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Sample records for south-eastern united states

  1. Lignin oxidation product and carbohydrate composition of plant tissues from the south-eastern united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, James J.; Price, Mary T.; Lewis, Sharon

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-one samples of woody and non-woody angiosperm and gymnosperm tissue from plants dominant in south-eastern U.S. coastal ecosystems were analysed for the distribution of CuO oxidation products and neutral monosaccharides derived from acid hydrolysis of the tissues. Phenolic oxidation products gave the same general distributions as reported for plant species in the Pacific north-west, Buzzards Bay, MA, and the western Gulf of Mexico regions of the U.S. However, monosaccharides derived from these plants had generally lower total yields and wider ranges of weight % distributions than the plants from the other regions. Thus, the phenolic oxidation products appear to be a valid indicator of terrestrial carbon source terms across a wide geographical and climatic area; however, neutral monosaccharide distributions must be used with caution when determining source term.

  2. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species

  3. Kidnapping in the South eastern States of contemporary Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study empirically investigate salient social and demographic characteristics as determinants of kidnapping in the South-eastern States of contemporary Nigeria using inmates detained on the grounds of kidnapping in Abakaliki and Umuahia Prisons as a unit of analysis. The study adopted a cross-sectional research ...

  4. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, P.J.; Best, G.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Hornberger, G.M.; Meyer, J.L.; Robinson, P.J.; Stenberg, J.R.; Turner, R.E.; Vera-Herrera, F.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4??C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought. The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Freshwater Ecosystems of the South-Eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Best, G. Ronnie; Coutant, Charles C.; Hornberger, George M.; Meyer, Judy L.; Robinson, Peter J.; Stenberg, John R.; Turner, R. Eugene; Vera-Herrera, Francisco; Wetzel, Robert G.

    1997-06-01

    The south-eastern United States and Gulf Coast of Mexico is physiographically diverse, although dominated by a broad coastal plain. Much of the region has a humid, warm temperate climate with little seasonality in precipitation but strong seasonality in runoff owing to high rates of summer evapotranspiration. The climate of southern Florida and eastern Mexico is subtropical with a distinct summer wet season and winter dry season. Regional climate models suggest that climate change resulting from a doubling of the pre-industrial levels of atmospheric CO2 may increase annual air temperatures by 3-4°C. Changes in precipitation are highly uncertain, but the most probable scenario shows higher levels over all but the northern, interior portions of the region, with increases primarily occurring in summer and occurring as more intense or clustered storms. Despite the increases in precipitation, runoff is likely to decline over much of the region owing to increases in evapotranspiration exceeding increases in precipitation. Only in Florida and the Gulf Coast areas of the US and Mexico are precipitation increases likely to exceed evapotranspiration increases, producing an increase in runoff. However, increases in storm intensity and clustering are likely to result in more extreme hydrographs, with larger peaks in flow but lower baseflows and longer periods of drought.The ecological effects of climate change on freshwaters of the region include: (1) a general increase in rates of primary production, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling as a result of higher temperatures and longer growing seasons: (2) reduction in habitat for cool water species, particularly fish and macroinvertebrates in Appalachian streams; (3) reduction in water quality and in suitable habitat in summer owing to lower baseflows and intensification of the temperature-dissolved oxygen squeeze in many rivers and reservoirs; (4) reduction in organic matter storage and loss of organisms during

  6. Comparative studies on the administrative convergence revealed by national strategies of administrative reform in some South-Eastern European states

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Lucica; Matei, Ani; Zanovschi, Diana; Stoian, Oana

    2010-01-01

    The paper has as main topic the administrative convergence and its reflection in the national strategies of administrative reform in some states in South Eastern Europe. Having a complex content, sometimes even ambigous, the administrative convergence will have as finality the integration in the European Administrative Space and the administrative reforms as support. From this prospect, the South-Eastern Europe has a certain specificity emphasised by: different positions of the states under d...

  7. An assessment of the eye care workforce in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Boniface Ikenna; Maduka-Okafor, Ferdinand Chinedu

    2009-05-12

    The availability and distribution of an appropriate eye care workforce are fundamental to reaching the goals of "VISION 2020: The right to sight", the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness launched jointly by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness with an international membership of nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, eye care institutions and corporations. Periodic evaluation of these parameters is important in the journey towards achieving these goals. The objectives of the study were to determine the availability and distribution of human resources for eye care delivery in Enugu Urban, south-eastern Nigeria. The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey, the setting for which was all public and privately owned eye care facilities in Enugu Urban, Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria, in October 2006. The health map of Enugu Urban and the hospital register of the Public Health Department of the Enugu State Ministry of Health were used to identify the eye health care facilities in Enugu Urban. A structured, pretested, researcher-administered questionnaire was used to capture data on cadre and distribution of the eye care personnel in these facilities.Relevant population data were obtained from the Enugu Regional Office of the National Population Commission. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to generate percentages and proportions. Eye care personnel-to-population ratios were calculated and compared to World Health Organization recommendations. Out of Enugu State's population of three million, Enugu Urban accounts for 22%. The population of Enugu Urban is distributed between the three-component Local Government Areas comprising Enugu North (31%), Enugu South (30%) and Enugu East (39%). There are 45 eye care facilities (public: 31 (69%); private: 14 (31%)) employing 252 eye care workers (public: 226 (90%); private: 26 (10%)) aged 18 to 63 (mean=36

  8. Parents' perceptions of timing of initiation of sexuality discussion with adolescents in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelumadu, O F; Ezeama, N N; Ifeadike, C O; Ubajaka, C F; Adogu, P O U; Umeh, U; Nwamoh, U N; Ukegbu, A U; Onyeonoro, U U

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the perception of the timing and practice of sexuality discussion among parents in South Eastern Nigeria. A cross-sectional, descriptive, community-based study. The study was carried out in 3 randomly selected Local Government Areas in Anambra State, South Eastern Nigeria. The study participants were parents with adolescent children resident in the study areas for at least 2 years. Most parents opined that sexuality discussion should be initiated after puberty. Only 20% of them discussed reproductive health issues often with their adolescents, while another 20% never discussed such issues with their adolescent children. Topics most commonly discussed bordered on the adverse consequences of sex rather than measures for preventing them. About half of parents were willing to discuss contraception with their adolescent child. Predictors of parent-child communication were age, gender, and educational status. Common reasons for low parental involvement in sexuality discussions were due to their lack of capacity and the perception that discussing such issues before puberty is ill timed. Therefore, measures should be taken to improve the capacity of parents to engage in such conversations to provide sexuality information to their teens. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Geodynamics and intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea (the south-eastern Carpathians): Current state-of-the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismael-Zadeh, A.; Matenco, L.C.; Radulian, M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Panza, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is a remarkable site of intra-continental intermediate-depth seismicity. A large set of geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations has been accumulated for the last few decades and utilised to improve our knowledge of the shallow and deep

  10. 2008 The State of ICT in University Libraries in South Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Abstract. The work surveyed eight university libraries in southeastern Nigeria to determine their state of ICT application including the ... Many of the Libraries especially the state funded have no Internet, or LAN workstation but each of the library can boast of standalone ..... Discussion of Findings. The result in Table 1 which ...

  11. The State of ICT in University Libraries in South Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the Libraries especially the state funded have no Internet, or LAN workstation but each of the library can boast of standalone computers. Library software, network operating systems and LAN are conspicuously absent in most of the libraries. Though a few of the libraries subscribe to online electronic resources such ...

  12. Non-traumatic childhood coma in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, R C; Ibekwe, M U; Onwe, O E; Nnebe-Agumadu, U H; Ibe, B C

    2011-01-01

    Coma is a medical emergency, and optimal management, especially in a resource-poor setting, would depend on the knowledge of its etiology and predictors of outcome. This communication reviews the etiology and outcome of non-traumatic childhood coma in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH), Abakaliki. To determine the incidence, etiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children seen at the EBSUTH, Abakaliki. This is a retrospective analysis of records of all children admitted to the children emergency ward of EBSUTH in coma of a non-traumatic origin between 1 st of January and 31 st of December, 2007. Forty children presented with coma out of 673 children admitted during the study period, giving an incidence rate of 5.9%. The majority of the children (62.5%) were aged between 1 and 5 years of age, and 79.5% of them were deeply comatose on admission. Most of the cases (85%) of non-traumatic coma were due to infective causes, mainly cerebral malaria (47.5%), pyogenic meningitis (17.5%) and septicemia (10%). Twenty-four (60%) children recovered while 13 (32.5%) died. Infections were the predominant causes of non-traumatic coma in EBSUTH. In view of the high mortality among this group of patients, efforts at the control of malaria and other infections would significantly reduce the incidence of non-traumatic coma in this study site.

  13. Childhood burns in south eastern Nigeria

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    Okoro Philemon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns injuries are recognized as a major health problem worldwide. In children and, particularly, in our environment where poverty, ignorance and disease are still high, they constitute significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies on this topic in parts of Nigeria either lumped adults and children together or were retrospective. We, therefore, prospectively studied the current trends in burns in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study of burns spanned over a period of 18 months (June 2006-December 2007 at the Paediatric Surgery Units of the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, and the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State. Data were collected and analysed for age, sex, cause/type of burn, place of burn, presence or absence of adult/s, initial prehospital intervention, interval between injury and presentation, surface area and depth of burn and treatment and outcome. Results: Fifty-three patients were studied, 31 (58.4% were male and 22 (41.6% were female (M:F = 1.4:1. Patients mostly affected were aged 2 years and below. The most common cause of burns was hot water in 31 (58.5% patients. The vast majority of these injuries happened in a domestic environment (92.5% and in the presence of competent adult/s (88.7%. Outcome of treatment was good: there were two (3.8% deaths and 46 (86% patients had complete recovery. Conclusion: Burns is still a major health problem among children in south eastern Nigeria. Fortunately, outcome of appropriate treatment is good. However, we think that poor safety consciousness among parents is a major predisposing factor. Public enlightenment on measures to ensure safe home environment may be necessary to avoid or limit childhood burns.

  14. Common under-five morbidity in South-Eastern Nigeria: a study of its pattern in a rural mission general hospital in Imo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloh, G U P; Amadi, A N; Nwankwo, B O; Ugwu, V C

    2011-01-01

    The under-five children are the most vulnerable group that bears the burden of diseases to a large extent in Nigeria. This study was aimed at describing the common and pattern of under-five morbidity in a rural Mission General Hospital in Imo state, South-Eastern Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive hospital-based study was carried out from June 2008 to June 2009 on 244 under-five children aged 4 days to 58 months. The under-five children seen within the study period who met the selection criteria were studied. The data collected included age, sex and diagnosis made. One hundred and seven (43.8%) out of a total of 244 under-five children studied were aged 37-60 months, eighty one (33.2%) were aged 13-36 months and fifty six (23.0%) were aged 0-12 months. There were 141 (57.8%)males and 103 (42.2%) females. The three commonest causes of morbidity were malaria infections (80.3%), acute respiratory infections (32.0%) and skin infections (29.1%). The age group 37-60 months bears the greatest burden of malaria infections (49.0%), acute respiratory infections (55.1%) and skin infections (53.5%). This study shows that the three commonest causes of under-five morbidity (malaria, acute respiratory infections and skin infections) are largely preventable and infectious diseases still remaining major causes of morbidity; and similar to the under-five morbidity pattern documented at the beginning of the implementation of Primary Health Care and Child Survival Strategies in Nigeria. Identification, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of multidisciplinary and multisectoral intervention strategies targeted at the common under-five morbidity that are culturally acceptable, scientifically proven, patient-, family- and community-friendly and centred are recommended.

  15. Environmental noise and annoyance in adults: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

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    Jurgita Lekaviciute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work on the adverse effects of noise on annoyance in adults is well documented in Western Europe, but there is a knowledge gap concerning this type of research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The objective of this review was to present findings and to propose future research directions for the studies on the effects of environmental noise on annoyance in adults conducted in these countries. After systematic search in accessible databases, scientific journals, conference proceedings, international and national reports in English and other languages, the authors identified 29 papers to be included to this review: 24 papers related to annoyance due to road traffic noise and 5 papers related to annoyance from other noise sources. In most of the identified studies, a cross-sectional design prevailed and the evaluations were mainly performed subjectively. The lack of recent annoyance studies related to railway and aircraft traffic noise was identified. Only two studies from NIS countries used noise exposure data for the evaluation of population annoyance according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END. Capacity building in CEE, SEE, and NIS countries is necessary to acquire the "know-how" on how to implement and use the different scenarios for evaluating population annoyance by environmental noise, depending on the availability and suitability of noise exposure data. Particular attention should be given to the possible use of END noise exposure data, where applicable.

  16. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  17. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  18. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  19. Low frequency of moaA3 gene among the clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry – south eastern coastal states of India

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    Preethi Kaluvuri

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic analysis of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. bovis BCG have shown that 16 RDs (Regions of Differences are deleted in BCG and have shown six deletion regions in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. RD1, is present in M. tuberculosis but is absent in all M. bovis BCG sub-strains. A study from Kerala, a south-western coastal state of India aimed to find out differences in RD1 region showed for the first time the presence of moaA3 gene in majority of their clinical isolates, that was absent in type strain H37Rv. We attempted to find out such polymorphism between type strains and the clinical isolates within RD1, targeting moaA3 gene among the clinical isolates of Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry, south-eastern coastal states of India Methods One hundred and sixteen clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were included in the study. PCR using RD1DLa and RD1DRa primers was carried out to amplify a 652 bp fragment, encoding for cfp10 and esat 6 proteins of RD1. A second PCR using primers designed from the surrounding regions of moaA3 gene was done to confirm the presence of the full Open Reading Frame (ORF in clinical isolates. Results In M. tuberculosis H37Rv the expected 652 bp band was present. In BCG it was absent as expected, but a 386 bp fragment was amplified. Around 12/116 (10.3% of our clinical isolates showed both 652 and 386 bp fragments. The additional 386 bp amplicon is a part of the moaA3 gene which codes for molybdopterin cofactor protein A in M. bovis. The second PCR amplified the flanking sequence of moaA3 and yielded the expected amplicon of 1254 bp in all those 10.3% of clinical isolates which had the 386 bp fragment. However the earlier study carried out in Kerala, reported the presence of moaA3 gene in majority (97% of their clinical isolates. Conclusion This finding showed that there was regional variation presenting polymorphism in moA3 gene, among the strains of M. tuberculosis and further strengthens the speculation

  20. Inventory of Long-Term Braiding Activity at a Regional Scale as a Tool for Detecting Alterations to a Rivers' Hydromorphological State: A Case Study for Romania's South-Eastern Subcarpathians

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    Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The inventory of long-term braiding activity is a useful tool for detecting alterations in a rivers' hydromorphological state and for a river's management in the context of the Water Framework Directive on integrated river basin management for Europe. Our study focuses on braided sectors of rivers in South-Eastern Subcarpathians (Romania). The inventory evaluates types of alterations based on the spatial analysis of fluvial morphology indicators (i.e., length of the river sector forming a braided pattern; width of the braided active channel), and vegetation cover (i.e., length of banks covered by forest and shrubs; area of in-stream patches of shrubs) accumulated over the last century. Furthermore, we performed a regional scale hierarchical cluster analysis to estimate the degree of alteration when compared to an historical baseline. In South-Eastern Subcarpathians, the studied rivers experienced a decrease of braiding activity revealed by the shortening and narrowing of their braided sectors, expansion of riparian forests, and the diminishment of vegetated islands' areas. We separated three types of river clusters, corresponding to low (cluster 1), moderate (cluster 2), and high (cluster 3) degree of alteration. Moreover, the clusters demonstrate the evolutionary path of the braided pattern alterations until the functioning of another channel pattern. The inventory is relevant for differing types and levels of alterations. Additionally, this tool may serve as a first step toward the restoration of altered sectors by identifying rivers in cluster 1 as potential candidates of present-day reference sites for altered rivers with similar natural conditions as in cluster 3.

  1. United States

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    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  2. Emerging Administrations and Sustainable Development in South-Eastern Europe. Case study: Romania and Bulgaria

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    Bogdan Berceanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years ago, Agenda 21, the United Nations' call to action for sustainable development, envisaged that the necessary harmonization and extension of existing policies and plans would occur through the adoption of an identifiable strategy for sustainable development. Since then, sustainable development is a widely used phrase and idea and it has many different meanings and therefore provokes many different responses. The aim of the article is to explore the role of the emerging South-Eastern administrations in the sustainable development under the changes and rules imposed by the European Union pressure. We will analyze both concepts, emerging administrations and sustainable development from the perspective of system theory and we will make the link with the concept of emergence, which is utilized to research and to analyze the nature of the changes in the public administration starting from the approach of the systemic theory. The research will be focused on the states form the south-eastern Europe, thus in the case study we will make a comparison between Romania and Bulgaria, as new member states of the European Union.

  3. Trans-border (South-Eastern Serbia/South-Western Bulgaria) correlations of the Jurassic sediments: The Getic and Supra-Getic units

    OpenAIRE

    Tchoumatchenco Platon; Rabrenović Dragoman; Radulović Vladan; Malešević Nenad; Radulović Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Getic and Supra-Getic are palaeogeographic units in SE Serbia and SW Bulgaria. Based on the presence (in Eastern) or absence (in Western) of Lower Jurassic marine deposits, the Getic is divided into Eastern and Western. In the Eastern Getic, the Lower Jurassic sedimentation in SE Serbia is represented by the Vidlič Clastites covered by the Lukanja Coal Beds, Lukanja Quartz Sandstones, Lukanja Brachiopods Beds, Lukanja Marlstones, Lukanja Belemnitic-Gryphaean Beds and Lukanja Cephalopod Li...

  4. Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metal Profiles of Top Soils Sourced from Abandoned Lead-Zinc Mines at Enyigba, Ameri and Ameka Villages, Abakaliki District, Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria

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    Osayande, D. A.; Azi, E. D.; Obayagbona, N.; Ovwasa, O. M.; Anegbe, B.

    2016-12-01

    Twenty (20) soil samples were collected from several abandoned old Pb - Zn mines located in Enyigba, Ameri, Ameka villages in the Abakaliki district of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria. The soils were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, V, pH, organic carbon and Electrical Conductivity using routine procedures. The physic-chemical analyses showed that pH values were generally low. The Electrical conductivity of the soils were high while organic carbon content in the soil was generally low. The heavy metal mean trend indicated that Pb (86) > Zn (64) > Cu (20) > Cd (15) > Ni (7) > Cr (6) > V (1). Fe and Mn values were also high. The variations observed for the heavy metal suggested both geogenic and anthropogenic activities were responsible for their distribution. Soil contamination was assessed on the basis of contamination factor (CF) and enrichment factor (EF). The CF values for the soil revealed moderate contamination for Ni, Cr, V, Zn and Mn, while Pb and Cd showed high contamination. The results of enrichment factor (EF) showed that using Fe concentration in the background value, Ni, Cr, V and Mn had moderate enrichment, Pb and Zn showed significant enrichment while Cd indicated high enrichment. The results of the principal component and cluster analyses showed that Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb metal originated from similar source but may have been significantly influenced by anthropogenic activities, while Ni, Cr, V were attributable to geogenic sources.

  5. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Upper Maastrichtian-Middle Eocene Clay - Rich Volcano - Sedimentary Units from South-Eastern of Elazıg Basin (Eastern Turkey)

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    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Daş, Burhan

    2017-04-01

    Clay-rich Hazar-Maden volcano-sediments were deposited along the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean margin during Upper Maastrichtian - Middle Eocene times. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Hatunkoy section from the south - easthern of Elazıg were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS. The Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous Guleman Ophiolites, Upper Maastrichtian - Middle Eocene Hazar Group, the Middle Eocene Maden Group, Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial deposits are situated in the study area. The Guleman Ophiolites are composed of dunite, harzburgite with podiform chromite, alternating dunite-wherlite, clinopyroxenite banded gabbro, quartz gabbro/diorite or plagiogranite and volcanites. The Hazar Group consists of limestone and interbedded shale and sandstone. The Maden Group has a complex lithology consisting of limestones, red-green clayey limestones, sandstone, agglomerate, tuffs, reddish mudstone and basaltic-andesitic pillow lavas. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Hazar and Maden Group samples are similar in Hatunkoy section. All samples consist of clay minerals (chlorite, illite), calcite, quartz, and feldspar. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O contents show that samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of Zr/TiO2, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations of samples are normalized to chondrite values and it is determined that low light rare earth elements (LREEs) are enriched in comparison to high rare earth elements (HREEs), and the absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally neutral-basic in composition. REE of samples were compared with North American shale composite (NASC), European shale (ES) and Post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS). Elements are not in concurrence with these compositions. Key Words:Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Volcano sedimentary Units, Eastern Turkey.

  6. Trans-border (South-Eastern Serbia/South-Western Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: The Getic and Supra-Getic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Getic and Supra-Getic are palaeogeographic units in SE Serbia and SW Bulgaria. Based on the presence (in Eastern or absence (in Western of Lower Jurassic marine deposits, the Getic is divided into Eastern and Western. In the Eastern Getic, the Lower Jurassic sedimentation in SE Serbia is represented by the Vidlič Clastites covered by the Lukanja Coal Beds, Lukanja Quartz Sandstones, Lukanja Brachiopods Beds, Lukanja Marlstones, Lukanja Belemnitic-Gryphaean Beds and Lukanja Cephalopod Limestones; in SW Bulgaria, the sedimentation commenced with the Tuden Formation, followed by the Kostina Formation and the Ozirovo Formation with a few members. The Middle Jurassic in SE Serbia commenced with the Senokos Siltstones and Shales and the Gulenovci Beds, while in SW Bulgaria with black shales (the Etropole Formation, followed by marls and clayey limestones of the Bov Formation. The Middle Jurassic sediments are represented in the Western Getic of SE Serbia by the Kurilovo Clastites and the Kurilovo Limestones (synonym to Gumpina Limestones of KRAÜTNER & KRSTIĆ 2003; in the Supra-Getic of SE Serbia they are formed by the Jerma Clastites and Jerma Limestones (synonym of the Gumpina Limestones. In SW Bulgaria the Middle Jurassic sediments are represented by the sandstones of the Gradets Formation and by the bioclastic limestones of the Polaten Formation. During the Callovian (Middle? started the formation of a carbonate platform with micritic limestones. In SE Serbia, it is Basara Limestones, Vidlič Limestones, Beljanica and Ždrelo Limestones, and in SW Bulgarian, the Belediehan Formation of Callovian-Kimmeridgian p.p. age. Characteristic for the Supra- Getic is the formation of a few grabens with specific sedimentation: the Svetlya Graben (the Zhablyano and Ozirovo Formations and the Lobosh Formation; the Treklyano Graben (the Dobridol and Sredorek Formations, and out of it - the Methohya and Sredorek Formation. During the Callovian

  7. 78 FR 2482 - Koch Industries, Inc.-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... acquire indirect control of Texas South-Eastern Railroad Co. (TSE), a Class III rail carrier. Koch states... transactions that would connect any of the railroads controlled by Koch with TSE; and (3) the transaction does...

