-sex marriage. We focus on four countries, Thailand, Viet...

  18. A nuclear free southeast Asia - the China factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the principal nuclear threat to Southeast Asia comes from nuclear weapons stored by the two superpowers in their respective bases and their targeting of each other's bases. Calls for the creation of a nuclear weapons free zone in Southeast Asia (SEANFZ) poses a number of problems to China because of the perceived negative impact of such zones on Chinese security interests, force deployment and strategic doctrine. Hence, it is argued that China is unlikely to support a nuclear free zone treaty which only embraces the Asean states because it would lead to unilateral disarmament on the part of pro-western countries while leaving Indochinese states and the Soviet Union. However, if the proposed SEANFZ treaty resembles the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone treaty, which allow the transit of nuclear-armed vessels, China could be expected to support it. ills

  19. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in

  20. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  1. An adaptive thermal comfort model for hot humid South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a full procedure to develop an adaptive comfort model for South-East Asia. Meta-analysis on large number of observations from field surveys which were conducted in this region was employed. Standardization and bias control of the database were fully reported. Statistical tests of significance and weighted regression method applied in the analyses strengthened the reliability of the findings. This paper found a great influence of ‘Griffiths constant’ on the establish...

  2. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m-3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m-3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active

  3. The Scale of Sexual Aggression in Southeast Asia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Lylla; Krahé, Barbara; Guest, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the most dynamic regions in the world. It is experiencing rapid socioeconomic change that may influence the level of sexual aggression, but data on the scale of sexual aggression in the region remain sparse. The aim of the present article was to systematically review the findings of studies available in English on the prevalence of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization among women and men above the age of 12 years in the 11 countries of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). Based on four scientific databases, the search engine Google, Opengrey database, and reference checking, 49 studies were found on sexual victimization. Of those, 32 included only women. Self-reported perpetration was assessed by only three studies and included all-male samples. Prevalence rates varied widely across studies but showed that sexual victimization was widespread among different social groups, irrespective of sex and sexual orientation. Methodological heterogeneity, lack of representativeness of samples, imbalance of information available by country, missing information within studies, and cultural differences hampered the comparability between and within countries. There is a need for operationalizations that specifically address sexual aggression occurring after the age of consent, based on detailed behavioral descriptions of unwanted sexual experiences and allied to a qualitative approach with cultural sensitivity. Data on sexual aggression in conflict settings and in human trafficking are also limited. Recommendations for future research are presented in the discussion.

  4. Secularism, decolonisation, and the Cold War in South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    The intensifying conflicts between religious communities in contemporary South and Southeast Asia signify the importance of gaining a clearer understanding of how societies have historically organised and mastered their religious diversity. Based on extensive archival research in Asia, Europe,

  5. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2016-01-12

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation.

  6. Corporate Social Disclosures in Southeast Asia: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD has been growing remarkably both in business and academic world.  Inevitably, this topic is also exposed in Southeast Asia, a big region that plays important role in global economic issue. Applying a content analysis method, this paper aims to provide preliminary findings in CSD practices throughout the companies‟ annual reports in 2007 and 2008 for countries located in Southeast Asia.  Samples were selected for listed and unlisted various type of industries, based on the information availability internet searching. The sample collection and the subjectivity during the content analysis process are the limitations in conducting this study. In general, the results show that „human resources‟ are the main information disclosed, while in contrast, „energy‟ is the main least issue disclosed in the annual reports.  However, the findings need to be interpreted with considerations since there are limited in samples. Basically, the outcomes support the major prior studies and enhancing the discussion of CSD conducting in developing countries, while at the same time describing some countries which obtained very limited in exposures. To respond the vast increasing issues of CSD practice, this preliminary study has provided a basis to see the role of every country in CSR reporting and how they could support the sustainability development globally.

  7. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located.

  8. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  9. Health in Southeast Asia 6 Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Patcharanarumol, W; Ir, P; Aljunid, SM; Mukti, AG; Akkhavong, K; Banzon, E; Huong, DB; Thabrany, H; Mills, A

    2011-01-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for natio...

  10. Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... It is transmitted to humans and animals when they consume raw or undercooked fish. ... environment when contaminated feces enter local water sources. ... Emerging Disease Research Initiative (Eco EID) in Southeast Asia.

  11. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  12. Long-term monitoring of atmospheric PCDD/Fs at Mount Lulin during spring season: PCDD/F source apportionment through a simultaneous measurement in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ngo Tuan; Li, Chueh Ting; Wang, Sheng Hsiang; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Lee, Chung-Te; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chi, Kai Hsien

    2017-10-01

    A long term assessment of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at Mt. Lulin, located in center of Taiwan was carried out from 2008 to 2013 (n = 81) assuming Mt. Lulin to be background area. During monitoring processes, PCDD/F samples collected in the field occasionally reached high concentration. To investigate this situation, simultaneous sample collection was carried out in Southeast Asia countries (i.e., Vietnam and Thailand) and Taiwan in 2013. The average concentration of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in biomass-burning source regions, namely Son La and Doi Ang Khang were 19.8 ± 12.1 fg I-TEQ m -3 (n = 19) and 17.8 ± 12.4 fg I-TEQ m -3 (n = 20), respectively. In the downwind area of Mt. Lulin, the average concentration of PCDD/Fs was found to be 4.64 ± 3.77 fg I-TEQ m -3 (n = 18). PCDD/F concentration in the source region was much higher than that in the downwind region. On March 19, 2013, the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations increased dramatically from 7.71 to 484 fg I-TEQ m -3 at Mt. Lulin, which many times exceeded that of assumed source region in Southeast Asia. Moreover, mainland Southeast Asia and the southeast coast of China was suspected to be the main contributors of atmospheric PCDD/Fs and biomass markers, such as nonsea-salt K + and NH 4 + , during the spring. WRF-Chem and Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) simulations have confirmed this correlation. It can be concluded that atmospheric PCDD/Fs observed at Mt. Lulin during spring mostly derived from the air mass transport not only from Southeast Asia but also the southeast coast of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, Cristian; Wilson, James F.; Richards, Martin; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Gratrix, Fiona; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Underhill, Peter; Pascali, Vincenzo L.; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Goldstein, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Oceania in one of the first dispersals out of Africa. The resulting temporal overlap of modern and archaic humans-and the apparent morphological continuity between them-has led to claims of gene flow between Homo sapiens and H. erectus. Much more recently, an agricultural technology from mainland Asia spread into the region, possibly in association with Austronesian languages. Using detailed genealogical study of Y chromosome variation, we show that th...

  14. Geopolitics and security in post-cold-war South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, P.

    1997-01-01

    The most likely scenario is the one in which South-east Asia acquires a greater autonomy, as in Scenario 1. The recomposition of ASEAN as a larger and yet solid entity is far-reaching and requires a lot of mutual internal efforts and policy coordination on external issues. As aforementioned, a situation somewhere between the two sub-scenarios of Scenario I could be achieved. The broadened identity of ASEAN will definitely contribute to the autonomization of South-east Asia as a whole, at least in general geopolitical and security terms. In addition, a greater convergence may develop in economic, strategic and even political areas and gradually produce a subregional order with its own local character and specificities

  15. Popular Orientalism: Somerset Maugham in Mainland Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Doran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on his experiences during a journey through mainland Southeast Asia in 1923, Somerset Maugham wrote a book of colonial travel entitled The Gentleman in the Parlour. As the work of one of the most popular writers of the twentieth century, Maugham’s travelogue both expressed and helped to shape contemporary thinking about Southeast Asia and Western imperialism. Focusing especially on his representations of Burma and Cambodia, an analysis is presented of Maugham’s book in the light of postcolonial scholarship, especially the theoretical insights developed under the inspiration of Edward Said’s Orientalism. Despite its pretensions to be apolitical, Maugham’s travel book is shown to be a repository of Western colonial ideas and attitudes, integrally involved in the circulation of the prevailing European discourse of high imperialism. As such, it is a valuable resource for historians and other scholars who wish to understand the way that discourse worked at the level of popular literature.

  16. Evolutionary history of Helicobacter pylori sequences reflect past human migrations in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breurec, Sebastien; Guillard, Bertrand; Hem, Sopheak; Brisse, Sylvain; Dieye, Fatou Bintou; Huerre, Michel; Oung, Chakravuth; Raymond, Josette; Tan, Tek Sreng; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vong, Sirenda; Monchy, Didier; Linz, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    The human population history in Southeast Asia was shaped by numerous migrations and population expansions. Their reconstruction based on archaeological, linguistic or human genetic data is often hampered by the limited number of informative polymorphisms in classical human genetic markers, such as the hypervariable regions of the mitochondrial DNA. Here, we analyse housekeeping gene sequences of the human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori from various countries in Southeast Asia and we provide evidence that H. pylori accompanied at least three ancient human migrations into this area: i) a migration from India introducing hpEurope bacteria into Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia; ii) a migration of the ancestors of Austro-Asiatic speaking people into Vietnam and Cambodia carrying hspEAsia bacteria; and iii) a migration of the ancestors of the Thai people from Southern China into Thailand carrying H. pylori of population hpAsia2. Moreover, the H. pylori sequences reflect iv) the migrations of Chinese to Thailand and Malaysia within the last 200 years spreading hspEasia strains, and v) migrations of Indians to Malaysia within the last 200 years distributing both hpAsia2 and hpEurope bacteria. The distribution of the bacterial populations seems to strongly influence the incidence of gastric cancer as countries with predominantly hspEAsia isolates exhibit a high incidence of gastric cancer while the incidence is low in countries with a high proportion of hpAsia2 or hpEurope strains. In the future, the host range expansion of hpEurope strains among Asian populations, combined with human motility, may have a significant impact on gastric cancer incidence in Asia.

  17. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Gulagi; Dmitrii Bogdanov; Christian Breyer

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63...

  18. THE HISTORY OF JAMA‘AH TABLIGH IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: The Role of Islamic Sufism in Islamic Revival

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the history of Jama‘ah Tabligh in Southeast Asia, especially in Kuala Lumpur and Aceh. The author traces the historical background of this religious movement with particular reference to the birth place of Jama‘ah Tabligh, India. The author investigates the major role of Indian in disseminating Islam in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Many scholars believe that Islam came to Southeast Asia from India (Gujarat), and this is the reason why many Islamic...

  19. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on...

  20. Rates and drivers of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia, 2000–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The mangrove forests of Southeast Asia are highly biodiverse and provide multiple ecosystem services upon which millions of people depend. Mangroves enhance fisheries and coastal protection, and store among the highest densities of carbon of any ecosystem globally. Mangrove forests have experienced extensive deforestation owing to global demand for commodities, and previous studies have identified the expansion of aquaculture as largely responsible. The proportional conversion of mangroves to different land use types has not been systematically quantified across Southeast Asia, however, particularly in recent years. In this study we apply a combined geographic information system and remote sensing method to quantify the key proximate drivers (i.e., replacement land uses) of mangrove deforestation in Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2012. Mangrove forests were lost at an average rate of 0.18% per year, which is lower than previously published estimates. In total, more than 100,000 ha of mangroves were removed during the study period, with aquaculture accounting for 30% of this total forest change. The rapid expansion of rice agriculture in Myanmar, and the sustained conversion of mangroves to oil palm plantations in Malaysia and Indonesia, are identified as additional increasing and under-recognized threats to mangrove ecosystems. Our study highlights frontiers of mangrove deforestation in the border states of Myanmar, on Borneo, and in Indonesian Papua. To implement policies that conserve mangrove forests across Southeast Asia, it is essential to consider the national and subnational variation in the land uses that follow deforestation. PMID:26712025

  1. Investigating the relationship between Aerosol Optical Depth and Precipitation over Southeast Asia with Relative Humidity as an influencing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel Hui Loong; Li, Ruimin; Raghavan, Srivatsan V; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2017-10-17

    Atmospheric aerosols influence precipitation by changing the earth's energy budget and cloud properties. A number of studies have reported correlations between aerosol properties and precipitation data. Despite previous research, it is still hard to quantify the overall effects that aerosols have on precipitation as multiple influencing factors such as relative humidity (RH) can distort the observed relationship between aerosols and precipitation. Thus, in this study, both satellite-retrieved and reanalysis data were used to investigate the relationship between aerosols and precipitation in the Southeast Asia region from 2001 to 2015, with RH considered as a possible influencing factor. Different analyses in the study indicate that a positive correlation was present between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and precipitation over northern Southeast Asia region during the autumn and the winter seasons, while a negative correlation was identified over the Maritime Continent during the autumn season. Subsequently, a partial correlation analysis revealed that while RH influences the long-term negative correlations between AOD and precipitation, it did not significantly affect the positive correlations seen in the winter season. The result of this study provides additional evidence with respect to the critical role of RH as an influencing factor in AOD-precipitation relationship over Southeast Asia.

  2. Large fluctuations of shallow seas in low-lying Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The Sundaland continental promontory, as the core of Southeast Asia, is one of the lowest lying continental regions, with half of the continental area presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has often been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphy, including a widespread Late Cretaceous-Eocene unconformity, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia is presently situated over a large-amplitude dynamic topography low resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. We use forward numerical models to link mantle flow with surface tectonics and compare predicted trends of dynamic topography with eustasy and regional paleogeography to determine the influence of mantle convection on regional basin histories. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked the active margin, leading to slab breakoff and a ˜10-15 Myr-long subduction hiatus. A subduction hiatus likely resulted in several hundred meters of dynamic uplift and emergence of Sundaland between ˜80 and 60 Ma and may explain the absence of a Late Cretaceous-Eocene sedimentary record. Renewed subduction from ˜60 Ma reinitiated dynamic subsidence of Sundaland, leading to submergence from ˜40 Ma despite falling long-term global sea levels. Our results highlight a complete "down-up-down" dynamic topography cycle experienced by Sundaland, with transient dynamic topography manifesting as a major regional unconformity in sedimentary basins.

  3. Enterobacteriaceae rsistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, K.T.; Kant, A.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Wit, B.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which

  4. Decision Making Model for Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping Operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Md Arof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a decision-making model for determining the potential of interstate Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping (SSS operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia (ASEA. It is expected to assist SSS authorities, private investors and financial institutions focus their limited resources on several key factors that could ensure the success of their undertakings. This study will begin with identifying the relevant factors that have contributed towards successful SSS operations through a process of literature review. Subsequently, a Delphi survey was conducted with sub-regional experts to identify any new determinants and assess their opinions on the relative importance of all the determinants involved. Finally the weightages of the determinants were ascertained through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Twenty expert respondents from Brunei Darussalam. Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines were involved in the Delphi survey while 18 expert respondents continue to participate in the AHP survey. This study concludes with the development of a decision-making model that was tested on three interstate Ro-Ro SSS routes within the ASEA sub-region. Keywords: Archipelagic Southeast Asia, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, ASEAN, Delphi, Ro-Ro, Short Sea Shipping (SSS

  5. Southeast Asia: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, which contains approximately 500 citations dated between 1952 and 1972, is one of a series on various areas of the world. Countries included in this bibliography on Southeast Asia are: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Western Samoa and the…

  6. Isotopic evidence for climatic conditions in Southeast Asia at the last glacial maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Gibson, J.J.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Froehlich, K.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of dated groundwater archives from the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand and Bangladesh trace changes in monsoon conditions, primarily rainout processes between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and present day in southeast Asia. Today, isotope-climate relations are well established by the IAEA/WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation survey which reveals more depleted δ 18 O and δ 2 H for the Pacific Ocean monsoon regime than for the Indian Ocean monsoon regime, primarily due to proximal ocean sources and subdued continental moisture recycling for the latter region. Groundwater archives, reflecting past isotopic composition of precipitation, strongly suggest that this distinction was preserved or slightly enhanced at the time of the LGM, despite an apparent weakening of the summer monsoon and associated rainout processes. Overall, precipitation and moisture recycling, and enhanced continental effects are inferred to be the primary controls on δ 18 O signals in groundwater in southeast Asia. Comparison of groundwater isotope signatures and an ECHAM4 model simulation of the isotopic distribution in precipitation at 21ka reveal similar patterns, but the impacts of increased air mass contributions from high latitudes and reduced Eurasian moisture recycling at the LGM are shown to be potentially greater for the Pacific region than predicted by the model. (author)

  7. Population and society in twentieth-century Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, C

    1994-09-01

    The historical demographic analysis in this article is a revision of a paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in 1988 at the University of Oregon. The author takes the view that fertility has remained high in the Southeast Asian region due to the dynamics of colonialism and the reinforcement of traditional society. Industrialization, urbanization, and advancing education was not favored by colonial policy. The shift to planting cash crops was labor-intensive work which reinforced large families. The fertility decline after the 1960s is attributed to population pressure and the lower limits of land and production per family. Incentives for smaller families are identified as the expansion of mass education, increased consumer aspirations, and opportunities for modern sector employment. The impact of population growth is viewed as multidimensional and indicative of the conflicts between resources, obligations, and aspirations. The historical record in Southeast Asia reveals a population shortage and the risk of losing the minimum supply of labor necessary for a subsistence economy. Traditional local authorities were in need of men for waging war and producing an economic surplus. Colonial administrators imported cheap labor. As mortality declined and population increased, the societal response was migration, usually to frontier areas. New zones of wet rice production were created in lower Burma, central Siam, and Cochin China due to increased demand. Other survival strategies are identified as infinite land subdivision and multiple job holding in the off-season. Densely populated areas appeared to have lower fertility. Over the past 20 years the strategy appears to have been lower fertility coupled with acceptance of family planning, higher female educational attainment, and higher age at marriage. Southeast Asian patterns are considered indicative of the impact of wars, crises, and economic change on

  8. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Type.-Holotype male, Chiang Mai Prov., Thailand, 1933, O.R. Causey (on slide, Type in USNM). Southeast Asia Records.-- INDONESIA: Sulawesi (North...Kapit Dist., Nanga Pelagus (Traub). SINGAPORE: Kg. Chantek Bahru (Colless); Nee Soon (Colless). THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Causey); Chiang Rai (Causey...THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Notonanda, Scanlon). Cholburi, Bangphra,(Scanlon). Khon Kaen Prov., Ban Phai and Chum Phae (Manop R.). Loei Prov., Dan Sal, Ban

  9. Overseas Educational Developments, 1981: Mexico, South America, Southeast Asia. A World Higher Education Communique Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Educational developments in Mexico, South America, and Southeast Asia are covered in five seminar papers. In addition, country educational profiles are presented on Mexico, Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. In "International Students from Southeast Asia," John F. Brohm considers the following…

  10. Does interspecific competition have a moderating effect on Taenia solium transmission dynamics in Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Fenwick, Stanley; Blacksell, Stuart D; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2009-09-01

    It is well understood that sociocultural practices strongly influence Taenia solium transmission; however, the extent to which interspecific parasite competition moderates Taenia transmission has yet to be determined. This is certainly the case in Southeast Asia where T. solium faces competition in both the definitive host (people) and the intermediate host (pigs). In people, adult worms of T. solium, T. saginata and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent crowding mechanisms. In pigs, metacestodes of T. solium, T. hydatigena and T. asiatica compete through density-dependent immune-mediated interactions. Here, we describe the biological and epidemiological implications of Taenia competition and propose that interspecific competition has a moderating effect on the transmission dynamics of T. solium in the region. Furthermore, we argue that this competitive ecological scenario should be considered in future research and surveillance activities examining T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Southeast Asia.

  11. Remote sensing of forest degradation in Southeast Asia—Aiming for a regional view through 5–30 m satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Miettinen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper we present geographical, ecological and historical aspects of Southeast Asia from the perspective of forest degradation monitoring and critically discuss available approaches for large area forest degradation monitoring with satellite remote sensing data at high to medium spatial resolution (5–30 m. Several authors have achieved promising results in geographically limited areas within Southeast Asia using automated detection algorithms. However, the application of automated methods to large area assessments remains a major challenge. To-date, nearly all large area assessments of forest degradation in the region have included a strong visual interpretation component. We conclude that due to the variety of forest types and forest disturbance levels, as well as the variable image acquisition conditions in Southeast Asia, it is unlikely that forest degradation monitoring can be conducted throughout the region using a single automated approach with currently available remote sensing data. The provision of regionally consistent information on forest degradation from satellite remote sensing data remains therefore challenging. However, the expected increase in observation frequency in the near future (due to Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 satellites may lead to the desired improvement in data availability and enable consistent and robust regional forest degradation monitoring in Southeast Asia. Keywords: Tropical forest disturbance, Selective logging, Shifting cultivation, Satellite data, Indochina peninsula, Maritime continent

  12. Biogeographic patterns and diversification dynamics of the genus Cardiodactylus Saussure (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Eneopterinae) in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiajia; Kergoat, Gael J; Vicente, Natállia; Rahmadi, Cahyo; Xu, Shengquan; Robillard, Tony

    2018-06-07

    Southeast Asia harbors an extraordinary species richness and endemism. While only covering 4% of the Earth's landmass, this region includes four of the planet's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Its complex geological history generated a megadiverse and highly endemic biota, attracting a lot of attention, especially in the field of island biogeography. Here we used the cricket genus Cardiodactylus as a model system to study biogeographic patterns in Southeast Asia. We carried out molecular analyses to: (1) infer phylogenetic relationships based on five mitochondrial and four nuclear markers, (2) estimate divergence times and infer biogeographical ancestral areas, (3) depict colonization routes, and summarize emigration and immigration events, as well as in situ diversification, and (4) determine whether shifts in species diversification occurred during the course of Cardiodactylus evolution. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and of one of its species groups. Dating and biogeographical analyses suggest that Cardiodactylus originated in the Southwest Pacific during the Middle Eocene. Our reconstructions indicate that Southeast Asia was independently colonized twice during the Early Miocene (ca. 19-16 Million years ago), and once during the Middle Miocene (ca. 13 Million years ago), with New Guinea acting as a corridor allowing westward dispersal through four different passageways: Sulawesi, the Philippines, Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Sulawesi also served as a diversification hub for Cardiodactylus through a combination of high immigration and in situ diversification events, which can be accounted for by the complex geological history of the Wallacea region. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  14. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia ? aerosol and chemical characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Stohl , A.; Forster , C.; Huntrieser , H.; Mannstein , H.; Mcmillan , W. W.; Petzold , A.; Schlager , H.; Weinzierl , B.

    2006-01-01

    An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24–25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia only six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from AIRS sate...

  15. Temporal correlation between opiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia and B.C. heroin deaths: a transoceanic model of heroin death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mark E

    2003-01-01

    Because heroin supply changes cannot be measured directly, their impact on populations is poorly understood. British Columbia has experienced an injection drug use epidemic since the 1980s that resulted in 2,590 illicit drug deaths from 1990-1999. Since previous work indicates heroin seizures can correlate with supply and B.C. receives heroin only from Southeast Asia, this study examined B.C. heroin deaths against opiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia. Opiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia and data from two B.C. mortality datasets containing heroin deaths were examined. The Pearson correlation coefficient for seizures against each mortality dataset was determined. Opiate seizures, all illicit drug deaths and all opiate deaths concurrently increased twice and decreased twice from 1989-1999, and all reached new peak values in 1993. Three B.C. sub-regions exhibited illicit drug deaths rate trends concurrent with the three principal datasets studied. The Pearson correlation coefficient for opiate-induced deaths against opiate seizures from 1980-1999 was R=0.915 (popiate seizures from 1987-1999 was R=0.896 (popiate seizures in East/Southeast Asia were very strongly correlated with B.C. opiate and illicit drug deaths. The number of B.C. heroin-related deaths may be strongly linked to heroin supply. Enforcement services are not effective in preventing harm caused by heroin in B.C.; therefore, Canada should examine other methods to prevent harm. The case for harm reduction is strengthened by the ineffectiveness of enforcement and the unlikelihood of imminent eradication of heroin production in Southeast Asia.

  16. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  17. New trends in the anthropology of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question, is there such an entity as a separate field of the anthropology of Southeast Asia? Has the crisis in anthropology in the 1970s and ‘the literary turn’ of the 1980s led to a renewed interest in area studies? A number of topics that originally belonged to the field

  18. A comparative analysis of renewable electricity support mechanisms for Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore, Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluates the applicability of eight renewable electricity policy mechanisms for Southeast Asian electricity markets. It begins by describing the methodology behind 90 research interviews of stakeholders in the electricity industry. It then outlines four justifications given by respondents for government intervention to support renewables in Southeast Asia: unpriced negative externalities, counteracting subsidies for conventional energy sources, the public goods aspect of renewable energy, and the presence of non-technical barriers. The article develops an analytical framework to evaluate renewable portfolio standards, green power programs, public research and development expenditures, systems benefits charges, investment tax credits, production tax credits, tendering, and feed-in tariffs in Southeast Asia. It assesses each of these mechanisms according to the criteria of efficacy, cost effectiveness, dynamic efficiency, equity, and fiscal responsibility. The study concludes that one mechanism, feed-in tariffs, is both the most preferred by respondents and the only one that meets all criteria. (author)

  19. A comparative analysis of renewable electricity support mechanisms for Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the applicability of eight renewable electricity policy mechanisms for Southeast Asian electricity markets. It begins by describing the methodology behind 90 research interviews of stakeholders in the electricity industry. It then outlines four justifications given by respondents for government intervention to support renewables in Southeast Asia: unpriced negative externalities, counteracting subsidies for conventional energy sources, the public goods aspect of renewable energy, and the presence of non-technical barriers. The article develops an analytical framework to evaluate renewable portfolio standards, green power programs, public research and development expenditures, systems benefits charges, investment tax credits, production tax credits, tendering, and feed-in tariffs in Southeast Asia. It assesses each of these mechanisms according to the criteria of efficacy, cost effectiveness, dynamic efficiency, equity, and fiscal responsibility. The study concludes that one mechanism, feed-in tariffs, is both the most preferred by respondents and the only one that meets all criteria. (author)

  20. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Hsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind

  1. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik; Norhana Selamat, Siti; Hanif Abd Rashid, Muhammad; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Chee Kiong, Sia; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target.

  2. Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Nor, Nik Hisyamudin; Selamat, Siti Norhana; Abd Rashid, Muhammad Hanif; Ahmad, Mohd Fauzi; Jamian, Saifulnizan; Kiong, Sia Chee; Hassan, Mohd Fahrul; Mohamad, Fariza; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Asia is a standout amongst the most presented districts to unnatural weather change dangers even they are not principle worldwide carbon dioxide (CO_2) maker, its discharge will get to be significant if there is no move made. CO_2 wellsprings of Southeast Asia are mainly by fossil fuel through era of power and warmth generation, and also transportation part. The endeavors taken by these nations can be ordered into administrative and local level. This paper review the potential for carbon catch and capacity (CCS) as a part of the environmental change moderation system for the Malaysian power area utilizing an innovation appraisal structure. The country's recorded pattern of high dependence on fossil fuel for its power segment makes it a prime possibility for CCS reception. This issue leads to gradual increment of CO2 emission. It is evident from this evaluation that CCS can possibly assume a vital part in Malaysia's environmental change moderation methodology gave that key criteria are fulfilled. With the reason to pick up considerations from all gatherings into the earnestness of an Earth-wide temperature boost issue in Southeast Asia, assume that more efficient measures can be taken to effectively accomplish CO2 diminishment target. (paper)

  3. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  4. On lunisolar calendars and intercalation schemes in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislén, Lars

    2018-04-01

    This is a survey of different calendar intercalation schemes, mainly in Southeast Asia. The Thai and Burmese Calendars, superficially very similar, are shown to have quite different and interesting intercalation schemes. We also investigate similarities between the original Burmese Calendar and the Romakasiddhânta from India.

  5. China's Approach to International Development: A Study of Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Renwick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China is establishing itself as a new international aid donor. This study explains China's emerging approach to international development assistance. The paper addresses the question of how far China's understanding of "development" is an appropriate basis for genuinely "win-win" relationships? The paper explores this question by examining China's relationship with Southeast Asia. China is re-emphasising its commitment and partnership credentials with neighbouring states, some of whom have many people living in poverty and as countries are in need of development assistance. The paper identifies key facets of China's approach to international development, examines economic, political and strategic factors underpinning China's approach in Southeast Asia. Adopting a Human Security perspective, it assesses China's development contribution with reference to Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar and highlights popular opposition. The study finds that Chinese trade and investment are making a significant contribution to the region's economic growth. However, the analysis identifies two problems in China's approach, an over-reliance on the level of state-to-state relations and too narrow a domain of engagement centred upon economic cooperation. China needs to incorporate a societal engagement strategy highlighting transparency and accountability of Chinese corporate behaviour. It also needs to re-balance its approach by emphasising human capital capability and capacity-building across the non-economic social and cultural domains. China's approach to international development is a rapid learning process and is emerging, but still has further to go.

  6. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B

    2006-12-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65,000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II amplified Aedes aegypti populations and the spread of dengue viruses. In the Americas, efforts to eradicate A. aegypti in the 1940s and 1950s contained dengue epidemics mainly to the Caribbean Basin. Cuba escaped infections with the American genotype dengue-2 and an Asian dengue-3 endemic in the 1960s and 1970s. Successive infections with dengue-1 and an Asian genotype dengue-2 resulted in the 1981 DHF epidemic. When this dengue-2 virus was introduced in other Caribbean countries, it encountered populations highly immune to the American genotype dengue-2. During the 1980s and 1990s, rapidly expanding populations of A. aegypti in Brazil permitted successive epidemics of dengue-1, -2, and -3. These exposures, however, resulted mainly in DF, with surprisingly few cases of DHF. The absence of high rates of severe dengue disease in Brazil, as elsewhere in the Americas, may be partly explained by the widespread prevalence of human dengue resistance genes. Understanding the nature and distribution of these genes holds promise for containing severe dengue. Future research on dengue infections should emphasize population-based designs.

  7. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B. Halstead

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF cases, principally in adults, and only 65 000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II amplified Aedes aegypti populations and the spread of dengue viruses. In the Americas, efforts to eradicate A. aegypti in the 1940s and 1950s contained dengue epidemics mainly to the Caribbean Basin. Cuba escaped infections with the American genotype dengue-2 and an Asian dengue-3 endemic in the 1960s and 1970s. Successive infections with dengue-1 and an Asian genotype dengue-2 resulted in the 1981 DHF epidemic. When this dengue-2 virus was introduced in other Caribbean countries, it encountered populations highly immune to the American genotype dengue-2. During the 1980s and 1990s, rapidly expanding populations of A. aegypti in Brazil permitted successive epidemics of dengue-1, -2, and -3. These exposures, however, resulted mainly in DF, with surprisingly few cases of DHF. The absence of high rates of severe dengue disease in Brazil, as elsewhere in the Americas, may be partly explained by the widespread prevalence of human dengue resistance genes. Understanding the nature and distribution of these genes holds promise for containing severe dengue. Future research on dengue infections should emphasize population-based designs.

  8. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  9. Identification and analysis of uncertainty in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keur, van der Peter; Bers, van Caroline; Henriksen, Hans Jørgen; Nibanupudi, Hari Krishna; Yadav, Shobha; Wijaya, Rina; Subiyono, Andreas; Mukerjee, Nandan; Hausmann, Hans Jakob; Hare, Matt; Scheltinga, van Catharien Terwisscha; Pearn, Gregory; Jaspers, Fons

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the mainstreaming of uncertainty in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) using as a case South and Southeast Asia, a region highly vulnerable to a wide range of natural disasters. Improvements in the implementation of DRR and CCA at the community

  10. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-12-01

    To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4-5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country's Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations.

  11. Establishing a foot-and-mouth disease laboratory network in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleeson, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division has established an effective laboratory network in Southeast Asia to support the diagnostic requirements of the Southeast Asian Foot-and-mouth disease control campaign (SEAFMD). All laboratories have a capability to accurately detect and type foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in clinical specimens and to conduct the screening test for detection of serum antibodies against the endemic sero-types of the virus. (author)

  12. Financial Crisis and Economic Restructuring in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yul Kwon

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The hidden inner structural problem with the rapid growth of economy was exposed after the financial crisis and South-East Asia is facing serious economic crisis. Currently, the core of the financial crisis is the low function of financial system, so to make the financial department normal by rebuilding the untrue financial system is the problem we are facing. If our financial sector delay the structural adjustment and continue to be competitive in credit, the insolvent debenture will soar. Enterprise and financial institute closed one after another, causing economic collapse and the vicious circle. Accordingly, in order to overcome the current South-East Asia financial crisis, countries there put their focus on the rebuilding of financial system and under the financial system of IMF (International Monetary Foundation, they are doing economic adjustment in large-scale. This thesis studied the nature and features of the Asian financial crisis, and analyzed the main direction and feature of financial policy under IMF. Especially it analyzed the current situation in different countries for this adjustment, and researched the result of the economical reform after this financial crisis.

  13. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ? El dengue en las Américas y el sudeste asiático: ¿son diferentes?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott B. Halstead

    2006-01-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65 000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II ampli...

  14. Risk of potentially rabid animal exposure among foreign travelers in Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharapong Piyaphanee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Each year millions of travelers visit Southeast Asia where rabies is still prevalent. This study aimed to assess the risk of rabies exposure, i.e., by being bitten or licked by an animal, among travelers in Southeast Asia. The secondary objective was to assess their attitudes and practices related to rabies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Foreign travelers departing to the destination outside Southeast Asia were invited to fill out the study questionnaire in the departure hall of Bangkok International Airport. They were asked about their demographic profile, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparations, their possible exposure and their practices related to rabies during this trip. From June 2010 to February 2011, 7,681 completed questionnaires were collected. Sixty-two percent of the travelers were male, and the median age was 32 years. 34.0% of the participants were from Western/Central Europe, while 32.1% were from East Asia. Up to 59.3% had sought health information before this trip. Travel clinics were the source of information for 23.6% of travelers. Overall, only 11.6% of the participants had completed their rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis, and 15.3% had received only 1-2 shots, while 73.1% had not been vaccinated at all. In this study, the risk of being bitten was 1.11 per 100 travelers per month and the risk of being licked was 3.12 per 100 travelers per month. Among those who were bitten, only 37.1% went to the hospital to get post exposure treatment. Travelers with East Asian nationalities and longer duration of stay were significantly related to higher risk of animal exposure. Reason for travel was not related to the risk of animal exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Travelers were at risk of being exposed to potentially rabid animals while traveling in Southeast Asia. Many were inadequately informed and unprepared for this life-threatening risk. Rabies prevention advice should be included in every pre-travel visit.

  15. The Asia-Pacific region: non-proliferation and other disarmament issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years, the United States and the former Soviet Union began to adjust their force structures in Asia-Pacific region. In this respect, a large range of issues have been raised in discussions on the non-proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Apart from the issues and trends related to proliferation, military expenditure, arms transfer and other disarmament matters, the specific situations in the respective subregions of South-East Asia, South Asia and North-East Asia were discussed. Comprehensive and verified commitments not to possess any such weapons is stressed as the main goal of the meeting. It is vitally important that opportunities that were opened should be seized to prevent the spread of nuclear, chemical, biological as well as highly destabilizing conventional weapons

  16. The Switch From Trivalent to Bivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Sunil; Hasman, Andreas; Eltayeb, Abu Obeida; James Noble, Douglas; Thapa, Arun

    2017-07-01

    This analysis describes an innovative and successful approach to risk identification and mitigation in relation to the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 11 countries of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) in April 2016.The strong commitment of governments and immunization professionals to polio eradication and an exemplary partnership between the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and other partners and stakeholders in the region and globally were significant contributors to the success of the OPV switch in the SEAR. Robust national switch plans were developed and country-specific innovations were planned and implemented by the country teams. Close monitoring and tracking of the activities and milestones through dashboards and review meetings were undertaken at the regional level to ensure that implementation time lines were met, barriers identified, and solutions for overcoming challenges were discussed and implemented.The SEAR was the first WHO Region globally to complete the switch and declare the successful withdrawal of trivalent OPV from all countries on 17 May 2016.A number of activities implemented during the switch process are likely to contribute positively to existing immunization practices and to similar initiatives in the future. These activities include better vaccine supply chain management, improved mechanisms for disposal of vaccination-related waste materials, and a closer collaboration with drug regulators, vaccine manufacturers, and the private sector for immunization-related initiatives. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which

  18. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  19. United Nations regional disarmament workshop for Asia and the Pacific. Disarmament fellowship, training and advisory services programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the Workshop have been to promote a better understanding and awareness of the current disarmament negotiations and issues, particularly those of common concern to the region, and to facilitate conflict resolution, strengthen disarmament efforts and enhance regional security. 19 papers were presented. The Workshop (a) considered the concepts of peace and security in the Asia-Pacific context; (b) assessed the global efforts to achieve a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons and to strengthen the non-proliferation regimes of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction; (c) reviewed regional disarmament efforts in general and examined in detail efforts and proposals from the South Asian, South-East Asian and Pacific perspectives; and (d) discussed, through various case studies, conflict resolution in the Asia-Pacific region. The discussions which followed the presentations could be grouped under the following headings: Perception of the role to be played by the major Powers in Asia and the Pacific; approach to peace and security; NPT; PTBT; the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) and the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South-East Asia (SEANWFZ)

  20. Adapting to Climate Change in Peri-Urban Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The rapid growth of peri-urban areas in Southeast Asia is characterized by a lack of basic services, unplanned built environments, and relatively weak governments. Residents of these areas are particularly vulnerable to extreme climate events, such as hurricanes, drought, flooding, and desertification. This research will ...

  1. First archaeointensity results from the historical period of Cambodia, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, J. T.; Cai, S.; Tauxe, L.; Hendrickson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding variations of the geomagnetic field has applications regarding the behavior of the Earth's outer core, dating of archeological artifacts, and the phenomenon that shields life from solar radiation. However, archaeointensity studies of the Holocene have been mostly limited to localities in Europe and the Middle East; archaeomagnetic surveys from Southeast Asia are almost non-existent. This investigation aims to establish a secular variation curve of geomagnetic field intensity for Cambodia. We sampled ancient iron smelting mounds from the Khmer Empire, located in present day Cambodia, and are analyzing them for paleointensity. The specimens are thought to be from the historical period, likely between 1000-1500 CE. Our samples, which include furnace fragments, iron slag, and ceramic tuyères, contain magnetic minerals that record the paleointensity of Earth's magnetic field at the time it was fired. Using the IZZI paleointensity method (Yu et al., 2004), which gradually replaces the sample's natural remanent magnetization with a thermal remanent magnetization obtained in a known lab field, we can determine the geomagnetic intensities preserved in these specimens. Based on our preliminary experiments, the tuyères, and perhaps also the fresh slag, will in all likelihood yield the most ideal results. Following additional measurements from these best-fit samples, we will determine the paleointensities of Cambodia for the time period from which the artifacts originated. This will commence the establishment of regional geomagnetic reference curves in Southeast Asia and also improve the global model.

  2. Policies, Political-Economy, and Swidden in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jefferson; Fujita, Yayoi; Ngidang, Dimbab; Peluso, Nancy; Potter, Lesley; Sakuntaladewi, Niken; Sturgeon, Janet; Thomas, David

    2009-06-01

    For centuries swidden was an important farming practice found across the girth of Southeast Asia. Today, however, these systems are changing and sometimes disappearing at a pace never before experienced. In order to explain the demise or transitioning of swidden we need to understand the rapid and massive changes that have and are occurring in the political and economic environment in which these farmers operate. Swidden farming has always been characterized by change, but since the onset of modern independent nation states, governments and markets in Southeast Asia have transformed the terms of swiddeners' everyday lives to a degree that is significantly different from that ever experienced before. In this paper we identified six factors that have contributed to the demise or transformation of swidden systems, and support these arguments with examples from China (Xishuangbanna), Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. These trends include classifying swiddeners as ethnic minorities within nation-states, dividing the landscape into forest and permanent agriculture, expansion of forest departments and the rise of conservation, resettlement, privatization and commoditization of land and land-based production, and expansion of market infrastructure and the promotion of industrial agriculture. In addition we note a growing trend toward a transition from rural to urban livelihoods and expanding urban-labor markets.

  3. Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: A meta-analysis and value transfer application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brander, Luke; J. Wagtendonk, Alfred; S. Hussain, Salman; McVittie, Alistair; Verburg, Peter H.; de Groot, Rudolf S.; van der Ploeg, Sander

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves. It presents a metaanalysis of the economic valuation literature and applies the estimated value function to assess the value of mangroves in Southeast Asia. We construct a database containing 130 value estimates, largely for mangroves in Southeast Asia. Values are standardised to US$ per hectare per year in 2007 prices. The mean and median values are found to be 4185 and 239 US$/ha/year respectively. The values of mang...

  4. Building Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The effects of climate change on Southeast Asia are well documented. Temperature increases have the potential to reduce water availability, affecting crop yields and food security. Coastal cities are vulnerable to sea-level rise and flooding during periods of intense rainfall. Coastal ecosystems, plains and deltas are affected ...

  5. Zika virus infection and its emerging trends in Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin; Haszianaliza Haslan; Norshalizah Mamikutty; Nurul Hannim Zaidun; Mohamad Fairuz Azmi; Mohamad Mu'izuddin Senin; Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad; Zar Chi Thent

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. Previously, this rare virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia until its emergence in Brazil, South America in 2015, where it rapidly spread throughout the world. Recently, a high number of cases were reported in Singapore and other Southeast Asia countries. A combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak although it is highly likely that the changes in the climate and high frequency of travelling contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus mainly to the tropical climate countries such as the Southeast Asia. The Zika virus is known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya and transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. However, neurological complications such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, and congenital anomalies, including microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers, raised a serious concern. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine available for Zika virus infection. Therefore, international public health response is primarily focused on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women, and on providing up-to-date recommendations to reduce the risk of non-vector transmission of Zika virus.

  6. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Development of East Asia's petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia's petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry

  7. Perspective: The social science of sustainable bioenergy production in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The social sciences have made considerable inroads into exploring the politics of environment, land and resources throughout Southeast Asia, yet the social and political character of bioenergy development remains little understood. Current assumptions that bioenergy provides benefits to rural

  8. Large-scale retreat and advance of shallow seas in Southeast Asia driven by mantle flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Flament, Nicolas; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Gurnis, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The Indonesian islands and surrounding region represent one of the most submerged, low-lying continental areas on Earth. Almost half of this region, known as Sundaland, is presently inundated by a shallow sea. The role of mantle convection in driving long-wavelength topography and vertical motion of the lithosphere in this region has largely been ignored when interpreting regional stratigraphic sections, despite a consensus that Southeast Asia presently situated on a "dynamic topography low" resulting from long-term post-Pangea subduction. However, dynamic topography is typically described as a temporally and spatially transient process, implying that Sundaland may have experienced significant vertical motions in the geological past, and thus must be considered when interpreting relative sea level changes and the paleogeographic indicators of advancing and retreating shallow seas. Although the present-day low regional elevation has been attributed to the massive volume of oceanic slabs sinking in the mantle beneath Southeast Asia, a Late Cretaceous to Eocene regional unconformity indicates that shallow seas retreated following regional flooding during the mid-Cretaceous sea level highstand. During the Eocene, less than one fifth of Sundaland was submerged, despite global sea level being ~200 m higher than at present. The regional nature of the switch from marine to terrestrial environments, that is out-of-sync with eustatic sea levels, suggests that broad mantle-driven dynamic uplift may have led to the emergence of Sundaland in the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. We use numerical forward modelling of plate tectonics and mantle convection, and compare the predicted trends of dynamic topography with evidence from regional paleogeography and eustasy to determine the extent to which mantle-driven vertical motions of the lithosphere have influenced regional basin histories in Southeast Asia. A Late Cretaceous collision of Gondwana-derived terranes with Sundaland choked

  9. Southeast Asia - air pollution control and coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soud, H.N.

    1997-12-01

    Coal-fired power generation in Southeast Asia continues to grow in order to satisfy the increasing demand for electricity throughout the region. Emissions standards have been adopted in some Southeast Asian countries. Particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions are the main air pollutants for which standards have been introduced. Coal cleaning, and upgrading are not used much currently. Blending is used in Thailand and is being investigated in Indonesia. Pulverised coal combustion continues to dominate the coal-fired generating capacity. FBC is used at smaller scale and in a few cases. PFBC and IGCC are considered only as options for the future. Control priority is given to particulate matter and ESPs are installed on most (existing and new) coal-fired plants. Although FGD has been installed at Mae Moh in Thailand and is planned for Paiton in Indonesia and Sual in the Philippines, the technology is still considered expensive and its application is likely to remain limited. Boiler optimisation is the main NO{sub x} abatement method currently used. It is expected that low NO{sub x} burners will be used in the future especially in new plant. 166 refs., 1 fig., 40 tabs.

  10. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gulagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63.5 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An integrated scenario was simulated to show the benefit of integrating additional demand of industrial gas and desalinated water which provided the system the required flexibility and increased the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. This was reflected in the decrease of system cost by 9.5% and the total electricity generation by 5.1%. According to the results, grid integration on a larger scale decreases the total system cost and levelized cost of electricity by reducing the need for storage technologies due to seasonal variations in weather and demand profiles. The intermittency of renewable technologies can be effectively stabilized to satisfy hourly demand at a low cost level. A 100% renewable energy based system could be a reality economically and technically in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than the nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS alternatives.

  11. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. OV-1/AC-119 Hunter-Killer Team

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sexton, Richard R; Hodgson, William M

    1972-01-01

    Hunter-Killer operations were but a logical extension of the resourceful thinking behind the development of gunships as a solution to some of the tactical problems of the unique war in Southeast Asia...

  12. Comparison of Gross Primary Productivity Derived from GIMMS NDVI3g, GIMMS, and MODIS in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbang Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gross primary production (GPP plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available, improved, third generation Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS group provides a long temporal dataset, from July 1981 to December 2011, for terrestrial carbon cycle and climate response research. However, GIMMS NDVI3g-based GPP estimates are not yet available. We applied the GLOPEM-CEVSA model, which integrates an ecosystem process model and a production efficiency model, to estimate GPP in Southeast Asia based on three independent results of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR from GIMMS NDVI3g (GPPNDVI3g, GIMMS NDVI1g (GPPNDVI1g, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MOD15A2 FPAR product (GPPMOD15. The GPP results were validated using ground data from eddy flux towers located in different forest biomes, and comparisons were made among the three GPPs as well as the MOD17A2 GPP products (GPPMOD17. Based on validation with flux tower derived GPP estimates the results show that GPPNDVI3g is more accurate than GPPNDVI1g and is comparable in accuracy with GPPMOD15. In addition, GPPNDVI3g and GPPMOD15 have good spatial-temporal consistency. Our results indicate that GIMMS NDVI3g is an effective dataset for regional GPP simulation in Southeast Asia, capable of accurately tracking the variation and trends in long-term terrestrial ecosystem GPP dynamics.

  13. Characterizing Aerosols over Southeast Asia using the AERONET Data Synergy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David M.; Holben, Brent N.; Eck, Thomas F.; Slutsker, Ilya; Slutsker, Ilya; Welton, Ellsworth, J.; Chin, Mian; Kucsera, Thomas; Schmaltz, Jeffery E.; Diehl, Thomas; hide

    2007-01-01

    Biomass burning, urban pollution and dust aerosols have significant impacts on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere over Asia. In order to better quanti@ these aerosol characteristics, the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) has established over 200 sites worldwide with an emphasis in recent years on the Asian continent - specifically Southeast Asia. A total of approximately 15 AERONET sun photometer instruments have been deployed to China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Sun photometer spectral aerosol optical depth measurements as well as microphysical and optical aerosol retrievals over Southeast Asia will be analyzed and discussed with supporting ground-based instrument, satellite, and model data sets, which are freely available via the AERONET Data Synergy tool at the AERONET web site (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). This web-based data tool provides access to groundbased (AERONET and MPLNET), satellite (MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, and OMI) and model (GOCART and back trajectory analyses) databases via one web portal. Future development of the AERONET Data Synergy Tool will include the expansion of current data sets as well as the implementation of other Earth Science data sets pertinent to advancing aerosol research.

  14. A regional chemical transport modeling to identify the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg/m3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg/m3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. An impact pattern can be found in April, while the impact becomes slightly broader and goes up to Yangtze River Delta. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward tendency from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active biomass burning year to obtain an upper limit and climate effects.

  15. The global foot-and-mouth disease situation during 1998 and its relevance to control and eradication efforts in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent successes in the control of FMD in Europe, South America and southern Africa and highlights the lessons to be learnt from those experiences, which could be applied to Southeast Asia to promote the control and eradication of the disease in that region. (author)

  16. The global foot-and-mouth disease situation during 1998 and its relevance to control and eradication efforts in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, A I [Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    This paper reviews the recent successes in the control of FMD in Europe, South America and southern Africa and highlights the lessons to be learnt from those experiences, which could be applied to Southeast Asia to promote the control and eradication of the disease in that region. (author)

  17. From Jollibee to BeeBee: "lifestyle" and chronic illness in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, Lenore; Naemiratch, Bhensri

    2010-07-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia, the number of people living with chronic conditions and degenerative disease has increased proportionately and absolutely. Public health interventions and effective medical treatment and surgeries have increased life expectancy. Concurrently, social and economic conditions have led to the rapid escalation of lifelong illnesses, characterized as "lifestyle" conditions. Drawing on ethnographic and survey research conducted in Southeast Asia, the authors illustrate the multiple factors contributing to people's health. Changes in food production; the organization, nature, and conditions of work; living conditions; and other factors affecting contemporary living increase vulnerability to noncommunicable diseases. These factors are largely beyond the control of most people. Efforts to reduce chronic illnesses predominantly focus on individual interventions, overlooking the lack of individual capacity to address the structural and institutional factors that compromise people's health.

  18. On the Role of Food Habits in the Context of the Identity and Cultural Heritage of South and Southeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泽维尔

    2014-01-01

    Located south of China and extending from Pakistan to the Philippines,South and Southeast Asia is a vast region.The nations and ethnic groups of Southern and South Eastern Asia have a rich and varied cultural heritage.Food habits are an inseparable part of this heritage and certain ways concerning food and its preparation,as well as the ceremonies or rituals surrounding it,give whole nations and groups an identity that can be as important as dress or 1anguage.

  19. Climate change and postglacial human dispersals in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro; Trejaut, Jean Alain; Loo, Jun-Hun; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Lee, Chien-Liang; Chen, Yao-Ming; Hudjashov, Georgi; Forster, Peter; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B

    2008-06-01

    Modern humans have been living in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for at least 50,000 years. Largely because of the influence of linguistic studies, however, which have a shallow time depth, the attention of archaeologists and geneticists has usually been focused on the last 6,000 years--in particular, on a proposed Neolithic dispersal from China and Taiwan. Here we use complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequencing to spotlight some earlier processes that clearly had a major role in the demographic history of the region but have hitherto been unrecognized. We show that haplogroup E, an important component of mtDNA diversity in the region, evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years and expanded dramatically throughout ISEA around the beginning of the Holocene, at the time when the ancient continent of Sundaland was being broken up into the present-day archipelago by rising sea levels. It reached Taiwan and Near Oceania more recently, within the last approximately 8,000 years. This suggests that global warming and sea-level rises at the end of the Ice Age, 15,000-7,000 years ago, were the main forces shaping modern human diversity in the region.

  20. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  1. Observed regional distribution of sulfur dioxide in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, G.R.; Ferm, M.; Adikary, S.; Ahmad, J.; Mohan, M.; Hong, M.S.; Chen, L.; Fook, L.; Liu, C.M.; Soedomo, M.; Tran, G.; Suksomsank, K.; Zhao, D.; Arndt, R.; Chen, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Increased use of coal for energy in Asia has led to increased SO 2 emissions. SO 2 concentrations have been measured for one year at forty-five locations throughout Asia using passive samplers. Duplicate samples were exposed at each site for one month intervals. The sites were selected to provide background information on the distribution of SO 2 over wide geographical regions, with emphasis on the regional characteristics around areas estimated to be sensitive to sulfur deposition. The annual mean values ranged from less than 0.3 μg/m 3 at Tana Rata, located at 1545 m on the Malaysia Peninsula, Lawa Mandau (Borneo), Malaysia, and Dhankuta, Nepal, to values greater than 20 μg/m 3 at Luchongguan (Guiyang) China, Babar Mahal, Nepal, and Hanoi, Vietnam. In general high concentrations were measured throughout China, with the highest concentrations in the heavy industrial areas in Guiyang. The concentrations in east Asia around the Korea peninsula were ∼ 5 μg/m 3 . The concentrations in the southeast Asia tropics were low, with no station in Malaysia and Indonesia having average concentrations exceeding 1.7 μg/m 3 . The observed SO 2 concentrations were found to display a distinct seasonal cycle which is strongly influenced by the seasonality of winds and precipitation patterns. 3 refs., 3 figs

  2. Spatial and Temporal Responses of Soil Erosion to Climate Change Impacts in a Transnational Watershed in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Quy Giang; Le Thi Giang; Kosuke Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely predicted that Southeast Asia is among the regions facing the most severe climate change impacts. Despite this forecast, little research has been published on the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion in this region. This study focused on the impact of climate change on spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in the Laos–Vietnam transnational Upper Ca River Watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) coupled with downscaled global climate models...

  3. Securing Sub-Saharan Africa’s Maritime Environment: Lessons Learned from the Caribbean and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Worst of Times: Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific eds. Joshua Ho and Catherine Zara Raymond (Singapore: Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies...Security Outlook for Southeast Asia,” in The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific eds. Joshua Ho and Catherine Zara

  4. Religion in Public Spaces in Contemporary Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Afrianty, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Religion is among the most overlooked factors in the development of nation-states in Southeast Asia. Some reasons for this include a bias emphasizing religious ideology in the study of anti-colonial organizations that dates to the origins of the politics of state formation; the influence of many ideas on the patterns of modern elite formations that stress the need for religion to shape national constitutions, and the fact that religion is difficult to neglect in shaping the behavior of...

  5. Financial Crisis and Economic Restructuring in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yul Kwon

    1998-01-01

    The hidden inner structural problem with the rapid growth of economy was exposed after the financial crisis and South-East Asia is facing serious economic crisis. Currently, the core of the financial crisis is the low function of financial system, so to make the financial department normal by rebuilding the untrue financial system is the problem we are facing. If our financial sector delay the structural adjustment and continue to be competitive in credit, the insolvent debenture will soar. E...

  6. Geographies of knowing, geographies of ignorance: jumping scale in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, W.

    2002-01-01

    'Area studies' use a geographical metaphor to visualise and naturalise particular social spaces as well as a particular scale of analysis. They produce specific geographies of knowing but also create geographies of ignorance. Taking Southeast Asia as an example, in this paper I explore how areas are

  7. Women and AIDS in south and South-East Asia: the challenge and the response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboi, N

    1996-01-01

    South and South-East Asia are at the centre of the most aggressive advances of the AIDS epidemic today. The challenge this presents to the region is clear. While reported absolute numbers still lag behind the African region (11,160,900 in Africa; 3,081,235 in Asia) knowledgeable observers agree that the place of infection and potential devastation in this region exceed what we have seen in Africa. Those concerned with the welfare of the people of Asia, therefore, must make serious efforts to break the chain of HIV transmission as quickly and effectively as possible and identify and care for the infected. Women are entitled to protection by rights the same as men. However, for anatomical reasons, women are more vulnerable than men to infection by HIV. In addition, throughout the Asian region, women's "natural" vulnerability is vastly magnified by poverty and generally low levels of education and personal autonomy which make it difficult for them to gain access to information and appropriate services. Because of women's multiple roles in the epidemic-potential "infectee", care-giver, transmitter of infection-if we are to be successful in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS we must give particular attention to reaching, working with, and serving women. Meeting this challenge requires involvement of men as well as women, individuals and institutions, governments and NGOs, in four broad areas of activity: (i) HIV/AIDS education and information; (ii) basic education and economic activity to reduce gender inequities; (iii) improvements in policy and social environments; and (iv) provision of health and other services. Lack of commitment, skill, or persistence in meeting the challenge will cost lives across Asia.

  8. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-02

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria

  9. Energy policy and cooperation in Southeast Asia: The history, challenges, and implications of the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the proposed multibillion dollar Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) network in Southeast Asia, focusing on the interests that have promoted the TAGP and why. Based on extensive field research, textual analysis of government reports, and more than 100 research interviews at government institutions, multilateral development banks, universities, consulting firms, energy companies, and nongovernmental organizations, this article assesses the challenges facing the TAGP in terms of promotion, implementation, and operation. It explores the genesis of the TAGP project and the drivers pushing Southeast Asian investment in natural gas, with a special emphasis on the development needs of the region. It also investigates the numerous technical, economic, legal, political, social, and environmental impediments to the TAGP project. The article concludes that the rhetoric of regional energy cooperation touted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) does not match its actual practice, and that in many cases discussions of regionalism and energy security are intended to obscure opportunistic thinking within individual countries.

  10. Energy policy and cooperation in Southeast Asia. The history, challenges, and implications of the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This article explores the proposed multibillion dollar Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) network in Southeast Asia, focusing on the interests that have promoted the TAGP and why. Based on extensive field research, textual analysis of government reports, and more than 100 research interviews at government institutions, multilateral development banks, universities, consulting firms, energy companies, and nongovernmental organizations, this article assesses the challenges facing the TAGP in terms of promotion, implementation, and operation. It explores the genesis of the TAGP project and the drivers pushing Southeast Asian investment in natural gas, with a special emphasis on the development needs of the region. It also investigates the numerous technical, economic, legal, political, social, and environmental impediments to the TAGP project. The article concludes that the rhetoric of regional energy cooperation touted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) does not match its actual practice, and that in many cases discussions of regionalism and energy security are intended to obscure opportunistic thinking within individual countries. (author)

  11. Energy policy and cooperation in Southeast Asia: The history, challenges, and implications of the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the proposed multibillion dollar Trans-ASEAN Gas Pipeline (TAGP) network in Southeast Asia, focusing on the interests that have promoted the TAGP and why. Based on extensive field research, textual analysis of government reports, and more than 100 research interviews at government institutions, multilateral development banks, universities, consulting firms, energy companies, and nongovernmental organizations, this article assesses the challenges facing the TAGP in terms of promotion, implementation, and operation. It explores the genesis of the TAGP project and the drivers pushing Southeast Asian investment in natural gas, with a special emphasis on the development needs of the region. It also investigates the numerous technical, economic, legal, political, social, and environmental impediments to the TAGP project. The article concludes that the rhetoric of regional energy cooperation touted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) does not match its actual practice, and that in many cases discussions of regionalism and energy security are intended to obscure opportunistic thinking within individual countries.

  12. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia

  13. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  14. Civil Society and Distributional Conflicts in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2010-01-01

    focuses on the competing theoretical definitions and assumptions about civil society, democratization and social change; the second part explores the attempts by civil society actors to impact conflicts over resources and distribution of welfare in Southeast Asia; the third section focuses...... on the conflictual relationship between civil society organizations (CSOs) and the state and various types of social and labour market regulations, laws and contractual relationships, and finally the need for progressive social reform is emphasized as one important type of social resistance against the downsizing...

  15. Millennium Development Goal 1: poverty, hunger and decent work in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article considers three questions: 1) what progress has been made in achieving MDG1 targets?; 2) what challenges remain?; and 3) what more could and should be done? To examine these questions, the article assesses the progress of Southeast Asia in seeking to achieve MDG1. It argues that the region is 'on track' to achieve MDG 1 targets, although significant challenges such as inequality remain. Economic growth, significant structural change and incorporation into global value chains have contributed to MDG progress. However, this is a double-edged sword as exposure to global economic turbulence can increase. The longer-term reduction of poverty, inequality and social exclusion is a question of empowerment of local producers within value chains-a shift in economic power and control through pro-poor strategies strong enough to effect substantive structural change. The article outlines key concepts; identifies the main characteristics of Southeast Asian poverty; outlines what more needs to be done; and concludes by reprising the article's findings and weighing the prospects for 2010-15 and beyond.