  8. THE EUROPEAN UNION, THE ENLARGEMENT AND THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkidis Theofanis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Ιn 1989, the countries of South-eastern Europe and central Europe promoted their integration of military, political and economic collaboration and developed narrow relations with the European Union (Ε.U. Thus resulted the new enlargement of EU, in order to transfer in south-eastern Europe the places of EU, for peace, stability, growth. The new enlargement constitutes a big challenge, after the integrations of states in the EU in 1973, in 1981, in 1986, in 1995 they did not have the extent and the expectations 2004 and particularly the South-eastern Europe afterwards 2007. The article analyzes the course of integration of South-eastern Europe in the EU and analyzes the essential changes that are required, the transition in the free market economy, the creation of political system that will be based on the state of right and the respect the human and minorities’ rights, the political plurality and the multi-party system with democratic elections. The article supports that the enlargement in the South-eastern Europe is very important for the EU, enlargement that closes the Cold War, a hope for the common European region of peace, cooperation, democracy and development.

  9. Health state of the population living at eastern border of the European Union and its conditioning (based on the example of the south-eastern borderland of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses modern health problems of population at the eastern border of the European Union and the factors that condition the health state of the population in this area. Spatial-temporal reasoning was conducted with regard to such indicators reflecting the health state of population as death rates due to basic reasons: circulatory system diseases, malignant neoplasm, respiratory system diseases, external causes and infant mortality rate. The above-mentioned elements were analysed with division into counties in Podkarpackie and Lubelskie voivodeships in 2002-2009. The article also analyses selected conditions of health state, such as population wealth and healthcare quality. It was noticed that some parameters of health state in the region deteriorated, especially in Lubelskie voivodeship, which results from synergy effects of socio-economic, medical and organizational nature.

  10. Herpetological surveys of south-western and south-eastern regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The herpetofauna of part of the south-western (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States) and south-eastern (Cross River State) regions were investigated. Specimens were located opportunistically during visual surveys. Both regions fall in the tropical zone, and the south-western region surveyed, was mostly lowland, degraded forests ...

  11. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  12. Vessel-Source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea : National Report of Estonia / Hannes Veinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinla, Hannes, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Laevadelt lähtuv merereostus ja kaldariigi jurisdiktsioon Balti mere kaguosas : Eesti. - Lisatud: Estonia : Economic Zone Act of Estonia : 28 January 1993 : Annex I, lk. 121-124 ; Estonia : State Borders Act of Estonia : 30 June 1994 : Annex II, lk. 125-138

  13. Investment-centred transitioning from agrarian-tourism economy to manufacturing in cross river state, south-eastern/south-south, Nigeria: A theoretical perspective and background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embattled by ministries, departments and agencies of Nigeria’s federal government, that worked together with neighbouring (Akwa Ibom State government to remove Cross River State from the country’s oil-producing states entitled to receipt of larger statutory allocations compared to their counterparts, Cross River State Government’s policy of promoting regional development through attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI since 2009 is receiving praises. This article presents contexts, core-periphery theoretical perspectives, and comments elucidating intricacies of FDI-centred sub-national regional development strategizing in the context of phenomenal globalization of neoliberal capitalism. It is argued that the core-periphery theory’s current status promises ‘depressed’ sub-national regions the development strategies they require for transiting from backwardness to growth. This assertion derives from the theory’s encouragement of Nigeria’s ‘depressed’ sub-national regions to aspire towards applying innovative policies/instruments capable of reversing undesirable circumstances that sometimes surpass standards previously/currently attained by counterparts placed higher on the development ladder.

  14. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechi Gareth Okpechi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP is a common global cardiovascular (CV disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1; BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2, and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3. RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%, hypertension (31.4%, cigarette smoking (13.3%, use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%, physical inactivity (64.2% and being overweight or obese (33.7%. Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05; while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05. The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

  15. in anambra state south eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    difference between the smokers in the three classes while significant statistical difference existed between the classes in terms of use of alcohol and ... From early times in our traditional society drugs like tobacco and alcohol have ... These gate way drugs can start the user off on a pathway of drug use and abuses”6.

  16. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  17. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is f...

  18. Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sawicka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe Whereas in most of the world’s languages syllable patterns are built according to the principles of sonority theory (they have the one-peak syllable pattern, in some Balkan languages, there occur deviations from the one-peak syllable pattern of a systemic nature. Such deviations occur also in the northern Slavic languages. They mainly concern the distribution of nasal consonants and appear either in the onset (Albanian or coda (Romanian. At the very south of Europe the open syllable pattern occurs.   Struktury sylabiczne południowo-wschodniej Europy Podczas gdy zdecydowana większość języków świata preferuje tzw. sonorycznościowy (jednoszczytowy model sylaby, to południowo-wschodnia Europa jest pod tym względem dość zróżnicowana. Odstępstwa od zasady jednoszczytowości występują w językach północnosłowiańskich. Na Bałkanach natomiast odstępstwa takie dotyczą głównie dystrybucji sonantów nosowych i występują albo w nagłosie, albo w wygłosie. Samo południe Europy (dialekty występujące na południowych częściach półwyspów Morza Śródziemnego ma natomiast niesymetryczny model sylaby – w wygłosie wyrazów występują głównie sylaby otwarte.

  19. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  20. Childhood Mortality in Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwafor Chukwuemeka Charles

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the mortality pattern in children seen at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMCU Abia state, South Eastern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional descriptive study over a 5-year period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2008 using data retrieved from the hospital’s medical records department. Results: A total of 3,814 children were admitted in the hospital and 434 of them died giving a mortality rate of 11%. The mean age was 1.7 (Std D of 3.19. Two hundred and thirty eight of them were males while 196 of them were females giving a sex ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the mortality (49% occurred within 24 hours of admission. The major causes of death during neonatal period were birth asphyxia (34%, prematurity (24% and neonatal sepsis (24%. Malaria was the leading cause of death beyond the neonatal period accounting for 42% of cases. Other common mortality causes were pneumonia, septicaemia, diarrhea, HIV AIDS and meningitis each accounting for 10%, 10%, 7%, 7% and 5% respectively. The months of July, May and March accounted for most deaths (12%, 12% and 11% respectively. Conclusion: Birth asphyxia and malaria associated deaths were responsible for most deaths during neonatal and beyond neonatal periods respectively. Presence of trained personal at all deliveries will help to reduce neonatal asphyxia. Efforts should be made to reinforce the existing effective malaria control tools.

  1. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  2. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  3. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  4. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  5. United States Fire Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about our courses and how to apply Publication Electronic cigarette fires and explosions in the United States ... unique hazard to users. 62 percent of the electronic cigarette explosion and fire incidents reviewed in this ...

  6. Mothers\\' belief about infant teething in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain the symptoms ascribed to, and remedies given for teething in infants by mothers in Nnewi South eastern Nigeria. Methodology: A pre-tested, open-ended questionnaire was administered to 161 consecutive mothers attending the paediatric outpatient and the infant welfare clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  7. Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals in meeting the nutritional needs of vulnerable groups. ... Portion sizes of meals consumed by these vulnerable groups were obtained during an interview and validated using data obtained from food consumption surveys. The amount of Zn and Fe in such ...

  8. Pattern of Ultrasound Scanning in Owerri South Eastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The gynaecologist is called upon daily to diagnose pelvic pathologies. Ultrasound is a useful, safe and widely used method of investigation of such problems. OBJECTIVE: To determine the indications and findings of pelvic ultrasound in Owerri, South Eastern Nigeria. METHOD: Two hundred and fifty ...

  9. Sterilization by Minilaparotomy in South-Eastern Nigeria | Nwogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to assess the trend in acceptance and characteristics of acceptors of female sterilization between January 1999 and December 2006 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. There were a total of 20,485 new clients, with 212 (1.0%) accepting sterilization between ...

  10. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  11. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: A POSSIBLE THREAT TO THE SECURITY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea PIRNUTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The entire world has had to face the draconian effects of the economic recession recently. One of the regions marked by severe economic damages has been South Eastern Europe. The present article aims at analyzing the current economic situation in this particular region by trying to identify the strong and weak points, as well as possible ways to solve these specific issues. This paper lays emphasis upon states, such as: Turkey, Greece and Romania, but also on certain facts about the other states belonging to the previously mentioned region.

  12. 78 FR 4439 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent Physicians Association and Larry... Northern District of Oklahoma in United States of America v. Oklahoma State Chiropractic Independent... for chiropractic services. Copies of the Complaint, proposed Final Judgment, and Competitive Impact...

  13. Groundwater intensive use and mining in south-eastern peninsular Spain: Hydrogeological, economic and social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Emilio; Andreu-Rodes, José Miguel; Aragón, Ramón; Estrela, Teodoro; Ferrer, Javier; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Manzano, Marisol; Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis; Sahuquillo, Andrés; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-15

    Intensive groundwater development is a common circumstance in semiarid and arid areas. Often abstraction exceeds recharge, thus continuously depleting reserves. There is groundwater mining when the recovery of aquifer reserves needs more than 50years. The MASE project has been carried out to compile what is known about Spain and specifically about the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The objective was the synthetic analysis of available data on the hydrological, economic, managerial, social, and ethical aspects of groundwater mining. Since the mid-20th century, intensive use of groundwater in south-eastern Spain allowed extending and securing the areas with traditional surface water irrigation of cash crops and their extension to former dry lands, taking advantage of good soils and climate. This fostered a huge economic and social development. Intensive agriculture is a main activity, although tourism plays currently an increasing economic role in the coasts. Many aquifers are relatively high yielding small carbonate units where the total groundwater level drawdown may currently exceed 300m. Groundwater storage depletion is estimated about 15km(3). This volume is close to the total contribution of the Tagus-Segura water transfer, but without large investments paid for with public funds. Seawater desalination complements urban supply and part of cash crop cultivation. Reclaimed urban waste water is used for irrigation. Groundwater mining produces benefits but associated to sometimes serious economic, administrative, legal and environmental problems. The use of an exhaustible vital resource raises ethical concerns. It cannot continue under the current legal conditions. A progressive change of water use paradigm is the way out, but this is not in the mind of most water managers and politicians. The positive and negative results observed in south-eastern Spain may help to analyse other areas under similar hydrogeological conditions in a less

  14. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  15. Integration policies in a Brazilian south-eastern capital: formulation, implementation and some comparisons with four European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Mónica Pereira dos

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes of formulation and implementation of policies regarding the integration of disabled children in the mainstream schools of a Brazilian South-eastern State Capital. The investigation was carried out through a documentary analysis and through the application of a questionnaire and an interview to 25 head teachers of the primary State schools of VitOria. The intention was to identify gaps between what is mandated by laws...

  16. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  17. New Records of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Bolívar State in South Eastern Venezuela, with 27 New Species for the State and 5 of Them New in the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Jesús; Guzmán, Hernán; Estrada, Yarys; Ramírez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of studies related to mosquito ecological and biogeographic aspects. A total of 69 mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was collected in 16 localities sampled in the Gran Sabana Municipality, Canaima National Park, and Venezuela. Twenty-seven mosquito species are recorded for the first time from Bolívar State, Venezuela. Five of them species are reported for the first time in Venezuela: Anopheles malefactor Dyar and Knab (1907); Chagasia bonneae Root (1927); Chagasia ablusa Harbach (2009); Culex anduzei Lane (1944), and Uranotaenia leucoptera Theobald (1907). Their medical importance is commented, and ecological and epidemiological aspects are discussed. A checklist of the mosquito species reported in the Gran Sabana County is given. PMID:25853113

  18. Survey report for fiscal 1997 on the survey report on the actual state of technical cooperation on industrial technologies by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region; 1997 nendo Tonan Asia chiiki ni okeru Obei shokoku no sangyo gijutsu ni kansuru gijutsu kyoryoku jittai chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The actual state was surveyed on the technical cooperation by European countries in the South-eastern Asian region. The U.S.A. is making research cooperation with Thailand on ethylene molecule structures to enhance productivity in rubber production, France on molecule markers for high production rubber clone selection, and Australia on grain storing and drying methods. For the Philippines, America is giving assistance on management of reproducible resources, France on climate information communications systems for local areas, Australia on grain storing and drying methods, and Germany on waste oil recovery and reutilization, and development of pollution-free energy resources. For Malaysia, the Great Britain is cooperating on building engineering research centers, Australia on search for plant patheology genetic organics available in the Pacific region, and Germany on investigative researches on pollution prevention for tin mines and processing areas, and forestry and plant information systems. With respect to the ASEAN, this paper reports its activities placing importance on biology and electronics engineering, while the organization is taking actions in the areas of foodstuffs, animals, electronics, information and material science, energy exploration, marine and earth physics, and resource development. (NEDO)

  19. Humoral immune responses to select marine bacteria in loggerhead, Caretta caretta, and Kemp's ridley, Lepidochelys kempii, sea turtles from the south eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Maria L; Toline, Catherine A; Rice, Charles D

    2017-10-12

    Serum from Kemp's ridley and loggerhead sea turtles was collected in summers of 2011, 2012, and 2013. Serum IgY recognition of lysate proteins from nine bacteria species and whole bacteria-specific IgY titers to these pathogens were quantified. Serum and purified IgY recognized proteins of all bacteria, with protein recognition in some species more pronounced than others. Circulating IgY titers against V. vulnificus, V. anguillarum, E. rhusiopathiae, and B. vesicularis changed over the years in Kemp's ridley turtles, while titers IgY against V. vulnificus, E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, B. vesicularis, and M. marinum were different in loggerhead turtles. Serum lysozyme activity was constant for loggerhead turtles over the 3 years, while activity in Kemp's ridleys were lower in 2012 than 2013. Blood PCV, glucose levels, and serum protein levels were comparable to healthy turtles in previous studies, therefore, this study provides baseline information on antibody responses in healthy, wild turtles. Received 25 May 2017 accepted 09 Oct 2017 revised 15 Sep 2017.

  20. Early winter mesozooplankton of the coastal south-eastern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Barents Sea (Pechora Sea) is a little studied region of the Russian Arctic. We investigated mesozooplankton community of this area in early winter period for the first time. The study was based on collections performed with a Juday net (168 μm) in November 2010. Three types of stations differing in mesozooplankton composition and abundance were revealed by non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses. Taxa richness and diversity of the mesozooplankton were high. The total abundance and biomass varied from 931 to 4360 individuals m-3 and from 4.0 to 64.2 mg dry mass m-3, respectively. Maximum density of mesozooplankton was located in the hydrographical frontal zone where cold and warm waters interacted. Copepods dominated in terms of the total abundance. Abundances of major taxa were strongly correlated with environmental variables, of which temperature, salinity and depth were the most important. Previous studies showed that many mesozooplankton are in a dormant state during the Arctic winter from October to April. However, our investigation found young copepodites to be present for many of the common copepod species, which suggests successful reproduction of some opportunistic taxa (Pseudocalanus, Acartia, Temora, Oithona) and that the small copepod community was in an active phase. The main factor influencing possible development of the copepods in the south-eastern Barents Sea was river run-off which supplied plankton with detritus and suspended organic matter.

  1. Extreme negative coexceedances in South Eastern European stock markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tevdovski, Dragan

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the financial integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE) stock markets. We use a multinomial logistic regression to analyze how persistence, asset class and volatility effects are related with negative coexceedances in SEE markets. We find evidence in favor...... of the continuation hypothesis in SEE stock markets. However, the factors associated with the coexceedances differ between the EU member countries from SEE and EU accession countries from SEE stock markets.The EU member countries are more dependent from the signals from major EU economies, while the accession...

  2. Enhancing the Utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics Lecturers in South Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejinkeonye, Uju Bridget; Usoroh, Comfort I.

    2016-01-01

    The study was on enhancing the utilization of information communication Technology (ICT) among Home Economics lecturers in south Eastern Nigeria. The study adopted a survey method. The area of the study is south eastern Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population was made up of 63 Home Economics lecturers from the six…

  3. USA, Russia and the Geopolitical Theatre in the South-Eastern Europe: The Place of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pintescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Core issues addressed in this article are: the existing threats to address the interests of the US geopolitical and geostrategical, particularly in South-Eastern Europe; the resources available to the American State for the protection of those interests; main features (elements geopolitical of Romania; importance for Romania's Alliance with US. Only states or groups of states that may threaten the economic interests of the U.S. military are originated from Eurasia: China, Russia, the Organization of Shanghai cooperation, the European Union. The main opponent of the U.S. in South-Eastern Europe is Russia. Geostrategical interests of Russia remains fundamentally the attempt to divide alliance NATO (in particular by providing the economic benefits of Germany and France and isolate Eastern Europe; in this way, the US military presence in Europe would become problematic. Currently, the US has enough economic and military means in order to avoid this situation.Geopolitical and geostrategical problems of Romania are of two kinds: external and internal. Externally, Romania has some diplomatic disagreements with Ukraine. At the same time, Romania was not able to resolve in the manner of the former Federal Republic of Germany, a consequence of the Second World War: the unification with the Republic of Moldova, the State created artificially by former USSR after the Second World War. Internally, the main geopolitical problems of Romania are the following: underdevelopment and the absence of real economic competitiveness of industry and agriculture; the demographic decline, lowering the standard of living of population. In the absence of support of the USA for Romania, this country will increase the degree of economic dependence towards Russia.

  4. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  5. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    reference rate are relatively quickly transmitted to domestic money market rates. We can explain these effects by several factors, such as: the fixed exchange rates, the relatively high integration of SEE financial markets to EMU financial markets as well as the dependence of banks on foreign financing......This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... and non-policy shocks (the output gap, the money market rate and the inflation rate in the euro-zone) on monetary and fiscal policies and economic activity in the analysed countries. The main motivation behind our empirical investigation is the fact that all of these economies are small open economies...

  6. State Variations in United States Divorce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Bill

    1971-01-01

    The "frontier atmosphere" explanation of high divorce rates in western areas of the United States was partially vindicated when comparisons were made between divorce rates in states having high migration rates and lower social costs with those states having low migration rates and higher social costs. (Author/CG)

  7. 75 FR 34156 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., designs, trade dress, and trade secrets; computer software, databases, and related documentation; know-how... Columbia for defendants Amcor and Rio Tinto under 28 U.S.C. 1391(d). IV. Trade and Commerce A. Background 1... Federal Trade Commission. See id. United States District Court for the District of Columbia United States...

  8. Vulnerability and resilience of competing land-based livelihoods in south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: vulnerability; resilience; livelihood; drought; Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area; south eastern Zimbabwe. Vulnerability and resilience have emerged as powerful analytical concepts in the study of socio-ecological systems. In this research these concepts are used to enhance

  9. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tošić Dragutin; Krunić Nikola

    2005-01-01

    ... of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE). In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions...

  10. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  11. High mortality from snakebite in south-eastern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, J F; Pison, G; Guyavarch, E; Mane, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over 24 years, from 1976 to 1999, we conducted a prospective study of overall and cause-specific mortality among the population of 42 villages of south-eastern Senegal. Of 4228 deaths registered during this period, 26 were caused by snakebite, 4 by invertebrate stings and 8 by other wild or domestic animals. The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population. Among persons aged > or = 1 year, 0.9% (26/2880) of deaths were caused by snakebite and this cause represented 28% (26/94) of total deaths by accidents. We also investigated the snake fauna of the area. Of 1280 snakes belonging to 34 species that were collected, one-third were dangerous and the proportion of Viperidae, Elapidae and Atractaspidae was 23%, 11% and 0.6%, respectively. The saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus was the most abundant species (13.6%). Other venomous species were Causus maculatus (6.5%), Naja katiensis (5.5%), Bitis arietans (2.7%), Elapsoidea trapei (2.4%), Naja nigricollis (1.2%), Naja melanoleuca (1.1%), Atractaspis aterrima (0.4%), Dendroaspis polylepis (0.3%) and Naja haje (0.1%).

  12. Markov chain analysis of the rainfall patterns of five geographical locations in the south eastern coast of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Tettey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study develops an objective rainfall pattern assessment through Markov chain analysis using daily rainfall data from 1980 to 2010, a period of 30 years, for five cities or towns along the south eastern coastal belt of Ghana; Cape Coast, Accra, Akuse, Akatsi and Keta. Transition matrices were computed for each town and each month using the conditional probability of rain or no rain on a particular day given that it rained or did not rain on the previous day. The steady state transition matrices and the steady state probability vectors were also computed for each town and each month. It was found that, the rainy or dry season pattern observed using the monthly steady state rainfall vectors tended to reflect the monthly rainfall time series trajectory. Overall, the probability of rain on any day was low to average: Keta 0.227, Akuse 0.382, Accra 0.467, Cape Coast, 0.50 and Akatsi 0.50. In particular, for Accra, the rainy season was observed to be in the months of May to June and September to October. We also determined that the probability of rainfall generally tended to increase from east to west along the south eastern coast of Ghana.

  13. Benefits of meteorological services in South Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, R.; Leviaekangas, P.; Raesaenen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The study evaluated the impacts and potential benefits of meteorological and hydrological information services in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Moldova and Montenegro. The services were analysed for the sectors of transport, construction industry, energy production, flood protection and agriculture production. The study was part of a larger project for the development of weather and climate observation networks and meteorological services in South Eastern Europe countries. In Albania advanced meteorological information services would produce annual savings worth 24 to 26 million euro. In Bosnia-Herzegovina the potential annual benefits were estimated to be about 10 to 22 million euro, in the FYR Macedonia 12 to 40 million euro and in Moldova 12 to 19 million euro per year. For Montenegro the data available did not enable the differentiation from Serbia for aviation and agriculture sectors. For road transport, construction industry and flood protection the annual savings resulting from better hydrometeorological information would be 1 to 3 million euro. Due to the lack of source information only part of the approximate potential benefits could be estimated at magnitude level, even though, the results show that hydrometeorological services are beneficial and worth developing further. The benefits are to a large extent due to higher predictability rates and better planning of operations as well as better preparedness for accidents and the reduction of human and material losses caused by these accidents. The realisation of the potential benefits requires comprehensive development of the hydrometeorological service systems. This means further development of observation infrastructure, data and transmission systems as well as service processes, operation models and know-how. Not only should the services be developed, but their availability and usability should be improved. The utilisation of communications technology should be enhanced and the awareness of

  14. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  15. Religions in South-Eastern Europe: The Historico-Anthropological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mitterauer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe in a historico-anthropological manner. With the aid of historical comparison, the author tries to throw light on the religious phenomena of South-Eastern Europe and to present them in a lucid review. A significant place in this process is given to historical sociology as a discipline which, among other, also deals with the religious conditioning of social processes. The text consists of two parts. In the first, the author deals with the question of the religious particularity of South-Eastern Europe and considers it from several viewpoints. The author regards the most important features of the religious situation in that part of Europe as being particularism, archaicism and syncretism. He analyses the historical conditioning of the viability of the three monotheistic world religions in the region, their influence on the social development of South-Eastern Europe, the stance of the authorities towards religious communities and the existence of diverse traditions within individual religious cultures. Along with analysis of the presence of ancient elements and the continuity of pre-Christian rituals and beliefs, the author also stresses the strong syncretism marking the religious traditions of South-Eastern Europe. In the second part of the text the author compares religious phenomena in South-Eastern Europe and analyses regional religious traditions. He presents from the historico-anthropological aspect the religious rituals, the bearers of rituals, the place and time of rituals and the ritual languages of each of the world religions represented in the region. Emphasising the continuity of religious life and religious traditions in South-Eastern Europe, the author ends with the period of Communist rule in the second half of the 20th century, and deliberation that Communism, too, with its atheist doctrine in the secular form of cult, in fact carried on from religious tradition.

  16. Variations in Nutrients Composition of Most Commonly Consumed Cassava (Manihot esculenta Mixed Dishes in South-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Davidson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in nutrient composition of most commonly consumed cassava (Manihot esculenta mixed dishes in South-eastern Nigeria were determined. Four communities were randomly selected from each of the five states in the South-east. Focus group discussions (FGD were conducted in each of the communities to determine commonly consumed foods and variations in recipes. 24-Hour dietary recall was conducted using 50 randomly selected households in those communities. Recipes collected during the FGD were standardized, prepared, and chemically analysed using standard methods. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Cassava-based dishes were the most commonly consumed in South-eastern Nigeria. Ninety-two percent of the study population ate cassava either in form of “fufu” (fermented cassava meal/garri (fermented and roasted cassava meal with soup or as “abacha” (tapioca salad. Commonly consumed soups were melon (Citrullus vulgaris seeds, “ora” (Pterocarpus soyauxii, and vegetable soups. Seven melon seed, six “ora,” and four vegetable soups and five “abacha” variations were identified. Except for vegetable soup, coefficient of variation for moisture was <10%, while large variations (19–71% were observed for energy and nutrients. These variations in cassava-based dishes need to be reflected in the country-specific food composition database to enable nutrient intake assessment or provision of dietary guidance using such food composition database as a reference material to be more effective.

  17. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  18. Aspects of seasonality and flood generating circulation patterns in a mountainous catchment in south-eastern Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrow, Th; Merz, B; Lindenschmidt, K.-E; Thieken, A. H

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of discharge series, precipitation fields and flood producing atmospheric circulation patterns reveal that two governing flood regimes exist in the Mulde catchment in south-eastern Germany...

  19. Accreditation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Accreditation is a process of external quality review created and used by higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and programs for quality assurance and quality improvement. Accreditation in the United States is more than a hundred years old, emerging from concerns to protect public health and safety and to serve the public…

  20. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  1. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  2. Rising Against the Thieves. Anti-Corruption Campaigns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 2010s, bottom-up anti-corruption mobilizations have broken out in different countries of south-eastern Europe. Bosnia-Herzegovina in 2014 and Macedonia in 2015 and 2016 were amongst the states in democratic and economic transition in which thousands of people took to the streets to express their discontent against a ruling class blamed for corruption. Although triggered by different events, these mobilizations present a number of similarities. Building on qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation of interactions on social media platforms, this article investigates the discursive strategies that movement organizers used to frame their claims and the protestors' identity in both countries. The article explores the ways in which protest leaders in the two countries appropriated the topic of corruption "from below" to delegitimize the ruling class using similar motivational, identity and diagnostic frames, notwithstanding the protests being spurred by diverse events. Furthermore, it elucidates the similarities and differences among the prognostic frames, that is, the proposed solutions to the problem of political corruption.

  3. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  4. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  5. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  6. Sterilization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  7. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  8. Breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria – 2 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the impact of “baby friendly hospital initiative” on breast feeding practices in Onitsha South Eastern Nigeria, 2 years after introduction. Setting: Holy Rosary Maternity Hospital Onitsha Materials and methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 178 breast feeding mothers on maternal ...

  9. Food and vices in south-eastern Nigeria: implications for poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives include among others an examination of the nature of poverty in South-Eastern Nigeria; an investigation to ascertain whether or not, poverty results in hunger, etc. The following were the findings: Hunger seems to have ravaged our society. This is because majority of our people are poor and are unable to ...

  10. Agricultural Extension in South-Eastern Europe: Issues of Transition and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daku, Lefter; Norton, George W.; Taylor, Daniel B.; Qenani-Petrela, Eivis

    2005-01-01

    Following the economic reforms in the early 90's, most of the south-eastern European countries (SEE) made efforts to establish agricultural extension services. However, a number of factors including tight governmental budgets, lack of experience, and the existence of vested interests have constrained the development of extension services. This…

  11. Self-reported adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of adherence and predictors of adherence to HAART in South-Eastern Nigeria. Selfreported adherence to HAART was assessed at 4-week intervals for a period of 3 months. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess hypothesised factors in adherence to HAART. The average ...

  12. Effects of surface soil loss in South Eastern Nigeria: I. crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of the influence of surface soil loss on crop yield is necessary in order to find out their effects on performance of crops. Effects of surface soil loss on maize (Zea mays L) seed yield, plant height and leaf area index (LAI) were investigated in poultry and meteorological locations in South Eastern Nigeria.

  13. soil groups relative susceptibility to erosion in parts of south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    94. SOIL GROUPS RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY. TO EROSION IN PARTS OF SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA. 1. C.N. Madubuike and. 2. G.O. Chukwuma,. 1. Department of Agricultural Engineering,. Federal University of Technology,. Owerri, Nigeria. 2. Department: of Agricultural Engineering,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, ...

  14. Prevalence of low vision secondary to eye injuries in South Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of the prevalence of low vision secondary to eye injuries in south-eastern part of Nigeria was undertaken. Data obtained from files in ten tertiary hospitals within the area showed that 394 cases of low vision due to eye injuries were found in the ten hospitals within a ten year period (1986 –2006).

  15. Rural land use change in South-eastern Nigeria: evidence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South-eastern Nigeria is an area in tropical Africa that is well known for high population growth rate and crude density, high rate of urbanization and poor agricultural resource base. Evidence has shown that these are the main driving forces for the change in rural land use in the region. However, since land use change will ...

  16. Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Anandasabari, Karthik; Pham, Dat; Carson, Stephen; Pilarczyk, Jessica; Hussain, Mohammad; Yap, Wenshu; Jones, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. Representative samples from each unit were collected for detailed mineralogy analysis using X-ray Diffraction. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit

  17. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, Shawn P

    2007-01-01

    The United States, its industries, livelihood, and economy depend on oil. The United States is the world's largest consumer of oil, with daily usage of approximately 20 million barrels. Approximately...

  18. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  19. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  20. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  1. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  2. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  3. Neurocysticercosis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, Jose A; White, A Clinton

    2012-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is typically considered a disease of the developing world. Nonetheless, NCC is also diagnosed in the developed world. The rise in the number of cases of NCC in developed countries, especially in the United States of America, has largely been driven by the influx of immigrants from endemic to non-endemic regions and the widespread access to neuroimaging. Cases of local transmission have also been documented particularly in the setting of a tapeworm carrier present in the household, which highlights the relevance of NCC as a public health problem in the USA. Although accurate incidence data in the USA are not available, estimates range from 0.2 to 0.6 cases per 100 000 general population and 1.5–5.8 cases per 100 000 Hispanics. We estimate that between 1320 and 5050 new cases of NCC occur every year in the USA. The number of NCC cases reported in the literature in the USA increased from 1494 prior to 2004 to 4632 after that date. Parenchymal cases remain the most commonly reported form of the disease; however, a slight increase in the percentage of extraparenchymal cases has been described in the most recent series. NCC is associated with significant morbidity resulting from hydrocephalus, cerebral edema, and seizures. Although uncommon, NCC is also a cause of premature death in the USA with a calculated annual age-adjusted mortality rate of at least 0.06 per million population. PMID:23265549

  4. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Amadi, Cecilia Nwadiuto; Dike, Daniel Onyekachi; Bede, Onyinyechi

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals...

  5. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación; Cala Verónica C.; González-Jiménez Antonio J.; Salvador Diego Ruiz; Justo Clemente Franco

    2016-01-01

    The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample...

  6. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  7. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  8. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  9. (snuff) on pulmonary function in south eastern nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Department of Physiology3, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu, Nigeria. Department of Anatomy4, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nigeria. Summary: The effect of occupational exposure to local powdered tobacco (snuff) on pulmonary function was.

  10. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  11. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Final Judgment relates to a qui tam action arising from common facts, and settlements with the United... proposed Final Judgment is to settle the qui tam lawsuit. GEC Cmts at 1-2. IV. THE DEPARTMENT'S RESPONSE TO...

  12. PPPs and their perspective in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taleski Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPPs include the private sector supply of infrastructure assets and services that have traditionally been provided by the government. Additional supply of the private capital and management can make more easier the fiscal constraints on infrastructure investment and the efficiency of the economy should increase. By mentioning all these advantages, PPPs become more and more important instrument around the world and it has to be mentioned that there are programs of PPPs in a number of countries (including Chile, Ireland, Mexico, and the United Kingdom. However, it is important to mention that sometimes PPPs are not more efficient than public investment and government supply of services. The point is to find the reasons for the less efficiency of this kind of projects in some countries. One particular concern is that PPPs could usually be used to by pass the spending controls, and to move public investment off budget and debt off the government balance sheet, while the government still is involved in the risk and faces potentially large fiscal costs.

  13. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  14. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  15. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Menstrual characteristics amongst south-eastern Nigerian adolescent school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, E D; Adinma, J I B

    2009-03-01

    Information on pattern of menstruation and its implications is lacking amongst adolescents in Nigeria. To examine the characteristics of menstruation amongst adolescent Igbo school girls with respect to the biosocial characteristics, the pattern of menstruation, associated complications, and the source of information on menstruation. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 550 students recruited from a multi-sampling of 50 secondary schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria, using pre-tested, semistructured, and interviewer administered questionnaires. Four hundred and sixteen (75.6%) respondents were aged 15-17 years; 338 (61.4%) of whom were Catholics. Menarcheal age range of respondents was 11-16 years, with a mean age of 13.40 +/- 1.15 years. Menstruation was regular in 410 (74.5%), and irregular in 124 (22.5%) of respondents. Duration of menstrual flow ranged between two and eight days, although a four-day flow occurred most commonly, 268 (53.6%). Abdominal pain, (66.2%), and waist pain, (38.5%), constituted the major problems associated with menstruation, followed by depression, (24.4%); vomiting, (6.9%); school absenteeism, (4.5%); anorexia, (1.8%); weakness, (1.5%); and increased appetite, (1.1%). The commonest source of information on menstruation (prior to menarche) amongst respondents was from the mother, 48.4%, followed by elder sister, and friends --14.2%, and 8.7% respectively, while the teacher constituted the least source, 1.1%. The characteristics of menstruation in this study do not differ considerably from what obtains amongst other adolescent girls. Associated complications may have profound psychosocial impact on the growing adolescent girl, requiring address, best achieved through the empowerment of mothers and teachers under a comprehensive family life education scheme.

  17. 78 FR 58559 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Negras Brewery''), which is located in Mexico near the Texas border, and the assets and companies... States's ``prediction as to the effect of proposed remedies, its perception of the market structure, and...

  18. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  19. Tree planting in the United States - 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Moulton; G. Hernandez

    2000-01-01

    This annual report summarizes tree planting, timber stand improvement, and nursery production activities across all ownerships of forest land in the United States. It includes State-by-State and ownership breakdowns, regional totals, as well as analysis of trends in the data. It does not include tree planting in urban and community environments. As far as we know, it...

  20. Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychosocial consequences of VSM, including emerging public health threats, and (5) etiological and contextual considerations of VSM use. Implications for future research and practice with volatile substance misusers in the United States are identified.

  1. Insights into soil and water conservation measures for major land utilization types in South Eastern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanza, Andrew Kaggwa

    2013-01-01

    Land-use/cover changes have taken place in South Eastern Tanzania with as a result a decline in natural vegetation. Land use change coupled with anticipated climate change has lead to accelerated land degradation in terms of soil erosion, loss in biodiversity and changed hydrological cycles. Changes in land use if not properly managed goes hand in hand with soil erosion. This study was conducted to assess land use/cover change and its linkage to soil erosion visavis runoff and soil loss from ...

  2. Modeling the barrier-layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Durand, F.; Shankar, D.; DeBoyer Montegut, C.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Blanke, B.; Madec, G.

    -layer formation in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea F. Durand1, D. Shankar2, C. de Boyer Mont?gut3, S.S.C. Shenoi2, B. Blanke4, G. Madec3 (1) IRD, LEGOS, UMR5566 CNRS-CNES-IRD-UPS, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France (2) Physical Oceanography Division..., National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India (3) Laboratoire d?Oc?anographie et de Climatologie : Exp?rimentation et Analyses Num?riques, Universit? Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France (4) Laboratoire...

  3. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  4. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  5. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  6. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  7. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  8. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  9. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  10. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  11. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  12. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  13. United States Security Policy in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichols, Scott R; Wiarda, Howard J

    1993-01-01

    The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter...

  14. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  15. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  16. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  17. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  18. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  19. Bibliographic Databases Outside of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Thomas P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Eight articles describe the development, content, and structure of databases outside of the United States. Features discussed include library involvement, authority control, shared cataloging services, union catalogs, thesauri, abstracts, and distribution methods. Countries and areas represented are Latin America, Australia, the United Kingdom,…

  20. FRAGMENTATION OF CONTINENTAL UNITES STATES FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m land-cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indices measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes from 2....

  1. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  2. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  3. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Among Non-U.S.​–Born Persons in the United ... Facilitator Guide Introduction to TB Genotyping Core Curriculum Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Correctional Facilities, United States, 1993-2014 Prevention ...

  4. Mexico-United States Migration: Health Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Elena; Wallace, Steven P.; Berumen, Salvador; Castaneda, Xotichl; al., et

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental purpose of "Mexico-United States Migration: Health issues" is to present a general overview of the conditions faced by Mexican residents in the United States concerning their health care. Good health constitutes an essential asset for the integral development of an immigrant's capacities for performing labor and for social participation. Enjoying good health not only benefits the immigrants themselves and their descendents, both Mexican and American, but also has larger social...

  5. Homeland Security Lessons for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farr, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    ... world. The People's Republic of China and Singapore are the focus of this thesis in order to determine what if any homeland security policies developed by their governments could be used to better protect citizens of the United States. Several policies such as legislation, education and internal security measures were evaluated for the United States to institute. Each chosen policy is followed by a brief description of how these laws might come into being within the U.S. governmental system.

  6. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  7. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  8. Waterford Formation in the south-eastern Karoo: Implications for basin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mason

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research on the rocks of the Karoo Supergroup has shown that this sequence, which contains an unsurpassed record of Permian–Jurassic tetrapods, records a largely unbroken stratigraphic succession from 300 Ma to 180 Ma. This Gondwanan succession was deposited in a changing environmental setting reflecting glacial marine through deltaic to fluvial and aeolian desert conditions. The contact between the Ecca and Beaufort Groups (at the top of the Waterford Formation of the Ecca Group in the southern and western Karoo represents a change in depositional environment from a subaqueous to a subaerial delta plain. By contrast, the Waterford Formation has not yet been recognised in the south-eastern Karoo Basin, which might imply that a major unconformity is present between the Fort Brown Formation of the Ecca Group, deposited in a prodelta environment, and the overlying fluvially deposited Koonap Formation of the Beaufort Group. From careful documentation of lithofacies and sedimentological data, it can be demonstrated that the Waterford Formation is indeed present in the south-eastern part of the basin and that no major unconformity is present – a fact that has implications for the mapping of Karoo rocks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, for understanding the depositional environment of ’reptilian‘ fossils from the lowermost Beaufort in this part of the Karoo basin, and for basin development models.

  9. Modelling spatial patterns of wildfire occurrence in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and validation of spatial models for wildfire occurrence at a broad landscape scale. The hotspots databases from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and logistic regression models are investigated for the comprehensive understanding of environmental and socioeconomic determinants regulating the spatial distribution of wildfires over the 11-year period 2003–2013. The probability of occurrence of at least one fire on a 1 km2 grid cell in a 1,030,000 km2 region located in South-Eastern Australia is studied for the prediction of future fire occurrence. Our research shows that wildfires are most likely to occur in mountainous areas, forests, savannas and lands with high vegetation coverage, and are less likely to occur on grasslands and shrublands. Wildfires also tend to occur in areas near human infrastructures. Environmental variables are strong individual predictors of fire occurrence while socioeconomic variables contribute more to the final model. The influence of environmental and socioeconomic conditions on wildfire occurrence and the spatial patterns of wildfires identified in this study can assist fire managers in implementing appropriate management actions in South-Eastern Australia. This paper also demonstrates the potential of applying the MODIS active fire product in wildfire occurrence studies.

  10. DOES THE HIGHER EDUCATION PROMOTE STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITAR NIKOLOSK

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a widespread recognition that business start-ups are a driving force of economic growth and significant job creation. Given the segmented characteristics of the labour markets, youth population is among those segments that are disproportionally affected by high and sustained unemployment. The situation with youth unemployment is particularly unfavourable in developing countries such as South-Eastern European countries where almost half of the active young population is jobless. Even though the governments in these countries have repeatedly undertaken measures for improving the position of youth on the labour markets, it seems that these endeavours have not reached the planned goals. From this perspective, it is important to analyse the potential contribution of education, and particularly the higher education to the development of entrepreneurship. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of the higher education in South-Eastern European countries in fostering the students’ entrepreneurial potential. For this purpose we have carried out a survey on representative samples of students in two universities: “St. Kliment Ohridski” (Macedonia and “Aleksander Xhuvani” (Albania. We found that considerable number of surveyed students have ideas for starting own businesses, but only a small portion of them attempted to develop their business ideas in practice. As a consequence, we can conclude that there exists a wide room for further policy recommendations that will shape directions for future reforms in the SEECs higher education systems and will improve the students’ entrepreneurial potential

  11. A preboreal Elk (Alces alces L., 1758 antler from south-eastern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Audun Grøndahl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In 1895 a shed elk antler was found in a mire on a farm near Fluberg, in Søndre Land municipality in south-eastern Norway. The antler was first radiocarbon dated in 2008 and yielded the age 9,100 ± 50 BP (8,340 – 8,250 BC, which is the oldest dated elk remain from Norway. Elk (Alces alces L., 1758 are a pioneer colonising species; they were already established south of the ice front in Denmark and southern Sweden in the Late Glacial period. This antler shows that the species had arrived in south-eastern Norway in the late Preboreal period. This could tie in with the earliest arrival of elk once the colonizing routes from southern Sweden were established 9,300-9,200 BP. The antler is clearly of the palmate morph, and strongly resembles elk antlers found in Denmark and southern Sweden from the Late Glacial and Early Holocene periods. This find also reveals that the vegetation at the end of the Preboreal period suited large herbivores such as elk.

  12. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  13. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Portuguese forces in Angola in 1972 and that of President Stroessner of Paraguay in 1974. Other appearances include those at state fune- rals and when foreign ambassadors present their credentials to the State President. All the occasions at which the Unit performs, especially the annual official Opening of Parlia-.

  14. REMITTANCES AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT.A study of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    MALE, STELA

    2009-01-01

    Remittances were calculated to be approximately $318 billion in 2007, which is an increase of three times the amount of $102 billion in 1995, having these funds to become the second largest type of flows after foreign direct investment. The South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries welcomed 12% of the world’s remittances inflows in 2007, totalling $37 billion. The impact of remittances on financial development of the South-Eastern and Eastern-European countries for the period 1994 – 2007 i...

  15. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  16. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  17. Orphan drug product regulation--United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, M E

    2002-02-01

    The legislative history of the United States Orphan Drug Act began with rare, unanimous approval by the United States Congress. The Act, mid consequently the Regulations, have evolved since then. The two-stage process of Orphan Drug designation and approval is outlined, as well as the incentives that are offered to commercial companies for their implementation. Orphan Drugs are likely to be over-represented among drugs used under "Treatment" INDs. For patent- and "drug-difference" reasons, the benefits under the Orphan Drug Act are especially valuable to those who develop biologics. By any measure, this legislation, which requires only voluntary participation, has been a success; because the human genome is likely to lead to more biologicals than orthodox drugs, this success is likely to continue into the future. But even so, the 18-year experience with Orphan Drugs in the United States has led to some 225 Orphan Product approvals that benefit many millions of patients.

  18. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  19. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  20. Impact of climate change on the role of non-governmental organizations in environmental health delivery in south-eastern region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta A. Opara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change remains a serious problem to most rural settlement in Nigeria. Individuals are faced with a wide range of health problems. These problems include high risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases, an outbreak of epidemics, and scarcity of water. This study investigated the impact of climate change on health delivery services by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs to the different Local Government Areas (LGA of the five the States in the South -Eastern Region in Nigeria: Anambra, Imo, Abia, Ebonyi and Enugu were selected and three communities from each was sampled using stratified random sampling technique. The result revealed that most NGO health workers could not penetrate into most of the rural areas to deliver aids to the victims

  1. Genetic diversity and occurrence of the F129L substitutions among isolates ofAlternaria solaniin south-eastern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odilbekov, Firuz; Edin, Eva; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Hovmalm, Helena Persson; Liljeroth, Erland

    2016-01-01

    Early blight, caused by the fungus Alternaria solani, occurs on potato mainly in the south-eastern part of Sweden, but also in other parts of the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of A. solani populations from different potato growing regions in south-eastern Sweden using AFLP marker analysis. In addition, the cultured isolates were examined for substitutions in the gene encoding cytochrome b , associated with loss of sensitivity against QoI fungicides. Nei's gene diversity index for the Swedish populations of A. solani revealed a gene diversity of up to 0.20. Also genetic differentiation was observed among populations of A. solani from different locations in south-eastern Sweden. The mitochondrial genotype of the isolates of A. solani was determined and both known genotypes, GI (genotype 1) and GII (genotype 2), were found among the isolates. The occurrence of the F129L substitution associated with a loss of sensitivity to strobilurins was confirmed among the GII isolates. In vitro conidial germination tests verified that isolates containing the F129L substitution had reduced sensitivity to azoxystrobin and, at a lower extent, to pyraclostrobin. Genetic diversity was relatively high among isolates of A. solani in south-eastern part of Sweden. F129L substitutions, leading to reduced sensitivity to strobilurins, have been established in field populations, which may have implications for the future efficacy of QoI fungicides.

  2. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western Öland, south-eastern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamel, W.A. van

    1974-01-01

    This paper forms part of the author's thesis "Lithostratigraphy, environmental interpretation and conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western bland, south-eastern Sweden". The purpose of this investigation was to unravel the lithogenesis and the history

  3. The South Eastern Europe Health Network: A model for regional collaboration in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ruseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-country alliances, articulated through regional approaches, have increasingly been used to drive economic development and social progress in the past several decades. The South Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN stands out among these types of initiatives for the tangible improvements it has achieved in regional governance for health, with several important lessons for public health leaders worldwide. This review paper, written by several key participants in SEEHN operation, follows the main milestones in network development, including its foundation under the Stability Pact’s Initiative for Social Cohesion and the three ministerial forums that have shaped its evolution, in order to show how it can constitute a model for regional collaboration in public health. Herewith we summarise the main accomplishments of the network and highlight the keys to its success, drawing lessons that both international bodies and other regions may use in their own design of collaborative initiatives in health and in other areas of public policy.

  4. DISCUSSING THE ROLE OF MIGRATION AND EDUCATION IN FIGHTING ECONOMIC VULNERABILITY IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raileanu-Szeles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effects of the net migration rate and higher education on a set of economic vulnerability indicators in the South-Eastern EU countries, when controlling inter alia for other explanatory variables. These relationships are explored by panel data regression models, using macroeconomic variables collected over 10 years from the Eurostat dataset. The random effects Generalized Least Squares (GLS and the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimators are comparatively examined. The paper finds that the tertiary education attainments do not represent a significant determinant of income inequality and subjective well-being, while the net migration rate and lifelong learning exert a significant and powerful impact on most our measures of economic vulnerability over the period of analysis.