  16. Epidemiological considerations in the surveillance and control of FMD in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanson, R.L.; Morris, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    If control and ultimately eradication of FMD is going to be achieved in Southeast Asia, regional co-operation between the various countries that share common borders will be required. Control programmes need to be flexible so that they can target the issues that are likely to give the greatest improvements in control with the available resources. In order to design these dynamic control programmes, communications must be strengthened, epidemiologically sound information needs to be routinely collected and analyses must be conducted. Control effectiveness should be monitored so that weaknesses in present programmes can be identified. Short-term and long-term strategies must be developed concurrently so that control programmes can readily proceed from one stage to the next. (author)

  17. Implementation of industrial waste heat to power in Southeast Asia: an outlook from the perspective of market potentials, opportunities and success catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuan; Romagnoli, Alessandro; Kim, Je Young; Azli, Anis Athirah Mohd; Rajoo, Srithar; Lindsay, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    As an important way to increase industrial energy efficiency, Waste Heat to Power (WHP) technologies have been gaining popularity in recent years. In order to appraise the market potential of WHP technologies in Southeast Asia, a techno-economic assessment for WHP technologies is conducted in this paper. The technical and economic market potential of WHP in Southeast Asia is estimated to be 1788 MW and 1188 MW respectively. The main market drivers and barriers for WHP market expansion in Southeast Asia are also analyzed. Given the fact that WHP is a far cheaper power generation technology as compared with traditional and renewable power generation, the WHP market is expected to increase fast in the coming years. Mounting electricity price from grid, government emissions regulations and subsidies, the integration of WHP products with original equipment manufacturer, capital cost reduction induced by technology development are identified as the key drivers for the market growth. The above arguments are proofed through the analysis of a power plant WHP project in Southeast Asia. - Highlights: • The industrial waste heat resources in Southeast Asia are assessed. • The Levelised Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of waste heat to power technologies are calculated. • The market potential of waste heat to power technologies in Southeast Asia is estimated. • The drivers and barriers for waste heat to power market growth are identified. • Policy recommendations to support waste heat to power technologies are made.

  18. The Indian Ocean Experiment : Widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, PJ; Ramanathan, A.; Andreae, MO; Brenninkmeijer, CAM; Campos, T; Cass, GR; Dickerson, RR; Fischer, H; de Gouw, JA; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, ATJ; Lal, S; Lawrence, MG; Lobert, JM; Mayol-Bracero, OL; Mitra, AP; Novakov, T; Oltmans, SJ; Prather, KA; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, HA; Sikka, D; Williams, J

    2001-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure Long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution Levels were observed over

  19. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Dong

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6 km(2 (GlobCover to 2.69×10(6 km(2 (MCD12Q1 in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%. The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ implementation, and

  20. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  1. Introduction: revisiting the "negrito" hypothesis: a transdisciplinary approach to human prehistory in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endicott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The "negrito" hypothesis predicts that a shared phenotype among various contemporary groups of hunter-gatherers in Southeast Asia--dark skin, short stature, tight curly hair--is due to common descent from a region-wide, pre-Neolithic substrate of humanity. The alternative is that their distinctive phenotype results from convergent evolution. The core issues of the negrito hypothesis are today more relevant than ever to studies of human evolution, including the out-of-Africa migration, admixture with Denisovans, and the effects of environment and ecology on life-history traits. Understanding the current distribution of the negrito phenotype dictates a wide-ranging remit for study, including the articulation of the relationship between foragers and farmers in the present, the development of settled agriculture in the mid-Holocene, and terminal Pleistocene population expansions. The consensus reached by the contributors to this special double issue of Human Biology is that there is not yet conclusive evidence either for or against the negrito hypothesis. Nevertheless, the process of revisiting the problem will benefit the knowledge of the human prehistory of Southeast Asia. Whether the term negrito accurately reflects the all-encompassing nature of the resulting inquiry is in itself questionable, but the publication of this double issue is testament to the enduring ability of this hypothesis to unite disparate academic disciplines in a common purpose. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  2. Nuclear-weapon-free zones in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    The Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty decided on the indefinite extension of the Treaty, and adopted two documents 'principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament' and 'Strengthening the Review Process for the Treaty'. In the former document, the Conference encourages the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones, on the conviction that such zones will enhance global and regional peace and security. Besides the Rarotonga Treaty, ASEAN countries plan to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the South-East Asia

  3. Use of soft law to address HIV/AIDS in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David; Phalla, Tia; Nguyen, Thuan; Im, Sarun

    2007-12-01

    Non-binding agreements, or "soft law," have played a role in influencing government policy and reducing HIV vulnerability among construction workers in the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia. In this article, David Patterson et al state that soft law sometimes offers advantages over treaty law, but that challenges remain in the implementation of soft law.

  4. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  5. Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, A.; Page, S.; Canadell, J.G.; Silvius, M.; Kwadijk, J.; Wösten, H.; Jauhiainen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia store at least 42 000 Million metric tonnes (Mt) of soil carbon. Human activity and climate change threatens the stability of this large pool, which has been decreasing rapidly over the last few decades owing to deforestation, drainage and fire. In this

  6. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. FAC Operations in Close Air Support Role in SVN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overton, James B

    1969-01-01

    This report addresses the role of the Forward Air Controller (FAC) in Southeast Asia. The various categories of FACs are discussed, including the function of the Ground FAC and the duties he performs...

  7. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia I - The Scutellaris Group of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    2 1, 2 p . I THAILAND. Chiang Mai : Huey Keo (4-H-1953, D. C. Thurman Jr.) Id, Id terminalia. 107/s, REMARKS. There are 3 larval and pupal skin...part of Thailand. In Southeast Asia, it is known from only Chiang Mai , Thailand and is recorded here for the first time from this country. BIOLOGY...1923, Bar- raud), 5d, 59, 1.d terminalia; Punjab: Rawalpindi, Murree, W. Kimal (1922, Gill), Id, 19. THAILAND. Chiang Mai : (4-IV-1953, Thurman), 3d

  8. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only approximately 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women.

  9. A comparative assessment of the financial costs and carbon benefits of REDD+ strategies in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Victoria; Laurance, Susan G.; Grech, Alana; McGregor, Andrew; Venter, Oscar

    2016-11-01

    REDD+ holds potential for mitigating emissions from tropical forest loss by providing financial incentives for carbon stored in forests, but its economic viability is under scrutiny. The primary narrative raised in the literature is that REDD+ will be of limited utility for reducing forest carbon loss in Southeast Asia, while the level of finance committed falls short of profits from alternative land-use activities in the region, including large-scale timber and oil palm operations. Here we assess the financial costs and carbon benefits of various REDD+ strategies deployed in the region. We find the cost of reducing emissions ranges from 9 to 75 per tonne of avoided carbon emissions. The strategies focused on reducing forest degradation and promoting forest regrowth are the most cost-effective ways of reducing emissions and used in over 60% of REDD+ projects. By comparing the financial costs and carbon benefits of a broader range of strategies than previously assessed, we highlight the variation between different strategies and draw attention to opportunities where REDD+ can achieve maximum carbon benefits cost-effectively. These findings have broad policy implications for Southeast Asia. Until carbon finance escalates, emissions reductions can be maximized from reforestation, reduced-impact logging and investing in improved management of protected areas. Targeting cost-efficient opportunities for REDD+ is important to improve the efficiency of national REDD+ policy, which in-turn fosters greater financial and political support for the scheme.

  10. Achieving Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in Southeast Asia: A Policy Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahanani WR; MNV

    2002-01-01

    To get a thorough picture on the possible situation of food and the environment in Southeast Asia in 2030 and to identify the areas that need policy intervention, five scenarios on future food production are reviewed and compared. These scenarios include: 1) FAO AT 2015/30 which is taken as the

  11. Proceedings of the international workshop on monitoring forest degradation in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif A. Mortenson; James J. Halperin; Patricia N. Manley; Rich L. Turner

    2013-01-01

    The international workshop on monitoring forest degradation in Southeast Asia provided a forum for discussion of the technical, social and political challenges and successes that have occurred during recent work in sub-national forest degradation monitoring. The 2012 workshop, held in Bangkok, Thailand, followed recent US Forest Service/LEAF (USAID's Lowering...

  12. The Heath government and British defence policy in Southeast Asia at the end of empire (1970-71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Benvenuti

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the rationale behind the Heath government's 1970 decision to negotiate a Five Power Defence agreement with Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Malaysia and to maintain a small British military contingent in Southeast Asia as a part of this new politico-military framework. It argues that while its overriding foreign policy concern was to end Britain's problematic relationship with the European Economic Community and to make membership of this grouping the cornerstone of its foreign policy, the Heath government was careful not to cast Britain's post-imperial future in purely European terms. The successful negotiation of the Five Power Defence Arrangements in 1970-71 was instrumental in achieving this by ensuring that London would maintain close links with key Commonwealth partners in the Asian region. In what was not only an attempt to neutralize potential domestic opposition to Britain's entry into the EEC, but also a lingering reluctance to do away with the rhetoric of Britain as a leading power with extra-European interests, Heath was eager to show that by making a contribution to the stability of Southeast Asia, Britain still had a role to play outside Europe.

  13. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  14. Constraining P-wave velocity variations in the upper mantle beneath Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chang; Hilst, R.D. van der; Toksöz, M. Nafi

    2006-01-01

    We have produced a P-wave model of the upper mantle beneath Southeast (SE) Asia from reprocessed short period International Seismological Centre (ISC) P and pP data, short period P data of the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes (ABCE), and long period PP-P data.We used 3D sensitivity kernels

  15. Woody biomass and bioenergy potentials in Southeast Asia between 1990 and 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Nophea; Knorr, Wolfgang; Foster, David R.; Etoh, Hiroko; Ninomiya, Hiroshi; Chay, Sengtha; Sun, Sengxi; Kim, Sophanarith

    2009-01-01

    Forests in Southeast Asia are important sources of timber and other forest products, of local energy for cooking and heading, and potentially as sources of bioenergy. Many of these forests have experienced deforestation and forest degradation over the last few decades. The potential flow of woody biomass for bioenergy from forests is uncertain and needs to be assessed before policy intervention can be successfully implemented in the context of international negotiations on climate change. Using current data, we developed a forest land use model and projected changes in area of natural forests and forest plantations from 1990 to 2020. We also developed biomass change and harvest models to estimate woody biomass availability in the forests under the current management regime. Due to deforestation and logging (including illegal logging), projected annual woody biomass production in natural forests declined from 815.9 million tons (16.3 EJ) in 1990 to 359.3 million tons (7.2 EJ) in 2020. Woody biomass production in forest plantations was estimated at 16.2 million tons yr -1 (0.3 EJ), but was strongly affected by cutting rotation length. Average annual woody biomass production in all forests in Southeast Asia between 1990 and 2020 was estimated at 563.4 million tons (11.3 EJ) yr -1 declining about 1.5% yr -1 . Without incentives to reduce deforestation and forest degradation, and to promote forest rehabilitation and plantations, woody biomass as well as wood production and carbon stocks will continue to decline, putting sustainable development in the region at risk as the majority of the population depend mostly on forest ecosystem services for daily survival. (author)

  16. Adaptation to Climate Change and Managing Disaster Risk in the Caribbean and South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolcemascolo, G. [Asian Disaster Preparedness Center ADPC, Pathumthani (Thailand); Collymore, J.; Keipi, K. [Inter-American Development Bank IDB, Christ Church (Barbados)

    2004-05-01

    Small island and coastal nations of the world have long been recognized as being among the most likely to be affected by the potential impacts of global climate change. Such nations may be found in both the Caribbean and Asian regions. These regions share other commonalities as well, such as tropical climates and, to some extent, the hazards to which these countries are vulnerable. The inextricable linkage between climate change and disaster management emerges from the potential of the former to result in an increased frequency and severity of hydro-meteorological hazards and the associated increase in risk faced by countries as a whole and by vulnerable communities in particular. Within the Caribbean, the most visible of these impacts has been the increasing vulnerability to severe storms and the increased frequency and intensity of flood events. In Asia, the severity of weather extremes associated with the El Nino phenomenon has been apparent. Recent events have resulted in significant social, economic and environmental losses. But, the more gradual-yet nevertheless potentially as catastrophic-impacts expected from climate change include enhanced coastal and beach erosion; loss of land and property; dislocation of people; reduced resilience of coastal ecosystems and hence reduced viability for fisheries; and the bleaching and destruction of coral reefs. For the island states of both the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, which depend heavily on tourism, agriculture and fisheries for their livelihood, these impacts could be ruinous. For many countries, increased vulnerability to water shortages due to climate change is also a very significant concern. The need for a comprehensive integrated approach to natural hazard risk management that would combine the broader climate change and risk management agendas, as well as the urgency to advance the mainstreaming of disaster management and climate change, resulted in the convening of the Seminar on Climate Change and Severe

  17. Agrarian Transitions, Rural Resistance and Peasant Politics in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Drahmoune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent revival of agrarian studies in the scholarship of Southeast Asia, this paper reviews three recent publications that are concerned with specific aspects of what has been framed as “agrarian transition”, “agrarian change” or “agrarian transformation”. It seeks to identify new perspectives and fresh approaches to the analytical challenges that arise from the multi-faceted and intertwined nature of agrarian change in the region. Further, it considers the implications of these processes – specifically in social, political and economic terms – for the rural population and examines their ways of embracing and resisting these changes. By emphasising the explanatory potential that linking approaches, theories and methodologies of different research traditions and disciplines in an integrative fashion has, it will be argued that – in order to enhance our understanding of people’s responses to rural change – it is essential to recognise their agency and perceptions as interconnected across multiple scales within broader structural conditions.

  18. Five challenges to reconcile agricultural land use and forest ecosystem services in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L R; Papworth, S K; Reed, J; Symes, W S; Ickowitz, A; Clements, T; Peh, K S-H; Sunderland, T

    2016-10-01

    Southeast Asia possesses the highest rates of tropical deforestation globally and exceptional levels of species richness and endemism. Many countries in the region are also recognized for their food insecurity and poverty, making the reconciliation of agricultural production and forest conservation a particular priority. This reconciliation requires recognition of the trade-offs between competing land-use values and the subsequent incorporation of this information into policy making. To date, such reconciliation has been relatively unsuccessful across much of Southeast Asia. We propose an ecosystem services (ES) value-internalization framework that identifies the key challenges to such reconciliation. These challenges include lack of accessible ES valuation techniques; limited knowledge of the links between forests, food security, and human well-being; weak demand and political will for the integration of ES in economic activities and environmental regulation; a disconnect between decision makers and ES valuation; and lack of transparent discussion platforms where stakeholders can work toward consensus on negotiated land-use management decisions. Key research priorities to overcome these challenges are developing easy-to-use ES valuation techniques; quantifying links between forests and well-being that go beyond economic values; understanding factors that prevent the incorporation of ES into markets, regulations, and environmental certification schemes; understanding how to integrate ES valuation into policy making processes, and determining how to reduce corruption and power plays in land-use planning processes. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. El Nino and Health Risks from Landscape Fire Emissions in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; Defries, Ruth S.; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Kinney, Patrick L.; Randerson, James T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Chen, Yang; Faluvegi, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Emissions from landscape fires affect both climate and air quality. Here, we combine satellite-derived fire estimates and atmospheric modelling to quantify health effects from fire emissions in southeast Asia from 1997 to 2006. This region has large interannual variability in fire activity owing to coupling between El Nino-induced droughts and anthropogenic land-use change. We show that during strong El Nino years, fires contribute up to 200 micrograms per cubic meter and 50 ppb in annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone surface concentrations near fire sources, respectively. This corresponds to a fire contribution of 200 additional days per year that exceed the World Health Organization 50 micrograms per cubic metre 24-hr PM(sub 2.5) interim target and an estimated 10,800 (6,800-14,300)-person (approximately 2 percent) annual increase in regional adult cardiovascular mortality. Our results indicate that reducing regional deforestation and degradation fires would improve public health along with widely established benefits from reducing carbon emissions, preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services.

  20. Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

    1992-05-01

    While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people.

  1. Jemaah Islamiyah: Reevaluating the Most Dangerous Terrorist Threat in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    participated in MMI’s efforts. In reality , MMI served as a mobilization mechanism in which JI members could network, recruit, extract resources and...movement significantly. Interestingly, the camp appeared to be a conglomerate of “ virtually every known jihadi organization in Indonesia.”347 It is...Strategic Studies, Nanyang Technological University, 2003. Hamilton-Hart, Natasha. “Terrorism in Southeast Asia: expert analysis, myopia and fantasy

  2. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  3. Regional Radiological Security Partnership in Southeast Asia - Increasing the Sustainability of Security Systems at the Site-Level by Using a Model Facility Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Travis L.; Dickerson, Sarah; Ravenhill, Scott D.; Murray, Allan; Morris, Frederic A.; Herdes, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP is to cooperate with countries in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need and developing national programs to protect and control such materials, improve the security of such materials, and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. The RRSP has utilized many tools to meet those objectives including: provision of physical protection upgrades, awareness training, physical protection training, regulatory development, locating and recovering orphan sources, and most recently - development of model security procedures at a model facility. This paper discusses the benefits of establishing a model facility, the methods employed by the RRSP, and three of the expected outcomes of the Model Facility approach. The first expected outcome is to increase compliance with source security guidance materials and national regulations by adding context to those materials, and illustrating their impact on a facility. Second, the effectiveness of each of the tools above is increased by making them part of an integrated system. Third, the methods used to develop the model procedures establishes a sustainable process that can ultimately be transferred to all facilities beyond the model. Overall, the RRSP has utilized the Model Facility approach as an important tool to increase the security of radioactive sources, and to position facilities and countries for the long term secure management of those sources.

  4. Swords into ploughshares? China's Soft Power strategy in Southeast Asia and its challenges1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tai-Ting Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, alongside China's economic growth, the international community has fostered a general anxiety towards a "China threat." In order to relieve itself from suspicion, China adopted the dual strategies of "harmonious worldview" and "good neighbor policy." The strategies led to the use of soft power in China's foreign policy. China aimed to reduce security concerns implied by the threat theory by supporting an image that caters to international peace and development. This article seeks to explain how China achieves its interests in Southeast Asia through the use of soft power. The authors address the concepts of "harmonious worldview" and "good neighbor policy" and how the twin strategies and soft power have shaped China's foreign policy in recent years. This article aims to provide insights into China's policy options in Southeast Asia in the near future.

  5. Cysticercosis/taeniasis endemicity in Southeast Asia: Current status and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-Wei; Ito, Akira; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Acosta, Luz P; Lee Willingham, Arve

    2017-01-01

    The parasitic zoonoses cysticercosis/taeniasis is among the 17 major Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) identified by the WHO as a focus for research and control. It is caused by a larval stage (cysticercus) infection of Taenia solium tapeworm in both humans and pigs. Cysticercosis occurs in many resource-poor countries, especially those with warm and mild climates in the regions of Latin America (LA), Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The prevalence of human cysticercosis is marked in those areas where individuals are traditionally keen to consume raw or insufficiently cooked pork and/or where the husbandry of pigs is improper. The worldwide burden of cysticercosis is unclear and notably, large-scale control initiatives are lacking in all regions. This review focuses on the current endemic status of cysticercosis caused by T. solium infection in both humans and pigs living in 13 Southeast Asian countries. We will also emphasize epidemiological data as well as prevention and control of human neurocysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond. By Leo Suryadinata. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2017. Pp. xi + 278. Paperback: $29.90.......Book review of: The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond. By Leo Suryadinata. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2017. Pp. xi + 278. Paperback: $29.90....

  7. Quantifying the legacy of the Chinese Neolithic on the maternal genetic heritage of Taiwan and Island Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Brand?o, Andreia; Eng, Ken Khong; Rito, Teresa; Cavadas, Bruno; Bulbeck, David; Gandini, Francesca; Pala, Maria; Mormina, Maru; Hudson, Bob; White, Joyce; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate concerning the extent to which the spread of Neolithic ceramics and Malay-Polynesian languages in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) were coupled to an agriculturally driven demic dispersal out of Taiwan 4000 years ago (4 ka). We previously addressed this question using founder analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences to identify major lineage clusters most likely to have dispersed from Taiwan into ISEA, proposing that the dispersal had a ...

  8. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Yao Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning produces aerosols and air pollutants during springtime in Southeast Asia. At the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS (elevation 2862 m in central Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3 and particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 were found to be 135–200 ppb, 40–56 ppb and 13–26 µg/m3, respectively, in the springtime (February–April between 2006 and 2009, which are 2–3 times higher than those in other seasons. Simulation results indicate that higher concentrations during springtime are related to biomass-burning plumes transported from the Indochinese peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosol optical depth (AOD was identified by satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15–18 March 2008. Simulated AOD reached as high as 0.8–1.2 in Indochina situated between 10–22°N and 95–107°E. According to the simulation results, 34% of the AOD was attributed to organic carbon over Indochina, while the contribution of black carbon to AOD was about 4%. During the study period, biomass-burning aerosols over Indochina have a net negative effect (−26.85 W·m−2 at ground surface, a positive effect (22.11 W·m−2 in the atmosphere and a negative forcing (−4.74 W·m−2 at the top of atmosphere. Under the influence of biomass-burning aerosol plume transported by strong wind, there is a NE−SW zone stretching from southern China to Taiwan with reduction in shortwave radiation of about 20 W·m−2 at ground surface. Such significant reduction in radiation attributed to biomass-burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia merit attention.

  9. Temporary International Labor Migration and Development in South and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosewarne, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Growing migrant worker remittances are regarded as an important and more reliable source of capital to finance development in South and Southeast Asia than international aid and foreign direct investment. International financial institutions (IFIs) have proselytized based on this promise and have represented the feminization of labor migration as injecting more momentum into developmental potential. Many Asian governments have been won over by this promise, establishing labor-export policies ...

  10. Living alone in South and Southeast Asia: An analysis of census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Podhisita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living alone (in a one-person household has reached very high levels in some parts of the world. Across Asia the phenomenon is common in parts of East Asia, but has rarely been examined in South or Southeast Asia. Objective: The authors seek to establish from the evidence of censuses the main contours of living alone in South and Southeast Asia, and in doing so address issues of definition and measurement, particularly issues arising due to differences in the census handling of the 'group quarters' type of household. Methods: The paper examines 10 national censuses in the IPUMS archive of census micro-files. The data are explored for age profiles of living alone by sex, classified by urban versus rural residence and marital status. Results: The censuses reveal a combination of underlying commonalities among the countries and dates as well as distinct national features. There are distinct age profiles for males and females, and profiles typical of urban and rural sectors across countries. Living alone in group quarters is most common among young adults. Tabulation by marital status shows considerable variation among single young adults and elderly widowed or divorced/separated persons. It is also found that the proportions of the population not living with core family who are living alone vary widely by age and sex and across countries and years. Conclusions: Studies of living alone with national censuses must take note of whether conventional households and group quarters are included and how these are defined. Group quarters residence makes up a significant proportion of living alone among the young.

  11. The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia, 1961-1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    impressive Council and President Johnson’s de- gains in the II Corps area. Whereupon, OV-10 Bronco . cision to order immediate retaliatory on 19 February... ele - strike aircraft in South Vietnam to 277 ments also began to leave Southeast (from a high in June 1968 of 737). The Asia, the VNAF grew to 9...was Nang to repel an advancing enemy delegated below the Washington lev- force. When Lt. Gen. Lewis W. Walt, III el , but the White House, Office of

  12. Foreign direct investments in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöholm, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has been of large importance in economic growth and global economic integration over the last decades. South East Asia has been part of this development with rapidly increasing inflows of FDI. However, there are large variations over time and between countries in the region as regard to the policies towards FDI, and in actual inflows of FDI. This chapter aims at examining the size of FDI in South East Asia and the trends in it. The main determinants of FDI in Southea...

  13. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. 7AF Local Base Defense Operations, July 1965-December 1968

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Richard R

    1969-01-01

    The characteristics of the present conflict in Southeast Asia, wherein United States and allied forces are in constant and close proximity to enemy ground forces, are unique and unprecedented in recent U.S. military history...

  14. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  15. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Trivitayanurak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a nested version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to better understand the composition and variation of aerosol over Borneo and the broader Southeast Asian region in conjunction with aircraft and satellite observations. Our focus on Southeast Asia reflects the importance of this region as a source of reactive organic gases and aerosols from natural forests, biomass burning, and food and fuel crops. We particularly focus on July 2008 when the UK BAe-146 research aircraft was deployed over northern Malaysian Borneo as part of the ACES/OP3 measurement campaign. During July 2008 we find using the model that Borneo (defined as Borneo Island and the surrounding Indonesian islands was a net exporter of primary organic aerosol (42 kT and black carbon aerosol (11 kT. We find only 13% of volatile organic compound oxidation products partition to secondary organic aerosol (SOA, with Borneo being a net exporter of SOA (15 kT. SOA represents approximately 19% of the total organic aerosol over the region. Sulphate is mainly from aqueous-phase oxidation (68%, with smaller contributions from gas-phase oxidation (15% and advection into the regions (14%. We find that there is a large source of sea salt, as expected, but this largely deposits within the region; we find that dust aerosol plays only a relatively small role in the aerosol burden. In contrast to coincident surface measurements over Northern Borneo that find a pristine environment with evidence for substantial biogenic SOA formation we find that the free troposphere is influenced by biomass burning aerosol transported from the northwest of the Island and further afield. We find several transport events during July 2008 over Borneo associated with elevated aerosol concentrations, none of which coincide with the aircraft flights. We use MODIS aerosol optical depths (AOD data and the model to put the July campaign into a longer temporal perspective. We find that Borneo is where

  16. The composition and variability of atmospheric aerosol over Southeast Asia during 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivitayanurak, W.; Palmer, P. I.; Barkley, M. P.; Robinson, N. H.; Coe, H.; Oram, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    We use a nested version of the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to better understand the composition and variation of aerosol over Borneo and the broader Southeast Asian region in conjunction with aircraft and satellite observations. Our focus on Southeast Asia reflects the importance of this region as a source of reactive organic gases and aerosols from natural forests, biomass burning, and food and fuel crops. We particularly focus on July 2008 when the UK BAe-146 research aircraft was deployed over northern Malaysian Borneo as part of the ACES/OP3 measurement campaign. During July 2008 we find using the model that Borneo (defined as Borneo Island and the surrounding Indonesian islands) was a net exporter of primary organic aerosol (42 kT) and black carbon aerosol (11 kT). We find only 13% of volatile organic compound oxidation products partition to secondary organic aerosol (SOA), with Borneo being a net exporter of SOA (15 kT). SOA represents approximately 19% of the total organic aerosol over the region. Sulphate is mainly from aqueous-phase oxidation (68%), with smaller contributions from gas-phase oxidation (15%) and advection into the regions (14%). We find that there is a large source of sea salt, as expected, but this largely deposits within the region; we find that dust aerosol plays only a relatively small role in the aerosol burden. In contrast to coincident surface measurements over Northern Borneo that find a pristine environment with evidence for substantial biogenic SOA formation we find that the free troposphere is influenced by biomass burning aerosol transported from the northwest of the Island and further afield. We find several transport events during July 2008 over Borneo associated with elevated aerosol concentrations, none of which coincide with the aircraft flights. We use MODIS aerosol optical depths (AOD) data and the model to put the July campaign into a longer temporal perspective. We find that Borneo is where the model

  17. Influence of Northeast Monsoon cold surges on air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfold, M. J.; Latif, M. T.; Samah, A. A.; Mead, M. I.; Harris, N. R. P.

    2017-10-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important ground-level pollutant. O3 levels and emissions of O3 precursors have increased significantly over recent decades in East Asia and export of this O3 eastward across the Pacific Ocean is well documented. Here we show that East Asian O3 is also transported southward to tropical Southeast (SE) Asia during the Northeast Monsoon (NEM) season (defined as November to February), and that this transport pathway is especially strong during 'cold surges'. Our analysis employs reanalysis data and measurements from surface sites in Peninsular Malaysia, both covering 2003-2012, along with trajectory calculations. Using a cold surge index (northerly winds at 925 hPa averaged over 105-110°E, 5°N) to define sub-seasonal strengthening of the NEM winds, we find the largest changes in a region covering much of the Indochinese Peninsula and surrounding seas. Here, the levels of O3 and another key pollutant, carbon monoxide, calculated by the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis are on average elevated by, respectively, >40% (∼15 ppb) and >60% (∼80 ppb) during cold surges. Further, in the broader region of SE Asia local afternoon exceedances of the World Health Organization's air quality guideline for O3 (100 μg m-3, or ∼50 ppb, averaged over 8 h) largely occur during these cold surges. Day-to-day variations in available O3 observations at surface sites on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia and in corresponding parts of the MACC Reanalysis are similar, and are clearly linked to cold surges. However, observed O3 levels are typically ∼10-20 ppb lower than the MACC Reanalysis. We show that these observations are also subject to influence from local urban pollution. In agreement with past work, we find year-to-year variations in cold surge activity related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but this does not appear to be the dominant influence of ENSO on atmospheric composition in this region. Overall, our study

  18. Control of parasites in cultured marine finfishes in Southeast Asia--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, L T

    1997-10-01

    Mariculture in Southeast Asia began in the 1970s and expanded rapidly during the 1980s, with the commercial hatchery production of the seabass Lates calcarifer. Other important cultured species were Epinephelus coioides, Epinephelus malabaricus, Lutjanus johni, and Lutjanus argentimaculatus. Intensification in the polyculture of these species and the large-scale international movement of fingerlings or juveniles, as well as the rapid expansion and concentration of fish farms, have caused severe problems resulting from parasitic infections. Infections in maricultured fish are predominantly caused by monoxenous parasites, in particular the capsalid and diplectanid monogeneans. Heteroxenous blood parasites also successfully maintained transmission in the culture system despite their requirement for an intermediate host. Prophylactic chemical treatments helped to reduce parasitic infection but did not eliminate them and once introduced into the floating netcage culture system, these parasites managed to maintain their transmission successfully. Despite the current lack of information regarding the biology of many parasites affecting cultured marine fishes, it nevertheless is possible to develop methodologies to produce an integrated health management system specifically designed to the needs of the mariculture practiced in the Southeast Asian region. This system is important and should include a sequence of prophylaxes, adequate nutrition, sanitation, immunization and an effective system of marketing for farmed fishes.

  19. Sustainable Urban Water Management: Application for Integrated Assessment in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhrukh-Mirzo Jalilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, development, and operation of current and future urban water infrastructure in many parts of the world increasingly rely on and apply the principles of sustainable development. However, this approach suffers from a lack of the necessary knowledge, skills, and practice of how sustainable development can be attained and promoted in a given city. This paper presents the framework of an integrated systems approach analysis that deals with the abovementioned issues. The “Water and Urban Initiative” project, which was implemented by the United Nations University’s Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability, focused on urban water and wastewater systems, floods, and their related health risk assessment, and the economics of water quality improvements. A team of researchers has investigated issues confronting cities in the developing countries of Southeast Asia, in relation to sustainable urban water management in the face of such ongoing changes as rapid population growth, economic development, and climate change; they have also run future scenarios and proposed policy recommendations for decision-makers in selected countries in Southeast Asia. The results, lessons, and practical recommendations of this project could contribute to the ongoing policy debates and decision-making processes in these countries.

  20. Introduction: New Forms of Voter Mobilization in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Lotta E. Hedman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century is no longer what it used to be, at least not at its ASEAN core. By the 1990s, competitive elections had (reemerged as the primary mechanism for the assumption of state office in the Philippines and Thailand. By the turn of the century, Indonesia had experienced two orderly transfers of presidential power, as well as the country’s freest and fairest elections since 1955. Meanwhile, opposition parties made strong showings in federal elections in Malaysia, seizing control over state assemblies and increasing their share of seats in the national legislature.

  1. Supplier development and cost management in South-East Asia - Results from a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; van Jarwaarde, Ewout; Groen, B.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about supplier development when international companies have production sites in Southeast Asia and look for opportunities to switch from international suppliers to local suppliers. We conducted a field study involving site visits to companies in Thailand and Vietnam, and interviews at

  2. Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, David

    2017-09-01

    In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.

  3. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  4. Investigating the haze transport from 1997 biomass burning in Southeast Asia: its impact upon Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koe, Lawrence C. C.; Arellano, Avelino F.; McGregor, John L.

    The 1997 Indonesia forest fires was an environmental disaster of exceptional proportions. Such a disaster caused massive transboundary air pollution and indiscriminate destruction of biodiversity in the world. The immediate consequence of the fires was the production of large amounts of haze in the region, causing visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. Furthermore, fires of these magnitudes are potential contributors to global warming and climate change due to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases and other pyrogenic products.The long-range transport of fire-related haze in the region is investigated using trajectories from the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Limited Area Model (DARLAM). Emission scenarios were constructed for hotspot areas in Sumatra and Kalimantan for the months of September and October 1997 to determine the period and fire locations most critical to Singapore. This study also examines some transport issues raised from field observations. Results show that fires in the coastal areas of southeast Sumatra and southwest Kalimantan can be potential contributors to transboundary air pollution in Singapore. Singapore was directly affected by haze from these areas whereas Kuala Lumpur was heavily affected by the haze coming from Sumatra. In most cases, Singapore was more affected by fires from Kalimantan than was Kuala Lumpur. This was mainly a result of the shifting of monsoons. The transition of monsoons resulted in weaker low-level winds and shifted convergence zones near to the southeast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition to severe drought and massive fire activity in 1997, the timing of the monsoon transition has a strong influence on haze transport in the region.

  5. How do social determinants affect human trafficking in Southeast Asia, and what can we do about it? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kelsey McGregor; McEwing, Lindsay

    2013-12-12

    The sale of women and children accounts for the greatest proportion of human trafficking globally, with Southeast Asia acting as the illegal industry's largest international hub. At least 225,000 women and children are trafficked from the region every year, accounting for approximately one-third of the global human trade. The health ramifications of trafficking are severe: many survivors contract infectious diseases including sexually transmitted infections and develop mental health conditions, including anxiety, panic disorder, and major depression. The complications associated with studying a highly secretive illegal trade have severely limited research on effective prevention measures. Because this presents a challenge for organizations that hope to develop prevention strategies, we asked the following question: How do social determinants facilitate or mitigate trafficking of women and children in Southeast Asia, and what recommendations does the literature provide for combating trafficking via these social determinants? Using a Cochrane-based systematic search methodology, five independent researchers reviewed 1,148 articles from the past ten years (2001–2011). After three phases of independent review, they selected and analyzed 61 articles to identify the determinants that impact trafficking of women and children in Southeast Asia. Key social determinants that facilitate trafficking include poverty, female gender, lack of policy and enforcement, age, migration, displacement and conflict, ethnicity, culture, ignorance of trafficking methods, and caste status. Conversely, protective determinants that mitigate trafficking include formal education, citizenship, maternal education, higher caste status, and birth order. Recommendations relating to a variety of the determinants are identified and discussed in detail. Social determinants are central to the processes that mitigate and facilitate the sale and exploitation of women and children in Southeast Asia

  6. Extreme temperatures in Southeast Asia caused by El Niño and worsened by global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; DiNezio, Pedro N; Okumura, Yuko; Deser, Clara

    2017-06-06

    In April 2016, southeast Asia experienced surface air temperatures (SATs) that surpassed national records, exacerbated energy consumption, disrupted agriculture and caused severe human discomfort. Here we show using observations and an ensemble of global warming simulations the combined impact of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and long-term warming on regional SAT extremes. We find a robust relationship between ENSO and southeast Asian SATs wherein virtually all April extremes occur during El Niño years. We then quantify the relative contributions of long-term warming and the 2015-16 El Niño to the extreme April 2016 SATs. The results indicate that global warming increases the likelihood of record-breaking April extremes where we estimate that 29% of the 2016 anomaly was caused by warming and 49% by El Niño. These post-Niño Aprils can potentially be anticipated a few months in advance, and thus, help societies prepare for the projected continued increases in extremes.

  7. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Air Response to the Tet Offensive 30 January - 29 February 1968

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, A. W; Thorndale, C. W

    1968-01-01

    Project CHECO was established in 1962 to document and analyze air operations in Southeast Asia, Over the years the meaning of the acronym changed several times to reflect the escalation of operations...

  8. Genetic relatedness of indigenous ethnic groups in northern Borneo to neighboring populations from Southeast Asia, as inferred from genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chee Wei; Hoque, Mohd Zahirul; Pugh-Kitingan, Jacqueline; Minsong, Alexander; Voo, Christopher Lok Yung; Ransangan, Julian; Lau, Sophia Tiek Ying; Wang, Xu; Saw, Woei Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Phipps, Maude E; Kumar, S Vijay

    2018-07-01

    The region of northern Borneo is home to the current state of Sabah, Malaysia. It is located closest to the southern Philippine islands and may have served as a viaduct for ancient human migration onto or off of Borneo Island. In this study, five indigenous ethnic groups from Sabah were subjected to genome-wide SNP genotyping. These individuals represent the "North Borneo"-speaking group of the great Austronesian family. They have traditionally resided in the inland region of Sabah. The dataset was merged with public datasets, and the genetic relatedness of these groups to neighboring populations from the islands of Southeast Asia, mainland Southeast Asia and southern China was inferred. Genetic structure analysis revealed that these groups formed a genetic cluster that was independent of the clusters of neighboring populations. Additionally, these groups exhibited near-absolute proportions of a genetic component that is also common among Austronesians from Taiwan and the Philippines. They showed no genetic admixture with Austro-Melanesian populations. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that they are closely related to non-Austro-Melansian Filipinos as well as to Taiwan natives but are distantly related to populations from mainland Southeast Asia. Relatively lower heterozygosity and higher pairwise genetic differentiation index (F ST ) values than those of nearby populations indicate that these groups might have experienced genetic drift in the past, resulting in their differentiation from other Austronesians. Subsequent formal testing suggested that these populations have received no gene flow from neighboring populations. Taken together, these results imply that the indigenous ethnic groups of northern Borneo shared a common ancestor with Taiwan natives and non-Austro-Melanesian Filipinos and then isolated themselves on the inland of Sabah. This isolation presumably led to no admixture with other populations, and these individuals therefore underwent

  9. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Catch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Region Headboat Survey (SRHS), administered by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC) personnel based at...

  10. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer’s health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

  11. Evidence for Public Health Risks of Wastewater and Excreta Management Practices in Southeast Asia: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Steven; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Nguyen-Mai, Huong; Harper, Sherilee

    2015-10-15

    The use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture is a common practice in Southeast Asia; however, concerns remain about the potential public health risks of this practice. We undertook a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of literature, as well as synthesize the evidence for associations between wastewater and excreta management practices and public health risks in Southeast Asia. Three electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Direct, and Web of Science) were searched and a total of 27 relevant studies were included and evaluated. The available evidence suggested that possible occupational health risks of wastewater and excreta management practices include diarrhea, skin infection, parasitic infection, bacterial infection, and epilepsy. Community members can be at risk for adverse health outcomes through consuming contaminated fish, vegetables, or fruits. Results suggested that practices including handling, treatment, and use of waste may be harmful to human health, particularly farmer's health. Many studies in this review, however, had limitations including lack of gender analyses, exposure assessment, and longitudinal study designs. These findings suggest that more studies on identifying, quantitatively assessing, and mitigating health risks are needed if sustainable benefits are to be obtained from wastewater and excreta reuse in agriculture in Southeast Asia.

  12. In the line of fire: the peatlands of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, S E; Hooijer, A

    2016-06-05

    Peatlands are a significant component of the global carbon (C) cycle, yet despite their role as a long-term C sink throughout the Holocene, they are increasingly vulnerable to destabilization. Nowhere is this shift from sink to source happening more rapidly than in Southeast Asia, and nowhere else are the combined pressures of land-use change and fire on peatland ecosystem C dynamics more evident nor the consequences more apparent. This review focuses on the peatlands of this region, tracing the link between deforestation and drainage and accelerating C emissions arising from peat mineralization and fire. It focuses on the implications of the recent increase in fire occurrence for air quality, human health, ecosystem resilience and the global C cycle. The scale and controls on peat-driven C emissions are addressed, noting that although fires cause large, temporary peaks in C flux to the atmosphere, year-round emissions from peat mineralization are of a similar magnitude. The review concludes by advocating land management options to reduce future fire risk as part of wider peatland management strategies, while also proposing that this region's peat fire dynamic could become increasingly relevant to northern peatlands in a warming world.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbubani, K.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the continued ability of South-East Asia to remain as one of the most peaceful regions of the world hinges upon ASEAN's ability to remain an agile and viable organization, one that is sensitively attuned to the new challenges of the day and is able to rise to meet them. So far, ASEAN's track record has been quite remarkable, especially in comparison with other regions around the world. This Conference could usefully suggest that a greater effort be made to understand the mysterious reasons behind ASEAN's success, in the hope that it may hold lessons for other regions. ASEAN, for its part, must continue to remain humble and adaptable

  14. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Watee Kongbuntad; Chairat Tantrawatpan; Warayutt Pilap; Kamonwan Jongsomchai; Tawin Chanaboon; Panida Laotongsan; Trevor N. Petney; Weerachai Saijuntha

    2016-01-01

    Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and...

  15. Piracy in Southeast Asia: A Growing Threat to the United States' Vital Strategic and Commercial Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    ... and Islamic fundamentalists in the southern Philippines and Indonesia. Southeast Asia has been a breeding ground and haven for man time piracy for over a thousand years due to the geography of the area...

  16. Zoogeography of primates in insular Southeast Asia: species-area relationships and the effects of taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Meijaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    Given its complex zoogeography and large number of islands insular Southeast Asia makes an excellent subject for studying the interrelationships of species richness, island area and isolation. The islands are merely highpoints of an immense shallow continental shelf which during Pleistocene glacial

  17. Teaching East and Southeast Asia through Asian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy C. Barrett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colonialism and indigenous responses to its varied forms dominate modern Asian historiography and imbue the history of the region with rich and multifaceted connections to world history. As a result, the histories of East and Southeast Asian nation-states since 1500 cannot be viewed outside of the context of global affairs. Imagining Asian peoples and cultures during this time is problematic for students, who typically approach colonialism from a western perspective. This presentation explores various means of incorporating into the classroom pedagogical materials and diverse media sources that facilitate a more grounded examination of East and Southeast Asian colonies, peoples, and nation-states.It pays special attention to teaching colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and transnationalism from the perspective of Southeast Asia’s indigenous peoples.

  18. Carriers of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup R colonized Eurasia and Australasia from a southeast Asia core area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruga, Jose M; Marrero, Patricia; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Golubenko, Maria V; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2017-05-23

    The colonization of Eurasia and Australasia by African modern humans has been explained, nearly unanimously, as the result of a quick southern coastal dispersal route through the Arabian Peninsula, the Indian subcontinent, and the Indochinese Peninsula, to reach Australia around 50 kya. The phylogeny and phylogeography of the major mitochondrial DNA Eurasian haplogroups M and N have played the main role in giving molecular genetics support to that scenario. However, using the same molecular tools, a northern route across central Asia has been invoked as an alternative that is more conciliatory with the fossil record of East Asia. Here, we assess as the Eurasian macrohaplogroup R fits in the northern path. Haplogroup U, with a founder age around 50 kya, is one of the oldest clades of macrohaplogroup R in western Asia. The main branches of U expanded in successive waves across West, Central and South Asia before the Last Glacial Maximum. All these dispersions had rather overlapping ranges. Some of them, as those of U6 and U3, reached North Africa. At the other end of Asia, in Wallacea, another branch of macrohaplogroup R, haplogroup P, also independently expanded in the area around 52 kya, in this case as isolated bursts geographically well structured, with autochthonous branches in Australia, New Guinea, and the Philippines. Coeval independently dispersals around 50 kya of the West Asia haplogroup U and the Wallacea haplogroup P, points to a halfway core area in southeast Asia as the most probable centre of expansion of macrohaplogroup R, what fits in the phylogeographic pattern of its ancestor, macrohaplogroup N, for which a northern route and a southeast Asian origin has been already proposed.

  19. Restoration Ecology of Lowland tropical Peatlands in Southeast Asia: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, S.; Hoscilo, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Jauhiainen, J.; Silvius, M.J.; Rieley, J.; Ritzema, H.P.; Tansey, K.; Graham, L.; Vasander, H.; Limin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of restoration ecology are well established for northern peatlands, but at an early stage for tropical peatlands. Extensive peatland areas in Southeast Asia have been degraded through deforestation, drainage and fire, leading to on- and off-site environmental and socio-economic impacts of

  20. Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: a meta-analysis and value transfer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brander, L.; Wagtendonk, A.J.; Hussain, S.; McVittie, A.; Verburg, P.H.; Groot, de R.S.; Ploeg, van der S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves. It presents a metaanalysis of the economic valuation literature and applies the estimated value function to assess the value of mangroves in Southeast Asia. We construct a database containing 130 value estimates, largely for

  1. Significant influences of global mean temperature and ENSO on extreme rainfall over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Marcelino, II; Matsumoto, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Along with the increasing concerns on the consequences of global warming, and the accumulating records of disaster related to heavy rainfall events in Southeast Asia, this study investigates whether a direct link can be detected between the rising global mean temperature, as well as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and extreme rainfall over the region. The maximum likelihood modeling that allows incorporating covariates on the location parameter of the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is employed. The GEV model is fitted to annual and seasonal rainfall extremes, which were taken from a high-resolution gauge-based gridded daily precipitation data covering a span of 57 years (1951-2007). Nonstationarities in extreme rainfall are detected over the central parts of Indochina Peninsula, eastern coasts of central Vietnam, northwest of the Sumatra Island, inland portions of Borneo Island, and on the northeastern and southwestern coasts of the Philippines. These nonstationarities in extreme rainfall are directly linked to near-surface global mean temperature and ENSO. In particular, the study reveals that a kelvin increase in global mean temperature anomaly can lead to an increase of 30% to even greater than 45% in annual maximum 1-day rainfall, which were observed pronouncedly over central Vietnam, southern coast of Myanmar, northwestern sections of Thailand, northwestern tip of Sumatra, central portions of Malaysia, and the Visayas island in central Philippines. Furthermore, a pronounced ENSO influence manifested on the seasonal maximum 1-day rainfall; a northward progression of 10%-15% drier condition over Southeast Asia as the El Niño develops from summer to winter is revealed. It is important therefore, to consider the results obtained here for water resources management as well as for adaptation planning to minimize the potential adverse impact of global warming, particularly on extreme rainfall and its associated flood risk over the region

  2. Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: A meta-analysis and value transfer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brander, L.M.; Wagtendonk, A.J.; Hussein, S.; McVittie, A.; Verburg, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the value of ecosystem services provided by mangroves. It presents a meta-analysis of the economic valuation literature and applies the estimated value function to assess the value of mangroves in Southeast Asia. We construct a database containing 130 value estimates, largely for

  3. Pesticide residues in food of plant origin from Southeast Asia – A Nordic project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skretteberg, L. G.; Lyrån, B.; Holen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables from Souteast Asia were analysed for the presence of pesticide residues. A total of 721 samples of 63 different commodities were collected in 2011. The products were imported to Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from ten countries; about 80% were imported from Thailand....... The reason for the increased control for certain food products from Southeast Asia was that the official control had revealed many products with too high levels of pesticide residues. In 60% of the samples we did not find any residues, while 28% had residues below or at the MRLs. Results above the MRLs were...

  4. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout Southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except Northern Thailand with Central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant F(s) values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extreme temperatures in Southeast Asia caused by El Niño and worsened by global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; DiNezio, Pedro N.; Okumura, Yuko; Deser, Clara

    2017-01-01

    In April 2016, southeast Asia experienced surface air temperatures (SATs) that surpassed national records, exacerbated energy consumption, disrupted agriculture and caused severe human discomfort. Here we show using observations and an ensemble of global warming simulations the combined impact of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and long-term warming on regional SAT extremes. We find a robust relationship between ENSO and southeast Asian SATs wherein virtually all April extremes occur during El Niño years. We then quantify the relative contributions of long-term warming and the 2015–16 El Niño to the extreme April 2016 SATs. The results indicate that global warming increases the likelihood of record-breaking April extremes where we estimate that 29% of the 2016 anomaly was caused by warming and 49% by El Niño. These post-Niño Aprils can potentially be anticipated a few months in advance, and thus, help societies prepare for the projected continued increases in extremes. PMID:28585927

  6. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  7. Environmental aspects and challenges of oilseed produced biodiesel in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Kalam, M.A.; Jahirul, M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Research on alternative fuel for the vehemently growing number of automotivesis intensified due to environmental reasons rather than turmoil in energy price and supply. From the policy and steps to emphasis the use of biofuel by governments all around the world, this can be comprehended that biofuel have placed itself as a number one substitute for fossil fuels. These phenomena made Southeast Asia a prominent exporter of biodiesel. But thrust in biodiesel production from oilseeds of palm and Jatropha curcas in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand is seriously threatening environmental harmony. This paper focuses on this critical issue of biodiesels environmental impacts, policy, standardization of this region as well as on the emission of biodiesel in automotive uses. To draw a bottom line on feasibilities of different feedstock of biodiesel, a critical analysis on oilseed yield rate, land use, engine emissions and oxidation stability is reviewed. Palm oil based biodiesel is clearly ahead in all these aspects of feasibility, except in the case of NO{sub x} where it lags from conventional petro diesel. (author)

  8. Environmental aspects and challenges of oilseed produced biodiesel in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Kalam, M.A.; Jahirul, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Research on alternative fuel for the vehemently growing number of automotivesis intensified due to environmental reasons rather than turmoil in energy price and supply. From the policy and steps to emphasis the use of biofuel by governments all around the world, this can be comprehended that biofuel have placed itself as a number one substitute for fossil fuels. These phenomena made Southeast Asia a prominent exporter of biodiesel. But thrust in biodiesel production from oilseeds of palm and Jatropha curcas in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand is seriously threatening environmental harmony. This paper focuses on this critical issue of biodiesels environmental impacts, policy, standardization of this region as well as on the emission of biodiesel in automotive uses. To draw a bottom line on feasibilities of different feedstock of biodiesel, a critical analysis on oilseed yield rate, land use, engine emissions and oxidation stability is reviewed. Palm oil based biodiesel is clearly ahead in all these aspects of feasibility, except in the case of NO x where it lags from conventional petro diesel. (author)

  9. The Genus Culex, Subgenus Eumelanomyia Theobald in Southeast Asia and Adjacent Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Bore1 1930, Mon. Coil. Sot. Path. exot. 3: 365 (d*, ?, L*). Culex macropus Blanchard 1905, Les Moustiques :327. New name for Culex Zongifies Theobald...Spec. Pub. 111, 147 pp. BOREL, E. 1926. Les Moustiques de la Cochinchine et du Sud-Annam. (I), Arch. Inst. Pasteur d’Indochine. 47 pp. 1930. Les... Moustiques de la Cochinchine et du Sud-Annam. Mon. Coll. Sot. Pat. exot. 3, 423 pp. BRAM, R A. 1967. Contributions to the mosquitoes of Southeast Asia

  10. A synthesis of the implementation ambivalence of REDD+ in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divine Odame Appiah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and associated benefits (REDD+, has received much attention as one of the most controversial climate change initiatives, especially by forest fringed community actors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Southeast Asia, (SEA who are skeptical of the scheme.The object of this paper is to examine the seeming potential benefits and accompanying risks and challenges of REDD+ on the livelihoods among smallholder farmers in SSA and SEA. The paper espouses the sustainability context of REDD+ projects as pro-poor forest management mechanisms; through the provision of alternative livelihood. This is achieved through critical review and critique of scientific articles, project reports and relevant documents on REDD+ interventions from a worldwide, regional to local scale. The paper identifies projects that seem to solidify claims that REDD+ projects are simply a new form of colonialism; which the West is using to take advantage of vulnerable groups in the South. The paper concludes with the need to actively engage sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian women in climate change mitigation benefit schemes on account of the expedient role women play in agricultural activities (which may involve deforestation and forest land degradation.

  11. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of selected popular foods consumed in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Lee, Davina Elizabeth Mei; Tan, Wei Jie Kevin; Ranawana, Dinesh Viren; Quek, Yu Chin Rina; Goh, Hui Jen; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-03-14

    The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of standard portion sizes of Southeast Asian traditional foods. A total of fifteen popular Southeast Asian foods were evaluated. Of these foods, three were soft drinks, while the other twelve were solid foods commonly consumed in this region. In total, forty-seven healthy participants (eighteen males and twenty-nine females) volunteered to consume either glucose at least twice or one of the fifteen test foods after a 10-12 h overnight fast. Blood glucose concentrations were analysed before consumption of the test food, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption, using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value of the test food as a percentage of each participant's average IAUC value, with glucose as the reference food. Among the fifteen foods tested, six belonged to low-GI foods (Ice Green Tea, Beehoon, Pandan Waffle, Curry Puff, Youtiao and Kaya Butter Toast), three belonged to medium-GI foods (Barley Drink, Char Siew Pau and Nasi Lemak), and the other six belonged to high-GI foods (Ice Lemon Tea, Chinese Carrot Cake, Chinese Yam Cake, Chee Cheong Fun, Lo Mai Gai and Pink Rice Cake). The GI and GL values of these traditional foods provide valuable information to consumers, researchers and dietitians on the optimal food choice for glycaemic control. Moreover, our dataset provides GI values of fifteen foods that were not previously tested extensively, and it presents values of foods commonly consumed in Southeast Asia.

  12. Southeast Asia’s changing palaeogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.

    2009-01-01

    Geology provides the basis for understanding distributions of faunas and floras in Southeast Asia but only via a complex interplay of plate movements, palaeogeography, ocean circulation and climate. Southeast Asia grew incrementally by the addition of continental fragments, mainly rifted from

  13. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur.

  14. Legume integration as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Von Yi

    to intensification. Ricebean (Vigna umbellata L.) was the most preferred legume species among the others to be integrated with maize due to its high selling price, ease to grow and harvest, stable market demand and ability to improve soil fertility. The results from researcher-managed field trial demonstrated......The transition from swidden agriculture to intensive maize (Zea mays L.) monoculture in upland regions of Southeast Asia has led to declining soil fertility problem, which necessitates the use of external nutrient inputs to sustain crop productivity. Conventional intensification via the use...... cropping represented low-external-input intensive farming systems, and the villages in northern Laos that cultivated maize with a short fallow period represented low-input farming systems. Data were collected from field surveys, a set of researcher- and farmer-managed field trials under rain-fed conditions...

  15. Storm Surge Reconstruction and Return Water Level Estimation in Southeast Asia for the 20th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, Alba; Wahl, Thomas; Chambers, Don P.; Muis, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    We present a methodology to reconstruct the daily maximum storm surge levels, obtained from tide gauges, based on the surrounding atmospheric conditions from an atmospheric reanalysis (20th Century Reanalysis-20CR). Tide gauge records in Southeast Asia are relatively short, so this area is often

  16. Australia to fund HIV / AIDS projects in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-19

    Australia will fund 23 new HIV-AIDS projects in Southeast Asian countries, the government announced. "Asia is predicted to be the major growth area for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections over the next decade, " Minister for Development Cooperation Gordon Bilney said. "These projects, worth some $4.35 million over three years, will help meet the challenge of preventing the spread of the disease in the region." The projects--in Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia--emphasize education and prevention activities as well as programs which focus on the care and support of people living with HIV, Bilney said. He also said a variety of Australian and overseas organizations will implement the projects, many of which will feature the significant involvement of communities at risk and people with HIV. "It is in keeping with the fundamental spirit of the aid program that we should seek to share this expertise with our neighbors in the region." Bilney said one Australian success story--the creative "Streetwize comics" (publications in Australia which help street kids and under privileged kids understand HIV/AIDS problems)--will be piloted in Vietnam in conjunction with the Vietnam Youth Federation. He said Vietnamese staff will be trained in the production of a series of bilingual mini-comics on HIV-AIDS prevention for youth. "This project will receive funding of $187,500 over three years," Bilney said. Bilney said the projects would help minimize the individual and social impact of the epidemic in the targeted countries. full text

  17. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  18. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease following breast cancer in Southeast Asia : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, S A M; Ho, P J; Rijnberg, N; Lee, Soo-Chin; Lim, S H; Yap, Y S; Grobbee, D E; Hartman, M; Verkooijen, H M

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and survival is high in Southeast Asia. As such, many women diagnosed with breast cancer are at risk of dying of other causes. Given the increased risk of cardiotoxicity induced by breast cancer treatments, it is important to identify patients at high risk of cardiovascular

  19. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  20. Assessing Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Urbanization Dynamics in Southeast Asia Using Time Series of DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraregional spatial variations of satellite-derived anthropogenic nighttime light signals are gradually applied to identify different lighting areas with various socioeconomic activity and urbanization levels when characterizing urbanization dynamics. However, most previous partitioning approaches are carried out at local scales, easily leading to multi-standards of the extracted results from local areas, and this inevitably hinders the comparative analysis on the urbanization dynamics of the large region. Therefore, a partitioning approach considering the characteristics of nighttime light signals at both local and regional scales is necessary for studying spatiotemporal characteristics of urbanization dynamics across the large region using nighttime light imagery. Based on the quadratic relationships between the pixel-level nighttime light brightness and the corresponding spatial gradient for individual cities, we here proposed an improved partitioning approach to quickly identify different types of nighttime lighting areas for the entire region of Southeast Asia. Using the calibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Line-scan System (DMSP/OLS data with greater comparability, continuity, and intra-urban variability, the annual nighttime light imagery spanning years 1992–2013 were divided into four types of nighttime lighting areas: low, medium, high, and extremely high, associated with different intensity of anthropogenic activity. The results suggest that Southeast Asia has experienced a rapid and diverse urbanization process from 1992 to 2013. Areas with moderate or low anthropogenic activity show a faster growth rate for the spatial expansion than the developed areas with intense anthropogenic activity. Transitions between different nighttime lighting types potentially depict the trajectory of urban development, the darker areas are gradually transitioning to areas with higher lighting, indicating conspicuous trends

  1. A Review of Swidden Agriculture in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Swidden agriculture is by far the dominant land use system in the mountainous regions of Southeast Asia (SEA. It provides various valuable subsistence products to local farmers, mostly the poor ethnic minority groups. Controversially, it is also closely connected with a number of environmental issues. With the strengthening regional economic cooperation in SEA, swidden agriculture has experienced drastic transformations into other diverse market-oriented land use types since the 1990s. However, there is very limited information on the basic geographical and demographic data of swidden agriculture and the socio-economic and biophysical effects of the transformations. International programs, such as the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD, underscore the importance of monitoring and evaluating swidden agriculture and its transition to reduce carbon emission due to deforestation and forest degradation. In this context, along with the accessibility of Landsat historical imagery, remote sensing based techniques will offer an effective way to detect and monitor the locations and extent of swidden agriculture. Many approaches for investigating fire occurrence and burned area can be introduced for swidden agriculture mapping due to the common feature of fire relatedness. In this review paper, four broad approaches involving spectral signatures, phenological characteristics, statistical theory and landscape ecology were summarized for swidden agriculture delineation. Five research priorities about swidden agriculture involving remote sensing techniques, spatial pattern, change, drivers and impacts were proposed accordingly. To our knowledge, a synthesis review on the remote sensing and outlook on swidden agriculture has not been reported yet. This review paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of swidden agriculture studies in the domains of debated definition, trends, remote sensing methods and outlook research in SEA

  2. Review of insulin-associated hypoglycemia and its impact on the management of diabetes in Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Su-Yen; Hussein, Zanariah; Rudijanto, Achmad

    2017-09-01

    Although the incidence of diabetes is rising in Southeast Asia, there is limited information regarding the incidence and manifestation of insulin-associated hypoglycemia. The aim of the present review was to discuss what is currently known regarding insulin-associated hypoglycemia in Southeast Asia, including its known incidence and impact in the region, and how the Southeast Asian population with diabetes differs from other populations. We found a paucity of data regarding the incidence of hypoglycemia in Southeast Asia, which has contributed to the adoption of Western guidelines. This might not be appropriate, as Southeast Asians have a range of etiological, educational and cultural differences from Western populations with diabetes that might place them at greater risk of hypoglycemia if not managed optimally. For example, Southeast Asians with type 2 diabetes tend to be younger, with lower body mass indexes than their Western counterparts, and the management of type 2 diabetes with premixed insulin preparations is more common in Southeast Asia. Both of these factors might result in higher rates of hypoglycemia. In addition, Southeast Asians are often poorly educated about hypoglycemia and its management, including during Ramadan fasting. We conclude there is a need for more information about Southeast Asian populations with diabetes to assist with the construction of more appropriate national and regional guidelines for the management of hypoglycemia, more closely aligned to patient demographics, behaviors and treatment practices. Such bespoke guidelines might result in a greater degree of implementation and adherence within clinical practice in Southeast Asian nations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Media, Mobilities and Identity in East and Southeast Asia: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Edwards

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This collection for Cultural Studies Review aims to address gaps in existing mobilities scholarship from two perspectives. First, while several articles here discuss the physical movement of various groups, the overarching focus is the complex interplay of mobile technologies and information on the one hand, and rapidly evolving formations of culture and identity on the other. Geographically, our focus is outside the ‘global north’, on a region that has perhaps been more dramatically transformed by physical, cultural and informational mobility than any other: East and Southeast Asia. Rather than taking ‘Asia’ as a category of cultural identity, this collection conceptualises the geographic region as a zone of cultural and political plurality, in which a vast array of migrations, imaginings, representations and discourses are constantly bumping up against political and cultural borders, as well as various state-sponsored and state-sanctioned ideas and images, in fascinating and often highly volatile ways. Topic covered in this collection include Hong Kong working holidaymakers in Australia (Louis Ho, literary narratives of overseas adoptees who have returned to South Korea (Ethan Waddell, online debates and conflicts between Chinese migrants and local Chinese-Singaporeans (Sylvia Ang, the politics of representing urban demolition and relocation in independent Chinese documentaries (Dan Edwards, the ‘glocalisation’ of Japanese anime culture in the online space in China (Asako Saito and the representation of migrant worker experience in South Korean cinema (Sina Kim.