  5. Spatial statistics detect clustering patterns of kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical geography was conceptualized almost ten years ago due to its obvious usefulness in epidemiological research. Still, numerous diseases in many regions were neglected in these aspects of research, and the prevalence of kidney diseases in Eastern Europe is such an example. We evaluated the spatial patterns of main kidney diseases in south-eastern Romania, and highlighted the importance of spatial modeling in medical management in Romania. We found two statistically significant hotspots of kidney diseases prevalence. We also found differences in the spatial patterns between categories of diseases. We propose to speed up the process of creating a national database of records on kidney diseases. Offering the researchers access to a national database will allow further epidemiology studies in Romania and finally lead to a better management of medical services.

  6. Comparative Analysis of South Eastern Europe Economies facing the Crisis. Future Prospects for the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Paul (Vass

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the global economic crisis in ten South Eastern European countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, within a European perspective. It also points out the main transmission channels of the economic crisis, by outlining the strong economic and financial ties with the EU, acting like contagion corridors in the event of global downturns. In terms of macroeconomic policy responses of the countries, these mainly led to increased fiscal deficits and public debts. Taking as benchmark the Romanian experience during the crisis, we outline several important structural reforms intended to boost competitiveness in the area. The paper concludes that, in spite of the recent negative evolutions, the SEE-10 region has an important economic potential for the future. In the final recommendations we explore the creativity potential of the region, as a strategic opportunity for putting the region on the global competitiveness map.

  7. Statistical analysis for assessing shallow-landslide susceptibility in South Tyrol (south-eastern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Daniela; Troiani, Francesco; Soldati, Mauro; Notarnicola, Claudia; Savelli, Daniele; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Strada, Claudia

    2012-05-01

    This paper conducts a statistical analysis to determine shallow-landslide susceptibility in an approximately 7500-km2 region of the south-eastern Alps (South Tyrol, Italy). The study applies the weight of evidence (WofE) method, which is useful in determining landslide susceptibility in large areas with complex geological and geomorphological settings. The statistical analysis and landslide susceptibility mapping are based on 882 past landslides, three geometric/topographic factors and two anthropogenic factors, which are the most relevant landslide predisposing factors. The quality of the proposed model, particularly the fitting performance, was assessed; the landslide database was divided into a training set to obtain the model and a validation set to estimate the model quality. The results show that the developed susceptibility model predicts an acceptable percentage (75%) of landslides. Therefore, the model can be useful and reliable for land planners and decision makers also due to its cost-effectiveness ratio.

  8. A quantitative analysis of microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, H A; Froneman, P W

    2015-12-15

    The extent of microplastic pollution (microplastic pollution along the south-eastern coastline of South Africa, looking at whether bays are characterised by higher microplastic densities than open stretches of coastline in both beach sediment and surf-zone water. Microplastic (mean ± standard error) densities in the beach sediment ranged between 688.9 ± 348.2 and 3308 ± 1449 particles · m(-2), while those in the water column varied between 257.9 ± 53.36 and 1215 ± 276.7 particles · m(-3). With few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in either the sediment or water column microplastic densities; with little differences in density between bays and the open coast (P>0.05). These data indicate that the presence of microplastics were not associated with proximity to land-based sources or population density, but rather is governed by water circulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sheep helminth parasitic disease in south eastern Scotland arising as a possible consequence of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, F; Sargison, N D; Skuce, P J; Jackson, F

    2009-08-26

    The climate in the UK is changing, with a trend towards increased rainfall in the autumn and winter and warmer average temperatures throughout the year. There has also been a 4-week extension of the herbage growing season over the past 40 years. These changes may have implications for the epidemiology of sheep helminth parasites. Here, we describe production-limiting disease outbreaks caused by Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Teladorsagia circumcincta and Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in south eastern Scotland. The occurrence and timing of these disease outbreaks could not have been predicted in this region highlighting changes in the epidemiology of helminth infections from the patterns historically described. These cases are used to introduce discussion regarding the potential effects of climate change on the epidemiology of helminth parasites and the implications for sheep farming in the UK.

  10. THE STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE AND THE ACTORS OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Eduard GROSARU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt regarding the importance that south-eastern Europe has gained over the past years in geopolitical and geostrategic terms. Due to its history and considering the changes that have taken place here after the fall of the Iron Curtain, and also as a consequence of the “hot spots” emerged here on ideological, political, economic and terrorist grounds, this part of the continent still is an area of control and interests confrontations orchestrated by the actors that provide the international affairs with a multipolar dimension. All the aforementioned factors lead to various phenomena in which individual or group interests result in regional as well as global consequences.

  11. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  12. Tuberculosis diagnostic pathway in a municipality in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, M E F; Andrade, R L de Paula; Monroe, A A; Arakawa, T; Magnabosco, G T; Orfão, N H; Scatena, L M; Villa, T C S

    2013-10-01

    To analyse the pathway taken by tuberculosis (TB) patients from the first contact with the health services and the diagnosis of TB disease. In a survey conducted in a south-eastern municipality of Brazil prioritised for TB control, a structured questionnaire was applied to 100 TB patients under treatment; secondary data recorded in two information systems were also collected for analysis. Diagrams were constructed to represent the patient pathway through the health services up to diagnosis. The emergency services were the point of entry into care for the majority of the patients. Those who first attended primary health care (PHC) centres needed to visit other health services for diagnosis. Our study shows that multiple visits to multiple health services are required for the majority of patients to be diagnosed with TB. It is necessary to reinforce the referral path established for TB diagnosis and communication among providers, who should play a clear role in obtaining early diagnosis.

  13. Public health leadership competency level among health professionals in a South Eastern European country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjola Pampuri

    2015-12-01

    the overall scores and the subscale scores of the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals. Results: Mean value of the overall summary score for the 52 items of the instrument was significantly lower for the current leadership competency level compared with the required leadership competency level (138.4±11.2 vs. 159.7±25.3, respectively; P<0.001. Most of the subscales’ scores were significantly higher for the required than for the current leadership competency level. Conclusion: Our study provides useful evidence about the current and the required level of leadership competencies among health professionals in transitional Albania. Findings of this study may help policymakers in Albania to identify the gap between the required and the current level of leadership competencies among health  professionals. Furthermore, findings of this study should be expanded in the neighbouring countries of the South Eastern European region and beyond.

  14. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  15. Community members’ interference and conduct of University distance learning examinations In South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Odera Unamma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work was aimed at determining the degree of community members’ interference in the conduct of university distance learning examination in South Eastern Nigeria. It was also aimed at finding out the factors responsible for the community members’ interference, the ways by which interference is effected, the consequences and the strategies to improve the conduct of the examination. A survey descriptive research design was adopted. Information obtained was analyzed by using the Z-test statistical technique. Findings include community members reluctance to provide their infrastructural facilities at cheap rate; use of some spaces for religious worships when examinations are taking place; harassment and bribing of invigilators or examiners; conspiracy with some community members to throw paper balls containing answers into halls, etc. The study recommends preventive measures for minimizing interference during the examinations.

  16. The household costs of visceral leishmaniasis care in south-eastern Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Uranw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined whether the intensified VL control efforts induced by the government resulted in a decrease in household costs. METHODS: Between August and September 2010, a household survey was conducted among 168 patients that had been treated for VL within 12 months prior to the survey in five districts in south-eastern Nepal. We collected data on health-seeking behaviour, direct and indirect costs and coping strategies. RESULTS: The median total cost of one episode of VL was US$ 165 or 11% of annual household income. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and presentation to a qualified provider was 25 days. Once the patient presented to a qualified provider, the delay to correct diagnosis was minimal (median 3 days. Direct and indirect costs (income losses represented 47% and 53% of total costs respectively. Households used multiple strategies to cope with the cost of illness, mainly mobilizing cash/savings (71% or taking a loan (56%. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of free VL diagnosis and drugs by the Nepalese control programme has been an important policy measure to reduce the cost of VL to households. But despite the free VL drugs, the economic burden is still important for households. More effort should be put into reducing indirect costs, in particular the length of treatment, and preventing the transmission of VL through vector control.

  17. Ten years onwards: Comparison of the South Eastern European regional public health strategy 2004 and the South Eastern European 2020 strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Wiskow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Regional collaboration has continuously contributed to the development of public health in the South Eastern Europe (SEE region since 2000 when the Public Health Collaboration in SEE (PH-SEE was initiated. This article looks into two frameworks for regional collaboration in the area of public health: a framework developed in 2004 by a network of public health professionals and academics, and another one developed by the SEE Health Network as integral part of the SEE 2020 strategy on Jobs and Prosperity in a European Perspective, adopted in 2013. It compares the commonalities and differences of the two frameworks; considers what is still valid and relevant after ten years and which new features have emerged in the new strategy. Methods: A literature review was carried out and a qualitative analysis was applied for the comparison of the two frameworks. Results: Notwithstanding the time gap of nearly ten years, the commonalities between the two regional health strategies are significant. Major consistent goals include: improving equity in health; strengthening human resources for health; improving intersectoral cooperation and governance. The differences between the two regional strategies, including issues around social participation and regional health information systems, are partially due to their different development context. Cross-border policies and quality management have emerged as new or more pronounced topics in the SEE 2020 strategy’s health dimension. Conclusions: Many aspects addressed in the 2004 framework are pertinent with regard to the SEE 2020 health dimension and remain relevant in the current context. The integration of health as part of the economic SEE 2020 strategy reflects a significant paradigm shift and important step forward for public health.

  18. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  19. Sheltered Workshops: United States v. Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Prince, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Federal legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 504, and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, mandates that individuals with disabilities be integrated in all aspects of life from education to employment to independent living. A recent development involves a settlement reached between the United States and the…

  20. Pulp capacity in the United States, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett R. Smith; Robert W. Rice; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    Production capacities of all woodpulp mills in the United States are identified by location, ownership, and process type. For each mill, production capacity is reported for the year 2000 by process type; total mill capacities are also reported for 1961, 1965, 1979, 1974, and 1983. In addition, the report summarizes the recent history and current status of woodpulp...

  1. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Relations, ed. Robert O. Freedman (Boulder: Westview Press, 2012), 22. 47 radicals such as Gamal Abdel Nasser to become more defiant. The United...States backed Egypt in the 1956 Suez War, taking on Britain, France, and Israel, but received no credit from Nasser . The aftermath of the Israeli

  2. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  3. Black Studies and United States History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptheker, Herbert

    1971-01-01

    A consciously anti-racist historiography is urgently needed by the historical profession. The movement for what is called Black Studies would contribute decisively towards making the educational process real and wholesome, and help exalt the historical profession in the United States. (Author)

  4. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  5. Nonstandard Employment in the Nonmetropolitan United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of nonstandard employment in the nonmetropolitan United States using the Current Population Survey Supplement on Contingent Work (1999 and 2001). We find that nonstandard work is more prevalent in nonmetropolitan than in central city or suburban areas. Logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic and work…

  6. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  7. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  8. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800.225 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...

  9. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising ...analyzed, risks can be mitigated as they occur. Partner activities can and will have a significant impact on national security, and the application of

  10. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  11. Forestry Schools in the United States, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This 24-page booklet compiled by the U.S. Forest Service lists 49 colleges and universities in the United States which offer forestry curriculums leading to an undergraduate and/or graduate degree in forestry or related areas. Brief descriptions of each program are included. Schools accredited by the Society of American Foresters are indicated…

  12. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  13. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health issues… CHIP Marketplaces Waivers menu KFF.org Facebook Twitter Email Twitter Facebook Email HIV/AIDS Search Graphics & Interactives Polls Home ... in the United States Published: Jun 23, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print Key Facts HIV testing ...

  14. Crafts-Artists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, J. George; And Others

    Following a preliminary study of crafts membership organizations in the United States, a survey was conducted of members of these organizations in order to determine their number, kind, media of work, personal characteristics, and geographic location. A sample of 5,146 craftspersons who were members of these organizations was mailed a…

  15. United States Department of Education Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author provides updates on the various programs of the United States Department of Education. Among others, the Office of Correctional Education is sponsoring training sessions dealing with the utilization of post release outcome data to evaluate institutionally based educational services. Also, a few weeks after the upcoming…

  16. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    Arguably, the US – Nigerian relations before the events on 25th of December, 2009 was a healthy one. However, the attempted suicide ... Consequently, the. United States of America put Nigeria on a watch list of potential terrorist countries. This did not only ... forward by Adeniran, who postulates thus: When statesmen and ...

  17. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  18. Southeast Asian Refugees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Briefly reviews the history, initial problems, and economic adjustment of Southeast Asian refugees residing in the United States today. Provides some figures on yearly arrivals from 1975 to 198l, national origin of the U.S. Southeast Asians, their current level of English proficiency, labor force participation, and percent of households on public…

  19. AED in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development's (AED's) work in the United States includes programs with many of the nation's major foundations on issues of education reform, parental involvement in the schools, youth development and bridging the distance between school, work, and successful university education. The projects described here cover a wide…

  20. Florística e estrutura da vegetação arbórea de um fragmento de floresta semidecedual às margens do reservatório da usina hidrelétrica Dona Rita (Itambé do Mato Dentro, MG Floristic composition and structure of the tree community of a fragment of the submontane semideciduous forest in Itambé do Mato Dentro Minas Gerais State, south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Antônio de Carvalho

    2000-04-01

    was carried out in a fragment of sub-montane semideciduous forest located on the margin of the Dona Rita Hydroelectric Reservoir, municipality of Itambé do Mato Dentro, State of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil (19º26'S, 43º14'W, 610-630m of altitude. All individuals with a stem diameter at the base, of dbt > 5cm (lianas excepted found in thirty five 15x15m quadrats, were identified, measured (dbt and had their height estimated (individuals found outside quadrats with reproductive structure were also collected. The following phytosociological parameters were calculated for all species: density per area, absolute frequency, absolute dominance calculated from the basal area, and importance value. The Shannon diversity index and the corresponding evenness were calculated. Jaccard's similarity indices and euclidian distances were also calculated among the studied forest and other forests surveyed in the following regions of Minas Gerais State: Upper and Mid Rio Grande, Lower Rio Paranaiba and Upper Rio São Francisco. A total of 2,430 individuals were recorded in the sample area. These belonged to 50 families, 144 genera and 216 species. The following families produced the highest importance values: Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae and Caesalpiniaceae. The most important species were Apuleia leiocarpa, Pera glab rata, Licania hypoleuca, and Mabeafistulifera. A comparison with the other areas indicated that the forest of Itambé do Mato Dentro is more similar to those of the Upper Rio Grande which are all under a stronger floristic influence of the Atlantic Forest, although the most important species are not the same. The soils of the area are deeper, highly weathered and leached, despite the strongly sloping topography because they had gone through an intense process of alteration prior to the present pedogenetic cycle.

  1. Same Same, But Different: Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Switzer, A.; Seshachalam, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Pham, D. T.; Carson, S.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hussain, M.; Yap, W.

    2014-12-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit could be distinguished from the tsunami, tidal and aeolian deposits. However, applying the same data analysed

  2. Experiences and unmet needs of women undergoing Pap smear cervical cancer screening: impact on uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Egbuji, Chuma C; Ezugwu, Eusebus C

    2015-03-01

    The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase in sub-Saharan Africa mainly due to inadequate provision and utilisation of cervical cancer prevention services. Several evidence-based strategies have been deployed to improve cervical cancer screening uptake without much success. However, patients' experiences and satisfaction with service provision has not been adequately studied. Inefficiencies in service delivery and less fulfilling experiences by women who attend cervical cancer screening could have considerable impact in future voluntary uptake of cervical cancer screening. Six hundred and eighty women who underwent Pap smear screening in three health care facilities in two states in south eastern Nigeria were interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction, willingness to undertake future voluntary screening, unmet needs and correlation between satisfaction level and willingness to undergo future screening. Satisfaction with Pap smear screening correlated positively with willingness to undertake future voluntary screening (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.78, P = 0.001). The mean satisfaction score was significantly higher among participants handled by nurses than those handled by the physicians (3.16 ± 0.94 vs 2.52 ± 0.77, P = 0.001). 'Scrapping discomfort' of the spatula was reported as the most dissatisfying aspect of Pap smear experience. The need for less invasive screening procedures was the most unmet need. It was concluded that improving the Pap smear screening experience of women and providing less invasive methods of cervical cancer screening with immediate results could improve uptake of cervical cancer screening in south eastern Nigeria.

  3. Mexico-United States labor migration flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1997-01-01

    "International migration from Mexico to the United Sates is viewed very differently depending on from which side of the border this phenomenon is observed and evaluated....[It is] imperative to begin a process of ¿demythifying' migration as a necessary and sufficient condition that would allow both countries to come together within the context of bilateral relations and find ways to act jointly to address the impacts of the issue. Such a demythifying effort must begin with scientific research which can help develop a diagnosis of the costs and benefits that labor migration from Mexico to the United States brings to the two countries." excerpt

  4. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First...

  5. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the grounds...

  6. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  7. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    fuel lines to modify cars to run with methanol as a gasoline additive. China is already blending 15% methanol in their fuel . The problem with this...was described by the following: higher fuel standards that will double how far a car can go by the middle of the next decade, creation of thousands...electric cars more affordable. The United States needs to divert subsidies from less useful fuels like solar and wind and invest in the electrical

  8. Nursing in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Vickie A.

    2001-01-01

    Nursing in the United States of America is a diverse and challenging profession. A number of educational programs exist that allow the nurse to obtain not only a basic education in nursing, but also advanced degrees in nursing at both the master's and doctoral level of preparation. Practice sites for nurses are numerous and varied, as are the areas of specialization. The annual salary a nurse earns is determined by the nurse's level of educational preparation, job title and responsibilities, ...

  9. Future Energy and United States Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-13

    from plant and animal matter. Currently, distillers in the United States pro- cess ethanol from cornstarch, local waste, cheese whey , wheat and wood...have a major impact on US energy consumption in the next ten years. The second, the power tower is the leading recipient of research for the central...the methods become more famil- 55iar. For most of the next decade, solar heating will make its principal impact in the form of active systems

  10. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    sub-index measures society’s basic attitudes toward entrepreneurship through education and social stability. The activity sub- index measures what...career choice or in terms of social status. In the institutional variable, the United States scores very well among all countries studied but somewhat...Coduras and J. Levie 2009, GEM Executive Report 2008, Babson College, Universidad del Desarrollo , and Global Entrepreneurship Research Consortium

  11. Iranian Diaspora in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Havlů, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to explore the social reality of Iranians living in the United States. The main objective is to find out how Iranians (Iranian Americans) maintain, construct and perceive their Iranian identity and to identify factors that could intervene in this process. Another aim is to examine intra-diasporic social relations, social interactions with American society and stance towards Iran. To fulfill the purpose of this dissertation, a qualitative research method was applied. Th...

  12. Race and Rickettsiae: A United States Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgren, F. Scott; Moonesinghe, Ramal; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    US surveillance programs for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis collect demographic data on patients, including race and ethnicity. Reporting of these diseases among race groups is not uniform across the United States. Because a laboratory confirmation is required to meet the national surveillance case definition, reporting may be influenced by a patient's access to healthcare. Determining the association between race and ethnicity with incidence of rickettsia...

  13. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dockery, Jr, Leon W

    2006-01-01

    ... became available in Afghanistan. The primary methodology of this thesis centers on case studies of the military presence of the Soviet Union/Russia and the United States in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Afghanistan...

  14. United States pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marles, Robin J; Barrett, Marilyn L; Barnes, Joanne; Chavez, Mary L; Gardiner, Paula; Ko, Richard; Mahady, Gail B; Low Dog, Tieraona; Sarma, Nandakumara D; Giancaspro, Gabriel I; Sharaf, Maged; Griffiths, James

    2011-08-01

    The Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee (DSI-EC) of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reviews the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for the purpose of determining whether they should be admitted as quality monographs into the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF). The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has enforcement authority to pursue a misbranding action in those instances where a dietary supplement product indicates that it conforms to USP standards but fails to so conform. Recently DSI-EC undertook a safety evaluation of spirulina, a widely used dietary ingredient. DSI-EC reviewed information from human clinical trials, animal studies, and regulatory and pharmacopeial sources and analyzed 31 adverse event reports regarding spirulina to assess potential health concerns. At the conclusion of this review, DSI-EC assigned a Class A safety rating for Spirulina maxima and S. platensis, thereby permitting the admission of quality monographs for these dietary supplement ingredients in USP-NF. DSI-EC continually monitors reports concerning the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for which USP dietary supplement monographs are developed. The DSI-EC may revisit the safety classification of spirulina as new information on this dietary ingredient becomes available.

  15. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kellison, R. C.; Russ Lea; Paul Marsh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation t...

  16. United States Arms Transfers as a Consistent Element of United States Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Organization of American States (OAS) China , Rep. of ilngapore Indonesia Thailand United Nations (UN) and its agencies to in- Japan Vietna1m, lep of...West in terms of an innate antagonism. Comunist dogma had taught them that "the outside world was hostile and that it was their duty eventually to...John King. The United States and China ,. 2nd ed. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press,- 1958. 15. Feige, Peter 2. "ASPR Changes Made to Assist

  17. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  18. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  19. Limited-are a modelling of stratocumulus over South-Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andrejczuk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to limited-area modeling of atmospheric processes over the subtropical south-eastern Pacific, with the emphasis on the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. The simulations cover a domain from the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx field project conducted in the subtropical south-eastern Pacific in October and November 2008. We focus on a day where the UK's BAe-146 research aircraft encountered Pockets of Open Cells (POCs at the very western edge of its flight track, rather than on the entire campaign as investigated in previous limited-area modeling studies. Model results are compared to aircraft observations with the main conclusion that the simulated stratocumulus-topped boundary layer is significantly too shallow. This appears to be a combination of an already too shallow boundary layer in the dataset used to provide initial and lateral boundary conditions, and the inability of the WRF model to increase the boundary-layer height. Several sensitivity simulations, applying different subgrid-scale parameterizations available in the model, a larger computational domain and longer simulations, as well as a different dataset providing initial and lateral boundary conditions were all tried to improve the simulation. These changes appeared to have a rather small effect on the results. The model does simulate the formation of mesoscale cloud-free regions that one might consider similar to Pockets of Open Cells observed in nature. However, formation of these regions does not seem to be related to drizzle-induced transition from open- to closed-cell circulations as simulated by LES models. Instead, the cloud-free regions appear to result from mesoscale variations of the lower-tropspheric vertical velocity. Areas of negative vertical velocity with minima (a few cm s−1 near the

  20. THE SPECIAL FEATURES GEOGRAPHICAL SPREADING BUMBLEBEES KIND BOMBUS SOUTH-EASTERN SLOPE OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamila Sharapatinovna Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We studied geographical spreading of bumblebees on South-Eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus by enumerated exponent: accordingly complexions of fauna, zone and landscape spreading. Ascertained special species of Bombus for zone and landscape complexions. Location. SouthEastern slope of the Greater Caucasus.Methods. Except own researches we have analysed collections of bumblebees and scientific literature in institute of zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbajcan Republic. Bumblebees were caught by means of a gauze net and exgauzer. Pollinators were immobilized by means of sulfuric ether in mordant. The caught pollinators were defined with use of determinants: Mamaev E.M. and other, 1976; Osichnyuk A.Z., Panfilov D.V. and other, 1978; Panfilov D.V., 1978; Skchirtladze I.A., 1988. Results of definition of caught material were specified and approved in Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbajcan with Dr. Sci. Biol. Aliev Kch.A. and with research associates of the Zakatala reserve candidate of biology Gasanov Sh.O. and Mustafaeva R.G.Results. We belive that bumblebees of Zakatala reserve is possible to belong to 6 faunistic complexes: Palearctic, Transpalearctic, West-Palearctic, Mediterranean, East- Mediterranean, Endemic of Caucasus. The most part, 27 species of bumblebees is found in high mountain landscapes. The 5 types from them are strictly specific for subalpine and high mountainous meadowshrubby landscapes. Only 2 species of bumblebees are specific to the broad-leaved woods and the wood-bushes of low mountainous. There are species of Bombus which are most often met in the Zakatala reserve: B. alagesianus; B. alboluteus; B. alpigenus; B. argillaceus; B. daghestanicus; B. eriophorus caucasicus; B. haematurus; B. hortorum; B. hypnorum; B. lucorum; B. mlokosiewitzi; B. rehbinderi; B. silvarum; B. terrestris; B. tristis insipidus; B. vorticosus. There are most rare species of Bombus in Zakatala reserve: B

  1. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  2. Volcano hazards program in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.; Bailey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Volcano monitoring and volcanic-hazards studies have received greatly increased attention in the United States in the past few years. Before 1980, the Volcanic Hazards Program was primarily focused on the active volcanoes of Kilauea and Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which have been monitored continuously since 1912 by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. After the reawakening and catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the program was substantially expanded as the government and general public became aware of the potential for eruptions and associated hazards within the conterminous United States. Integrated components of the expanded program include: volcanic-hazards assessment; volcano monitoring; fundamental research; and, in concert with federal, state, and local authorities, emergency-response planning. In 1980 the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory was established in Vancouver, Washington, to systematically monitor the continuing activity of Mount St. Helens, and to acquire baseline data for monitoring the other, presently quiescent, but potentially dangerous Cascade volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. Since June 1980, all of the eruptions of Mount St. Helens have been predicted successfully on the basis of seismic and geodetic monitoring. The largest volcanic eruptions, but the least probable statistically, that pose a threat to western conterminous United States are those from the large Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic systems, such as Long Valley caldera (California) and Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming), which are underlain by large magma chambers still potentially capable of producing catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. In order to become better prepared for possible future hazards associated with such historically unpecedented events, detailed studies of these, and similar, large volcanic systems should be intensified to gain better insight into caldera-forming processes and to recognize, if possible, the precursors of caldera-forming eruptions

  3. Most common road safety engineering deficiencies in South Eastern Europe as a part of safe system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, D.; Vollpracht, H. J.; Beles, H.; Popa, V.; Tolea, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    Most common road safety engineering deficiencies identified by the authors in South Eastern Europe, including Romania, have been collected together and presented in this paper as a part of road safety unbreakably connected to the safe system approach (driver-vehicle-road). In different South Eastern Europe countries Road Safety Audit (RSA), Road Safety Inspection (RSI), as well as Black Spot Management (BSM) was introduced and practical implementation experience enabled the authors to analyze the road safety problems. Typical road safety engineering deficiencies have been presented in 8 different subsections, based on PIARC (World Road Association) RSA approach. This paper presents collected common road safety problems with relevant illustrations (real pictures) with associated accident risks.