  4. Concluding remarks: what's in a name? "Negritos" in the context of the human prehistory of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2013-01-01

    The "negrito" hypothesis posits that various indigenous groups throughout Island and Mainland Southeast Asia have a shared phenotype due to common descent from a putative ancestral population, representing a pre-agricultural substrate of humanity in the region. This has been examined and tested many times in the past, with no clear resolution. With many new resources to hand, the articles in this volume reexamine this hypothesis in a range of different ways. The evidence presented in this double issue of Human Biology speaks more against the category of "negrito" than for it. While populations with the negrito phenotype form a small proportion of all contemporary populations in this region, they have remained a persistent presence. And without a fascination about their origins, there would not be such a depth of knowledge about the human biology of this region more broadly as there is now. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  5. Financial Crises and Automotive Industry Development in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doner, Richard F.; Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The automotive industries of Southeast Asia have grown significantly but unevenly. Thailand has outperformed its neighbours in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines with regard to production and, most notably, export volumes. But the Thai auto industry has not exhibited the level of local...... (indigenous) technology capacity and input growth seen in South Korea, Taiwan and, increasingly, in China. The 1997–98 and 2008 financial and economic crises generally reinforced pre-existing national automotive strategies, but to different degrees: They strongly accelerated an earlier Thai move to exports...... whose very success weakened pressures for upgrading; encouraged more moderate automotive liberalisation in Indonesia and, to a lesser extent, in the Philippines; but promoted only minimal changes to Malaysia’s relatively protectionist national car strategy. The fact that the crises served more...

  6. The local impact of globalization in South and Southeast Asia: offshore business processes in services industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambregts, B.; Beerepoot, N.; Kloosterman, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, several millions of IT-enabled services jobs have been relocated or ‘offshored’ from the US and Europe to, in particular, low cost economies around the world. Most of these jobs so far have landed in South and South-East Asia, with India and the Philippines receiving the

  7. The political and scientific challenges in evaluating compulsory drug treatment centers in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Thu; Nguyen, Nhu; Le, Giang; Shanahan, Marian; Ali, Robert; Ritter, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these t...

  8. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. OV-1/AC-119 Hunter-Killer Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-10-10

    between Phan Rang, Phu Cat , and Danang in order to provide best coverage of the Vietnamese conflict. -- On 16 February 1970, three AC -ll9Ks and 70...SOUTHEAST ASIA D D DDiv AY/XDOSQA I OV-1/ AC -119 " i IWB I HUNTER-KILLER TEAM 19’.1’ CONTINUING REPORT CLASSIFIED Ey 7AFIDOOC DOWNGRADE TjU SECRET...xamination of C urrent, 0 per’tions I~ I fF!lr T I TII TIIII I OV=1/ AC -119 HUNTER-KILLER TEAMI 1 10 OCTOBER 1972 HQ PACAF Directorate of Operations

  9. First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three

  10. First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Tang Thuy-Huong; Salas, Ana; Ali-Tammam, Marwa; Martínez, María Del Carmen; Lanza, Marta; Arroyo, Eduardo; Rubio, Jose Miguel

    2010-07-27

    Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain) and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three identified cases were very

  11. Pesticide management approach towards protecting the safety and health of farmers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Norsyazwani; Abidin, Emilia Zainal; How, Vivien; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Hashim, Zailina

    2018-06-27

    It is estimated that pesticide production and use have increased continuously in the countries of Southeast Asia in recent years. Within the context of protecting the safety and health of workers in the agricultural sector, there is an existing gap in the implementation of the pesticide management framework because safety and health effects arising from occupational exposures continue to be reported. This study aims to provide narrative similarities, differences and weaknesses of the existing pesticide management system in Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) within the context of occupational safety and health. This is preliminary traditional review study. Pesticide regulation and management at the country level were identified using web-based search engines such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google. Book, reports, legislation document and other documents retrieved were also gathered from international organizations and specific websites of governmental agency in Southeast Asian countries. The scope of this review is only limited to literature written in English. In total, 44 review articles, reports and documents were gathered for this study. The approach of pesticide management in protecting safety and health in the agricultural setting were benchmarked according to the elements introduced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, namely, (1) the protection of workers and (2) the practice of safety. All countries have assigned a local authority and government organization to manage and control pesticide use in the agricultural sector. The countries with the highest usage of pesticide are Thailand, Philippines and Malaysia. Most Southeast Asian countries have emphasized safety practice in the management of pesticide usage, but there were less emphasis on the element of protection of workers within the framework in Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam

  12. Subsidence in tropical peatlands: Estimating CO2 fluxes from peatlands in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, A.; Harvey, C. F.; Seppalainen, S. S.; Chaussard, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands of Southeast Asia are an important global carbon stock. However, they are being rapidly deforested and drained. Peatland drainage facilitates peat decomposition, releases sequestered peat carbon to the atmosphere as CO2, and leads to subsidence of the peat surface. As a result, subsidence measurements can be used to monitor peatland carbon loss over time. Until now, subsidence measurements have been primarily limited to ground-based point measurements using subsidence poles. Here we demonstrate a powerful method to measure peatland subsidence rates across much larger areas than ever before. Using remotely sensed InSAR data, we map subsidence rates across thousands of square kilometers in Southeast Asia and validate our results against ground-based subsidence measurements. The method allows us to monitor subsidence in remote locations, providing unprecedented spatial information, and the first comprehensive survey of land uses such as degraded peatlands, burnt and open areas, shrub lands, and smallholder farmlands. Strong spatial patterns emerged, with the highest subsidence rates occurring at the centers of peat domes, where the peat is thickest and drainage depths are likely to be largest. Peatland subsidence rates were also strongly dependent on current and historical land use, with typical subsidence rates ranging from 2-4 cm/yr. Finally, we scaled up our results to calculate total annual emissions from peat decomposition in degraded peatlands.

  13. Origins of the current outbreak of multidrug-resistant malaria in southeast Asia: a retrospective genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roberto; Pearson, Richard D; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Drury, Eleanor; Stalker, Jim; Miotto, Olivo; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2018-03-01

    Antimalarial resistance is rapidly spreading across parts of southeast Asia where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is used as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The first published reports about resistance to antimalarial drugs came from western Cambodia in 2013. Here, we analyse genetic changes in the P falciparum population of western Cambodia in the 6 years before those reports. We analysed genome sequence data on 1492 P falciparum samples from 11 locations across southeast Asia, including 464 samples collected in western Cambodia between 2007 and 2013. Different epidemiological origins of resistance were identified by haplotypic analysis of the kelch13 artemisinin resistance locus and the plasmepsin 2-3 piperaquine resistance locus. We identified more than 30 independent origins of artemisinin resistance, of which the KEL1 lineage accounted for 140 (91%) of 154 parasites resistant to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. In 2008, KEL1 combined with PLA1, the major lineage associated with piperaquine resistance. By 2013, the KEL1/PLA1 co-lineage had reached a frequency of 63% (24/38) in western Cambodia and had spread to northern Cambodia. The KEL1/PLA1 co-lineage emerged in the same year that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine became the first-line antimalarial drug in western Cambodia and spread rapidly thereafter, displacing other artemisinin-resistant parasite lineages. These findings have important implications for management of the global health risk associated with the current outbreak of multidrug-resistant malaria in southeast Asia. Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, and the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Getting real with the upcoming challenge of electronic nicotine delivery systems: The way forward for the South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2017-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth - ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out. Weak regulation of these products might contribute to the expansion of the ENDS market - in which tobacco companies have a substantial stake - potentially renormalizing smoking habits and negating years of intense tobacco control campaigning. The current situation calls for galvanizing policy makers to gear up to this challenge in the Southeast Asia Region (SEAR) where the high burden of tobacco use is compounded by large proportion of young vulnerable population and limited established tobacco cessation facilities. Banning ENDS in the SEAR seems to be the most plausible approach at present. In the SEAR, Timor-Leste, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Thailand have taken the lead in banning these products. The other countries of the SEAR should follow suit. The SEAR countries may, however, choose to revise their strategy if unbiased scientific evidence emerges about efficacy of ENDS as a tobacco cessation aid. ENDS industry must show true motivation and willingness to develop and test ENDS as effective pharmaceutical tools in the regional context before asking for market authorization.

  15. New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei in Southeast Asia lead to updates in range, habitat and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, L; Lawson, J M; Laksanawimol, P; Ferber, P; Loh, T-L

    2016-04-01

    New records of the Japanese seahorse Hippocampus mohnikei from Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, along with recently published studies from India and Singapore, have greatly expanded the known range of H. mohnikei within Southeast Asia. These new records reveal novel habitat preferences and threats to H. mohnikei in the region. Although the global conservation status of H. mohnikei is classified as Data Deficient according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, new sightings indicate that this species is found in similar habitats and faces similar threats as other Hippocampus species that are considered Vulnerable. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Temporal change of EIA asymmetry revealed by a beacon receiver network in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Maruyama, Takashi; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Nishioka, Michi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    To reveal the temporal change of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) asymmetry, a multipoint satellite-ground beacon experiment was conducted along the meridional plane of the Thailand-Indonesia sector. The observation includes one station near the magnetic equator and four stations at off-equator latitudes. This is the first EIA asymmetry study with high spatial resolution using GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) observations in Southeast Asia. GRBR-total electron contents (TECs) from 97 polar-orbit satellite passes in March 2012 were analyzed in this study. Successive passes captured rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry, especially during geomagnetic disturbances. The penetrating electric fields that occur during geomagnetic disturbed days are not the cause of the asymmetry. Instead, high background TEC associated with an intense electric field empowers the neutral wind to produce severe asymmetry of the EIA. Such rapid evolution of EIA asymmetry was not seen during nighttime, when meridional wind mainly controlled the asymmetric structures. Additional data are necessary to identify the source of the variations, i.e., atmospheric waves. Precisely capturing the locations of the crests and the evolution of the asymmetry enhances understanding of the temporal change of EIA asymmetry at the local scale and leads to a future local modeling for TEC prediction in Southeast Asia.

  17. Influences of large-scale convection and moisture source on monthly precipitation isotope ratios observed in Thailand, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongwang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Zhongfang; Seeboonruang, Uma; Koike, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2018-04-01

    Many paleoclimatic records in Southeast Asia rely on rainfall isotope ratios as proxies for past hydroclimatic variability. However, the physical processes controlling modern rainfall isotopic behaviors in the region is poorly constrained. Here, we combined isotopic measurements at six sites across Thailand with an isotope-incorporated atmospheric circulation model (IsoGSM) and the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to investigate the factors that govern the variability of precipitation isotope ratios in this region. Results show that rainfall isotope ratios are both correlated with local rainfall amount and regional outgoing longwave radiation, suggesting that rainfall isotope ratios in this region are controlled not only by local rain amount (amount effect) but also by large-scale convection. As a transition zone between the Indian monsoon and the western North Pacific monsoon, the spatial difference of observed precipitation isotope among different sites are associated with moisture source. These results highlight the importance of regional processes in determining rainfall isotope ratios in the tropics and provide constraints on the interpretation of paleo-precipitation isotope records in the context of regional climate dynamics.

  18. Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2015-04-08

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen.

  19. Developments in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Reaz

    1992-01-01

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  20. Developments in South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Reaz [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1993-12-31

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  1. The long winding road of opioid substitution therapy implementation in South-East Asia: challenges to scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Reid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users.

  2. Complexities at the intersection of tobacco control and trade liberalisation: evidence from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; Chavez, Jenina Joy

    2015-06-01

    For more than two decades, public health scholars and proponents have demonstrated concern about the negative effects of trade liberalisation on tobacco control policies. However, there is little theoretically-guided, empirical research across time and space that evaluates this relationship. Accordingly, we use one major region that has experienced rapid and significant recent liberalisation, Southeast Asia, and examine key tobacco control-relevant outcomes between 1999 and 2012. While we find a modest increase in regional trade in tobacco products in some countries, the effects on tobacco affordability and consumption are very mixed with no clear link to liberalisation. We argue that widespread penetration of the region by transnational tobacco firms is likely mitigating the effects of trade liberalisation. Notably, tobacco control policies have also generally improved across the region, part of which is likely the result of successful regional and global efforts by civil society, governments and intergovernmental organisations. The results suggest that scholars and public health proponents should move the focus away from narrow economic aspects of liberalisation toward specific issues that are more likely to affect tobacco control, such as intellectual property rights protections and investor-state dispute settlement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Food security strategies in South and Southeast Asia: improving food security in a context of land grabbing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2011-01-01

    In the 1960s and early 1970s, many countries in South and Southeast Asia were the focus of world attention due to their frequent occurrence of food shortages. These shortages were met by large amounts of food imported through food aid or similar programmes. Several pessimistic predictions were made

  4. Security in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group began by discussing the meaning of security in terms of its comprehensive, cooperative and human dimensions. In doing so, the members of the Group focused on major issues which could endanger regional stability and non-proliferation. In order to identify the major problems and sources of tension, it was agreed that the Group would concentrate on two sub-regions, namely, East Asia and South East Asia and then to compare these briefly with South Asia and Latin America, the aim being to identify common security concerns. The discussion was framed in terms of: (i) evaluating the adequacy of the existing institutional framework for security cooperation; (ii) evaluating linkages between economic development and security; and (iii) seeking ways to reduce tension and to increase security in the region. Discussion was focused on the broad subject of security risks and challenges as well as opportunities for effective cooperative security in the Asia Pacific region. Attention was devoted to ways of changing Cold War mentalities, which still hinder the normalization process and the achievement of comprehensive security cooperation among the countries in the region

  5. The effect of toposequence position on soil properties, hydrology, and yield of rainfed lowland rice in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.; Tuong, T.P.; Suganda, H.; Konboon, Y.; Harnpichitvitaya, D.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Franco, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    large proportion of rainfed lowland rice in Southeast Asia is grown in gently sloping areas along toposequences with differences in elevation of a few meters. These small differences in elevation can lead to differentiation in soil properties and hydrological conditions, which in turn may affect

  6. Plant-pollinator interactions in tropical monsoon forests in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Makoto; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Kawakita, Atsushi; Okuyama, Yudai; Kobayashi, Chisato; Phimminith, Thavy; Thongphan, Daovorn

    2008-11-01

    Forests with different flora and vegetation types harbor different assemblages of flower visitors, and plant-pollinator interactions vary among forests. In monsoon-dominated East and Southeast Asia, there is a characteristic gradient in climate along latitude, creating a broad spectrum of forest types with potentially diverse pollinator communities. To detect a geographical pattern of plant-pollinator interactions, we investigated flowering phenology and pollinator assemblages in the least-studied forest type, i.e., tropical monsoon forest, in the Vientiane plain in Laos. Throughout the 5-year study, we observed 171 plant species blooming and detected flower visitors on 145 species. Flowering occurred throughout the year, although the number of flowering plant species peaked at the end of dry season. The dominant canopy trees, including Dipterocarpaceae, bloomed annually, in contrast to the supra-annual general flowering that occurs in Southeast Asian tropical rain forests. Among the 134 native plant species, 68 were pollinated by hymenopterans and others by lepidopterans, beetles, flies, or diverse insects. Among the observed bees, Xylocopa, megachilids, and honeybees mainly contributed to the pollination of canopy trees, whereas long-tongued Amegilla bees pollinated diverse perennials with long corolla tubes. This is the first community-level study of plant-pollinator interactions in an Asian tropical monsoon forest ecosystem.

  7. ASEAN : Extra-Regional Cooperation Triggers Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.; Krapohl, S.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter contains two case studies of regional cooperation within Southeast Asia. The network analysis of ASEAN demonstrates that the region is dependent on extra-regional trade with the EU and the USA, but also with China and Japan. However, the region is not dominated by a single regional

  8. PCDD/F measurement at a high-altitude station in Central Taiwan: evaluation of long-range transport of PCDD/Fs during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Yang, Chang-Feng Ou; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lin, Neng-Heui; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te

    2010-04-15

    Recent biomass burning in Southeast Asia has raised global concerns over its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. The concentrations of total suspended particles (TSPs) and other vapor-phase pollutants (CO and ozone) were monitored at Lulin, an atmospheric background station in central Taiwan in 2008. To evaluate the long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event, the atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also measured at Lulin station. The atmospheric PCDD/F and TSP concentrations measured at Lulin station ranged from 0.71-3.41 fg I-TEQ/m(3) and 5.32-55.6 microg/m(3), respectively, during the regular sampling periods. However, significantly higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TSPs, CO, and ozone were measured during the spring season. These high concentrations could be the result of long-range transport of the products of Southeast Asia biomass burning. During the Southeast Asia biomass burning event (March 18-24, 2008), an intensive observation program was also carried out at the same station. The results of this observation program indicated that the atmospheric PCDD/F concentration increased dramatically from 2.33 to 390 fg I-TEQ/m(3) (March 19, 2008). The trace gas (CO) of biomass burning also significantly increased to 232 ppb during the same period, while the particle-bound PCDD/Fs in the TSP increased from 28.7 to 109 pg I-TEQ/g-TSP at Lulin station during the burning event. We conclude that there was a significant increase in the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air at a high-altitude background station in central Taiwan during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event.

  9. Assessment of renewables for energy security and carbon mitigation in Southeast Asia: The case of Indonesia and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy sector of Southeast Asia (Indonesia and Thailand) is modeled. • LEAP energy model is used. • Least cost optimization method is used to estimate the future electric supply. • CO_2 mitigation and electricity production costs are also estimated. - Abstract: Due to fast rising energy demand, Southeast Asia has become a larger energy consumer and bigger player in global energy markets. Energy security and environmental emissions reduction have become higher priorities to ensure energy supply at affordable costs, for continued economic growth and development. To address these issues renewable energy plays a vital role in the long-term future for sustainable development. This paper estimates and analyzes the renewable energy potential in the energy mix in two Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia and Thailand. The LEAP energy model is used to develop different renewable energy policy scenarios from base year 2010 to 2050. The results of the simulation show that a large proportion of electricity must be produced by renewables by 2050 if full potential of renewables is to be exploited. In this case, 81% and 88% of CO_2 emissions are reduced in Indonesia and Thailand respectively. In implementing renewables at large scale in both these countries the cost of production increases substantially.

  10. Male circumcision and penis enhancement in Southeast Asia: matters of pain and pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T H; Budiharsana, M

    2001-11-01

    This paper reviews some uniquely male sexual health concerns in Southeast Asia, with particular attention to Indonesia. These include various forms of male circumcision, different types of 'penis enhancement' carried out across the region and the use of dry sex by women. These practices appear to be motivated by specific notions of sexual pleasure, based on indigenous gender constructs. Although they may or may not pose a serious public health problem, as markers of misguided or exploitative gender relations they do reveal important aspects of social psychology related to sexuality and sexual health. Male circumcision provides an ideal opportunity to consider male reproductive health needs and risks in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. Practices that involve cutting the male genitals need to be addressed in ways that stress the importance of sexual relationships based on mutual respect and open communication. Penis implants and inserts and other penis augmentation devices, as well as dry sex practices, are potentially dangerous to both men and women, and of questionable value in bringing pleasure to either, and should be discouraged.

  11. Cross-disciplinary working in the sciences and humanities: historical data rescue activities in Southeast Asia and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    This paper argues that more work is needed to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaborations by scholars across the physical sciences and humanities to improve Data Rescue Activities (DARE). Debate over the scale and potential impact of anthropogenic global warming is one of the dominant narratives of the twenty-first century. Predicting future climates and determining how environment and society might be affected by climate change are global issues of social, economic and political importance. They require responses from different research communities and necessitate closer inter-disciplinary working relationships for an integrated approach. Improving the datasets required for long-term climate models is an important part of this process. Establishing a multi-disciplinary dialogue and approach to DARE activities is increasingly being recognised as the best way to achieve this. This paper focuses on the recovery of the long-term instrumental weather observations used for models and reconstructions of the climate over the past two-hundred years. Written from the perspective of an historian working in the field, it does not seek to explore the reconstructions themselves but the process of data gathering, advocating a closer working relationship between the arts, social sciences, and sciences to extend the geographic and temporal coverage of extant datasets. This is especially important for regions where data gaps exist currently. First, it will offer a justification for extending data recovery activities for Southeast Asia and the China Seas region. Second, it will offer a brief overview of the data recovery projects currently operating in that area and the typesof historic source material that are used. Third, it will explore the work currently being undertaken for Southeast Asia and China under the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth initiative as an example of a successful cross-disciplinary program. Finally, it will argue the importance of

  12. Cross-disciplinary working in the sciences and humanities: historical data rescue activities in Southeast Asia and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Williamson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper argues that more work is needed to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaborations by scholars across the physical sciences and humanities to improve Data Rescue Activities (DARE. Debate over the scale and potential impact of anthropogenic global warming is one of the dominant narratives of the twenty-first century. Predicting future climates and determining how environment and society might be affected by climate change are global issues of social, economic and political importance. They require responses from different research communities and necessitate closer inter-disciplinary working relationships for an integrated approach. Improving the datasets required for long-term climate models is an important part of this process. Establishing a multi-disciplinary dialogue and approach to DARE activities is increasingly being recognised as the best way to achieve this. This paper focuses on the recovery of the long-term instrumental weather observations used for models and reconstructions of the climate over the past two-hundred years. Written from the perspective of an historian working in the field, it does not seek to explore the reconstructions themselves but the process of data gathering, advocating a closer working relationship between the arts, social sciences, and sciences to extend the geographic and temporal coverage of extant datasets. This is especially important for regions where data gaps exist currently. First, it will offer a justification for extending data recovery activities for Southeast Asia and the China Seas region. Second, it will offer a brief overview of the data recovery projects currently operating in that area and the typesof historic source material that are used. Third, it will explore the work currently being undertaken for Southeast Asia and China under the Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth initiative as an example of a successful cross-disciplinary program. Finally, it will

  13. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vivienne L; Loveridge, Andrew J; Newton, David J; Macdonald, David W

    2017-01-01

    The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute 'tiger bone' market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008-2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012-2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008-2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008-2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013-2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa to Asia from

  14. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne L Williams

    Full Text Available The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17 when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute 'tiger bone' market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008-2011 (published 2015. In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012-2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008-2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008-2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013-2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from

  15. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, Andrew J.; Newton, David J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute ‘tiger bone’ market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008–2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012–2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008–2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008–2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013–2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa

  16. International migration within and from the East and Southeast Asian region: a review essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on the trends and characteristics of international migration within and from East and Southeast Asia, with a focus on the past 25 years. "Five migration systems are described: settler, student, contract labor, skilled labor, and refugee. Settler migration to the U.S., Canada and Australia has consisted primarily of family members.... Contract labor migration, particularly to the Middle East, has provided jobs, foreign currency through remittances and greater participation of women, but also led to illegal migration, skills drain, and labor abuses. The hierarchy of development has led to intra-regional flows: (1) skilled labor mainly from Japan to other countries in the region, and (2) contract labor and illegal migration from the LDCs to the NIEs [newly industrializing economies] and Japan." excerpt

  17. Extent and Area of Swidden in Montane Mainland Southeast Asia: Estimation by Multi-Step Thresholds with Landsat-8 OLI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution, area and extent of swidden agriculture landscape is necessary for implementing the program of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD, biodiversity conservation and local livelihood improvement. To our knowledge, explicit spatial maps and accurate area data on swidden agriculture remain surprisingly lacking. However, this traditional farming practice has been transforming into other profit-driven land use, like tree plantations and permanent cash agriculture. Swidden agriculture is characterized by a rotational and dynamic nature of agroforestry, with land cover changing from natural forests, newly-cleared swiddens to different-aged fallows. The Operational Land Imager (OLI onboard the Landsat-8 satellite has visible, near-infrared and shortwave infrared bands, which are sensitive to the changes in vegetation cover, land surface moisture content and soil exposure, and therefore, four vegetation indices (VIs were calculated, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR and the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI. In this study, we developed a multi-step threshold approach that uses a combination of thresholds of four VIs and local elevation range (LER and applied it to detect and map newly-opened swiddens and different-aged fallows using OLI imagery acquired between 2013 and 2015. The resultant Landsat-derived swidden agriculture maps have high accuracy with an overall accuracy of 86.9% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.864. The results of this study indicated that the Landsat-based multi-step threshold algorithms could potentially be applied to monitor the long-term change pattern of swidden agriculture in montane mainland Southeast Asia since the late 1980s and also in other tropical regions, like insular Southeast Asia, South Asia, Latin America and Central Africa, where swidden agriculture is

  18. Overburdening: Two books on the British politics towards Southeast Asia from 1943 to 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Anten

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Peter Lowe, Contending with nationalism and communism; Britishpolicy towards Southeast Asia, 1945-65. Basingstoke and NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, xii + 312 pp. [Global conflictand security since 1945.] ISBN 9780230524873. Price: GBP 60.00(hardback.T.O. Smith, Britain and the origin of the Vietnam War; UK policyin Indo-China, 1943-50. Basingstoke and New York: PalgraveMacmillan, 2007, xiii + 229 pp. [Global contlict and security since1945.] ISBN 9780230507050. Price: GBP 60.00 (hardback

  19. Nuclear energy in Asia and regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing concern in East Asia about regional cooperation in the field of nuclear power. At the APEC conference in Osaka in 1995, APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) established an Energy Research Center. The center has started to perform joint research forecasts on energy supply and demand for the region. Japan proposed the inauguration of a Conference on Nuclear Safety in Asia at the Moscow Nuclear Energy Summit in 1996. The first conference was held in Tokyo that year. This year, the conference will be held in Seoul. Japan's Atomic Energy Commission sponsors the International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia every year. This year marks the eighth conference. The outstanding feature of this year's conference was that so many countries stressed regional cooperation. South Korea proposed the installation of a regional online radiation monitoring system. The Philippines asserted the need for a cooperative mechanism on the lines of ASIATOM. Why is so much concern now being focused on nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? What kind of regional cooperation is necessary, and what kind is possible? What are the unique features of nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? These are the points addressed in this paper. (author)

  20. The Need for More Earthquake Science in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions within SE Asia have as great a density of active seismic structures as does the western US - Sumatra, Myanmar, Bangladesh, New Guinea and the Philippines come first to mind. Much of Earth's release of seismic energy in the current millennium has, in fact, come from these regions, with great losses of life and livelihoods. Unfortunately, the scientific progress upon which seismic-risk reduction in SE Asia ultimately depends has been and continues to be slow. Last year at AGU, for example, I counted 57 talks about the M6 Napa earthquake. In contrast, I can't recall hearing any talk on a SE Asian M6 earthquake at any venue in the past many years. In fact, even M7+ earthquakes often go unstudied. Not uncommonly, the region's earthquake scientists face high financial and political impediments to conducting earthquake research. Their slow speed in the development of scientific knowledge doesn't bode well for speedy progress in the science of seismic hazards, the sine qua non for substantially reducing seismic risk. There are two basic necessities for the region to evolve significantly from the current state of affairs. Both involve the development of regional infrastructure: 1) Data: Robust and accessible geophysical monitoring systems would need to be installed, maintained and utilized by the region's earth scientists and their results shared internationally. Concomitantly, geological mapping (sensu lato) would need to be undertaken. 2) People: The training, employment, and enduring support of a new, young, international corps of earth scientists would need to accelerate markedly. The United States could play an important role in achieving the goal of significant seismic risk reduction in the most seismically active countries of SE Asia by taking the lead in establishing a coalition to robustly fund a multi-decadal program that supports scientists and their research institutions to work alongside local expertise.

  1. 40 CFR 81.117 - Southeast Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.117 Section 81.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.117 Southeast Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  2. 40 CFR 81.49 - Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.49 Section 81.49 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.49 Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial area...