  4. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  5. Financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles: evidence from firm-level data in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Hashi; Valentin Z. Toçi

    2010-01-01

    Financing constraints have been one of the major impediments to doing business in transition economies in general and South-Eastern Europe in particular. Utilizing firm-level survey data and extensive econometric modelling, the paper provides new evidence on financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles for firms in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro. The findings suggest that these phenomena are prevalent in the ...

  6. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern desert, Egypt:

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan; ALI, MOHAMED A.

    2011-01-01

    The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite). Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of ...

  7. FAUNISTICAL DATA REGARDING SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE FROM SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA WITH MENTION OF SOME RARE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. DUMA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the faunistical study made in the south-eastern Romania in the summers of 2004 and 2006. We found 118 species of araneae belonging to 21 families. Among them there were some rare species: Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772 mentioned for the third time in Romania, Hariaeus melloteei (Simon, 1886 mentioned for the second time in our country and Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1890.

  8. An Ordered Probit Model Analysis of Transaction costs and Market Participation by Sweet Potato Farmers in South Eastern Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohajianya, D.O.; Ugochukwu, Albert I.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined the factors (related to fixed and variable transaction costs) influencing the decision to participate in sweet potato markets by a random sample of 320 small holder farmers in south eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured and validated questionnaire, and analyzed using the ordered probit analysis procedure. Participation decisions revealed that marketing experience, farm size, membership of cooperatives/social organizations, extension contact, farming experi...

  9. Chemical Quality of Water in Anopheles stephensi Habitats and its susceptibility to different insecticides in South Eastern of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davari, B.; Vatandoost, H.

    2009-07-01

    Using of insecticides depends on the knowledge of the susceptibility levels of malaria vectors to these chemical. In this study, the chemical quality of water in the larval breeding habitats and the susceptibility levels of Anopheles stephensi to DDT 4% dieldrin 0.4% permethrin 0.75, cyfluthrin 0.15 deltamethrin 0.05% and lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% were investigated according to WHO method in south eastern of Iran. (Author)

  10. Rewarding employees in turbulent economies for improved organisational performance: exploring SMEs in the South-Eastern European region

    OpenAIRE

    Prouska, Rea; Psychogios, Alexandros G.; Rexhepi, Yllka

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of total reward practices in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the South-Eastern European (SEE) region and the reward elements positively affecting organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach: The sample consists of 199 SMEs operating in SEE countries which are either under economic crisis or transition: Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yug...

  11. Childhood Firearm Injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Gutierrez, Carmen; Bacon, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Examine fatal and nonfatal firearm injuries among children aged 0 to 17 in the United States, including intent, demographic characteristics, trends, state-level patterns, and circumstances. Fatal injuries were examined by using data from the National Vital Statistics System and nonfatal injuries by using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Trends from 2002 to 2014 were tested using joinpoint regression analyses. Incident characteristics and circumstances were examined by using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System. Nearly 1300 children die and 5790 are treated for gunshot wounds each year. Boys, older children, and minorities are disproportionately affected. Although unintentional firearm deaths among children declined from 2002 to 2014 and firearm homicides declined from 2007 to 2014, firearm suicides decreased between 2002 and 2007 and then showed a significant upward trend from 2007 to 2014. Rates of firearm homicide among children are higher in many Southern states and parts of the Midwest relative to other parts of the country. Firearm suicides are more dispersed across the United States with some of the highest rates occurring in Western states. Firearm homicides of younger children often occurred in multivictim events and involved intimate partner or family conflict; older children more often died in the context of crime and violence. Firearm suicides were often precipitated by situational and relationship problems. The shooter playing with a gun was the most common circumstance surrounding unintentional firearm deaths of both younger and older children. Firearm injuries are an important public health problem, contributing substantially to premature death and disability of children. Understanding their nature and impact is a first step toward prevention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

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    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  13. The drought of the 1890s in south-eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David; Klein, Jorgen; Endfield, Georgina

    2016-04-01

    During the second half of the 1890s south-eastern Africa, from modern day Zimbabwe and Botswana down to South Africa, was hit by a drought driven ecological crisis. Using instrumental observations and previously unexploited documentary records in the form of British administrative sources, reports and letters by various Protestant mission societies and newspapers, the extent, duration and severity of the drought are explored. Generally the period was marked by a delayed onset of the rainy season of several months; rainfall totals dropped and perennial rivers such as the Limpopo dried up. The delay of the rainy season negatively impacted the rain-fed agriculture. Recurrent drought conditions during the rainy season frequently withered the young crops. In the interior of southern Africa, on the border of the Kalahari desert, the drought was more severe and continuous than towards the coast of the Indian Ocean. The prolonged dry conditions furthered the outbreak of locust plagues and cattle disease, which in the 1890s took the disastrous form of Rinderpest. A model is established showing how the drought as the original driver of the crisis, triggered a cascade of responses from harvest failure to famine and finally leading to profound socio-economic change.

  14. Reducing the marine debris of recreational hoop nets in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2017-06-15

    Alternative configurations of Australian recreational portunid hoop nets were investigated to address debris and selectivity issues. Four treatment nets (all comprising 152-mm polyamide-PA mesh) were assessed that differed in their twine (conventional multifilament vs new multi-monofilament) and fishing configuration (conventional conical vs inverted shapes). The conical multifilament design lost means (±SEs) of 130.6±23.1 and 5.3±1.2mm of twine 3-h soak -1 when used to target Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus. Inverting this hoop net significantly reduced legal-sized catches (by up to 70%) and with greater twine loss (×5) when targeting P. pelagicus. Conversely, both multi-monofilament configurations maintained legal catches of S. serrata and P. pelagicus, but lost 78 and 95% less twine than the conical multifilament design. Using multi-monofilament hoop nets could reduce PA debris by thousands of m p.a. in south-eastern Australia, without affecting targeted catches. Further, a lower fishing height of inverted multi-monofilament nets might reduce non-portunid bycatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Drought intensity and spatial variability in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia

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    Jemai Sabrine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronological series of monthly and annual precipitation data recorded in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia, were analyzed. The study is based on the standardized precipitation index (SPI values, computed for 10 rainfall stations over the period 1987–2012, which corresponds to an observatory period of 25 hydrologic years (from September to August. The results obtained show a great variability in SPI values. The historical evolution of the SPI made it possible to define the periods of excess and deficit, corresponding to wet and dry periods respectively. The wet years were found to be 1989–1990, 1995–1996 and 2006–2007 while the dry years were 1987–1988, 1996–1997, 2000–2001, 2001–2002, 2007–2008, 2008–2009 and 2009–2010. This clearly shows alternating wet and dry periods, but with drought episodes taking prevalence over rainy fronts throughout the study period. Indeed, a high tendency towards a drop in precipitation and important sequences of drought were observed. Spatial variability of drought throughout Gabes Watershed was examined by geostatistical analysis of SPI, as drought and rainfall distribution vary with latitude, longitude, topography and proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained showed that, compared to coastal and southern areas, drought was observed to be more important in the West and the North of Gabes Watershed. The SPI showed that moderate droughts are generally more frequent than severe or extreme droughts in most of the Watershed.

  16. Analysis of trophic networks and carbon flows in south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Maciej T.; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Järv, Leili; Kotta, Jonne; Martin, Georg; Minde, Atis; Põllumäe, Arno; Razinkovas, Arturas; Strake, Solvita; Bucas, Martynas; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2009-04-01

    Carbon flows in five south-eastern Baltic coastal ecosystems (Puck Bay, Curonian Lagoon, Lithuanian coast, Gulf of Riga coast and Pärnu Bay) were compared on the basis of ECOPATH models using 12 common functional groups. The studied systems ranged from the hypertrophic Curonian Lagoon to the mesotrophic Gulf of Riga coast. Interestingly, we found that macrophytes were not consumed by grazers, but rather channelled into the detritus food chain. In all ecosystems fisheries had far reaching impacts on their target species and on the food-web in general. In particular, benthic food-webs were partly affected by indirect fisheries effects. For example, fisheries tend to change the biomass of piscivorous fish, causing a cascading effect on benthivorous fish and macrozoobenthos. These cascades are ecosystem specific and need to be considered when using benthic invertebrates as productivity and eutrophication indicators. Odum’s maturity attributes allowed a ranking of costal ecosystems according to their maturity. Namely, the community development decreased in the following order: Pärnu Bay > Gulf of Riga coast > Lithuanian coast > Puck Bay > Curonian Lagoon.

  17. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy

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    A. Marsico

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps of areas with different vulnerability degrees are an integral part of environmental protection and management policies. It is difficult to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of karst areas since the stage and type of karst structure development and its related underground discharge behaviour are not easy to determine. Therefore, some improvements, which take into account dolines, caves and superficial lineament arrangement, have been integrated into the SINTACS R5 method and applied to a karst area of the south-eastern Murge (Apulia, southern Italy. The proposed approach integrates the SINTACS model giving more weight to morphological and structural data; in particular the following parameters have been modified: depth to groundwater, effective infiltration action, unsaturated zone attenuation capacity and soil/overburden attenuation capacity. Effective hydrogeological and impacting situations are also arranged using superficial lineaments and karst density. In order to verify the reliability of the modified procedure, a comparison is made with the original SINTACS R5 index evaluated in the same area. The results of both SINTACS index maps are compared with karst and structural features identified in the area and with groundwater nitrate concentrations recorded in wells. The best fitting SINTACS map is then overlaid by the layout of potential pollution centres providing a complete map of the pollution risk in the area.

  18. Performance of a multi-RCM ensemble for South Eastern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carril, A.F.; Menendez, C.G.; Salio, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Remedio, A.R.C.; Jacob, D.; Pfeifer, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany); Robledo, F.; Tencer, B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soerensson, A.; Zaninelli, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA), CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Boulanger, J.P. [LOCEAN, UMR CNRS/IRD/UPMC, Paris (France); Castro, M. de; Sanchez, E. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Toledo (Spain); Le Treut, H.; Li, L.Z.X. [Sciences de l' Environnement en Ile de France, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace et Ecole Doctorale, Paris (France); Penalba, O.; Rusticucci, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos (DCAO), FCEN, Buenos Aires (Argentina); UMI IFAECI/CNRS, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Samuelsson, P. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    The ability of four regional climate models to reproduce the present-day South American climate is examined with emphasis on La Plata Basin. Models were integrated for the period 1991-2000 with initial and lateral boundary conditions from ERA-40 Reanalysis. The ensemble sea level pressure, maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation are evaluated in terms of seasonal means and extreme indices based on a percentile approach. Dispersion among the individual models and uncertainties when comparing the ensemble mean with different climatologies are also discussed. The ensemble mean is warmer than the observations in South Eastern South America (SESA), especially for minimum winter temperatures with errors increasing in magnitude towards the tails of the distributions. The ensemble mean reproduces the broad spatial pattern of precipitation, but overestimates the convective precipitation in the tropics and the orographic precipitation along the Andes and over the Brazilian Highlands, and underestimates the precipitation near the monsoon core region. The models overestimate the number of wet days and underestimate the daily intensity of rainfall for both seasons suggesting a premature triggering of convection. The skill of models to simulate the intensity of convective precipitation in summer in SESA and the variability associated with heavy precipitation events (the upper quartile daily precipitation) is far from satisfactory. Owing to the sparseness of the observing network, ensemble and observations uncertainties in seasonal means are comparable for some regions and seasons. (orig.)

  19. Food partitioning by coastal predatory teleosts in south-eastern Cape waters of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, M. J.

    1987-02-01

    The results of complementary classification and multi-dimensional scaling analyses performed on the diets of eleven coastal predatory teleosts in the south-eastern Cape, South Africa, show that there is considerable overlap in prey use by most of the fishes. The predators belong to six families: Sparidae, Serranidae, Pomatomidae, Carangidae, Scombridae and Sciaenidae. Ontogenetic differences in prey taken are often as great as those between species. Although predators may be grouped according to habitat (pelagic, reef, soft substrates), the analyses indicate that groupings are not rigid. Not only does habitat vary during the life histories of the predators, but prey availability appears to have a pronounced influence on food choice. The mobility of both predators and prey between contiguous habitats allows interaction between species which are typical of a particular habitat. The highest degree of specialization to a habitat is seen in the tunas which feed almost exclusively on pelagic prey. Several predators share the relatively low number of prey species available and this explains the high degree of similarity between many of them.

  20. EXPLOSIVE CYCLOGENESIS OVER THE SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA DECEMBER 2 – 3, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. NICHITA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Explosive cyclogenesis over the south-eastern Romania december 2-3, 2012 . This paper is devoted to the study of the synoptic- dynamical conditions that contributed to the development of an rare explosive cyclogenesis event occurred at the beginning of 2012-2013 winter in southwestern Romania, more precisely between 2nd and 3th of December, 2012. The minimum pressure observed was 980,2 hPa, the lowest ever observed record in the surface of Sulina observation station, and also over the western side of Black Sea during period 1961-2000 and 1965-2004. It was found that the cyclone was not a regular one, but a real „meteorological bomb” one where the central pressure at sea level has recorded an important decrease at about 32,3 hPa in 24 hours, equivalent with 1,7 Bergeron. Comparative by „XX century storms” Lothar and Martin (level 2 and 1 on hurricane scale which desolated western and central Europe in December 1999, this case of explosive cyclogenesis can be considered one of the extreme for our area concerning both meteorological view as well as the effects.

  1. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  2. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed the importance of urban agglomerations in the regional organization of Serbian space at one side, and on the other side they are taken as carriers of the future integration of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE. In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions. High level of urban centralization is formed under the influence of the population density and functions of the metropolitan area of Belgrade. The problems of unbalanced disposition of population growth and qualitative transformation of urban centers are stressed and analyzed. Based on the role in integration process in the SEE, the metropolitan region of Belgrade is pointed out as its principal carrier and the metropolitan region of Niš as its secondary carrier, as well as the urban centers of importance for the cross-border regional cooperation. As the most suitable instrument of internal regional integration the model of Functional Urban Regions (FURs or Functional Urban Areas (FUAs is proposed, and for external regional integration is proposed the model of Metropolitan European Growth Areas (MEGAs. The coherent short-term and long-term development strategies for Serbian towns and their regions seem absent.

  3. Cyclicality of bank capital buffers in South-Eastern Europe: endogenous and exogenous aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kundid Novokmet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the regulatory capital ratio and macroeconomic indicators, with reference to the phenomena cyclicality and pro-cyclicality is a widely emphasized disadvantage of the capital adequacy concept. Redesign of the aforementioned concept towards the countercyclical capital requirements is a kind of recognition of the creators of the Basel standards of the previous oversights in its development. This paper aims to explore empirically the direction, intensity and significance of endogenous and exogenous determinants of the changes in banks’ capital buffers by taking into consideration both the impact of the macroeconomic properties and the bank-specific characteristics of South-Eastern Europe. More than 80 commercial banks in the period from 2000-2010 have been encompassed by the research. Use of a dynamic panel analysis led to the conclusion that the bank capital buffers decreased during the observed period, with the exception of certain years during the economic expansion, which confirms the appropriateness of regulatory requirements considering the countercyclical capital buffers. Nevertheless, it might be that capital building and spending in the future will not follow the pattern from the last decade due to the specificities of the observed period, as well as the banking sector ownership transformations, economic and credit growth as well as asset prices growth in the post-transitional period, and finally, the real crisis which spilled over onto the financial sectors.

  4. Knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female undergraduates in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebialu, Iu; Eke, Ac

    2013-10-01

    Unintended pregnancy remains a major challenge to the reproductive health of women especially in the developing countries. It is a major reason for unsafe abortion, a major contributor to maternal mortality. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and practice of emergency contraception among female non-medical undergraduates. In this cross sectional observational study, 675 female non medical undergraduates were interviewed using pretested semi structured questionnaire to assess their knowledge and experience with emergency contraception. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Data were presented as percentages and tables. Associaton between variables was tested using the χ(2) test. Only 51.6% (348/675) of the respondents reported knowledge of emergency contraception. Being sexually active, use of regular family planning methods and having an extra risk for unintended pregnancy were factors that significantly influenced knowledge. Only 45.7% (159/348) knew the correct methods (Postinor-2, combined oral contraceptive and intra uterine contraceptive device), 37.9% (132/348) practiced any method with about half of them using the correct methods. There is poor basic knowledge of emergency contraception among these female undergraduates in south eastern Nigeria. A sizeable number of them depend on unconventional methods for emergency contraception. We recommend the introduction of formal lessons on emergency contraception and other reproductive health issues into the Nigerian undergraduate curriculum.

  5. Environmental determinants of the distribution of Chagas disease vectors in south-eastern Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Bustamante

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The associations between the presence of triatomines and environmental variables were studied using correlation analysis and logistic regression models for a sample of villages in the south-eastern provinces of Guatemala. Information on the presence of Triatoma dimidiata, T. nitida and Rhodnius prolixus came from entomological surveys carried out by the Ministry of Health of Guatemala as part of its vector control programme. Environmental information for each village was extracted from digital thematic maps developed by the Ministry of Agriculture. The presence of T. nitida was found to be significantly associated with the average minimum temperature. The odds of presence of T. nitida in a village decreased as the average minimum temperature increased. T. nitida exists at altitudes above 1000 m above sea level in temperate regions. The presence of R. prolixus showed a significant positive association with maximum absolute temperature and relative humidity. The logistic regression model for R. prolixus showed a good fit and predicted suitable habitats in the provinces of Chiquimula, Zacapa and Jalapa, which agrees with the known distribution of the species. Habitat partitioning between R. prolixus and T. dimidiata is suggested by their significant and opposite associations with maximum absolute temperature. Improved models to predict suitable habitats for T. dimidiata hold promise for spatial targeting of integrated vector management.

  6. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  7. ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE: AN INVESTIGATION FOR SIX EU CANDIDATE AND POTENTIAL CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Tache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The South Eastern European region (SEE has seen major beneficial transformation in the recent years. Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013 became members of the European Union and registered significant economic growth rates. This paper investigates some important factors that influence economic growth in 6 EU candidate and potential candidate countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia and offers to policy makers in those countries key insights for stimulating the economy. The paper proposes a dynamic growth model which will be developed using the Quasi-maximum likelihood (QML estimation. This model is suited for this type of analysis because of the small T sample and also to cope with missingness. The results indicate that nine out of the fourteen variables were statistically significant. The number of non-resident tourists, the number of passenger cars, the number of children in pre-primary and primary-education are positive factors for economic growth. In contrast, government debt, inflation, all energy imports, railway transportation and primary production of coal and lignite are hindering development.

  8. Predicting the energy consumption of heated plastic greenhouses in south-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J. C.; Baile, A.; Bonachela, S.; Gonzalez-Real, M. M.; Perez-Parra, J.

    2006-07-01

    Measurements of heat consumption in a parral type greenhouse, equipped with an air-heating system, were carried out in south-eastern Spain (Almeria) during the 1998/99 winter. From the daily values of heat consumption (Qd, MJ m-2 d-1) recorded in five identical greenhouses heated to different night temperature set-points (Tc), and data of minimum outside air temperature (Te,min), relationships between Qd and the temperature difference (Tmin = Tc . Te,min) were established. Linear regressions between Qd and delta Tmin gave satisfactory fits (R2 ranging from 0.75 to 0.83), considering that Te,min was the only input data for the model. When all data were pooled, the correlation was curvilinear, the best fit to a 2nd order polynomial being Qd = 0.049 deltaTmin 2 . 0.001 Tmin + 1.107 (R2 = 0.89). Validation of this model was performed using data obtained during other years, giving a fair agreement at the daily (R2 0.86), 10-day (R2 = 0.95) and yearly (R2 = 0.99) time scales. This simple model could be of interest to growers for decision-making related to the choice of set-point temperature and crop planning in heated greenhouses. (Author)

  9. Metabolic Syndrome in School Children in Mardin, South-Eastern of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in a school children population. Materials and Methods: Three thousand four hundred and sixty children aged between 7 and 15 in three elementary schools in the city of Mardin, located in the south-eastern region of Turkey, were included in this study in April and May 2011. Age, gender, height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and a variety of blood tests were done. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used for the diagnosis of MES. Results: It was found that 9.42% of those tested were overweight, and 8.0% were obese. The study found that more girls (9.1%) were obese than girls (6.9%). The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among girls than boys (p0.05). The prevalence of MES was 6.3%. The number of components of MES was higher in girls and obese children. The rate of MES was 30.3% in obese children. Conclusion: The frequency of obesity, hypertension and MES in childhood period have been steadily increasing. Children who are classified having central obesity and high body mass index should be more carefully evaluated to its potential to progress to MES. And the quality of the life should be improved by reducing the risks resulted from life style changes, necessary treatments and follow ups. PMID:25610318

  10. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups—Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley—as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  11. Some new mammal records from the rainforests of south-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Angelici

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we report new data on the occurrence and range of seven mammal species in the rainforest region of south-eastern Nigeria. The species in question are: Potamogale velox (Insectivora, Cercopithecus sclateri, Procolobus badius epieni (Primates, Manis tetradactyla (Pholidota, Funisciurus pyrropus talboti (Rodentia, Trichechus senegalensis (Sirenia and Tragelaphus spekii gratus (Artiodactyla. In terms of conservation (according to latest IUCN criteria and categories, we discovered some critical information concerning the mammal fauna in the area. In fact, out of these seven species, one is Critically Endangered (CR, four are Endangered (EN, one is Lower Risk, least concern (LR, lc, and one is Not Evaluated (NE. Deforestation and excessive hunting pressure are the biggest threats for mammals in the Niger Delta. In particular, endemic taxa and species whose range and status are unknown, could be particularly endangered.