  3. SHRIMP zircon dating of granitoids from Myanmar: constraints on the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley, M.E.; Pickard, A.L.; Zaw, K.; University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Situated south of the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayas, Myanmar occupies a key position in the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. However, there is almost no modern geochronology for this region. In this contribution we present new SHRIMP zircon dates for granitoids from the Shan Scarp (Mogok Metamorphic Belt), Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Region in the Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago and Central Valley (Western Myanmar) regions of Myanmar. The oldest ages obtained were from Jurassic granitoids, gneisses and amphibolites interlayered with marbles that were metamorphosed and deformed during the Eocene-Oligiocene and Miocene in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt. The occurrence of mid-Jurassic metamorphosed igneous rocks in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt is similar to that in the Hunza Karakoram and confirms interpretations that the southern margin of Asia became an Andean-type convergent margin at that time. Ages between 120 and 80 Ma for l-type granitoids intruding the Mogok Metamorphic Belt, Myeik Archipelago and Western Myanmar confirm that an up to 200km wide mid Cretaceous magmatic belt extended along the Eurasian margin from Tibet to Sumatra. Fractionated l-Type granitoids, that locally host Sn-W mineralisation, were emplaced in the Myeik Archipelago (and adjacent Thailand) in the latest Cretaceous to Early Eocene (80 to 50 Ma). These granitoids formed a wide convergent margin magmatic belt as the Indian plate rapidly approached Eurasia. Deformation and high-grade metamorphism occurred in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt during the Eocene-Oligiocene as the collision between India and Eurasia initiated crustal thickening prior to extrusion, or rotation, of Indochina and northward movement of Western Myanmar. Arc magmatism continued in Western Myanmar with emplacement of granitoids in the Central Valley. Deformation, extensional uplift and further granitoid magmatism occurred in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt during the Early Miocene northward movement of Western Myanmar

  4. Detection and frequency of recombination in tomato-infecting begomoviruses of South and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Mathura

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato-infecting begomoviruses are widely distributed across the world and cause diseases of high economic impact on wide range of agriculturally important crops. Though recombination plays a pivotal role in diversification and evolution of these viruses, it is currently unknown whether there are differences in the number and quality of recombination events amongst different tomato-infecting begomovirus species. To examine this we sought to characterize the recombination events, estimate the frequency of recombination, and map recombination hotspots in tomato-infecting begomoviruses of South and Southeast Asia. Results Different methods used for recombination breakpoint analysis provided strong evidence for presence of recombination events in majority of the sequences analyzed. However, there was a clear evidence for absence or low Recombination events in viruses reported from North India. In addition, we provide evidence for non-random distribution of recombination events with the highest frequency of recombination being mapped in the portion of the N-terminal portion of Rep. Conclusion The variable recombination observed in these viruses signified that all begomoviruses are not equally prone to recombination. Distribution of recombination hotspots was found to be reliant on the relatedness of the genomic region involved in the exchange. Overall the frequency of phylogenetic violations and number of recombination events decreased with increasing parental sequence diversity. These findings provide valuable new information for understanding the diversity and evolution of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Asia.

  5. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr-1, with a range of 132-159 Mt C yr-1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr-1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr-1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr-1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  6. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  7. Interactions between biomass-burning aerosols and clouds over Southeast Asia: current status, challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sayer, Andrew M; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Loftus, Adrian M; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Hsu, N Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chantara, Somporn

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols, clouds, and precipitation remain among the largest sources of uncertainty in the Earth's energy budget. Biomass-burning aerosols are a key feature of the global aerosol system, with significant annually-repeating fires in several parts of the world, including Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA in particular provides a "natural laboratory" for these studies, as smoke travels from source regions downwind in which it is coupled to persistent stratocumulus decks. However, SEA has been under-exploited for these studies. This review summarizes previous related field campaigns in SEA, with a focus on the ongoing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) and results from the most recent BASELInE deployment. Progress from remote sensing and modeling studies, along with the challenges faced for these studies, are also discussed. We suggest that improvements to our knowledge of these aerosol/cloud effects require the synergistic use of field measurements with remote sensing and modeling tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diphyllobothriasis caused by Diphyllobothrium latum in Southeast Asia: A new emerging fish-borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diphyllobothriasis caused by Diphyllobothrium latum is an important helminthiasis. It is seen in many non-tropical countries. Since it is a marine fish-borne zoonosis, it becomes an important issue in coastal medicine. However, in the few recent years, there are some reports on a new emerging diphyllobothriasis caused by Diphyllobothrium latum in tropical countries. In this specific short article, the authors review and present on the situation of diphyllobothriasis in Southeast Asia. Diphyllobothriasis presently becomes a new concern in tropical coastal medicine.

  9. Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal Production in Southeast Asia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen T. Nhung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia is an area of great economic dynamism. In recent years, it has experienced a rapid rise in the levels of animal product production and consumption. The region is considered to be a hotspot for infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR. We reviewed English-language peer-reviewed publications related to antimicrobial usage (AMU and AMR in animal production, as well as antimicrobial residues in meat and fish from 2000 to 2016, in the region. There is a paucity of data from most countries and for most bacterial pathogens. Most of the published work relates to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS, Escherichia coli (E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. (mainly from Vietnam and Thailand, Enterococcus spp. (Malaysia, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (Thailand. However, most studies used the disk diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; breakpoints were interpreted using Clinical Standard Laboratory Institute (CSLI guidelines. Statistical models integrating data from publications on AMR in NTS and E. coli studies show a higher overall prevalence of AMR in pig isolates, and an increase in levels of AMR over the years. AMU studies (mostly from Vietnam indicate very high usage levels of most types of antimicrobials, including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and quinolones. This review summarizes information about genetic determinants of resistance, most of which are transferrable (mostly plasmids and integrons. The data in this review provide a benchmark to help focus research and policies on AMU and AMR in the region.

  10. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Richard L.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Bhatti, Neeloo

    Anthropogenic and volcanic emissions of SO 2 in Asia for 1987-1988 are estimated on a 1° × 1° grid. Anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 31.6 Tg of SO 2 with the regions' volcanoes emitting an additional 3.8 Tg. For Southeast Asia and the Indian sub-continent, the emissions are further partitioned into biomass, industrial, utilities, and non-specific sources. In these regions emissions from biomass, utilities and industrial sources account for 16.7, 21.7, and 12.2%, respectively. In Bangladesh, ˜ 90% of the SO 2 emissions result from biomass burning and nearly 20% of India's 5 Tg of SO 2 emissions are due to biomass burning. Malaysia and Singapore's emissions are dominated by the utilities with 42 and 62% of their respective emissions coming from that sector. The spatial distribution of sulfur deposition resulting from these emissions is calculated using an atmospheric transport and deposition model. Sulfur deposition in excess of 2 g m -2 yr -1 is predicted in vast regions of east Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Indonesia with deposition in excess of 5 g m -2 yr -1 predicted in southern China. For the Indian sub-continent and Southeast Asia the contribution of biomass burning, industrial activities, and utilities to total sulfur emissions and deposition patterns are evaluated. Biomass burning is found to be a major source of sulfur deposition throughout southeast Asia. Deposition in Bangladesh and northern India is dominated by this emissions sector. Deposition in Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is heavily influenced by emissions from utilities. The ecological impact of the deposition, in 1988 and in the year 2020, is also estimated using critical loads data developed in the RAINS-ASIA projects. Much of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Thailand, and large regions of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Vietnam are at risk due to deposition in excess of their

  11. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with

  12. The effects of Southeast Asia fire activities on tropospheric ozone, trace gases and aerosols at a remote site over the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.Y.; Wong, K.H.; Li, Y.S.; Chan, L.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), total reactive nitrogen (NO y ) and aerosols (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were measured on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau at Tengchong (25.01 deg N, 98.3 deg E, 1960 m a.s.l.) in Southwest China, where observational data is scarce, during a field campaign of the TAPTO-China (Transport of Air Pollutants and Tropospheric O 3 over China) in the spring of 2004. Fire maps derived from satellite data and backward air trajectories were used to trace the source regions and transport pathways of pollution. Ozone, CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 had average concentrations of 26 ± 8 ppb, 179 ± 91 ppb, 2.7 ± 1.2 ppb and 34 ± 23 and 28 ± 19 μg/m 3 , respectively. The measured O 3 level is low when compared with those reported for similar longitudinal sites in Southeast (SE) Asia and northeastern Tibetan Plateau in Northwest China suggesting that there exist complex O 3 variations in the Tibetan Plateau and its neighbouring SE Asian region. High levels of pollution with hourly averages of O 3 , CO, NO y , PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations up to 59, 678 and 7.7 ppb and 158 and 137 μg/m 3 , respectively, were observed. The increase of pollutants in the lower troposphere was caused by regional built-up and transport of pollution from active fire regions of the SE Asia subcontinent and from northern South Asia. Our results showed that pollution transport from SE Asia and South Asia had relatively stronger impacts than that from Central and South China on the abundance of O 3 , trace gases and aerosols in the background atmosphere of the Tibetan Plateau of Southwest China

  13. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  14. Aerosol transport model evaluation of an extreme smoke episode in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Edward J.; Chew, Boon Ning

    2010-04-01

    Biomass burning is one of many sources of particulate pollution in Southeast Asia, but its irregular spatial and temporal patterns mean that large episodes can cause acute air quality problems in urban areas. Fires in Sumatra and Borneo during September and October 2006 contributed to 24-h mean PM 10 concentrations above 150 μg m -3 at multiple locations in Singapore and Malaysia over several days. We use the FLAMBE model of biomass burning emissions and the NAAPS model of aerosol transport and evolution to simulate these events, and compare our simulation results to 24-h average PM 10 measurements from 54 stations in Singapore and Malaysia. The model simulation, including the FLAMBE smoke source as well as dust, sulfate, and sea salt aerosol species, was able to explain 50% or more of the variance in 24-h PM 10 observations at 29 of 54 sites. Simulation results indicated that biomass burning smoke contributed to nearly all of the extreme PM 10 observations during September-November 2006, but the exact contribution of smoke was unclear because the model severely underestimated total smoke emissions. Using regression analysis at each site, the bias in the smoke aerosol flux was determined to be a factor of between 2.5 and 10, and an overall factor of 3.5 was estimated. After application of this factor, the simulated smoke aerosol concentration averaged 20% of observed PM 10, and 40% of PM 10 for days with 24-h average concentrations above 150 μg m -3. These results suggest that aerosol transport models can aid analysis of severe pollution events in Southeast Asia, but that improvements are needed in models of biomass burning smoke emissions.

  15. Analgesic Prescription Patterns and Pain Outcomes in Southeast Asia: Findings From the Analgesic Treatment of Cancer Pain in Southeast Asia Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Huy Quoc Thinh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify patterns of analgesic prescription and to explore patient-reported pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life among cancer patients with pain in Southeast Asia (SEA. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study included 465 adult outpatients prescribed analgesics for cancer pain for 1 month or longer at 22 sites in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Data on analgesic prescription and cancer characteristics were extracted from medical records. Pain intensity, sleep disturbance, and quality of life measures were recorded via questionnaires. Results: Most patients (84.4% had stage III or IV cancer. A total of 419 patients (90.7% were prescribed opioids; of these, 42.2% received only weak opioids, whereas 57.8% received at least one strong opioid. The mean worst pain intensity during the past 24 hours was 4.76 (standard deviation [SD], 2.47 on a scale of 0 (no pain to 10 (worst possible pain; the mean current pain intensity was 4.10 (SD, 2.61. More than half of patients (54.8% reported sleep disturbance caused by pain in the past 7 days. The majority of patients reported problems with pain/discomfort (82.3%, usual activities (65.8%, mobility (58.2%, and anxiety/depression (56.3%. The median daily dose prescribed in oral morphine equivalents was 30 mg for both morphine and tramadol. Conclusion: Despite unrelieved pain, sleep disturbance, and issues with quality of life, a notable proportion of patients were prescribed only weak opioids, and opioid doses prescribed were generally low. Efforts focused on encouragement of prescriptions with analgesic strength and/or doses proportional to the pain management needs of patients are vital to improve the status of cancer pain management in the region.

  16. Regional Air Pollutions in Three Different Regions of Asia From a Transcontinental Transport Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    Asia is known as one of the regions with the fastest rate of growing in industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the rapid increases of large-scale air pollution in Asia emerge as a serious concern at both domestic and international levels. Apart from the problems of air quality degradation, emission control, environmental risk, and health effect in a domestic level, evidences from scientific studies indicate that by the long-range transport, Asian air pollution is becoming a global problem. Observations and model studies confirm that air pollution from Asia could be transported to North America or farther. In this work, we investigate the Asian air pollutions, in particular ozone and some other atmospheric components such as carbon monoxide and black carbon, from the ground- based observations in the three different regions, namely 1) background region of Siberia and central Asia, 2) highly anthropogenic region in eastern China, and 3) the rim region of the Asia-Pacific. In a transcontinental transport perspective, these regions are regarded as the inflow region, source region, and outflow region of Asia, respectively. From the results, it is found that the influences from large-scale emission in East Asia are observed clearly in the source region, and to the significant extent in the outflow region. For the inflow region of Asia, our data in Siberia and Kyrgyzstan indicate that air masses in this region are mostly intact from large-scale anthropogenic emission, and remain much of the global background atmospheric pollution characteristic. When the air masses are transported to source region, the air pollutants level increased sharply and frequent episodes of extremely high pollutions have been observed. Our results show good correlation between the residence time of air masses over the source region in eastern China and the observed levels of air pollutants verifying the strong enhancements by anthropogenic emissions from industrialization and

  17. Deparochializing Education: Globalization, Regionalization, and the Formation of an ASEAN Education Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has hitherto attracted scholarly attention and debate by both regional and international scholars working in area studies, such as international relations and Asia-Pacific/Southeast Asia studies. Confined to area studies, scholarly research on ASEAN is limiting because the parameters…

  18. Gas markets and pricing in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashayekhi, A.; Law, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The issues of natural gas market development and pricing are reviewed within the context of specific Asian countries where gas plays an important role. Within Southeast Asia, Malaysia's Penninsular Gas Utilization project signals a new era in pipeline gas trade with an agreement to supply Singapore. There is now also an opportunity to extend Malaysian pipeline supplies to Thailand, which is actively seeking natural gas from neighboring countries. The prospects for LNG are dominated by the high growth markets of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. LNG trade has tended to bind the region together through close economic ties. Due to the increasing damand within the supplier countries themselves and their close neighbors, it is likely that LNG consumers will increasingly need to look beyond their traditional Southeast Asian suppliers in the future, perhaps to higher cost LNG schemes outside the region. In Southeast Asia, reduction of the high volumes of associated gas currently flared from the Bombay High Field in India will not only make big contribution to meeting the country's future gas demand, but will also prove environmentally beneficial. Pakistan, in order to control its developing gas markets, has raised gas prices to consumers substantially, with beneficial effects on supply and demand. In Bangladesh, economic pricing has been important in allocating gas resources efficiently. At both the regional and global level, the link between gas use and the environment is becoming stronger, raising the question of relating gas and energy prices to environmental costs and benefits

  19. New directions in hydro-climatic histories: observational data recovery, proxy records and the atmospheric circulation reconstructions over the earth (ACRE) initiative in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona; Allan, Rob; Switzer, Adam D.; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Wasson, Robert James; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Gartner, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The value of historic observational weather data for reconstructing long-term climate patterns and the detailed analysis of extreme weather events has long been recognized (Le Roy Ladurie, 1972; Lamb, 1977). In some regions however, observational data has not been kept regularly over time, or its preservation and archiving has not been considered a priority by governmental agencies. This has been a particular problem in Southeast Asia where there has been no systematic country-by-country method of keeping or preserving such data, the keeping of data only reaches back a few decades, or where instability has threatened the survival of historic records. As a result, past observational data are fragmentary, scattered, or even absent altogether. The further we go back in time, the more obvious the gaps. Observational data can be complimented however by historical documentary or proxy records of extreme events such as floods, droughts and other climatic anomalies. This review article highlights recent initiatives in sourcing, recovering, and preserving historical weather data and the potential for integrating the same with proxy (and other) records. In so doing, it focuses on regional initiatives for data research and recovery - particularly the work of the international Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth's (ACRE) Southeast Asian regional arm (ACRE SEA) - and the latter's role in bringing together disparate, but interrelated, projects working within this region. The overarching goal of the ACRE SEA initiative is to connect regional efforts and to build capacity within Southeast Asian institutions, agencies and National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) to improve and extend historical instrumental, documentary and proxy databases of Southeast Asian hydroclimate, in order to contribute to the generation of high-quality, high-resolution historical hydroclimatic reconstructions (reanalyses) and, to build linkages with humanities researchers

  20. Harmonisation of food labelling regulations in Southeast Asia: benefits, challenges and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapila, William; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2011-01-01

    In the globalised world of the 21st century, issues of food and nutrition labelling are of pre-eminent importance. Several international bodies, including the World Health Organisation and World Trade Organisation, are encouraging countries to harmonise their food and nutrition regulations with international standards, guidelines and recommendations such as those for Codex Alimentarius. Through harmonisation, these organisations envisage fewer barriers to trade and freer movement of food products between countries, which would open doors to new markets and opportunities for the food industry. In turn, increased food trade would enhance economic development and allow consumers a greater choice of products. Inevitably, however, embracing harmonisation brings along cost implications and challenges that have to be overcome. Moreover, the harmonisation process is complex and sporadic in light of the tasks that countries have to undertake; for example, updating legislation, strengthening administrative capabilities and establishing analytical laboratories. This review discusses the legislation and regulations that govern food and nutrition labelling in Southeast Asia, and highlights the discrepancies that exist in this regard, their origin and consequences. It also gives an account of the current status of harmonising labelling of pre-packaged foodstuffs in the region and explains the subsequent benefits, challenges and implications for governments, the food industry and consumers.

  1. Anchoring Singapore Philanthropy in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Already a number of other emerging Southeast Asian middle-income economies ... Management University, to investigate philanthropy in four Southeast Asian ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  2. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  3. Population burden of betel quid abuse and its relation to oral premalignant disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: an Asian Betel-quid Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.

  4. New research on glass beads confirms trade and contact between Southern Africa and Southeast Asia ca. AD 950-1250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitowitz-Fenton, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Luxury goods, used in Muslim and medieval long distance trade between ca. AD 900-1250, found an important market among the Iron Age peoples of southern Africa. Indirect evidence of this trade can be seen in the form of archaeological collections of glass beads at sites throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. Texts, chronicles, glass weights, scribal notes and receipts confirm that it was already a successful industrial centre with a history of glass-making when the Fatimids gained control of Egypt. In this study the author addressed three aspects of research to investigate the trade networks associated with internal and foreign contact: (1) the manufacturing origins of the beads, (2) who brought them to southern Africa, and (3) their dispersal in the region. Glass material from Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Southeast Asia was used for comparison, and as possible source material. Scientific techniques were used to confirm these operations. The beads were described, classified, and sampled selectively for physical and chemical analysis. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) used to determine the rare earth element (REE) shows that a particular glass, used to make beads in Egypt, is the same as that used to make some of the beads found at sites in the northern and eastern Transvaal. They document the existence of a trade link with the Mediterranean via the Red Sea 1000 years ago. Until now, both the origin of this contact and the extent of indigenous responses were largely unknown. These findings cast a different light on maritime trade along the east coast of Africa a millennium ago, and on external influences which helped to launch significant political developments in southern Africa

  5. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low…

  6. Youth tobacco use in South-East Asia: Implications for tobacco epidemic and options for its control in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Agarwal, Naveen

    2017-09-01

    Nearly half of all male population and two in every five females in the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) consume some form of tobacco. Preventing initiation among adolescents is critical for overall tobacco control. We assessed the trends in youth tobacco use and policies in SEAR. Data are used from school-based youth (Global Youth Tobacco Survey and global school student-based health survey) and adult (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, STEPS) tobacco surveys and the WHO Framework of Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation database. More than 10% of 13-15-year-old adolescent students reported tobacco use in 8 out of 11 countries. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco exceeded that of cigarettes except in Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor-Leste. No consistent declining trends in tobacco use were observed in any of the countries with 3 or more data points. More than half of all daily smokers aged 20-34 years initiated "daily" smoking before 20 years of age. 19% (Bangladesh) to 55% (Timor-Leste) of 13-17-year old students tried their first cigarette before their 14th birthday. Majority of adolescent students in most of the SEAR countries reported purchasing their cigarettes from store/shop/vendor and as single sticks, with few exceptions and purchased them as "single" cigarette. There is a limited change in affordability of cigarettes in SEAR over time. Tobacco use remains high among youth in SEAR. Efforts should be strengthened to fully implement/enforce recommended policy measures (legal minimum age, fiscal measures to reduce tobacco affordability; prohibiting sale of single cigarettes, etc.) and to explore new measures (e.g., tobacco-free generation).

  7. Currency crises: Is Asia different?

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Markus; Schweickert, Rainer

    1998-01-01

    International investors' enthusiasm with respect to growth prospects in Southeast Asia has been followed by panic. Both the outstanding economic performance of Southeast Asian economies and their ability to master adjustment challenges had led most observers of these economies to the conclusion that "Asia is different". In comparison with previous currency crises, the macroeconomic fundamentals (GDP growth, inflation, fiscal deficit, external indebtedness, domestic savings, export performance...

  8. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 FGC award winners in the Southeast are: the Department of Human Services’ U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Southeast Regional Office and Department of Energy’s East Tennessee Technology Park.

  9. STI for Development in Asia : a Platform for Information Sharing and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will make use of available information technology platforms and regional ... (especially Southeast Asia) to share experiences and learning on the subject of STI. ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...

  10. Asia-MIP: Multi Model-data Synthesis of Terrestrial Carbon Cycles in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ito, A.; Kang, M.; Sasai, T.; SATO, H.; Ueyama, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Saigusa, N.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Asia, which is characterized by monsoon climate and intense human activities, is one of the prominent understudied regions in terms of terrestrial carbon budgets and mechanisms of carbon exchange. To better understand terrestrial carbon cycle in Asia, we initiated multi-model and data intercomparison project in Asia (Asia-MIP). We analyzed outputs from multiple approaches: satellite-based observations (AVHRR and MODIS) and related products, empirically upscaled estimations (Support Vector Regression) using eddy-covariance observation network in Asia (AsiaFlux, CarboEastAsia, FLUXNET), ~10 terrestrial biosphere models (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, LPJ, SEIB-DGVM, TRIFFID, VISIT models), and atmospheric inversion analysis (e.g. TransCom models). We focused on the two difference temporal coverage: long-term (30 years; 1982-2011) and decadal (10 years; 2001-2010; data intensive period) scales. The regions of covering Siberia, Far East Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia (60-80E, 10S-80N), was analyzed in this study for assessing the magnitudes, interannual variability, and key driving factors of carbon cycles. We will report the progress of synthesis effort to quantify terrestrial carbon budget in Asia. First, we analyzed the recent trends in Gross Primary Productivities (GPP) using satellite-based observation (AVHRR) and multiple terrestrial biosphere models. We found both model outputs and satellite-based observation consistently show an increasing trend in GPP in most of the regions in Asia. Mechanisms of the GPP increase were analyzed using models, and changes in temperature and precipitation play dominant roles in GPP increase in boreal and temperate regions, whereas changes in atmospheric CO2 and precipitation are important in tropical regions. However, their relative contributions were different. Second, in the decadal analysis (2001-2010), we found that the negative GPP and carbon uptake anomalies in 2003 summer in Far East Asia is one of the largest

  11. The role of DNA barcodes in understanding and conservation of mammal diversity in southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M Francis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is recognized as a region of very high biodiversity, much of which is currently at risk due to habitat loss and other threats. However, many aspects of this diversity, even for relatively well-known groups such as mammals, are poorly known, limiting ability to develop conservation plans. This study examines the value of DNA barcodes, sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, to enhance understanding of mammalian diversity in the region and hence to aid conservation planning. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA barcodes were obtained from nearly 1900 specimens representing 165 recognized species of bats. All morphologically or acoustically distinct species, based on classical taxonomy, could be discriminated with DNA barcodes except four closely allied species pairs. Many currently recognized species contained multiple barcode lineages, often with deep divergence suggesting unrecognized species. In addition, most widespread species showed substantial genetic differentiation across their distributions. Our results suggest that mammal species richness within the region may be underestimated by at least 50%, and there are higher levels of endemism and greater intra-specific population structure than previously recognized. CONCLUSIONS: DNA barcodes can aid conservation and research by assisting field workers in identifying species, by helping taxonomists determine species groups needing more detailed analysis, and by facilitating the recognition of the appropriate units and scales for conservation planning.

  12. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  13. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  14. World Network of Friends: Africa-Asia regional partnerships and South-South development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    in future world orders. Partners first introduced as participants and alumni of private sector training courses in Japan founded WNF in 1997. The members are alumni and alumni organizations in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and South America, but also from the Former Eastern Europe. WNF members...... exchange invitations to training courses and partnerships for the development of human resources. The structure of and focus on human resource development is inspired by experiences of ODA financed courses in Japan and, thereby, fits Shimomura and Wang’s argument that ‘the notable difference between...

  15. Central Asia in Asia: Charting growing trans-regional linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola P. Contessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the so-called ‘Asian Century’ unfolds, Central Asian countries are increasingly directing their foreign relations eastward. Meanwhile, Asian states are equally turning to Central Asia in their search for energy resources and new markets. This dual dynamic is giving rise to closer and deeper ties in three key areas. As far as infrastructures are concerned, various Asian powers have adopted Silk Road policies that see Central Asia as a fundamental transit route for their long-haul connectivity projects. In the field of trade, Central Asia's exchanges with other Asian countries have been growing steadily since the 1990s, in some cases even coming to rival, in comparative terms, exchanges with the West. Lastly, in terms of multilateralism, Central Asia is increasingly enmeshed in a web of overlapping institutions with a strong Asian identity, coexisting with the region's Western institutional references. The article then problematizes this emerging pattern by sketching out some of the possible ramifications that could stem from the sustainment and consolidation of these trends for the international order and the global balance of power.

  16. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, novel etiological agent for traveler's diarrhea-report of four Japanese patients who returned from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahide; Ouji, Yukiteru; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Akamatsu, Naoaki; Yoh, Takaharu; Kaya, Daisuke; Nakatani, Toshiya; Kikuchi, Eiryo; Katanami, Yuichi; Satoh, Kimitoshi; Maki, Ryosuke; Miyazato, Yusuke; Oba, Yuichiro; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Countries in the Southeast Asia region have a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth, such as roundworm, whipworm, and hookworms [ Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ancylostoma ceylanicum ]. Recent molecular-based surveys have revealed that A . ceylanicum , a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in that part of the world, while others have noted that this infection is an emerging public health risk not only for indigenous people but also for visitors from other countries. We recently encountered four cases of A . ceylanicum infection in Japanese individuals who returned from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea. Case 1 was a 25-year-old male who stayed in a rainforest in Malaysia for 4 weeks, where he developed abdominal pain and diarrhea in the third week. Eleven adult worms (five males, six females) were expelled after treatment with pyrantel pamoate and identified as A . ceylanicum based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Case 2 was a 26-year-old male who spent 2 years as an overseas cooperation volunteer for agriculture in Papua New Guinea. He did not note any symptoms at that time, though eggs were detected in feces samples at a medical check-up examination after returning. Although collection of adult worms was unsuccessful, DNA analysis of the eggs for cox1 and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 genes demonstrated that they were A . ceylanicum. Case 3 was a 47-year-old male who spent 1 month in a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic and began suffering from watery diarrhea from the third week. A total of nine adult worms (three males, six females) were collected by endoscopic procedures and following treatment with pyrantel pamoate. Morphological examination and molecular analyses of the cox1 gene showed that they were A . ceylanicum. Case 4 was a 27-year-old male who

  17. A panel of 74 AISNPs: Improved ancestry inference within Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Xia; Pakstis, Andrew J; Jiang, Li; Wei, Yi-Liang; Sun, Qi-Fan; Wu, Hong; Bulbul, Ozlem; Wang, Ping; Kang, Long-Li; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2016-07-01

    Many ancestry informative SNP (AISNP) panels have been published. Ancestry resolution in them varies from three to eight continental clusters of populations depending on the panel used. However, none of these panels differentiates well among East Asian populations. To meet this need, we have developed a 74 AISNP panel after analyzing a much larger number of SNPs for Fst and allele frequency differences between two geographically close population groups within East Asia. The 74 AISNP panel can now distinguish at least 10 biogeographic groups of populations globally: Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, North Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Pacific and Americas. Compared with our previous 55-AISNP panel, Southeast Asia and North Asia are two newly assignable clusters. For individual ancestry assignment, the likelihood ratio and ancestry components were analyzed on a different set of 500 test individuals from 11 populations. All individuals from five of the test populations - Yoruba (YRI), European (CEU), Han Chinese in Henan (CHNH), Rondonian Surui (SUR) and Ticuna (TIC) - were assigned to their appropriate geographical regions unambiguously. For the other test populations, most of the individuals were assigned to their self-identified geographical regions with a certain degree of overlap with adjacent populations. These alternative ancestry components for each individual thus help give a clearer picture of the possible group origins of the individual. We have demonstrated that the new AISNP panel can achieve a deeper resolution of global ancestry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Out of Asia: mitochondrial evolutionary history of the globally introduced supralittoral isopod Ligia exotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Luis A; Mateos, Mariana; Wang, Chang; Santamaria, Carlos A; Jung, Jongwoo; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Kim, Won

    2018-01-01

    The native ranges and invasion histories of many marine species remain elusive due to a dynamic dispersal process via marine vessels. Molecular markers can aid in identification of native ranges and elucidation of the introduction and establishment process. The supralittoral isopod Ligia exotica has a wide tropical and subtropical distribution, frequently found in harbors and ports around the globe. This isopod is hypothesized to have an Old World origin, from where it was unintentionally introduced to other regions via wooden ships and solid ballast. Its native range, however, remains uncertain. Recent molecular studies uncovered the presence of two highly divergent lineages of L. exotica in East Asia, and suggest this region is a source of nonindigenous populations. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian) of a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal (r)DNA gene using a dataset of this isopod that greatly expanded previous representation from Asia and putative nonindigenous populations around the world. For a subset of samples, sequences of 12S rDNA and NaK were also obtained and analyzed together with 16S rDNA. Our results show that L. exotica is comprised of several highly divergent genetic lineages, which probably represent different species. Most of the 16S rDNA genetic diversity (48 haplotypes) was detected in East and Southeast Asia. Only seven haplotypes were observed outside this region (in the Americas, Hawai'i, Africa and India), which were identical or closely related to haplotypes found in East and Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic patterns indicate the L. exotica clade originated and diversified in East and Southeast Asia, and only members of one of the divergent lineages have spread out of this region, recently, suggesting the potential to become invasive is phylogenetically constrained.