  12. Determinação das fontes alimentares de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo teste de precipitina Blood-meal sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae in a South-eastern State of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Flores-Mendoza

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis é um mosquito ora encarado como antropofílico, ora como zoofílico ou eclético. Realizou-se estudo em Guapimirim, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de maio a novembro de 1992, com o intuito de se verificar a fonte alimentar preferida desse anofelino através de teste imunológico de precipitina. De 1.366 fêmeas capturadas em abrigos naturais, 725 estavam ingurgitadas. O conteúdo digestivo de apenas 473 delas reagiu no teste de precipitina, sendo que em 75,3% dos casos foi identificada apenas uma fonte alimentar. Mais da metade dessas fêmeas havia se alimentado em boi (52,2%, enquanto poucas tinham sugado homem (1,1%. Por outro lado, 24,7% dos espécimes haviam se alimentado em mais de uma fonte sangüínea, principalmente boi e cavalo. Conclui-se que An. aquasalis é zoófilo nessa região do País, utilizando grande variedade de hospedeiros, porém preferindo se alimentar em animais de grande porte, especialmente o boi e cavalo.Anopheles aquasalis has shown local variations in blood-host preference in Brazil: it seems to be anthropophilic in the northeast and zoophilic or opportunistic in the Amazon and other regions. A study was carried out in Guapimirim county, State of Rio de Janeiro, from May to November 1992, for the purpose of identifying the blood meal source of this anopheline by capillary tube precipitin test. A total of 1,366 females were captured at natural resting-places, 725 of which were blood-fed. The gut content of 473 blood fed females reacted to the antisera used (human, cow, horse, pig, dog and chicken. The majority of the females ¾ 356 (75.3% ¾ had blood from only one source. A substantial bovine preference was observed ¾ 52.2% had fed on cows, 29.8% on horses, 10.7% on pigs, 4.5% on chickens and 1.7% on dogs, but only few had fed on man (1.1% and none on rats. On the other hand, 24.7% of the females had fed on more than one host, mainly on cows and horses. It was assumed that An. aquasalis is zoophilic

  13. Geological mapping and spectral based classification of basement rocks using remote sensing data analysis: The Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; Sadek, Mohamed F.

    2017-10-01

    The Pan-African Neoproterozoic Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex in the extreme South Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises dismembered ophiolite assemblages tectonically thrusted over pelite-psammopelite, quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and island-arc schistose metavolcanics. The whole sequence is intruded by syn-late to post tectonic mafic and felsic intrusions. The enhanced Landsat-8 band ratio (bands 6/2, 6/7 and 6/5 × 4/5) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Principal Component (PC2, PC6, and PC5) successfully discriminated most of the exposed lithological units and produced a detailed geological map. Granitoids, psammopelite-pelite, gneiss and serpentinite-talc carbonate rocks have been discriminated using ASTER kaolinite, clay, sericite-muscovite and calcite-carbonate indices respectively. Three spectral based classification algorithms have been compared using Landsat-8 and the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets to obtain the best lithological classification for the exposed basement rock units. Results from the present study revealed that, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier algorithm provided the best lithological classification accuracy (97.72%) using the combination of 9 ASTER bands and 20 ASTER derivative images. The results of the present study concluded that, the integrated data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images are effective in the discrimination and classification of the basement rock units exposed at Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex and can be applied in similar areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  14. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-01-01

    Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration o...

  15. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    of webcams . Today there is a much greater chance that someone working in the corporate sector is working or keeping up to date with their office...all American adults had high-speed Internet connections at home in the United States. In March 2005, that number was only 30 percent.47 Many new...Project’s combined January-March tracking survey of 4,402 adults ; 1,265 were home broadband users. 2006 data comes from the Pew Internet Project’s February

  16. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  17. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  18. Reoccurring Financial Crises in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yochanan Shachmurove

    2011-01-01

    The economic history of the United States is riddled with financial crises and banking panics. During the nineteenth-century, eight major such episodes occurred. In the period following World War II, some believed that these crises would no longer happen, and that the U.S. had reached a time of everlasting financial stability and sustainable growth. The Savings and Loans Crisis of the 1980s, the 2001 dot-com bust and the 2007 housing bubble that led to the current global financial crises demo...

  19. Contraceptive failure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use. PMID:21477680

  20. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  1. The labeling debate in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  2. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  3. Gypsum karst in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is one of the most soluble of common rocks; it is dissolved readily to form caves, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and other karst features that typically are found in limestones and dolomites. The four basic requirements for gypsum karst to develop are: (1 a deposit of gypsum; (2 water, unsaturated with CaSO4 (3 an outlet for escape of dissolving water; and (4 energy to cause water to flow through the system. Gypsum deposits are present in 32 of the 48 conterminous United States, and they underlie about 35-40% of the land area; they are reported in rocks of every geologic system from the Precambrian through the Quaternary. Gypsum karst is known at least locally (and sometimes quite extensively in almost all areas underlain by gypsum, and commonly extends down to depths of at least 30 m below the land surface. The most widespread and pronounced examples of gypsum karst are in the Permian basin of southwestern United States, but many other areas also are significant. Human activities may also cause, or accelerate, development of gypsum karst.

  4. Dioxin congener patterns in commercial catfish from the United States and the indication of mineral clays as the potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, J K; Archer, J C

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991 the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has conducted annual surveys of pesticide residues in foods under the Agricultural Marketing Service's Pesticide Data Program (PDP). To assess chemical residues in domestically marketed catfish products, 1479 catfish samples were collected during the 2008-2010 PDPs. A subset of 202 samples was analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). The average pattern of the individual PCDD/F congener concentrations in the catfish was rather unique in that it had almost no measurable amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), but all PCDDs were present. This pattern was more dominant in the domestically produced catfish products than in the imported products (China/Taiwan). Comparison of the pattern to known sources of PCDD/Fs showed strong similarities to the pattern of PCDD/Fs found in kaolin clays which have often been used as anti-caking agents in animal feeds. To investigate whether catfish feeds may be the source of the PCDD/Fs found in the catfish, archived catfish feed data from a US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) database were examined. In 61 out of 112 feed samples, the PCDD concentrations were 50 times higher than the PCDF concentrations and resembled the pattern found in the catfish products and in clays mined in the south-eastern United States. Although the source of PCDD/Fs in domestically marketed catfish products cannot be definitively established, mined clay products used in feeds should be considered a likely source and, given the wide concentration range of PCDD/Fs that has been found in clays, a critical control point for PCDD/Fs entrance to the food supply.

  5. Redefining climate regions in the United States of America using satellite remote sensing and machine learning for public health applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander; Koch, Magaly; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-12-01

    Existing climate classification has not been designed for an efficient handling of public health scenarios. This work aims to design an objective spatial climate regionalization method for assessing health risks in response to extreme weather. Specific climate regions for the conterminous United States of America (USA) were defined using satellite remote sensing (RS) data and compared with the conventional Köppen-Geiger (KG) divisions. Using the nationwide database of hospitalisations among the elderly (≥65 year olds), we examined the utility of a RS-based climate regionalization to assess public health risk due to extreme weather, by comparing the rate of hospitalisations in response to thermal extremes across climatic regions. Satellite image composites from 2002-2012 were aggregated, masked and compiled into a multi-dimensional dataset. The conterminous USA was classified into 8 distinct regions using a stepwise regionalization approach to limit noise and collinearity (LKN), which exhibited a high degree of consistency with the KG regions and a well-defined regional delineation by annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation values. The most populous was a temperate wet region (10.9 million), while the highest rate of hospitalisations due to exposure to heat and cold (9.6 and 17.7 cases per 100,000 persons at risk, respectively) was observed in the relatively warm and humid south-eastern region. RS-based regionalization demonstrates strong potential for assessing the adverse effects of severe weather on human health and for decision support. Its utility in forecasting and mitigating these effects has to be further explored.

  6. Redefining climate regions in the United States of America using satellite remote sensing and machine learning for public health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Liss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing climate classification has not been designed for an efficient handling of public health scenarios. This work aims to design an objective spatial climate regionalization method for assessing health risks in response to extreme weather. Specific climate regions for the conterminous United States of America (USA were defined using satellite remote sensing (RS data and compared with the conventional Köppen-Geiger (KG divisions. Using the nationwide database of hospitalisations among the elderly (≥65 year olds, we examined the utility of a RS-based climate regionalization to assess public health risk due to extreme weather, by comparing the rate of hospitalisations in response to thermal extremes across climatic regions. Satellite image composites from 2002-2012 were aggregated, masked and compiled into a multi-dimensional dataset. The conterminous USA was classified into 8 distinct regions using a stepwise regionalization approach to limit noise and collinearity (LKN, which exhibited a high degree of consistency with the KG regions and a well-defined regional delineation by annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation values. The most populous was a temperate wet region (10.9 million, while the highest rate of hospitalisations due to exposure to heat and cold (9.6 and 17.7 cases per 100,000 persons at risk, respectively was observed in the relatively warm and humid south-eastern region. RS-based regionalization demonstrates strong potential for assessing the adverse effects of severe weather on human health and for decision support. Its utility in forecasting and mitigating these effects has to be further explored.

  7. The future of FDI in south eastern European countries: Messages from new EU member states

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penev, Slavica; Rojec, Matija

    2014-01-01

    ... processes, whose removal would have a positive impact on inward FDI. The analysis is based on EBRD Transition Indicators, the World Bank Doing Business Index, and the World Bank Governance Index...

  8. The future of FDI in south eastern European countries: Messages from new EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the interlinking of inward FDI, EU accession, and transition-related structural reform processes, and identifies the largest lags of SEE-6 countries in EU accession and transition processes, whose removal would have a positive impact on inward FDI. The analysis is based on EBRD Transition Indicators, the World Bank Doing Business Index, and the World Bank Governance Index. We find an obvious correlation of inward FDI, transition, and EU accession processes of NMS-10 countries and claim that SEE-6 countries will broadly follow the same pattern: their relative position as FDI recipients will gradually improve along with the progress of EU accession and transition processes. The analysis identifies the following main gaps of the SEE-6 in these processes: (i in terms of economic system development - enterprise restructuring and governance, and sectoral reforms in energy, infrastructure, capital markets, and private equity; (ii in terms of the governance of economy and society at large - regulatory quality and rule of law; and (iii in terms of the business environment - dealing with construction permits, enforcing contracts, and registering property. Progress in narrowing down these gaps would mean a step forward in EU accession and transition, and consequently an improvement of SEE-6 countries’ positions as locations for inward FDI.

  9. Nutritional status of university students in south-eastern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient content of foods for protein, iron, calcium, vitamin A and C, zinc and energy eaten by students was determined using food composition table and chemical analysis of food. Intake was compared across location using ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. On dietary recall, university students across the locations ate ...

  10. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  11. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  12. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  13. 78 FR 25416 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), of the United States...

  14. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  15. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  16. Fighting 'personhood' initiatives in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lee Rubin; Crockin, Susan L

    2012-06-01

    'Personhood' initiatives filed in many states within the United States threaten to impose potentially significant restrictions on infertility treatment, embryo disposition, pre-natal care, abortion, contraception, and stem-cell research, all through attempts to redefine a 'person' or 'human being' as existing from the moment of fertilization or conception, and endowed with the full legal and Constitutional rights of personhood. Virginia's recent, unsuccessful attempt to pass such legislation provides both a dramatic example of these efforts and valuable lessons in the fight against them by infertility advocates and others. Arguments over loss of infertility treatment seemed more persuasive to legislatures than did restrictions on abortion or stem cell research. Indeed, persuading legislators or voters that they could be 'pro-life' and still anti-personhood initiatives was a key strategy, and consumer efforts and media attention were instrumental. The most central lessons, however, may be the degree of intensity and coordinated strategy to shift public perception that lie behind these numerous state efforts, regardless of whether the actual initiatives are won or lost. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Benzodiazepine use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; King, Marissa; Schoenbaum, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although concern exists regarding the rate of benzodiazepine use, especially long-term use by older adults, little information is available concerning patterns of benzodiazepine use in the United States. To describe benzodiazepine prescription patterns in the United States focusing on patient age and duration of use. A retrospective descriptive analysis of benzodiazepine prescriptions was performed with the 2008 LifeLink LRx Longitudinal Prescription database (IMS Health Inc), which includes approximately 60% of all retail pharmacies in the United States. Denominators were adjusted to generalize estimates to the US population. The percentage of adults filling 1 or more benzodiazepine prescriptions during the study year by sex and age group (18-35 years, 36-50 years, 51-64 years, and 65-80 years) and among individuals receiving benzodiazepines, the corresponding percentages with long-term (≥120 days) benzodiazepine use, prescription of a long-acting benzodiazepine, and benzodiazepine prescriptions from a psychiatrist. In 2008, approximately 5.2% of US adults aged 18 to 80 years used benzodiazepines. The percentage who used benzodiazepines increased with age from 2.6% (18-35 years) to 5.4% (36-50 years) to 7.4% (51-64 years) to 8.7% (65-80 years). Benzodiazepine use was nearly twice as prevalent in women as men. The proportion of benzodiazepine use that was long term increased with age from 14.7% (18-35 years) to 31.4% (65-80 years), while the proportion that received a benzodiazepine prescription from a psychiatrist decreased with age from 15.0% (18-35 years) to 5.7% (65-80 years). In all age groups, roughly one-quarter of individuals receiving benzodiazepine involved long-acting benzodiazepine use. Despite cautions concerning risks associated with long-term benzodiazepine use, especially in older patients, long-term benzodiazepine use remains common in this age group. More vigorous clinical interventions supporting judicious benzodiazepine use may be needed to

  18. A 500-year history of floods in the semi arid basins of south-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez García, Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Peña, Juan Carlos; Carvalho, Filpe; Brembilla, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Floods are one of the natural hazards with higher incidence in the south-eastern Spain, the driest region in Europe, causing fatalities, damage of infrastructure and economic losses. Flash-floods in semi arid environments are related to intensive rainfall which can last from few hours to days. These floods are violent and destructive because of their high discharges, sediment transport and aggradation processes in the flood plain. Also during historical times floods affected the population in the south-eastern Spain causing sever damage or in some cases the complete destruction of towns. Our studies focus on the flood reconstruction from historical sources of the Almanzora, Aguas and Antas river basins, which have a surface between 260-2600 km2. We have also compiled information from the Andarax river and compared the flood series with the Guadalentín and Segura basins from previous studies (Benito et. al., 2010 y Machado et al., 2011). Flood intensities have been classified in four levels according to the type of damage: 1) ordinary floods that only affect agriculture plots; 2) extraordinary floods which produce some damage to buildings and hydraulic infrastructure; 3) catastrophic floods which caused sever damage, fatalities and partial or complete destruction of towns. A higher damage intensity of +1 magnitude was assigned when the event is recorded from more than one major sub-basin (stretches and tributaries such as Huércal-Overa basin) or catchment (e.g. Antas River). In total 102 incidences of damages and 89 floods were reconstructed in the Almanzora (2.611 km2), Aguas (539 km2), Antas (261 km2) and Andarax (2.100 km2) catchments. The Almanzora River was affected by 36 floods (1550-2012). The highest events for the Almanzora River were in 1580, 1879, 1973 and 2012 producing many fatalities and destruction of several towns. In addition, we identified four flood-clusters 1750-1780, 1870-1900, 1960-1977 and 1989-2012 which coincides with the periods of

  19. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described in...

  1. 77 FR 6774 - United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... Agriculture (USDA), is soliciting comments on the proposed revision to the United States Standards for Grades... current United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant will be available either through the address cited...

  2. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower... United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower. AMS is reviewing all fresh fruit and vegetable grade... www.regulations.gov Web site. The current United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower will be...

  3. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States--Oman Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Final rule effective...

  4. 28 CFR 0.124 - United States Parole Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Parole Commission. 0.124 Section 0.124 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE United States Parole Commission § 0.124 United States Parole Commission. The U.S. Parole Commission is composed of nine Commissioners of whom one is...

  5. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  6. Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissata Lô

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transhumant pastoralists of Mauritania were assumed to have a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB because of reduced access to diagnostic testing. No population-based survey on TB has been published for Mauritania. Objective: The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of presumptive TB cases among mobile pastoralists and villagers in a remote zone of Mauritania. Design: In the south-eastern province of Hodh Ech Chargui, 250 adult pastoralists and 250 villagers were randomly enrolled using multistage cluster sampling in February 2012. A TB centre nurse examined participants using a standard clinical protocol, and a participant questionnaire was completed. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community members and health personnel, respectively. Results: Fourteen new presumptive TB cases were identified, leading to an overall prevalence of 2.8%, (95% confidence interval (CI 1.5–4.7%. The prevalence was non-significantly higher among villagers than pastoralists (3.6% vs. 2.0%. Assuming illness duration was 3 years and all presumptive cases started treatment, an overall crude incidence of 933 cases/100,000 was derived. Five of six presumptive cases in Djiguenni were confirmed by sputum smear microscopy, but none out of eight presumptive cases were confirmed in Néma, although the same nurse performed all clinical examinations in both departments. This result was attributed to the use of expired reagents in Néma. Communities mentioned distance rather than lack of information as the main constraint to seeking diagnosis, but poor diagnostic centre performance also delayed decision-making. Conclusions: TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure

  7. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Geospatial Technology in South Eastern Part of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangasamy, N.; Varathan, R.

    2013-05-01

    Landslides are often destructive and periodically affect the Nilgiris district. Two method viz., Frequency ratio (FR) and Weights of evidence (WofE) were used to reclassify the sub-variables and the landslide susceptibility index (LSI) was calculated by weighted sum overlay analysis. The final LS Zonation map was prepared from the LSI and the area was classified into two zones. Validation of the LSM was the next step and was accomplished by excluding some landslide points in the GIS analyses and overlying the unused landslides points over the LSM. The LSMs prepared using the FR and WofE methods are reliable as more than 75% of the excluded slides fall in high and very high landslide susceptibility zones and the error of mismatch in the two maps is negligible.During the course of this study landslides devastated the Kethi, Coonoor, Barliyar and Kothagiri areas due to an extreme event with 374 to 1,171 mm rainfall received in these stations in just three days on 8th to 10th November, 2009. The rainfall event is unprecedented and such extreme rainfall has not occurred in the region since meteorological records are maintained. Over 100 landslides took place in the area of which 75 are major slides and more 43 people died and 200 houses were damaged. The event was documented and a data base containing the location, details of death, slide characteristics and photographs was prepared. Further, the probability of landslide occurrence may change over time due to changes in land use, unscientific massive developmental activities and establishing settlements without adopting proper safety measures. The study also highlights the need for maintenance of landslide database and installation of more rain gauge stations to update and improve the LSM so as to reduce the risk of landslide hazard faced by the Community. NaveenRaj.T INDIA LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING USING GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY IN SOUTH EASTERN PART OF NILGIRI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus of Subtype 3a in a Pig Farm, South-Eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, P; Saint-Jacques, P; Ferretti, A; Davoust, B

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged during the past decade as a causative agent of autochthonous hepatitis and is a clinical concern in Western developed countries. It has been increasingly recognized that pigs are a major reservoir of HEV of genotypes 3 and 4 worldwide and pig-derived food items represent a potential source of infections by these viruses in humans. Hepatitis E virus RNA testing was performed here on faeces from rectal swabs sampled in 2012 from 50 3-month-old farm pigs from the same farm located in south-eastern France than in a previous work conducted in 2007. Pig HEV sequences corresponding to genomic fragments of ORF2 and ORF1 genes were obtained after RT-PCR amplification with in-house protocols. Hepatitis E virus genotype was determined by phylogenetic analysis. Prevalence was similar to that determined 5 years earlier (68% versus 62%). Two robust phylogenetic clusters of HEV subtypes 3a and 3f were identified, and these sequences obtained in 2012 largely differ compared with those obtained in 2007. Notably, HEV sequences obtained in 2012 from a majority (62%) of the infected pigs belonged to subtype 3a, which was not previously described in France, including not being found in any of humans, pigs or wild boars. Further studies are needed to assess the circulation of HEV-3a in pigs and humans in this country. In addition, along with previous findings, this study supports the need for increased information to the public on the risk of HEV infection through contacts with pigs or consumption of pig-derived products in France. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  11. Hospitalized eye injury in a large industrial city of South-Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Chang-Ling; Ho, Chi-Kung; Lai, Yu-Hong; Hu, Ru-Chuan; Yen, Ya-Lin

    2008-02-01

    Wearing appropriate eye-protection devices in workplace, sports and motorcycling have not been a routine in most of Asian countries. The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency, causes, mechanisms, functional outcomes and costs of hospitalized eye injuries in a large industrial city in South Eastern Asia. A retrospective review of the hospital admission files of ocular trauma admitted to the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital from January 2001 to December 2002. One hundred and sixty cases of eye injuries were identified for study. Male patients (83.1%) were significantly more than female, while in the work-related group, male was predominant with 92.2%. Work-related injuries accounted for 48.1% (77 cases) with a mean age of 42.3 years, older than the 36.0 years mean for the non-work-related group. The most common cause of hospitalized injury was contusion injury (49.4%), while in the work-related group it was open-globe trauma (34.0%). Hyphema of anterior chamber (23.1%) was the most common diagnosis, followed by vitreous hemorrhage (15.6%) and corneal perforation (13.8%). In work-related injuries, lid and corneal lacerations were the most common. The visual prognosis was poor in injured eyes, with 39.6% eyes having final best corrected visual acuity less than 0.1, and it was even worse at 43.8% in work-related group. The most frequent (46.8%) durations of hospital stay were from 3 to 5 days. The mean cost of eye injuries per case in the work-related group was 1382 US dollars, significantly more than the 909 US dollars per case for the non-work-related group. The hospitalized ocular injuries incurred significant visual loss, health-care expenses and socio-economic impacts. Safety strategies aimed at preventing eye injury are mandatory.

  12. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  13. Development of Ash Dieback in South-Eastern Germany and the Increasing Occurrence of Secondary Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike D. Lenz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its first identification in Poland in 2006, the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has caused massive dieback of Fraxinus excelsior in the countries of eastern, northern and central Europe. This work shows the development, expansion, and severity of the disease in south-eastern Germany for a period of four years, starting in 2010. Differences between habitats, as well as age classes have been captured. The presence and the amount of potentially resistant trees were proven over the years, to determine how high the resistance level might be. Typical disease symptoms are the wilting of leaves, necrotic lesions in the bark and reddish discolorations of branches and stems. In addition, stem necroses also appear by infection with species of Armillaria. Therefore, special attention has been given to Armillaria species in affected ash stands but also to other secondary pathogens, like ash bark beetles. It is shown that breeding galleries of Hylesinus fraxini are only found in trees that have recently died and thus Hylesinus fraxini is still acting as a secondary opportunistic pathogen. In contrast, Armillaria spp. can be considered as serious pathogens of weakened ash trees. In different ash stands, typical symptoms of infection can be found. A relationship between stem base necrotic lesions and vitality was examined. It is shown that necrotic lesions severely contribute to accelerating the mortality of ash trees. In addition to the high infection pressure by H. fraxineus, the high inoculum of Armillaria in the soil facilitates further infections and, thus, likewise endangers the survival of potentially resistant trees. In the following years, forest conversion and seed harvest in affected ash stands will have to be urgently considered to avoid tree gaps on a large scale. Furthermore, infection assays of potentially resistant trees with ensuing breeding programmes should be initially started for the conservation of this ecologically and

  14. The disappearing Mammy Water myth and the crisis of values in Oguta, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N. Okwuosa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Igbo value system is in crisis with an increase in crime rate, kidnapping, stealing, sexual immorality and divorce. Though several reasons have been given for this malaise, the influence of myths on value system has not been explored. To do this, we chose Oguta town in South-Eastern Nigeria, known for its belief and worship of Mammy Water. The intent is to verify if the disappearing myth has any adverse socio-cultural implications on the town. As the disappearing myth deals principally with the people’s life, the research methodology used historical as well as the descriptive phenomenological methods. These methods explain the phenomenon as it appeared in Oguta objectively from the historical point of view. One-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with the natives were carried out, thus making oral literature an important element of this research. It comprises three groups: the first group has the age bracket of 70 years and above; the second group has 40–69 years as age bracket and the last group has 20–39 years as age bracket. Efforts were made to distinguish meaningful facts from fictitious or emotional ideas expressed by the participants. Information was also gathered from published works. The research was able to identify the myth’s disappearance as a major contributing factor to the town’s crisis of values.

  15. The disappearing Mammy Water myth and the crisis of values in Oguta, South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N. Okwuosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Igbo value system is in crisis with an increase in crime rate, kidnapping, stealing, sexual immorality and divorce. Though several reasons have been given for this malaise, the influence of myths on value system has not been explored. To do this, we chose Oguta town in South-Eastern Nigeria, known for its belief and worship of Mammy Water. The intent is to verify if the disappearing myth has any adverse socio-cultural implications on the town. As the disappearing myth deals principally with the people’s life, the research methodology used historical as well as the descriptive phenomenological methods. These methods explain the phenomenon as it appeared in Oguta objectively from the historical point of view. One-on-one interviews and focus group discussion with the natives were carried out, thus making oral literature an important element of this research. It comprises three groups: the first group has the age bracket of 70 years and above; the second group has 40–69 years as age bracket and the last group has 20–39 years as age bracket. Efforts were made to distinguish meaningful facts from fictitious or emotional ideas expressed by the participants. Information was also gathered from published works. The research was able to identify the myth’s disappearance as a major contributing factor to the town’s crisis of values.

  16. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  17. Long-term variability of the leading seasonal modes of rainfall in south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Montazerolghaem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of temporal and spatial variability of climate and rainfall can improve agriculture production and can help to manage risks caused by climate variability. Available high-quality monthly rainfall data from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for 1907–2011 was used to investigate the leading seasonal mode of the long-term rainfall variability over south-eastern and eastern Australia. Spatio-temporal variations of seasonal rainfall and their connection to oceanic-atmospheric predictors were analysed. The links between the first two Principal Components of rainfall of each season with lagged Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD and Southern Annular Mode (SAM were season-dependent. The relationship between these climatic indices changed within both inter-seasonal and decadal time scales. Spring and winter rainfalls were continuously positively correlated with lagged (SOI. However, summer rainfall variations indicated negative correlations with lagged SOI which increase from 1970. The correlations between lagged SOI and autumn variations were weak and change to a stronger relationship from 1990. Correlations between lagged (IOD which varied across all seasons have recently been increasing. Variations in rainfall across all seasons were highly correlated with Southern Annular Mode (SAM with different signs. Overall, the relationship between predictors and seasonal rainfall has changed after 1970. The results of running correlations between leading modes of seasonal rainfall and lagged SOI, SAM, and IOD indices indicates non-stationary in these links. The relationships of climatic indices and leading modes of seasonal rainfall changed since 1970, with stronger evidence in case of IOD. Recent changes in the relationships between climatic indices and rainfall need to be considered in climate prediction systems. The results of this study suggests that improvement in statistical regional rainfall forecast system with fixed

  18. Phytosociological and ecological study of springs in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, Italy

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    Alessandro PETRAGLIA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological survey of the crenic vegetation was made in Trentino (south-eastern Alps, combining the field method of the Braun-Blanquet approach with a numerical syntaxonomical analysis. A set of 139 phytosociological relevés, including vascular plants and bryophytes, were classified using cluster analysis. The vegetation types were assigned to 7 different phytosociological classes: Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Adiantetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae, Molinio- Arrhenatheretea, Galio-Urticetea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea. The classes Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae and Montio- Cardaminetea represent the core of crenic vegetation, including permanently or intermittently submerged plant communities, mostly made up of bryophytes, or non-submerged communities dominated by bryophytes or vascular plants. The other classes include chasmophytic bryophyte-rich communities and hygrophilous or tall herb communities lying around the periphery of the springs. 23 vegetation types were identified and, whenever possible, classified at the association level, or as phytocoena. The environmental parameters showed different ranges among vegetation types. A number of environmental variables were recorded during the vegetation survey, including altitude, shading, discharge, flow velocity, with exhaustive hydrochemical sampling. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH showed similar distribution patterns, clearly separating the vegetation types into two distinct groups, differing in the nature of the substratum. The altitudinal range was very broad and shading was also very variable. Nitrate and phosphate levels showed that the majority of vegetation types were irrigated by oligotrophic crenic waters. Finally, the bryophyte-dominated vegetation types belonging to the class Platyhypnidio-Fontinalietea antipyreticae occurred in springs with the highest discharge values and variation. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the

  19. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

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    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  20. Patterns of Asexuality in the United States

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    Dudley Poston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG to ascertain and analyze patterns of asexuality in the United States. We endeavor to extend the earlier work of Bogaert (2004 on this topic, which focused on patterns of asexuality in Great Britain. Using a social constructionist perspective to study asexuality, we conceptualize and measure the phenomenon in several ways, according to behavior, desire, and self-identification. We use the NSFG respondent sampling weights to produce several sets of unbiased estimates of the percentages of persons in the U.S. population, aged 15-44, who are asexual; each set is based on one or more of the various definitions of asexuality. Finally, we describe some of the characteristics of the asexual population using multinomial logistic regression.

  1. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  2. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  3. Norovirus Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Ben A.; Payne, Daniel C.; Patel, Manish M.; Gastañaduy, Paul A.; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2013-01-01

    Although recognized as the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis across all age groups, norovirus has remained poorly characterized with respect to its endemic disease incidence. Use of different methods, including attributable proportion extrapolation, population-based surveillance, and indirect modeling, in several recent studies has considerably improved norovirus disease incidence estimates for the United States. Norovirus causes an average of 570–800 deaths, 56,000–71,000 hospitalizations, 400,000 emergency department visits, 1.7–1.9 million outpatient visits, and 19–21 million total illnesses per year. Persons >65 years of age are at greatest risk for norovirus-associated death, and children norovirus-associated medical care visits. Endemic norovirus disease occurs year round but exhibits a pronounced winter peak and increases by ≤50% during years in which pandemic strains emerge. These findings support continued development and targeting of appropriate interventions, including vaccines, for norovirus disease. PMID:23876403

  4. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  5. Environmental process tomography in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Government is supporting development of new technology and transfer of existing technology from other disciplines to apply to the problem. Part of this effort is development of geophysical tools used for underground imaging. These tools are closely related to many of those used in industrial process tomography. Both seismic and electromagnetic methods are used for underground imaging. In either case, sensitivity and resolution are greatly improved by making measurements from boreholes instead of only from the surface. Seismic signals are usually more sensitive to subsurface structure such as lithologic boundaries, but recent work has also shown seismic tomography to be sensitive to the degree of saturation. Electrical methods can be useful for delineation of aquitards such as clay layers. Electrical tomography is shown to be particularly sensitive to movement of fluids such as steam. Examples of both seismic and electromagnetic process tomography will be discussed in relation to environmental remediation of soils and ground water in the United States.

  6. Mortality in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Murphy, Sherry L; Xu, Jiaquan; Arias, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    This report presents 2013 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. These data provide information on mortality patterns among U.S. residents by such variables as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. Information on mortality patterns is key to understanding changes in the health and well-being of the U.S. population (1). Life expectancy estimates, age-adjusted death rates by race and ethnicity and sex, 10 leading causes of death, and 10 leading causes of infant death were analyzed by comparing 2013 final data with 2012 final data. In 2013, a total of 2,596,993 resident deaths were registered in the United States. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  7. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  8. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    minority in the south, which fears that the new nationalist Kyrgyz leadership may re-ignite ethnic tension in the hugely overpopulated and impoverished...global presence. With the terrorist threat based in some of the most remote locations on earth , the United States seeks to establish a military

  9. Firearm injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Annest, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal firearm violence in the United States. Trends over two decades in homicide, assault, self-directed and unintentional firearm injuries are described along with current demographic characteristics of victimization and health impact. Fatal firearm injury data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Nonfatal firearm injury data were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Trends were tested using Joinpoint regression analyses. CDC Cost of Injury modules were used to estimate costs associated with firearm deaths and injuries. More than 32,000 persons die and over 67,000 persons are injured by firearms each year. Case fatality rates are highest for self-harm related firearm injuries, followed by assault-related injuries. Males, racial/ethnic minority populations, and young Americans (with the exception of firearm suicide) are disproportionately affected. The severity of such injuries is distributed relatively evenly across outcomes from outpatient treatment to hospitalization to death. Firearm injuries result in over $48 billion in medical and work loss costs annually, particularly fatal firearm injuries. From 1993 to 1999, rates of firearm violence declined significantly. Declines were seen in both fatal and nonfatal firearm violence and across all types of intent. While unintentional firearm deaths continued to decline from 2000 to 2012, firearm suicides increased and nonfatal firearm assaults increased to their highest level since 1995. Firearm injuries are an important public health problem in the United States, contributing substantially each year to premature death, illness, and disability. Understanding the nature and impact of the problem is only a first step toward preventing firearm violence. A science-driven approach to understand risk and protective factors and identify effective solutions is key to achieving measurable reductions in firearm

  10. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  11. Surgical never events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtsun, Winta T; Ibrahim, Andrew M; Diener-West, Marie; Pronovost, Peter J; Makary, Martin A

    2013-04-01

    Surgical never events are being used increasingly as quality metrics in health care in the United States. However, little is known about their costs to the health care system, the outcomes of patients, or the characteristics of the providers involved. We designed a study to describe the number and magnitude of paid malpractice claims for surgical never events, as well as associated patient and provider characteristics. We used the National Practitioner Data Bank, a federal repository of medical malpractice claims, to identify malpractice settlements and judgments of surgical never events, including retained foreign bodies, wrong-site, wrong-patient, and wrong-procedure surgery. Payment amounts, patient outcomes, and provider characteristics were evaluated. We identified a total of 9,744 paid malpractice settlement and judgments for surgical never events occurring between 1990 and 2010. Malpractice payments for surgical never events totaled $1.3 billion. Mortality occurred in 6.6% of patients, permanent injury in 32.9%, and temporary injury in 59.2%. Based on literature rates of surgical adverse events resulting in paid malpractice claims, we estimated that 4,082 surgical never event claims occur each year in the United States. Increased payments were associated with severe patient outcomes and claims involving a physician with multiple malpractice reports. Of physicians named in a surgical never event claim, 12.4% were later named in at least 1 future surgical never event claim. Surgical never events are costly to the health care system and are associated with serious harm to patients. Patient and provider characteristics may help to guide prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mortality in the United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaquan; Kochanek, Kenneth D; Murphy, Sherry L; Arias, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Life expectancy at birth for the U.S. population reached a record high of 78.8 years in 2012. The age-adjusted death rate for the United States decreased 1.1% from 2011 to 2012 to a record low of 732.8 per 100,000 standard population. The 10 leading causes of death in 2012 remained the same as in 2011. Age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly from 2011 to 2012 for 8 of the 10 leading causes and increased significantly for one leading cause (suicide). The infant mortality rate decreased 1.5% from 2011 to 2012 to a historic low of 597.8 infant deaths per 100,000 live births. The 10 leading causes of infant death in 2012 remained the same as in 2011. This report presents 2012 U.S. final mortality data on deaths and death rates by demographic and medical characteristics. These data provide information on mortality patterns among residents of the United States by such variables as sex, race and ethnicity, and cause of death. Information on mortality patterns is key to understanding changes in the health and well-being of the U.S. population (1). Life expectancy estimates, age-adjusted death rates by race and ethnicity and sex, 10 leading causes of death, and 10 leading causes of infant death were analyzed by comparing 2012 final data with 2011 final data. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  13. Surficial materials in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.; Reheis, Marith C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The Earth's bedrock is overlain in many places by a loosely compacted and mostly unconsolidated blanket of sediments in which soils commonly are developed. These sediments generally were eroded from underlying rock, and then were transported and deposited. In places, they exceed 1,000 ft (330 m) in thickness. Where the sediment blanket is absent, bedrock is either exposed or has been weathered to produce a residual soil. This map shows the sediments and the weathered, residual material; for ease of discussion, these are referred to here as 'surficial materials.' Certain areas on this map include a significant number of rock outcrops, which cannot be shown at the scale of the map; this is noted in the 'Description of Map Units' section. Most daily human activities occur on or near the Earth's surface. Homeowners, communities, and governments can make improved decisions about hazard, resource, and environmental issues, when they understand the nature of surficial materials and how they vary from place to place. For example, are the surficial materials upon which a home is built stable enough to resist subsidence or lateral movement during an earthquake? Do these materials support a ground water resource adequate for new homes? Can they adequately filter contaminants and protect buried aquifers both in underlying sediments and in bedrock? Are they suitable for development of a new wetland? Where can we find materials suitable for aggregate? The USGS National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) works with the State geological surveys to identify priority areas for mapping of surficial materials (for example, in areas of complex and poorly understood deposits of various sediment types, where metropolitan areas are experiencing rapid growth). To help establish these priorities, a modern, synoptic overview of the geology is needed. This map represents an overview of our current knowledge of the composition and distribution of surficial materials in

  14. Youth risk behavior surveillance - United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell

    2012-06-08

    Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. September 2010-December 2011. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the 2011 national survey, 43 state surveys, and 21 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results from the 2011 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 32.8% of high school students nationwide had texted or e-mailed while driving, 38.7% had drunk alcohol, and 23.1% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 32.8% of students had been in a physical fight, 20.1% had ever been bullied on school property, and 7.8% had attempted suicide. Many high school students nationwide are engaged in sexual risk behaviors associated with unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. Nearly half (47.4%) of students had ever had sexual intercourse, 33.7% had had sexual

  15. Toll Roads Distribution in The United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A toll road (or toll way, turnpike, pike, or toll highway is a roadway where drivers pay tolls (i.e. fees for the use. In addition to fuel tax or general tax funds, toll collection is an alternative source of revenue generation [1]. Decision makings of a toll road may depend on a lot of factors such as regional economics, local and national policies, and even population density. It is an interesting phenomenon that there are more toll roads in the eastern part of The United States than in the western part. However, there is no discussion and analysis about this unbalanced distribution, not to say to explore the reasons behind. This paper aims to find out if it is really true that there are more toll roads in the eastern part of the U.S. than in the western part, and the reasons for national toll roads distribution through different analytical angles. The result can help in the perfection of national and state roadway network and toll roads designs in U.S., which will also be beneficial to the development and improvement of toll roads and modern highway system in developing countries and other developed countries.

  16. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The Board will meet to present...

  17. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). This will be the last meeting of...

  18. 20 CFR 416.1329 - Suspension due to loss of United States residency, United States citizenship, or status as an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residency, United States citizenship, or status as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence or... citizenship, or status as an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence or otherwise permanently residing... § 416.202(b) with respect to United States residency, United States citizenship, or status as an alien...

  19. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  20. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slocum Hollis, S. [Duane Morris LLP, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  1. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  2. Anomalies of moisture flux associated with Mediterranean cyclones contributing to heavy precipitation in the south-eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Kaspar, M.

    2009-09-01

    Mediterranean cyclones cause severe weather phenomena not only in the Mediterranean but also in other parts of Europe. It is well known that when a thermally asymmetric Mediterranean cyclone moves along the so-called Vb-track to the north-east, heavy and large-scale precipitation often falls in its rearward cold sector. Precipitation is enhanced especially on the northern windward slopes of mountains due to orographic effects. Significant anomalies of moisture flux from the north typically accompany this synoptic pattern over the area affected with heavy rains. Although the region of the south-eastern Alps is situated between the Mediterranean and central Europe, the above described mechanism can hardly produce heavy rains there because of the position of the region relatively to the cyclone track and different orientation of slopes. The presented study focuses on explanation of the role of Mediterranean cyclones and related moisture fluxes in producing heavy rains in the region. Heavy rain and flood events in eastern Alps were selected from years of 1958-2001 covered by reanalyses ERA40. The selection criterion was based on evaluation of the runoff increases in three rivers (Sava, Drava, Mura) running eastward from the south-eastern Alps. The set of hydro-meteorologically significant events was studied from viewpoints of (i) synoptic causes and (ii) seasonal distribution. A deep trough and/or a Mediterranean cyclone remaining several days approximately over Italy are the typical synoptic patterns of the events. In the warm sector of the cyclone, significant anomalies of moisture flux were detected. The events were concentrated mainly in autumn. This fact was explained by the climatology of moisture flux over the studied region: southern component of flux of moisture is most intense just in autumn there. The findings demonstrate the fact that heavy rains in both central Europe and the south-eastern Alps are connected with Mediterranean cyclones; however, through

  3. Epidemiological survey of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in pet dogs in south-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Liu, Qingbiao; Wang, Demou; Li, Wanmeng; Beugnet, Frédéric; Zhou, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of tick infestation and tick-borne diseases in pet dogs in south-eastern China and to develop a reference for their prevention and treatment, we collected 1550 ticks parasitizing 562 dogs in 122 veterinary clinics from 20 cities of south-eastern China. Dogs were tested for common tick-borne pathogens; collected ticks were identified and processed for the detection of tick-borne pathogens. The use of an in vitro ELISA diagnostic kit for antibody detection (SNAP®4Dx® Plus) on dog sera found the infection rates with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma spp. to be 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.7%, respectively. By using a specific ELISA method, the infection rate with Babesia gibsoni was 3.9%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, Haemaphysalis longicornis and Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides were the major tick species identified on pet dogs. PCR tests were conducted to detect five tick-borne pathogens in 617 ticks. The infection rate was 10.2% for E. canis, 3.4% for Anaplasma platys, 2.3% for B. gibsoni, 0.3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 0% for Babesia canis. Some ticks were co-infected with two (1.46%) or three pathogens (0.16%). These results indicate the infestation of pet dogs by ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens in south-eastern China, and the need for effective treatment and routine prevention of tick infestations in dogs. © J. Zhang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  4. Financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles: evidence from firm-level data in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Z. Toçi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Financing constraints have been one of the major impediments to doing business in transition economies in general and South-Eastern Europe in particular. Utilizing firm-level survey data and extensive econometric modelling, the paper provides new evidence on financing constraints, credit rationing and financing obstacles for firms in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro. The findings suggest that these phenomena are prevalent in the SEE region, especially in the small business sector, a driving force of economic development in these countries. Based on the findings, a number of policy implications aiming at reducing financing constraints for the small business sector are derived.

  5. FORECASTING AND ADAPTATION METHODS FOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT USED FOR TOURIST PURPOSE IN CITIES OF SOUTH-EASTERN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qai Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological statements concerning formation and development of cultural and tourist zones and complexes in the Chinese cities with precious historical and cultural heritage. Characteristic types of historical buildings in the cities of the Tsiansu province which are located in the south-eastern part ofChinaare given in the paper. The paper contains methods for renovation of historical development for tourist purpose and gives proposals pertaining to arrangement of tourist service objects there that permit to preserve individual image of historical regions.

  6. Late Weichselian periglacial features in south-eastern Finland and the surroundings of Lake Ladoga in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner, J.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ice-wedge casts recorded from the Salpausselkä moraines in south-eastern Finland show that there was permafrost in this zone at the time of the Younger Dryas Stadial. The few sites with pocket involutions north and east of Lake Ladoga indicate that even this area had permafrost at the same time. Other signs of a periglacial environment are the stone pavements with ventifacts, underneath coversands, both in the Salpausselkä zone as well as outside it. Coversands and dunes were accumulated before a closed vegetation covered the area in the beginning of the Holocene.

  7. Practical value of urban geography in urban planning - case study of the south-eastern part of Trbovlje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Marot

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries of mining have significantly changed the town of Trbovlje in economic, social and spatial terms. This is especially evident in the south-eastern part of the town. On the basis of general geographical analysis of spatial, demographic and economic development, a query of public opinion and a survey of experts' ideas, with description of successful English urban renewal project we try to find out the most effective model and context of the future development in the area in question.

  8. 7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States country of origin. 65.260 Section 65.260... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.260 United States country of origin. United...

  9. 78 FR 283 - United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ...: 2012-31611] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. Number FV-11-0052] United... revising the voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant. AMS has reviewed the fresh fruit and... United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant are available through the Specialty Crops Inspection...

  10. ENSO–cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Tadros

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Speleothems (cave deposits, used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO. During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform

  11. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  12. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  13. On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South-Eastern Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим [Maxim] Макарцев [Makartsev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On official texts in Slavic dialects in the County of Korcha, South Eastern Albania In the article I consider official texts in Slavic dialects in Albania. Three texts are taken as examples: “An Internal Handbook for Organising the Work of a Regional Committee at a District/Prefecture Level of MAEI [Macedonian Alliance for European Integration]” (2009, a letter written by the villagers of Boboshtica to the Bulgarian Exarch (1873, and The “Charter of the Society of Kaynas” (2006. They make use of language in its symbolic function – the way these texts are written is almost as important as what exactly is written. These texts have been created to showcase the language and to underline its uniqueness against the background of another language or idiom, or, to put it another way, to underline through the language the special status of the people that use it.   Oficjalne teksty w słowiańskich dialektach okolic Korczy w południowo-wschodniej Albanii Artykuł omawia oficjalne teksty powstałe w słowiańskich dialektach Albanii. Wybrano przykładowo trzy teksty: Wewnętrzne wytyczne w sprawie organizacji pracy komitetu MAEI na poziomie okręgu/prefektury (2009, list mieszkańców Boboszticy do bułgarskiego egzarchy (1873 i Statut towarzystwa „Kajnas” (2006. Te trzy teksty posługują się językiem w sposób symboliczny. To, w jakiej odmianie języka są napisane, jest równie ważne, jak ich treść. Teksty te powstały bądź po to, aby pokazać język i podkreślić jego unikalność na tle innego języka, lub po to, aby poprzez język podkreślić szczególny status ludzi, którzy się nim posługują.