  19. Regional Commonalities and Regional Identities: Forging a Normative Understanding of Southeast Asian Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, most of the IR academia’s attention on Southeast Asian regionalism utilised constructivism and/or realism and has focused on ASEAN and its derivatives. This article aims to skew this angle by elaborating a possible relationship between Asian values and a normative understanding of Southeast Asian identity. The major reason for this article’s focus on a normative interpretation is that a practical application of Southeast Asian identity is not very achievable due to various ethnic, cultural, political, territorial, and historical diversities. While the region is diverse, there are also a number of commonalities among its states. Asian values, from a Confucian perspective, account for some of these commonalities. By using constructivists’ claims on both the links between norms and identity and the dynamic interaction between values and norms, this article argues that Asian values could contribute to the development of Amitav Acharya’s widely cited normative/ideational format of Southeast Asian identity. The article takes ASEAN identity as a case study and aims to show why a normative identity is more achievable than a practical identity among Southeast Asians, and how Asian values might contribute to the creation of this shared identity.

  20. Molecular identification of the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen city, China: a potential imported vertical transmission from Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Guo, G Z; Chen, J Q; Ma, H W; Liu, T; Huang, D N; Yao, C H; Zhang, R L; Xue, C F; Zhang, L

    2014-02-01

    A suspected dengue fever outbreak occurred in 2010 at a solitary construction site in Shenzhen city, China. To investigate this epidemic, we used serological, molecular biological, and bioinformatics techniques. Of nine serum samples from suspected patients, we detected seven positive for dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, eight for DENV-1 RNA, and three containing live viruses. The isolated virus, SZ1029 strain, was sequenced and confirmed as DENV-1, showing the highest E-gene homology to D1/Malaysia/36000/05 and SG(EHI)DED142808 strains recently reported in Southeast Asia. Further phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed their close relationship. At the epidemic site, we also detected 14 asymptomatic co-workers (out of 291) positive for DENV antibody, and DENV-1-positive mosquitoes. Thus, we concluded that DENV-1 caused the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen. Because no imported case was identified, the molecular fingerprints of the SZ1029 strain suggest this outbreak may be due to vertical transmission imported from Southeast Asia.

  1. Analysis of National Forest Programs for REDD+ Implementation in six South and Southeast Asia countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar J Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To facilitate REDD+ implementation and identify relevant attributes for robust REDD+ policies, this study evaluated and synthesized information from national forest programs in South and Southeast Asian countries. Area of study: Data was collected from six countries: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Philippines, India and Thailand. Methods: The data sources for the evaluation was an in-depth desk review of relevant documents and focus group discussion among experts from each study country.   Main Results: We found out that diverse factors may influence program feasibility and the ability to achieve ‘triple benefits’: the nature of the forest targeted by the policy, the characteristics of the population affected by the policy, attributes of the policy instrument and the different actors involved. Research highlights: We argue that national policies and programs targeted for REDD+ implementation should focus on the identified features to achieve REDD+ goals. Keywords: policy evaluation; policy instruments; triple benefits; Southeast Asia.

  2. Glocalization and the Marketing of Christianity in Early Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Watson Andaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of European commercial interests into Southeast Asia during the early modern period was commonly justified by the biblical injunction to spread Christian teachings, and by the “civilizing” influences it was said to foster. In focusing on areas where Christianity gained a foothold or, in the Philippines and Timor Leste, became the dominant faith, this article invokes the marketing concept of “glocalization”, frequently applied to the sociology of religion. It argues that the historical beginnings of the processes associated with the global/local interface of Christianity are situated in the sixteenth century, when Europe, Asia and the Americas were finally linked through maritime connections. Christian missionizing was undertaken with the assumption that the European-based “brand” of beliefs and practices could be successfully transported to a very different environment. However, the application of these ideas was complicated by the goal of imposing European economic control, by the local resistance thus generated, and by competition with other religions and among Christians themselves. In this often antagonistic environment, the degree to which a global product could be “repackaged” and “glocalized” so that it was appealing to consumers in different cultural environments was always constrained, even among the most sympathetic purveyors. As a result, the glocalization of Christianity set up “power-laden tensions” which both global institutions and dispersed consumers continue to negotiate.

  3. The Asia 2 specific signal peptide region and other domains in fusion protein genes characterized Asia 1 and Asia 2 canine distemper viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Serageldeen; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Maeda, Ken; Kai, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV) was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H) gene, the fusion (F) protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had not been identified. So, the sequence analysis of F gene was carried out to elucidate the genotypic varaitons among Asian isolates. Results The phylogenetic analysis of F and H gene sequences from fourteen CDV isolates obtained from diseased dogs in Japan and Thailand indicated that the F genes had a new initiation codon and extra 27 nucleotides upstream of the usual open reading frame (ORF) and the F proteins had extra 9 amino acids at the N-terminal position only in Asia 2 isolates. On the contrary, the Asia 1 isolates had three extra putative N-glycosylation sites (two sites in the signal peptide region and one site in the F1 region) except for two strains of Th12 and Ac96I (two sites in signal peptide region) adding to four putative N-glycosylation sites that were conserved among all Asian isolates and Onderstepoort strain. In addition to this difference in N-glycosylation sites, the signal peptide region had a great diversity between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Also, characteristic amino acids were detected for some strains. Conclusion Asia 2 isolates were distinguished from other CDV lineages by the extra 27 nucleotide sequence. The signal peptide region of F gene gives a remarkable differentiation between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Strains Th12 and Ac96I were differentiated from other Asia 1 strains by the F protein glycosylation sites. PMID:19807927

  4. Tissue banking in Asia Pacific region: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Mandy, Foong Shi Yun; Ning, Tan; Kaiying, Wang

    2018-04-25

    Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific regions is driven by two main forces-firstly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via Regional Co-operative Agreement projects and secondly by the Asia Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB). This overview is written in three sections: (1) History of tissue banking in individual country in the region. (2) History of APASTB. (3) History of IAEA programme in Asia Pacific region. The current status and future of the tissue banking programme in the region will be discussed.

  5. The Rise of New Urban Middle Classes in Southeast Asia: What is its national and regional significance?

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Shiraishi

    2004-01-01

    Middle classes in East Asia are a product of regional economic development which has taken place in waves under an American informal empire, over half a century, first in Japan, then in NIEs, then in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines and now in China. They are a product of developmental states and their politics of economic growth. Their life styles have been shaped in complex ways by their appropriation of things American, Japanese, Chinese, Islamic, and others. Though create...

  6. Chikungunya: Its History in Africa and Asia and Its Spread to New Regions in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim; Sudre, Bertrand

    2016-12-15

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes febrile illness with severe arthralgia in humans. There are 3 circulating CHIKV genotypes, Asia, East/Central/South Africa, and West Africa. CHIKV was first reported in 1953 in Tanzania, and up until the early 2000s, a few outbreaks and sporadic cases of CHIKV were mainly reported in Africa and Asia. However, from 2004 to 2005, a large epidemic spanned from Kenya over to the southwestern Indian Ocean region, India, and Southeast Asia. Identified in 2005, the E1 glycoprotein A226V mutation of the East/Central/South Africa genotype conferred enhanced transmission by the A. albopictus mosquito and has been implicated in CHIKV's further spread in the last decade. In 2013, the Asian CHIKV genotype emerged in the Caribbean and quickly took the Americas by storm. This review will discuss the history of CHIKV as well as its expanding geographic distribution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries.We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%, but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999, followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001, Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001, Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003, and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008. No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females, but not in Japan (for males, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group

  8. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-04-01

    Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in

  9. Regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in South-East Asia region: The journey so far and the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2017-09-01

    South-East Asia Region (SEAR) has more smokeless tobacco users as compared to smokers. The growing prevalence and cultural acceptance of consumption of flavored areca nut and related products, for example, supari and pan masala in many countries are confounding the scenario. The prevalence of a variety of tobacco products makes regulation a challenge which gets more complicated in view of weak enforcement of regulatory policies aggressive marketing of such products by the tobacco industry. Some countries have attempted to regulate smokeless tobacco and related products by enforcing bans. However, limited evidence base along with lack of technical and regulatory capacities have restricted the SEAR countries to effectively implement product regulation in respect of smokeless tobacco and related products. This paper lays out specific priorities for research and need to enhance regulatory capacity for smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in the SEAR countries. A systematic and comprehensive search was conducted to identify all original published literature related to regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut. Studies reporting on the same were obtained through searches in relevant academic databases. Relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and reports on tobacco products regulation were consulted. Generating the right evidence along with the need to build the capacity of the countries to test the smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products by establishing testing facilities and providing practical guidelines is of paramount importance. The countries of the SEAR need to prioritize the implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to strengthen the regulation of smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products.

  10. Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in Southeast Asia region and its relationship with atmosphere-ocean variations in Indo-Pacific sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin T. [Technology National University of Malaysia, Marine Science Program, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2005-09-01

    The Southeast Asia rainfall (SEAR) anomalies depend strongly on phases of El Nino (La Nina). Using an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis, it is shown that the dominant EEOF mode of SEAR anomalies evolves northeastward throughout a period from the summer when El Nino develops to spring the following year when the event weakens. This evolution is consistent with northeastward migration of the ENSO-related anomalous out going radiation field. During boreal summer (winter), the strong ENSO-related anomaly tends to reside in regions south (north) of the equator. The evolution of dominant mode of SEAR anomalies is in tandem with the evolution of ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The strengthening and weakening of ''boomerang-shaped'' SST in western Pacific, the changing sign of anomalous SST in Java Sea and the warming in Indian Ocean and South China Sea are all part of ENSO-related changes and all are linked to SEAR anomaly. The anomalous low-level circulation associated with ENSO-related SEAR anomaly indicates the strengthening and weakening of two off-equatorial anticyclones, one over the Southern Indian Ocean and the other over the western North Pacific. Together with patterns of El Nino minus La Nina composites of various fields, it is proposed that the northeastward evolution of SEAR anomaly is basically part of the large-scale eastward evolution of ENSO-related signal in the Indo-Pacific sector. The atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role in this evolution. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, T.

    2001-01-01

    There are 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world. Of these, 95 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 36 reactors currently under construction in the world, 19 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 44 planned reactors in the world, 36 are in this region. At the start of the 'New Nuclear Century' the Asia-Pacific region has become the main area for growth and innovation in nuclear power. This paper describes the nuclear power developments in each country and examines the status of the construction programme and the planned projects. Countries included are China, India, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan. New projects include the HTR in China, Advance Breeder Water Reactors in Japan, KEDO in the DPRK and the Advance Pressurised Water Reactor in the Republic of Korea

  12. Globalizing Social Welfare and Labor Markets in East and Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...

  13. Homogeneous population of the brown alga Sargassum polycystum in Southeast Asia: possible role of recent expansion and asexual propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Wai Chan

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has been known as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Repeated glacial cycles during Pleistocene were believed to cause isolation of marine taxa in refugia, resulting in diversification among lineages. Recently, ocean current was also found to be another factor affecting gene flow by restricting larval dispersal in animals. Macroalgae are unique in having mode of reproduction that differs from that of animals. Our study on the phylogeographical pattern of the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum using nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, plastidal RuBisCO spacer (Rub spacer and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-III (Cox3 as molecular markers revealed genetic homogeneity across 27 sites in Southeast Asia and western Pacific, in sharp contrast to that revealed from most animal studies. Our data suggested that S. polycystum persisted in single refugium during Pleistocene in a panmixia pattern. Expansion occurred more recently after the Last Glacial Maximum and recolonization of the newly flooded Sunda Shelf could have involved asexual propagation of the species. High dispersal ability through floating fronds carrying developing germlings may also contribute to the low genetic diversity of the species.

  14. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, K; Rizwan, S A; Sinha, D N; Andes, L J; Amarchand, R; Krishnan, A; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use") in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0%) and Thailand (23.4%) and less common in Bangladesh (16.1%) and India (8.7%). Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3%) and India (20.6%) and less common on Indonesia (0.9%) and Thailand (3.5%). Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8%) and India (5.3%), but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8) and Thailand (0.4%). Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use increased among males and with increasing

  15. Idiosyncratic Features of the Contemporary Regional Economic Architecture in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip K. Das

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the characteristic features of contemporary policy-led regionalism in Asia. It identifies the positive and negative features associated with the free trade agreements that have proliferated in Asia during the first decade of the 21st century. There has been a marked transformation in Asia's regional architecture in a short span of a decade-and-a-half. The mode and conduct of multilateral trade has been signifThe objective of this article is to examine the characteristic features of contemporary policy-led regionalism in Asia. It identifies the positive and negative features associated with the free trade agreements that have proliferated in Asia during the first decade of the 21st century. There has been a marked transformation in Asia's regional architecture in a short span of a decade-and-a-half. The mode and conduct of multilateral trade has been significantly transformed during recent years and Asia could not possibly remain immune to this transformation. The importance of regionalism in multilateral trade has increased steadily. In addition, the trade-investment-services nexus has developed and grown increasingly important. As business firms now manufacture parts of their products across the border, bilateral trade agreements (BTAs, regional trade agreements (RTAs and free trade agreements (FTAs of the contemporary period need to take into account the new kind of trade barriers that have been created due to the changing mode of trade. The contemporary regional agreements need to be designed to facilitate the new modes of conducting business and trade. It was understood rather late in Asia that the 'WTO-Plus' FTAs are more functional and result-oriented than their predecessors.

  16. How Chinese are entrepreneurial strategies of ethnic Chinese business groups in Southeast Asia? : a multifaceted analysis of the Salim Group of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Maria Helena

    2007-01-01

    Family business groups are ubiquitous in most emerging markets. This book provides a richly documented analysis of the strategy of the Salim Group, one of the largest family conglomerates in Southeast Asia. It argues that the strategy of this group oscillated irregularly between a business model

  17. Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Much of the data resolution of the haploid non-recombining Y chromosome (NRY) haplogroup O in East Asia are still rudimentary and could be an explanatory factor for current debates on the settlement history of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). Here, 81 slowly evolving markers (mostly SNPs) and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats were used to achieve higher level molecular resolution. Our aim is to investigate if the distribution of NRY DNA variation in Taiwan and ISEA is consistent with a single pre-Neolithic expansion scenario from Southeast China to all ISEA, or if it better fits an expansion model from Taiwan (the OOT model), or whether a more complex history of settlement and dispersals throughout ISEA should be envisioned. Results We examined DNA samples from 1658 individuals from Vietnam, Thailand, Fujian, Taiwan (Han, plain tribes and 14 indigenous groups), the Philippines and Indonesia. While haplogroups O1a*-M119, O1a1*-P203, O1a2-M50 and O3a2-P201 follow a decreasing cline from Taiwan towards Western Indonesia, O2a1-M95/M88, O3a*-M324, O3a1c-IMS-JST002611 and O3a2c1a-M133 decline northward from Western Indonesia towards Taiwan. Compared to the Taiwan plain tribe minority groups the Taiwanese Austronesian speaking groups show little genetic paternal contribution from Han. They are also characterized by low Y-chromosome diversity, thus testifying for fast drift in these populations. However, in contrast to data provided from other regions of the genome, Y-chromosome gene diversity in Taiwan mountain tribes significantly increases from North to South. Conclusion The geographic distribution and the diversity accumulated in the O1a*-M119, O1a1*-P203, O1a2-M50 and O3a2-P201 haplogroups on one hand, and in the O2a1-M95/M88, O3a*-M324, O3a1c-IMS-JST002611 and O3a2c1a-M133 haplogroups on the other, support a pincer model of dispersals and gene flow from the mainland to the islands which likely started during the late upper Paleolithic, 18,000 to 15

  18. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckman, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region

  19. Assessing the Roles of Regional Climate Uncertainty, Policy, and Economics on Future Risks to Water Stress: A Large-Ensemble Pilot Case for Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Strzepek, K. M.; Gao, X.; Fant, C. W.; Blanc, E.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Paltsev, S.; Arndt, C.; Prinn, R. G.; Reilly, J. M.; Jacoby, H.

    2013-12-01

    The fate of natural and managed water resources is controlled to varying degrees by interlinked energy, agricultural, and environmental systems, as well as the hydro-climate cycles. The need for risk-based assessments of impacts and adaptation to regional change calls for likelihood quantification of outcomes via the representation of uncertainty - to the fullest extent possible. A hybrid approach of the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework provides probabilistic projections of regional climate change - generated in tandem with consistent socio-economic projections. A Water Resources System (WRS) then tracks water allocation and availability across these competing demands. As such, the IGSM-WRS is an integrated tool that provides quantitative insights on the risks and sustainability of water resources over large river basins. This pilot project focuses the IGSM-WRS on Southeast Asia (Figure 1). This region presents exceptional challenges toward sustainable water resources given its texture of basins that traverse and interconnect developing nations as well as large, ascending economies and populations - such as China and India. We employ the IGSM-WRS in a large ensemble of outcomes spanning hydro-climatic, economic, and policy uncertainties. For computational efficiency, a Gaussian Quadrature procedure sub-samples these outcomes (Figure 2). The IGSM-WRS impacts are quantified through frequency distributions of water stress changes. The results allow for interpretation of: the effects of policy measures; impacts on food production; and the value of design flexibility of infrastructure/institutions. An area of model development and exploration is the feedback of water-stress shocks to economic activity (i.e. GDP and land use). We discuss these further results (where possible) as well as other efforts to refine: uncertainty methods, greater basin-level and climate detail, and process-level representation glacial melt-water sources. Figure 1 Figure 2

  20. The Role of the U.S. Army in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    global economy, including building economic partnerships overseas, ensuring access to markets and transit routes, and guarding against threats to U.S...trade.34 In addition, the region contains the rising economies of India and of much of Southeast Asia. The region is a vital market for the United...sound policies. CRM -2015-U-010431-Final www.cna.org ● 703-824-2000 3003 Washington Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201

  1. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  2. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Jose L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  3. ICT in the Changing Landscape of Higher Education in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kian-Sam; Songan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    As in the developed nations, developing countries in the Southeast Asian region increasingly are recognising the important role higher education plays in enhancing the human resources of a nation for promoting its development in a world of depleting natural resources. Advances and pervasiveness of ICT in the society mean that higher education…

  4. Second regional plasmapheresis conference and workshop for Southeast Asia (SEA) on the immunomodulatory role of plasma exchange in central and peripheral nervous system disorders, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9th December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Shanthi; Hung, Stefanie Kar Yan; Goyal, Vinay; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Thirugnanam, Umapathi N; Abdullah, Suhailah; Aye, Seinn Mya Mya; Ohnmar, Ohnmar; Si, Le Tri; Keosodsay, Saysavath; Estiasari, Riwanti; Khalife, Najib; Hiew, Fu Liong

    2018-04-06

    In December 2017, 79 delegates attended the 2nd regional plasmapheresis conference and workshop for Southeast Asia (SEA) on the immunomodulatory role of plasma exchange in central and peripheral nervous system disorders in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This meeting featured 6 plenary lectures, interactive sessions dedicated for experience sharing, case presentations, and a practical session for paramedics. Clinical experts and researchers from 7 SEA countries and India shared experience and challenges in treating autoimmune neurological disorders. While the spectrum of diseases and neurology practice remained largely similar, there was great disparities in accessibility of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) within SEA countries and between urban or rural settings. Costs, human resources, and healthcare policies are common challenges in providing sustainable TPE services. Novel techniques and innovative ideas in performing TPE were explored. A working consortium comprising of key opinion leaders was proposed to improve standards of TPE and enhance future research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-04-19

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies ( n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity.

  6. Non-Responsive Feeding Practices, Unhealthy Eating Behaviors, and Risk of Child Overweight and Obesity in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Lindsay, Ana; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Greaney, Mary L.; Wallington, Sherrie F.; Ruengdej, Praewrapee

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2–12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016. Fourteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Reviewed studies were examined separately for preschool- and school-aged children and revealed that non-responsive parental feeding practices and unhealthy child eating behaviors were associated with a risk of child overweight and obesity in several Southeast Asian countries. Nonetheless, due to the small number of identified studies (n = 14) and because only about half of the Southeast Asian countries (Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia) were represented (5/11) in the examined studies, additional research is needed to further understand the factors associated with childhood obesity among children in Southeast Asia to develop interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of Southeast Asian countries and designed to address practices and behaviors that may promote childhood obesity. PMID:28422081

  7. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Thailand regarding the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-04

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 25 September 1997 received by the Agency from the Permanent Mission of Thailand to the Agency concerning the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok), and as attachment the text of the above mentioned Treaty

  8. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Thailand regarding the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 25 September 1997 received by the Agency from the Permanent Mission of Thailand to the Agency concerning the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok), and as attachment the text of the above mentioned Treaty

  9. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  10. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  11. Refinery boom in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruson, J.F.; Virondaud, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Asia demand for oil is increasing dramatically, particularly in the non OECD countries, which represent, today more than 15 % of the world oil market. The expected economic growth in these areas should contribute to a rise in oil demand by about 5.4 per year and hence to a significant increase of this share to 25 % in 2010; virtually a large part of this evolution will come from the transportation sector. The proceeding investments of the regional, refining industry are very high (some evaluations come to around 140 billion of dollars), all the more the protection of the environment takes an increasing significant place. Accordingly the most important challenge to be taken up by these countries will be to mobilize long term fundings to develop and adapt the capabilities of the refineries to meet the growth of gasoline and gas oil demand. The contribution of private operators or capital will be necessary, but will depend strongly on refining margin improvement and on progress of free market areas announced by several countries. (authors)

  12. Towards Global Simulation of Irrigation in a Land Surface Model: Multiple Cropping and Rice Paddy in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use significantly influences the surface water and energy balances. Effects of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes include repartitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes, an increase in net radiation, and an increase in soil moisture and runoff. We are working on representing irrigation practices in continental- to global-scale land surface simulation in NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Because agricultural practices across the nations are diverse, and complex, we are attempting to capture the first-order reality of the regional practices before achieving a global implementation. This study focuses on two issues in Southeast Asia: multiple cropping and rice paddy irrigation systems. We first characterize agricultural practices in the region (i.e., crop types, growing seasons, and irrigation) using the Global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) dataset. Rice paddy extent is identified using remote sensing products. Whether irrigated or rainfed, flooded fields need to be represented and treated explicitly. By incorporating these properties and processes into a physically based land surface model, we are able to quantify the impacts on the simulated states and fluxes.

  13. PRACTICAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THYROID CANCER GUIDELINES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samantha Peiling; Ying, Lee Suat; Saw, Stephanie; Tuttle, R Michael; Venkataraman, Kavita; Su-Ynn, Chia

    2015-11-01

    Numerous published guidelines have described the optimal management of thyroid cancer. However, these rely on the clinical availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. We hypothesized that the availability of medical resources and economic circumstances vary in Asia-Pacific countries, making it difficult to implement guideline recommendations into clinical practice. We surveyed participants at the 2009 and 2013 Congresses of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Federation of Endocrine Societies by distributing questionnaires to attendees at registration. Responses were obtained from 268 respondents in 2009 and 163 respondents in 2013. Similar to the high prevalence of low-risk thyroid cancer observed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, across the Asia-Pacific countries surveyed in 2009 and 2013, 50 to 100% of the respondents from the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Korea, and Sri Lanka reported that more than 50% of the patients had low-risk thyroid cancer on follow-up. Importantly, there was much variation with regards to the perceived availability of investigation and treatment modalities. We found a wide variation in clinicians' perception of availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the face of a rise in thyroid cancer incidence and thyroid cancer management guidelines that emphasized their importance. The lack of availability of management tools and treatments will prove to be a major barrier to the implementation of thyroid cancer management guidelines in Southeast Asia, and likely in other parts of the world as well.

  14. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had

  15. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  16. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  17. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  18. Security trends in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong

    1992-01-01

    The drastic world changes are less conspicuous in Asia-Pacific region than in it was the case in Europe, although they must be considered as stabilizing factors as well as sustained economic dynamism. Due to these changes some progress was achieved in world disarmament and arms control. But this is considered only a first step, there remains a long way to go. In the case of Asia-Pacific, possessors of largest nuclear arsenals and most sophisticated conventional arms need to further reduce their forces, support the proposals of setting up nuclear-weapon-free zones and commit themselves to no-first-use of nuclear weapons and non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states. Their fulfilment of these demands would undoubtedly contribute towards the prevention of a new round of the arms race and to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Asia-Pacific region

  19. Southeast Asia: Of Tigers and Turmoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, Jeff; Morris, James; Syrett, Ann; Szeles, Erno

    1997-01-01

    .... Economic growth has been phenomenal for most Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, while Cambodia and Vietnam are struggling to provide a basic economic foundation to feed their people...

  20. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  1. A regional cooperative clinical study of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in east and south-east Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo; Cao, Jianping; Zhou Juying; Susworo, Raden; Supriana, Nana; Sato, Shinichiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Suto, Hisao; Nakamura, Yuzuru; Cho, Chul-Koo; Ismail, Fuad B.; Calaguas, Miriam J.C.; Reyes, Rey H. de los; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Thephamongkhol, Kullathom; Nguyen Ba Duc; To Anh Dung; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia

  2. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Salim, Mohammad A.; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E.; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Defries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013 - a non-drought year - Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated ``very unhealthy''). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 +/- 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 +/- 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  3. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  4. Selection of vaccine strains for serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses (2007-2012) circulating in Southeast Asia, East Asia and Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Aviso, Sharie; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya

    2017-12-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Southeast Asia (SEA) and East Asia with circulation of multiple serotypes and multiple genotypes within each serotype of the virus. Although countries like Japan and South Korea in the Far East were free of FMD, in 2010 FMD serotype O (O/Mya-98) outbreaks were recorded and since then South Korea has experienced several FMD outbreaks despite regular vaccination. In this study a total of 85 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 2007 to 2012 from SEA, East Asia and Far East were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using antisera to four existing (O/HKN/6/83, O/IND/R2/75, O/SKR/2010 and O/PanAsia-2) and one putative (O/MYA/2009) vaccine strains, and by full capsid sequencing. Serological studies revealed broad cross-reactivity with the vaccine strains; O/PanAsia-2 exhibited a good match with 95.3%, O/HKN/6/83 with 91.8%, O/IND/R2/75 with 80%, and the putative strain O/MYA/2009 with 89.4% isolates employed in this study. Similarly O/PanAsia-2 and O/IND/R2/75 vaccines showed a good match with all eight viruses belonging to O-Ind-2001d sublineage whereas the vaccines of O/Mya-98 lineage, O/MYA/2009 and O/SKR/2010 exhibited the lowest match indicating their unsuitability to protect infections from O-Ind-2001d viruses. A Bayesian analysis of the capsid sequence data indicated these circulating viruses (n = 85) to be of either SEA or Middle East-South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Lao PDR, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand reflecting the trade links with the Indian subcontinent, and also within the SEA countries. Implications of these results in the context of FMD control in SEA and East Asian countries are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional and ethnic differences among patients with heart failure in Asia: the Asian sudden cardiac death in heart failure registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carolyn S P; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Tay, Wan Ting; Anand, Inder; Zhang, Shu; Shimizu, Wataru; Narasimhan, Calambur; Park, Sang Weon; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Ngarmukos, Tachapong; Omar, Razali; Reyes, Eugene B; Siswanto, Bambang B; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Ling, Lieng H; Yap, Jonathan; MacDonald, Michael; Richards, A Mark

    2016-11-01

    To characterize regional and ethnic differences in heart failure (HF) across Asia. We prospectively studied 5276 patients with stable HF and reduced ejection fraction (≤40%) from 11 Asian regions (China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand). Mean age was 59.6 ± 13.1 years, 78.2% were men, and mean body mass index was 24.9 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 . Majority (64%) of patients had two or more comorbid conditions such as hypertension (51.9%), coronary artery disease (CAD, 50.2%), or diabetes (40.4%). The prevalence of CAD was highest in Southeast Asians (58.8 vs. 38.2% in Northeast Asians). Compared with Chinese ethnicity, Malays (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.63-2.38) and Indians (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.24-1.68) had higher odds of CAD, whereas Koreans (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.29-0.50) and Japanese (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36-0.55) had lower odds. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes was highest in Southeast Asians (64.2 and 49.3%, respectively) and high-income regions (59.7 and 46.2%, respectively). There was significant interaction between ethnicity and region, where the adjusted odds were 3.95 (95% CI 2.51-6.21) for hypertension and 4.91 (95% CI 3.07-7.87) for diabetes among Indians from high- vs. low-income regions; and 2.60 (95% CI 1.66-4.06) for hypertension and 2.62 (95% CI 1.73-3.97) for diabetes among Malays from high- vs. low-income regions. These first prospective multi-national data from Asia highlight the significant heterogeneity among Asian patients with stable HF, and the important influence of both ethnicity and regional income level on patient characteristics. NCT01633398. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Integrated Assessments of the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture: An Overview of AgMIP Regional Research in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Sonali P.; Dileepkumar, Guntuku; Murthy, K. M. Dakshina; Nedumaran, S.; Singh, Piara; Srinivasa, Chukka; Gangwar, B.; Subash, N.; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Zubair, Lareef; hide

    2015-01-01

    South Asia encompasses a wide and highly varied geographic region, and includes climate zones ranging from the mountainous Himalayan territory to the tropical lowland and coastal zones along alluvial floodplains. The region's climate is dominated by a monsoonal circulation that heralds the arrival of seasonal rainfall, upon which much of the regional agriculture relies. The spatial and temporal distribution of this rainfall is, however, not uniform over the region. Northern South Asia, central India, and the west coast receive much of their rainfall during the southwest monsoon season, between June and September. These rains partly result from the moisture transport accompanying the monsoonal winds, which move in the southwesterly direction from the equatorial Indian Ocean. Regions further south, such as south/southeast India and Sri Lanka, may receive rains from both the southwest monsoon, and also during the northeast monsoon season between October and December (with northeasterly monsoon wind flow and moisture flux), which results in a bi- or multi-modal rainfall distribution. In addition, rainfall across South Asia displays a large amount of intraseasonal and interannual variability. Interannual variability is influenced by many drivers, both natural (e.g., El Ni-Southern Oscillation; ENSO) and man-made (e.g., rising temperatures due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations), and it is challenging to obtaining accurate time-series of annual rainfall, even amongst various observed data products, which display inconsistencies amongst themselves. These climatic and rainfall variations can further complicate South Asia's agricultural and water management. Agriculture employs at least 65 of the workforce in most South Asian countries, and nearly 80 of South Asia's poor inhabit rural areas. Understanding the response of current agricultural production to climate variability and future climate change is of utmost importance in securing food and livelihoods for

  7. Historical atmospheric pollution trends in Southeast Asia inferred from lake sediment records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, S; Fong, L S R Z; Chen, Q; Leng, M J; McGowan, S; Idris, M; Rose, N L; Ruslan, M S; Taylor, D; Yang, H

    2018-04-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to increased levels of air pollution, which negatively affects human health as well as the environment. Documented data for Southeast Asia (SEA) show a strong increase in fossil fuel consumption since 1980, but information on coal and oil combustion before 1980 is not widely available. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and heavy metals, such as mercury (Hg), are emitted as by-products of fossil fuel combustion and may accumulate in sediments following atmospheric fallout. Here we use sediment SCP and Hg records from several freshwater lentic ecosystems in SEA (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore) to reconstruct long-term, region-wide variations in levels of these two key atmospheric pollution indicators. The age-depth models of Philippine sediment cores do not reach back far enough to date first SCP presence, but single SCP occurrences are first observed between 1925 and 1950 for a Malaysian site. Increasing SCP flux is observed at our sites from 1960 onward, although individual sites show minor differences in trends. SCP fluxes show a general decline after 2000 at each of our study sites. While the records show broadly similar temporal trends across SEA, absolute SCP fluxes differ between sites, with a record from Malaysia showing SCP fluxes that are two orders of magnitude lower than records from the Philippines. Similar trends in records from China and Japan represent the emergence of atmospheric pollution as a broadly-based inter-region environmental problem during the 20th century. Hg fluxes were relatively stable from the second half of the 20th century onward. As catchment soils are also contaminated with atmospheric Hg, future soil erosion can be expected to lead to enhanced Hg flux into surface waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia and U.S. national security

    OpenAIRE

    Snoke, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States government finds human trafficking to be an important subject and is placing increasing focus on the issue. The Southeast Asian portion of the Western Pacific encompasses a substantial portion of global trafficking, much of which has a final destination in the United States. This thesis asks the following question: How does trafficking in persons (TIP) affect U.S. national security interests and regional stability in ...

  9. Regional climate change-Science in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sonya A.

    2010-01-01

    Resource managers are at the forefront of a new era of management. They must consider the potential impacts of climate change on the Nation's resources and proactively develop strategies for dealing with those impacts on plants, animals, and ecosystems. This requires rigorous, scientific understanding of environmental change. The role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in this effort is to analyze climate-change data and develop tools for assessing how changing conditions are likely to impact resources. This information will assist Federal, State, local, and tribal partners manage resources strategically. The 2008 Omnibus Budget Act and Secretarial Order 3289 established a new network of eight Department of Interior Regional Climate Science Centers to provide technical support for resource managers. The Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) is the first regional assessment to be funded by the USGS National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (http://nccw.usgs.gov/). The USGS is working closely with the developing Department of Interior Landscape Conservation Cooperatives to ensure that the project will meet the needs of resource managers in the Southeast. In addition, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is providing resources to the SERAP to expand the scope of the project.

  10. TVET Initiatives in Southeast Asian Countries in Response to Increasing Labour Mobility within the Region and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryono

    2011-01-01

    The International Labour Organisation (ILO) report (2007) highlights that labour productivity, education and migration play important roles in shaping competitiveness, growth and development in Southeast Asia. The statistics also reveal interesting aspects of labour mobility. Thirteen and a half million migrants originate from countries in the…

  11. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  12. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  13. Studies on the Chinese in Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Hui Kian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michael D. Barr and Zlatko Skrbis, Constructing Singapore; Elitism, ethnicity and the nation-building project. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2008, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 978877694028, price GBP 50.00 (hardback; 9788776940294, GBP 16.99 (paperback. Marleen Dieleman, The rhythm of strategy; A corporate biography of the Salim Group of Indonesia. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2007, 205 pp. [ICAS Publications Series, Monograph 1.] ISBN 9789053560334. Price: EUR 29.50 (paperback. Kristina Goransson, The binding tie; Chinese intergenerational relations in modern Singapore. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2009, x + 191 pp. ISBN 9780824832599, price USD 57.00 (hardback; 9780824833527, USD 26.00 (paperback. Chang-Yau Hoon, Chinese identity in post-Suharto Indonesia; Culture, politics and media. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2008, xi + 230 pp. ISBN 9781845192686. Price: GBP 49.95 (hardback. Leo Suryadinata, Understanding the ethnic Chinese in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007, x + 310 pp. ISBN 9789812304377. Price: USD 21.90 (paperback. Sikko Visscher, The business of politics and ethnicity; A history of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Singapore: NUS Press, 2007, xviii + 372 pp. ISBN 97899713657. Price: USD 32.00 (paperback. Voon Phin Keong (ed., Malaysian Chinese and nation-building; Before Merdeka and fifty years after. Vol. 2. Kuala Lumpur: Centre for Malaysian Chinese Studies, 2008. ISBN 9789833808066 (hardback; 9789833908059 (paperback.

  14. From the mouths of babes: dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculture in mainland Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcrow, S E; Harris, N J; Tayles, N; Ikehara-Quebral, R; Pietrusewsky, M

    2013-03-01

    Many bioarchaeological studies have established a link between increased dental caries prevalence and the intensification of agriculture. However, research in Southeast Asia challenges the global application of this theory. Although often overlooked, dental health of infants and children can provide a sensitive source of information concerning health and subsistence change. This article investigates the prevalence and location of caries in the dentition of infants and children (less than 15 years of age) from eight prehistoric mainland Southeast Asian sites collectively spanning the Neolithic to late Iron Age, during which time rice agriculture became an increasingly important subsistence mode. Caries prevalence varied among the sites but there was no correlation with chronological change. The absence of evidence of a decline in dental health over time can be attributed to the relative noncariogenicity of rice and retention of broad-spectrum subsistence strategies. No differences in caries type indicating differences in dental health were found between the sites, apart from the Iron Age site of Muang Sema. There was a higher prevalence of caries in the deciduous dentition than the permanent dentition, likely due to a cariogenic weaning diet and the higher sensitivity of deciduous teeth to decay. The level of caries in the permanent dentition suggests an increased reliance on less cariogenic foods during childhood, including rice. The absence of a temporal decline in dental health of infants and children strengthens the argument that the relationship between caries and agricultural intensification in Southeast Asia was more complex than the general model suggests. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA. According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010 and near-term future (2020 projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface–atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (∼ 1990, overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m−3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m−3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  16. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  17. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  18. Some thoughts on nuclear cooperation in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaloeis, Azhar

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes some thoughts of the author on the importance of the role of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region in giving significant contributions to the development of the individual countries and to the region as a whole. The paper focuses on the role of nuclear science and technology and the importance of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, in particular to meet the challenges and opportunities in the new millennium. The paper starts off with a brief discussion on some important aspects of the Asia-Pacific region in view of its strategic location and its vast potential in terms of human and natural resources. Some of the major needs, challenges and opportunities in association with a future vision are briefly presented in terms of areas of activities that can be supported by the application of nuclear science and technology. The paper then discusses some ideas on how to further strengthen the nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by some concluding remarks and suggestions. (author)

  19. Genomic structure of the native inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo suggests complex human population history in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chee-Wei; Lu, Dongsheng; Deng, Lian; Wong, Lai-Ping; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoji; Yunus, Yushimah; Aghakhanian, Farhang; Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Hoque, Mohammad Zahirul; Voo, Christopher Lok-Yung; Abdul Rahman, Thuhairah; Bhak, Jong; Phipps, Maude E; Xu, Shuhua; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Hoh, Boon-Peng

    2018-02-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is enriched with a complex history of peopling. Malaysia, which is located at the crossroads of SEA, has been recognized as one of the hubs for early human migration. To unravel the genomic complexity of the native inhabitants of Malaysia, we sequenced 12 samples from 3 indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia and 4 native populations from North Borneo to a high coverage of 28-37×. We showed that the Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia shared a common ancestor with the East Asians, but exhibited some level of gene flow from South Asia, while the North Borneo populations exhibited closer genetic affinity towards East Asians than the Malays. The analysis of time of divergence suggested that ancestors of Negrito were the earliest settlers in the Malay Peninsula, whom first separated from the Papuans ~ 50-33 thousand years ago (kya), followed by East Asian (~ 40-15 kya), while the divergence time frame between North Borneo and East Asia populations predates the Austronesian expansion period implies a possible pre-Neolithic colonization. Substantial Neanderthal ancestry was confirmed in our genomes, as was observed in other East Asians. However, no significant difference was observed, in terms of the proportion of Denisovan gene flow into these native inhabitants from Malaysia. Judging from the similar amount of introgression in the Southeast Asians and East Asians, our findings suggest that the Denisovan gene flow may have occurred before the divergence of these populations and that the shared similarities are likely an ancestral component.

  20. The Argentine foreign policy towards the southeast of Asia between the presidential periods of Carlos Nemen and Nestor Kirchner from a constructive look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Rubiolo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance gained by Southeast Asian countries as emerging economies since the nineties has converted their markets in significant targets for Argentinean exports. Our aim in this paper is to identify the characteristics of the relation between Argentina and its main trade partners in Southeast Asia since 1989. In order to achieve this goal we will analyze the commercial and also the political dimensions. Our interest is to define if the trade relation was accompanied by an attempt of political rapprochement, and if the trade increase can be understood as a part of an Argentinean foreign policy towards diversification.

  1. Contemporary Trans-regional Cooperation between Europe and Asia in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beginda Pakpahan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with contemporary trans-regional cooperation between Europe and Asia in a changing world. It examines the emerging economic relationship between the EU and Asia and possible challenges and implications facing both regions. It argues that Europe - Asia economic and commercial ties are likely in the future to result in unbalanced economic development between both these regions; in short, future agreements are likely to disproportionately favour Europe. Therefore, the economic and commercial ties between these two regions should aim to develop the least advanced countries in Asia. The article argues that ASEM can be empowered as a common flexible framework for bilateral and inter-regional trade initiatives between both regions; it can be empowered to manage and monitor these trade initiatives and their social implications for vulnerable ASEM countries. The main objective of this article is to contribute a clearer understanding of the current EU - Asia relationship in the context of ASEM.

  2. Confidence-building measures in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Huasun

    1991-01-01

    The regional confidence-building, security and disarmament issues in the Asia-Pacific region, and in particular, support to non-proliferation regime and establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones are reviewed

  3. Petroleum systems in rift basins – a collective approach in South-east Asian basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Sumner, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper synthesizes some of the main conclusions reached in a recent regional review of the Tertiary basins of Southeast Asia, carried out by Shell. Four distinctive types of petroleum systems, correlating with the four main stages of basin evolution (early to late syn-rift and early to late

  4. DoD Workshop on Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berke, Philip; Brown, Robert; Elliott, Michael; Friday, Paul; Holst, Robert; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilkens, R. N

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings encompass outcomes from the DoD Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability Workshop, which took place in April 2007, and reflect the opinions and views of workshop participants...

  5. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  6. Smoke pollution disrupted biodiversity during the 2015 El Niño fires in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-H Lee, Benjamin P.; Davies, Zoe G.; Struebig, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    Forest and peatland fires during the 2015 El Niño drought were amongst the worst on record in Southeast Asia. They were a major contributor of carbon emissions across the region, with the associated smoke-induced haze causing an air pollution crisis that affected millions of people. We present evidence of air pollution impacts on biodiversity. Using daily acoustic recordings in central Singapore, we monitored the dawn chorus before, during and after the haze event. We demonstrate that levels of ecological community acoustic activity dropped dramatically during the haze, and that this decline was significantly associated with levels of air pollution considered ‘unhealthy’ to the human population. Acoustic disruption was apparent across four common indices of soundscape activity, with only a partial recovery to pre-haze levels observed 16 weeks after the smoke had dissipated. These impacts on ecological communities were likely to be even more severe closer to the fires, where air pollution levels were reported to be 15-fold greater than those recorded in Singapore. Our results indicate that large-scale air pollution crises may have hitherto underestimated and potentially far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, especially in parts of the world prone to extensive forest fires.

  7. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithosphere and the atmosphere/ionosphere, continuously exchange energy through various coupling mechanisms. Earthquake creates waves of energy, e.g. direct shock acoustic waves (SAWs and Rayleigh wave induced acoustic waves (RAWs. In the event of an earthquake occurring beneath the sea, atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs are also generated. If the earthquake is large enough (Mw > 6, SAWs, RAWs and AGWs induce detectable ionospheric plasma perturbations. Inferring the seismological information from these seismo-ionospheric manifestations is the subject that pertains to ionospheric seismology. Both ground and satellite based advanced radio techniques are being used in monitoring ionospheric plasma perturbations. In this study, seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia are discussed, mainly pertaining to the following. (1 From the ionospheric plasma response to 2015 Nepal earthquake, the estimated group velocity for Andaman and Indian shield regions are 2100 ms−1 and 3900 ms−1 respectively and validated from ground measurements. (2 Atmospheric acoustic resonance at 4.0 mHz and a train of wave packet of TEC variation resulting from the beat phenomenon observed at the site ‘umlh’ and (3 GNSS-based tsunami warning which is going to be promising tool in augmenting the existing tsunami warning systems.

  8. Natural gas supply and demand projections for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of rapid economic growth in the Asia Pacific has inevitably led the countries of this region to expand and diversify their energy sources in order to satisfy their burgeoning energy demands. Natural gas has become an increasingly marketable energy source in this region benefitting from vast reserves and its advantages as an environmentally clean fuel. As a result of the impact of the two oil shocks of the 1970's on the Asia Pacific economy, the governments in the region set about the development of energy strategies which would make their national economies more resilient to the instabilities of world energy price and supply. The Japanese Gas Industry has estimated that the overall rise in demand for energy in Asia, set at an average rate of 3.7% per annum, will see a corresponding growth in demand for natural gas at 5%. Experts from a number of major oil companies, such as Exxon, expect an annual growth in the Asian natural gas market of 6.0 to 6.3%. These figures are over shadowed by the worldwide demand for natural gas which is expected to gain an 8% increase within the next two decades. Approximately 8.75% of the world's proven natural gas reserves are held in Asia-Pacific region (Table I). Most of the region's natural gas production will provide over 100 years of supply. A review of natural gas supply/demand in the Asia-Pacific region is presented in sub-regions, namely ASIAN, Northeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Oceania

  9. The latest geodynamics in Asia: Synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, lithosphere motion, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rasskazov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From a synthesis of data on volcanic evolution, movement of the lithosphere, and mantle velocities in the Baikal-Mongolian region, we propose a comprehensive model for deep dynamics of Asia that assumes an important role of the Gobi, Baikal, and North Transbaikal transition-layer melting anomalies. This layer was distorted by lower-mantle fluxes at the beginning of the latest geodynamic stage (i.e. in the early late Cretaceous due to avalanches of slab material that were stagnated beneath the closed fragments of the Solonker, Ural-Mongolian paleoceans and Mongol-Okhotsk Gulf of Paleo-Pacific. At the latest geodynamic stage, Asia was involved in east–southeast movement, and the Pacific plate moved in the opposite direction with subduction under Asia. The weakened upper mantle region of the Gobi melting anomaly provided a counterflow connected with rollback in the Japan Sea area. These dynamics resulted in the formation of the Honshu-Korea flexure of the Pacific slab. A similar weakened upper mantle region of the North Transbaikal melting anomaly was associated with the formation of the Hokkaido-Amur flexure of the Pacific slab, formed due to progressive pull-down of the slab material into the transition layer in the direction of the Pacific plate and Asia convergence. The early–middle Miocene structural reorganization of the mantle processes in Asia resulted in the development of upper mantle low-velocity domains associated with the development of rifts and orogens. We propose that extension at the Baikal Rift was caused by deviator flowing mantle material, initiated under the moving lithosphere in the Baikal melting anomaly. Contraction at the Hangay orogen was created by facilitation of the tectonic stress transfer from the Indo-Asian interaction zone due to the low-viscosity mantle in the Gobi melting anomaly.

  10. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L A; Salim, Mohammad A; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; DeFries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-19

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013--a non-drought year--Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated "very unhealthy"). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 ± 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 ± 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles of 263,356 older Australians according to region of birth and acculturation, with a focus on migrants born in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Guo

    Full Text Available Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and physical inactivity, are common in Australia, but the prevalence varies according to cultural background. We examined the relationship between region of birth, measures of acculturation, and CVD risk profiles in immigrant, compared to Australian-born, older Australians. Cross-sectional data from 263,356 participants aged 45 and over joining the population-based 45 and Up Study cohort from 2006-2008 were used. Prevalence ratios for CVD risk factors in Australian- versus overseas-born participants were calculated using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic factors and focusing on Asian migrants. The association between time resident in Australia and age at migration and CVD risk factors in Asian migrants was also examined. Migrants from Northeast (n = 3,213 and Southeast Asia (n = 3,942 had lower levels of overweight/obesity, physical activity and female smoking than Australian-born participants (n = 199,356, although differences in prevalence of overweight/obesity were sensitive to body-mass-index cut-offs used. Compared to Australian-born participants, migrants from Northeast Asia were 20-30% less likely, and from Southeast Asia 10-20% more likely, to report being treated for hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia; Southeast Asian migrants were 40-60% more likely to report diabetes. Northeast Asian-born individuals were less likely than Australian-born to have 3 or more CVD risk factors. Diabetes, treated hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia occurred at relatively low average body-mass-index in Southeast Asian migrants. The CVD risk factor profiles of migrants tended to approximate those of Australian-born with increasing acculturation, in both favourable (e.g., increased physical activity and unfavourable directions (e.g., increased female smoking. Minimizing CVD risk in migrant populations may be achieved through

  12. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes.

  13. The Rise and Implications of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Southeast Asia through an Environmental Justice Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Middleton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article maps the rise of the water-energy-food 'nexus' as a research, policy and project agenda in mainland Southeast Asia. We argue that introducing the concept of environmental justice into the nexus, especially where narratives, trade-offs and outcomes are contested, could make better use of how the nexus is framed, understood and acted upon. With funding from high-income country donors, it is found to have diffused from a global policy arena into a regional one that includes international and regional organisations, academic networks, and civil society, and national politicians and government officials. The nexus is yet to be extensively grounded, however, into national policies and practices, and broad-based local demand for nexus-framed policies is currently limited. The article contends that if the nexus is to support stated aspirations for sustainable development and poverty reduction, then it should engage more directly in identifying winners and losers in natural resource decision-making, the politics involved, and ultimately with the issue of justice. In order to do so, it links the nexus to the concept of environmental justice via boundary concepts, namely: sustainable development; the green economy; scarcity and addressing of trade-offs; and governance at, and across, the local, national and transnational scale.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Responses of Soil Erosion to Climate Change Impacts in a Transnational Watershed in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Quy Giang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely predicted that Southeast Asia is among the regions facing the most severe climate change impacts. Despite this forecast, little research has been published on the potential impacts of climate change on soil erosion in this region. This study focused on the impact of climate change on spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in the Laos–Vietnam transnational Upper Ca River Watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT coupled with downscaled global climate models (GCMs was employed for simulation. Soil erosion in the watershed was mostly found as “hill-slope erosion”, which occurred seriously in the upstream area where topography is dominated by numerous steep hills with sparse vegetation cover. However, under the impact of climate change, it is very likely that soil erosion rate in the downstream area will increase at a higher rate than in its upstream area due to a greater increase in precipitation. Seasonally, soil erosion is predicted to increase significantly in the warmer and wetter climate of the wet season, when higher erosive power of an increased amount and intensity of rainfall is accompanied by higher sediment transport capacity. The results of this study provide useful information for decision makers to plan where and when soil conservation practice should be focused.

  15. Southeast Asia: A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    settlements and line grown here, and a small amount of rubber is still highways and railroads. Cogon grass is commonly produced from rubber trees...Gam, Cau, Black Da, Ky Cung, and Ba Brushwood, bamboo, weeds, and tall grasses invade Che-generally flow northwest-southeast and either clear cut forest...Tonkin is the northwest dunes with eucalyptus and small, thorny deciduous arm of the South China Sea. trees and flowering plants. Colon grass is

  16. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miller, Mark P.; Yang, Feng; Chan, Hon Ki; Gaubert, Philippe; Ades, Gary; Fischer, Gunter A

    2015-01-01

    Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations). These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica). The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  17. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations. These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica. The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  18. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  19. The Regional Land Cover Monitoring System: Building regional capacity through innovative land cover mapping approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D.; Tenneson, K.; Hanh, Q. N.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Aung, K. S.; Goldstein, J.; Cutter, P. G.; Maus, P.; Markert, K. N.; Anderson, E.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Ate, P.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Vadrevu, K.; Potapov, P.; Phongsapan, K.; Chishtie, F.; Clinton, N.; Ganz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, products, and services are vital to support the environmental decision making by governmental institutions, non-governmental agencies, and the general public. At the heart of environmental decision making is the monitoring land cover and land use change (LCLUC) for land resource planning and for ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation and resilience to climate change. A major challenge for monitoring LCLUC in developing regions, such as Southeast Asia, is inconsistent data products at inconsistent intervals that have different typologies across the region and are typically made in without stakeholder engagement or input. Here we present the Regional Land Cover Monitoring System (RLCMS), a novel land cover mapping effort for Southeast Asia, implemented by SERVIR-Mekong, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations to improve environmental decision making in developing countries. The RLCMS focuses on mapping biophysical variables (e.g. canopy cover, tree height, or percent surface water) at an annual interval and in turn using those biophysical variables to develop land cover maps based on stakeholder definitions of land cover classes. This allows for flexible and consistent land cover classifications that can meet the needs of different institutions across the region. Another component of the RLCMS production is the stake-holder engagement through co-development. Institutions that directly benefit from this system have helped drive the development for regional needs leading to services for their specific uses. Examples of services for regional stakeholders include using the RLCMS to develop maps using the IPCC classification scheme for GHG emission reporting and developing custom annual maps as an input to hydrologic modeling/flood forecasting systems. In addition to the implementation of this system and the service stemming from the RLCMS in Southeast Asia, it is

  20. Moving Toward a Regional Safeguards System in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Griggs, James R.

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the nuclear nonproliferation challenges of South Asia, it is useful to examine the similar past nonproliferation problems in South America. The nuclear rapprochement between Argentina and Brazil involved several developments in progression. We conclude that two developments are particularly applicable to the India/Pakistan problem: technical cooperation and a regional safeguards system. This paper reviews the history of Argentina/Brazil rapprochement, discusses application to India/Pakistan, and proposes specific actions to move South Asia toward regional stability.

  1. Privatizing Southeast Asia's electric power industries: phases, challenges, difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dang, G.

    1995-01-01

    The privatization of the power sector in South East Asia is part of a complex strategy, aimed a creating an efficient power production space, consisting of both national and international producers, although the latter will have to be selected according to their ability to ensure the most efficient service while implementing new technology. There is no single privatization model in S.E. Asia, but a wide variety of approaches, ranging from the most daring (e.g. Malaysia) to the most cautious (e.g. Thailand). For centrally planned economies (such as Vietnam and Laos), the approach will still be dictated by strategic demands to the detriment of the obvious financial advantages of total privatization of the power sector. Nevertheless, in most S.E. Asian countries, the process seems to be inexorably heading towards a situation where the political authorities will induce competition between the different groups of operators on the power production market. The basic challenge to governments of the region is to ensure the coexistence and smooth operation of the new public private relations within the power sector. (author). 19 refs

  2. Multi-Sourced Satellite Observations of Land Cover and Land Use Change in South and Southeast Asia with Challenging Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Small, C.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Balk, D.; Sorichetta, A.; Masetti, M.; Gaughan, A. E.; Stevens, F. R.; Mathews, A.; Frazier, A. E.; Das, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    An innovative paradigm to observe the rural-urban transformation over the landscape using multi-sourced satellite data is formulated as a time and space continuum, extensively in space across South and Southeast Asia and in time over a decadal scale. Rather than a disparate array of individual cities and their vicinities in separated areas and in a discontinuous collection of points in time, the time-space continuum paradigm enables significant advances in addressing rural-urban change as a continuous gradient across the landscape from the wilderness to rural to urban areas to study challenging environmental and socioeconomic issues. We use satellite data including QuikSCAT scatterometer, SRTM and Sentinel-1 SAR, Landsat, WorldView, MODIS, and SMAP together with environmental and demographic data and modeling products to investigate land cover and land use change in South and Southeast Asia and associated impacts. Utilizing the new observational advances and effectively capitalizing current capabilities, we will present interdisciplinary results on urbanization in three dimensions, flood and drought, wildfire, air and water pollution, urban change, policy effects, population dynamics and vector-borne disease, agricultural assessment, and land degradation and desertification.

  3. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  4. Nuclear developments in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Countries in the Asia and Pacific region are engaged in many aspects of nuclear science and technology, often as part of national development plan. A number of them are members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology which was developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide a basis for nuclear technical assistance and cooperation in the Asia and Pacific region. The report describes nuclear developments, from power and research reactors to reprocessing facilities, in these countries. The information was gathered from a range of sources, including relevant journals, publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the OECD/ Nuclear Energy Agen, and annual reports of national nuclear institutes. 4 tabs

  5. Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed

  6. The Regional Centrality of Vietnam’s Central Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    strategic value turned it into a battleground among various Vietnamese parties, France, and the United States. It was here that the outcome of the Indochina wars was determined, but at a terrible price for the local population. After the adoption of economic reforms in reunified Vietnam the Central......Vietnam’s Central Highlands—or Tây Nguyên—area is usually described as remote, backward, and primitive, but this region has played a central role in the history of the surrounding states and the wider East and Southeast Asia region. Far from isolated, the Central Highlands engaged in trade...... various rivalrous polities now known as Vietnam, Champa, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand, the area occupied a strategic position in the wider mainland Southeast Asia region. With the emergence of a unified, neo-Confucianist Vietnamese state the region lost its centrality until the late colonial era, when its...

  7. The political and scientific challenges in evaluating compulsory drug treatment centers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Nguyen, Nhu; Le, Giang; Shanahan, Marian; Ali, Robert; Ritter, Alison

    2017-01-11

    In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges. The aim of this paper is to discuss political challenges and methodological issues when conducting cost-effectiveness studies within the context of a non-democratic Southeast Asian country. A retrospective analysis of the political and scientific challenges that were experienced in the study design, sample size determination, government approval and ethics approvals, participant recruitment, data collection, and determination of sources, and quantification of cost and effectiveness data was undertaken. As a consequence of the non-randomized design, analysis of patient characteristics for both treatment types was undertaken to identify the magnitude of baseline group differences. Concordance between self-reported heroin use and urine drug testing was undertaken to determine the reliability of self-report data in a politically challenging environment. We demonstrate that conducting research around compulsory treatment in a non-democratic society is feasible, yet it is politically challenging and requires navigation between science and politics. We also demonstrate that engagement with the government decision makers in the research conception, implementation, and dissemination of the results increases the likelihood of research evidence being considered for change in a contentious drug policy area. Local empirical evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of CCT and MMT in a Southeast Asian setting is

  8. Regional integration in Central Asia: From knowing-that to knowing-how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulugbek Azizov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines regional integration in Central Asia in the context of two types of knowledge, that is, knowing-that and knowing-how. While knowing-that prioritizes representational (i.e. “talking” practices of actors to explain region-building processes, knowing-how focuses on non-representational (i.e. “doing” practices. The article demonstrates that the orthodox scholars, who deal with the region of Central Asia, mostly employ knowing-that to explain region-building processes. The article criticizes knowing-that, assuming that this type of knowledge limits our understanding with regard to how regions get their boundaries and symbolism in the era of globalization and standardization of sectoral activities. Thus the article develops and introduces an alternative knowing-how framework to better understand the region-building processes in Central Asia and beyond it.

  9. Relationships between cancer pattern, country income and geographical region in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teo, Chin Hai; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Tan, Wei Phin; Tan, Hui Meng

    2015-09-03

    Cancer incidence and mortality varies across region, sex and country's economic status. While most studies focused on global trends, this study aimed to describe and analyse cancer incidence and mortality in Asia, focusing on cancer site, sex, region and income status. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates of cancer were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Cancer mortality to incidence ratios (MIRs) were calculated to represent cancer survival. The data were analysed based on the four regions in Asia and income. Cancer incidence rate is lower in Asia compared to the West but for MIR, it is the reverse. In Asia, the most common cancers in men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophageal cancers while the most common cancers in women are breast, lung, cervical, colorectal and stomach cancers. The MIRs are the highest in lung, liver and stomach cancers and the lowest in colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Eastern and Western Asia have a higher incidence of cancer compared to South-Eastern and South-Central Asia but this pattern is the reverse for MIR. Cancer incidence rate increases with country income particularly in colorectal and breast cancers but the pattern is the opposite for MIR. This study confirms that there is a wide variation in cancer incidence and mortality across Asia. This study is the first step towards documenting and explaining the changing cancer pattern in Asia in comparison to the rest of the world.

  10. South Asia | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  11. Far East Asia | Page 189 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  12. Far East Asia | Page 107 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  13. The First Neurosurgery Boot Camp in Southeast Asia: Evaluating Impact on Knowledge and Regional Collaboration in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jack; Glick, Roberta; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Zervos, John; Prentiss, Tyler; Davis, Matthew; Wright, Ernest; Hlaing, Kyi; Thu, Myat; Soe, Zaw Wai; Myaing, Win

    2018-05-01

    For the first time in Southeast Asia, a Fundamentals of Neurosurgery Boot Camp was held at the University of Medicine 1 in Yangon, Myan