  14. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  15. Helium resources of the United States, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard D.; Hamak, John E.

    The helium resources base of the United States was estimated by the Bureau of Mines to be 894.6 Bcf as of January 1, 1989. These resources are divided into four categories in decreasing degree of the assurance of their existence: (1) helium in storage and in proved natural gas reserves, 282.4 Bcf; (2) helium in probable natural gas resources, estimated at 237.7 Bcf; (3) helium in possible natural gas resources, estimated to be 263.2 Bcf; and (4) helium in speculative natural gas resources, 111.4 Bcf. These helium resources are further divided into depleting and nondepleting, with the helium in storage being in a separate classification. The depleting resources are those associated with natural gasfields that are, or will be, produced for the natural gas they contain. Almost all of the helium in potential (probable, possible, and speculative) natural gas resources is included in this classification. These depleting resources are estimated to contain 775 Bcf of the total helium resource base.

  16. Health System Reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McDonough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider.

  17. Outpatient oral rehydration in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listernick, R; Zieserl, E; Davis, A T

    1986-03-01

    Twenty-nine dehydrated, well-nourished infants, who were 3 to 24 months of age and had acute gastroenteritis, were enrolled in a prospective randomized study that compared the safety, efficacy, and costs of oral vs intravenous rehydration. The study was designed to assess the use of a holding room in the emergency room for the outpatient rehydration of dehydrated infants. The oral solution that was used contained 60 mEq/L of sodium, 20 mEq/L of potassium, 50 mEq/L of chloride, 30 mEq/L of citrate, 20 g/L of glucose, and 5 g/L of fructose. Thirteen of 15 patients were successfully rehydrated orally as outpatients; two patients, who were subsequently discovered to have urinary tract infections, required hospitalization due to persistent vomiting. Orally rehydrated outpatients spent a mean of 10.7 hours in the holding room, as compared with intravenously rehydrated inpatients, who were hospitalized for a mean of 103.2 hours. Outpatient oral rehydration therapy was significantly less costly than inpatient intravenous therapy (+272.78 vs +2,299.50). Our results indicate that oral rehydration is a safe and cost-effective means of treating dehydrated children in an outpatient setting in the United States. The use of a holding room for observation in the emergency room can markedly decrease health care costs and unnecessary hospitalizations.

  18. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  19. Profiles of rivers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Henry

    1901-01-01

    The profiles here represented are derived from various sources and differ from one another greatly in accuracy. Many of them are drawn from the annual reports of the Chief of Engineers, U.S.A., under which are included the reports of the Mississippi and Missouri River commissions. The heights thus obtained are those of the level of water in the rivers at certain stages, and may be regarded as of great accuracy. Others have been obtained from railroad profiles, being the level of the rivers at points where the railroads touch or cross them. Still others have been taken from the atlas sheets of the United States Geological Survey and from other maps. In most such cases the points at which the contours cross the rivers upon the maps have been taken. These again differ in point of accuracy with the means adopted for the location of the contours. Where the spirit level was used in locating contours it may be assumed that the determinations are fairly good, but where the barometer was used the probable error may be of considerable magnitude. Such elevations are, however, mainly in the mountainous parts of the country, where the fall of the streams is great, and where, therefore, errors of considerable magnitude may be tolerated, as affecting but little the form of the profile.

  20. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  1. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  2. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  3. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  4. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  5. POST-TRANSFUSION INFECTIONS IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA: CO-INFECTION OF HIV/HCV AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN ABAKALIKI URBAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbodo SO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in transfusion medical practice in the developing countries is the incidences of transfusion transmissible infections, especially viral infections. Some of these viral infections share similar transmission pathways, making co-infections of these viruses a possibility. We investigated the possible co-infection of two viral infections-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in 1,490 blood donors in a Teaching Hospital in a south-eastern state of Nigeria. This number was made up of 1384(92.9% males and 106(7.1% females. Antibodies to these viruses were detected using ELISA methods. Our results showed that 12(0.81%, 9(0.60%, and 2(0.13% were positive for HIV, HCV, and both HIV and HCV respectively. Greater percentage of females than males were positive for both HIV and HCV (2.8% and 0.65% for HIV and 2.8% and 0.43% for HCV while age group 21-30 showed highest frequency (38.5%. We advocate for wider mandatory pre-screening of blood donors, increased public health education and enlightenment on modes of transmission of these viral infections, as well as counseling of donors before screening.

  6. Occurrence of the Retromolar Foramen in Dry Mandibles of South-Eastern Part of India: A Morphological Study with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagath Kumar Potu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The retromolar foramen (RMF is a rare anatomical structure situated in the retromolar fossa behind the third molar tooth. When it is present, the foramen is connected with the mandibular canal and is believed to transmit neurovascular structures that provide accessory source to the mandibular molars and the buccal area. Reports from the literature show that the presence of RMF could pose a challenge in complete blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve during mandibular surgeries. We report the incidence of retromolar foramen from ninety-four dry mandibles of south-eastern part of Karnataka State, India. The foramen was observed in 11 mandibles out of 94 included in the study (11.7%. In three mandibles, the foramen was present bilaterally (3.2% and in three it was on the left side (3.2% and in five it was on the right side (5.3%. For the first time, we also measured the dimensions of the retromolar area and distance of the foramen from third molar tooth to understand its risks during the surgical extraction of the lower third molar tooth. A thorough review of the literature has also been done to compare the present findings with the studies reported from the various populations.

  7. Consumer bankruptcy law for Ethiopia: Lessons from United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indebtedness became a problem for many countries. As a response to this, many jurisdictions have departed from their “merchant-oriented” bankruptcy law to include consumers giving them discharge and fresh start. Germany, United States, United ...

  8. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  9. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  10. 76 FR 1975 - Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Memorandum of January 6, 2011--Disestablishment of United States Joint Forces Command #0; #0; #0... of United States Joint Forces Command Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to my... States Joint Forces Command, effective on a date to be determined by the Secretary of Defense. I direct...

  11. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Final rule effective November 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER... implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru...

  12. Trends in Precipitation and Stream Discharge over the Past Century for the Continental United States: Implications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Klimetz, L.

    2010-12-01

    increased nationwide. This indicates that winter snowpacks have decreased leading to smaller spring discharges. In particular, parts of the western United States are experiencing 25 to more than 50% less discharge per unit area than they did 100 years ago. This area is bounded by the Canadian border to the north, central New Mexico and Arizona to the south, eastern Kansas to the east and California to the west. The anthropogenic influence on water yield, including the construction of thousands of dams and irrigation appears to be large, with values of water yield per unit precipitation decreasing between 40 to more than 60% throughout much of this area. Increased volumes of evaporation from large reservoirs may also play an important role. Areas with pronounced increases in discharge (per unit area) (25 to > 100%) include the Gulf Coast and a north-south slice of the central United States bounded on the west by the eastern parts of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas and Oklahoma and on the east by Lake Michigan, Illinois and the lower Mississippi Valley. This increase in discharge per unit area can be partly attributed to increases in precipitation (5-20%), but also to improved drainage conditions (channelization) in this area.

  13. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A. R. G.; Crous, Pedro W.; Geiser, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium. Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. PMID:27605713

  14. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  15. Factors enabling and inhibiting facilitator development: lessons learned from Essentials of Care in South Eastern Sydney Local Health District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamera Watling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Building and sustaining facilitation capacity for the creation of person-centred workplace cultures is a strategic priority of the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Nursing and Midwifery Practice and Workforce Unit. Skilled facilitation is considered critical to the successful implementation and sustainability of practice development-based programmes, including Essentials of Care. Review of facilitator activity across the district revealed that less than half of those who had participated in a facilitation development programme were actively applying their knowledge to the facilitation of Essentials of Care. Aim: To understand the enablers and barriers to the development and application of facilitation skills and the implementation of Essentials of Care from the perspective of the programme’s facilitators. The purpose was to inform ongoing strategies to build and sustain facilitation capacity for its effective implementation. Method: A 21-question qualitative survey was designed using Survey Monkey. Questions were framed to allow free text responses for qualitative content analysis. Ethics approval was applied for and deemed unnecessary by the local health district ethics committee; the committee deemed the project to be a quality improvement activity not requiring independent ethical review. The survey was distributed electronically to 230 health professionals who had participated in the facilitation development programme between 2008 and 2013. Findings: The key enablers for both facilitator development and implementation of Essentials of Care were time, engagement of staff and leadership support. Additional enablers for facilitation development included access to development opportunities and practical application of skills. Facilitation was an enabler of Essentials of Care implementation. Leadership support is pivotal, especially where time and patient acuity impinge on the release of staff for facilitated activities

  16. Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of rare-metal pegmatites at Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fahmy Raslan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Abu Rushied area, situated in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt is a distinctive occurrence of economically important rare-metal mineralization where the host rocks are represented by granitic gneisses. Correspondingly, mineralogical and geochemical investigation of pegmatites pockets scattered within Abu Rusheid granitic gneisses revealed the presence of Hf-zircon, ferrocolumbite and uranyl silicate minerals (uranophane and kasolite. Electronmicroprobe analyses revealed the presence of Nb-Ta multioxide minerals (ishikawaite, uranopyrochlore, and fergusonite, uraninite, thorite and cassiterite as numerous inclusions in the recorded Hf-zircon and ferrocolumbite minerals.Abu Rusheid pegmatites are found as small and large bodies that occur as simple and complex (zoned pegmatites.Abu Rusheid rare-metal pegmatites occur as steeply dipping bodies of variable size, ranging from 1 to 5 m in width and 10 to 50 m in length. The zoned pegmatites are composed of wall zone of coarser granitic gneisses, intermediated zone of K-feldspar and pocket of mica (muscovite and biotite, and core of quartz and pocket ofmica with lenses of rare metals.The zircon is of bipyramidal to typical octahedral form and short prisms. Because the zircon of the investigated Abu Rushied pegmatite frequently contains hafnium in amounts ranging between 2.31 and 11.11%, the studied zircon was designated as Hf-rich zircon. This zircon commonly exhibits a normal zoning with rims consistentlyhigher in Hf than cores. The bright areas in the crystal either in core or rim showed a remarkable enrichment in hafnium content (8.83–11.11% with respect to the dark zones (3.19%. The investigated ferroclumbite commonly exhibits zoning; the dark zone is low in the Ta and U but the light zone is enriched in Ta (13% and U (1%. EMPAanalyses indicate the chemical composition of ishikawaite with U ranging from 0.68 to 0.79 per formula unit.Uranopyrochlore species has dominant uranium in the A

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, William A; Shanklin, Shari L; Flint, Katherine H; Hawkins, Joseph; Queen, Barbara; Lowry, Richard; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Thornton, Jemekia; Lim, Connie; Yamakawa, Yoshimi; Brener, Nancy; Zaza, Stephanie

    2016-06-10

    Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. September 2014-December 2015. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other priority health behaviors. YRBSS includes a national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) conducted by CDC and state and large urban school district school-based YRBSs conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results for 118 health behaviors plus obesity, overweight, and asthma from the 2015 national survey, 37 state surveys, and 19 large urban school district surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12. Results from the 2015 national YRBS indicated that many high school students are engaged in priority health-risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States. During the 30 days before the survey, 41.5% of high school students nationwide among the 61.3% who drove a car or other vehicle during the 30 days before the survey had texted or e-mailed while driving, 32.8% had drunk alcohol, and 21.7% had used marijuana. During the 12 months before the survey, 15.5% had been electronically bullied, 20.2% had been bullied on school property, and 8.6% had attempted suicide. Many

  18. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  19. Relocate GTMO Detainees to Stand Trial in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    the 1998 terrorist bombings of the United States Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam , Tanzania. Expect...St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t RELOCATE GTMO DETAINEES TO STAND TRIAL IN THE UNITED STATES BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL REX D. LYNNE...options for the disposition of Guantanamo detainees and others captured by the United States.2 On 20 May 2009, in a bi-partisan vote, Congress denied the

  20. The Prevalence of Apprenticeships in Germany and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaryan, Nika; Neelakantan, Urvi; Price, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The educational systems and labor markets of Germany and the United States take different approaches to preparing young people for the workforce. One feature of Germany's workforce development model that has been of interest to policymakers in the United States is the important role played by employer-financed apprenticeships. The United States instead relies mainly on comprehensive general education, with career training largely taking place in community colleges and other postsecondary inst...

  1. Academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria - the need for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, C E; Davis, K J; Akpan, U P; Daniel, N E

    2011-12-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) female students of the University of Uyo, ages between 16 and 35 years were randomly selected from different departments in the University, and studied during the 2009/2010 academic session. Menstrual history and Student's Stress Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ) were used for this assessment. They were distributed for participants to fill out. Prevalence of menstrual disorder among participants was 34.6%. A direct association between menstrual disorder and academic stress was observed. Commonest menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (37.5%). Others were: Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS 33.1%), Oligomenorrhea 19.9% and amenorrhea 5.9% (Pacademic stress had about 2 times chances of having menstrual disorders (OR : 2.0, C.I = 1.224-2.837) at Pacademic stress and menstrual disorder among females undergraduate in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria.

  2. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of food crops and fruits in Owerri, South Eastern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orisakwe Orish

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed lead, cadmium, and nickel level in food crops, fruits and soil samples from Ohaji and Umuagwo and Owerri in South Eastern Nigeria and estimated the potential health risks of metals. Samples were washed, oven-dried at 70–80°C for 24 h and powdered. Samples were digested with perchloric acid and nitric acid. Metals were analysed with Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Result The concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in Ohaji exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations for agricultural soil as recommended by EU. Lead, Cd, and Ni in the food crops were highest in Oryza sativa, Glycine max, and Pentabacta microfila respectively. Highest levels of Pb, Cd, and Ni, in fruits were detected in Canarium schweinfurthii, Citrus reticulata, Ananas comosus respectively. The true lead and cadmium intake for the rice based meal were 3.53 and 0.034 g/kg respectively. Whereas the true intake of lead and cadmium for the cassava based meal were 19.42 and 0.049 g/kg respectively. Conclusion Local food stuff commonly available in South Eastern Nigeria villages may contribute to the body burden of heavy metal. This is of public health importance.

  3. Mapping of PM10 surface concentrations derived from satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness over South-Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, J.-C.; Pont, V.; Mallet, M.; Bessagnet, B.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at developing a methodology based on in-situ experimental observations in order to use satellite retrievals as a tool for monitoring air particulate pollution. This methodology is applied during summer time on the South-Eastern France, which is one of the most polluted zones over Europe, enclosing further large cities and industrial sites. In a first time, we consider correlations between daily mean AERONET AOT and PM10 concentrations at five sites located as well close to as far from pollution sources. Our results show significant correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.68 to 0.79, following the site studied. Several factors like aerosol vertical distribution or hygroscopic growth factor could affect the link between PM10 ground measurements and aerosol optical thickness. To statistically strengthen this approach, we gather data sets from three types of sites (urban, near urban and rural) and establish a linear relationship between daily mean AOT measured from AERONET and PM10 mass concentrations. Secondly and thanks to good agreements between AOT measured from AERONET and AOT retrieved from the MODIS sensor, we calculate estimated concentrations of PM10 by using MODIS retrievals above the South-Eastern France. Uncertainties about this approach are discussed.

  4. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  5. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro C. C. Løhaugen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1 provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2 provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3 initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions.

  6. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions... resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or any...

  7. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  8. Strong Motion Recording in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, R. J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Shakal, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The United States strong motion program began in 1932 when the Coast and Geodetic Survey (C&GS) installed eight strong motion accelerographs in California. During the March 1933 Long Beach earthquake, three of these produced the first strong motion records. With this success the C&GS expanded the number of accelerographs to 71 by 1964. With development of less expensive, mass-produced accelerographs the number of strong motion accelerographs expanded to ~575 by 1972. Responsibilities for operating the network and disseminating data were transferred to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970 and then to the U.S. Geological Survey in 1973. In 1972 the California Legislature established the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). CSMIP operates accelerographs at 812 ground stations, with multi-channel accelerographs in 228 buildings, 125 lifelines and 37 geotechnical arrays, in California. The USGS and the ANSS effort operate accelerographs at 1584 ground stations, 96 buildings, 14 bridges, 70 dams, and 15 multi-channel geotechnical arrays. The USC Los Angeles array has 78 ground stations; UCSB operates 5 geotechnical arrays; other government and private institutions also operate accelerographs. Almost all accelerographs are now digital with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. Most of the strong motion data can be downloaded from the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (http://strongmotioncenter.org). As accelerographs have become more sophisticated, the concept of what constitutes strong motion has blurred because small earthquakes (M ~3) are well recorded on accelerometers as well as seismometers. However, when accelerations are over ~10%g and velocities over ~1 cm/s, the accelerometers remain on scale, providing the unclipped data necessary to analyze the ground motion and its consequences. Strong motion data are essential to the development of ground motion prediction equations, understanding structural response, performance

  9. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  10. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  11. Waterborne Disease Outbreaks— United States, 2009–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has conducted national surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks since 1971 in partnership with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)....

  12. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend ... Current Smoking Among Adults in 2016 (States) References Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease ...

  13. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  14. Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  15. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  16. Opioid epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm, Standiford; Fellows, Bert; Janata, Jeffrey W; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Grider, Jay S; Boswell, Mark V

    2012-07-01

    responsible for more deaths than the number of deaths from both suicide and motor vehicle crashes, or deaths from cocaine and heroin combined. A significant relationship exists between sales of opioid pain relievers and deaths. The majority of deaths (60%) occur in patients when they are given prescriptions based on prescribing guidelines by medical boards, with 20% of deaths in low dose opioid therapy of 100 mg of morphine equivalent dose or less per day and 40% in those receiving morphine of over 100 mg per day. In comparison, 40% of deaths occur in individuals abusing the drugs obtained through multiple prescriptions, doctor shopping, and drug diversion. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to describe various aspects of crisis of opioid use in the United States. The obstacles that must be surmounted are primarily inappropriate prescribing patterns, which are largely based on a lack of knowledge, perceived safety, and inaccurate belief of undertreatment of pain.

  17. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    every morning in front of the home of the State. President while he is in residence and the guard is responsible for the daily hoisting and striking of the State President's Flag. Apart from the above-mentioned functions, the home guards also act as orderlies in the house- hold and office of the State President, such as receiving ...

  18. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  19. Recent drought conditions in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Droughts are common in virtually all U.S. forests, but their frequency and intensity vary widely both between and within forest ecosystems (Hanson and Weltzin 2000). Forests in the Western United States generally exhibit a pattern of annual seasonal droughts. Forests in the Eastern United States tend to exhibit one of two prevailing patterns: random occasional droughts...

  20. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  1. Why the United States Must Adopt Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    be augmented and not replaced by technology. The United States based this human focused approach on military theory , history, and traditions. General... disabilities . The United States Third Offset Strategy’s human-centered approach is unsustainable, because of the massive costs associated with...131 Frans Osinga, Science, Strategy, and War: The Strategic Theory of John Boyd (New

  2. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  3. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  4. Wheat rusts in the United States in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. graminis was widespread throughout the United States. Cool temperatures and abundant rainfall in the southern Great Plains allowed stripe rust to become widely established and spread throughout the Great Plains and eastern United State...

  5. Children's Home Environments in Great Britain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lori Ann; Parcel, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of human, social, and financial capital on children's home environments in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the United States with a similar sample from Britain. In both countries, the authors find weaker home environments for boys, minority children, and…

  6. Cholera in United States Associated with Epidemic in Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Katherine E.; Schmitz, Ann; Török, Tom; Apostolou, Andria; Hanson, Heather; Gounder, Prabhu; Bohm, Susan; Kurkjian, Katie; Parsons, Michele; Talkington, Deborah; Stroika, Steven; Madoff, Lawrence C.; Elson, Franny; Sweat, David; Cantu, Venessa; Akwari, Okey; Mahon, Barbara E.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Cholera is rare in the United States (annual average 6 cases). Since epidemic cholera began in Hispaniola in 2010, a total of 23 cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 have been confirmed in the United States. Twenty-two case-patients reported travel to Hispaniola and 1 reported consumption of seafood from Haiti. PMID:22204035

  7. 38 CFR 3.1002 - Political subdivisions of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivisions of... Political subdivisions of United States. No part of any accrued benefits will be used to reimburse any political subdivision of the United States for expenses incurred in the last sickness or burial of any...

  8. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  9. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  10. Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice": Race, Class, and United States Imperialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gilbert G.

    2004-01-01

    Richard Kluger's monumental "Simple Justice" reaffirms the long-held liberal contention that any analysis of the complex social relations in the United States must acknowledge the centrality of racism. Racism historically contributed to shaping of the political culture, social interactions, and legal status of groups throughout the United States.…

  11. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and 9808...

  12. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  13. 8 CFR 306.2 - United States citizenship; when acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States citizenship; when acquired... SPECIAL CLASSES OF PERSONS WHO MAY BE NATURALIZED: VIRGIN ISLANDERS § 306.2 United States citizenship... citizenship shall be issued by the clerk of court to any person obtaining, or who has obtained citizenship...

  14. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  15. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  16. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  17. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas Older Population Poverty Preventive Care State Data White Population Women’s Health ... PDF - 299 KB] [XLS - 310 KB] Table 40 . Diabetes prevalence and glycemic control among adults aged 20 ...

  18. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  19. 77 FR 43573 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States Section of the United States-Turkey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... to offer a broad perspective on the business environment in Turkey, including cross-cutting issues... United States-Turkey Business Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In December 2009, the Governments of the United States and Turkey agreed to...

  20. Geothermal energy development in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Research on geothermal energy utilization is discussed. Topics include: developing a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis; establishing the marketability of geothermal energy; colocating users with resources; the transfer of technology; and establishing the beginnings of a geothermal industry infrastructure. Legal, institutional, and economic issues were addressed, as well as information exchange and assistance in state planning through the development of state prospectuses and scenarios.

  1. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  2. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  3. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    other family members. Balfour Beatty Communities owns and manages all of the privatized housing at NS Mayport, a total of 962 family housing units...and their dependents. Balfour Beatty Communities owns and manages all of the privatized housing at Fort Gordon, a total of 1,080 family housing...family housing12—and had received congressional approval to do so. However, at the time of our inspections, Balfour Beatty Communities disagreed

  4. The United States -- India Strategic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    provided a deterrence against it nuclear neighbors, Pakistan and China, and was seen as the entrance ticket into the club of the great powers. 37 On May...Washington Quarterly 31, no. 4 (2008). 31 possible racism towards the Asian societies following the war. 97 The United States’ focus in Asia...a country with nuclear weapons was welcomed into the nuclear club without India having to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). 106 Then

  5. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  6. The formation of the south-eastern part of the Dniepr-Donets Basin: 2-D forward and reverse syn-rift and post-rift modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stovba, S.M.; Maystrenko, Yu.; Stephenson, R.A.; Kusznir, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Forward and reverse modelling of structure and stratigraphy has been used to investigate the syn-rift (Late Devonian) and early post-rift (Carboniferous) evolution of the south-eastern part of the Dniepr-Donets Basin (DDB). Modelling was carried out with and without taking into consideration the

  7. Letter to Editor: RESITA NETWORK - ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION NETWORK OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: AN EXAMPLE OF SUCCESSFUL NETWORKING IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION AT ACADEMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation, development, activities, and wider social impact of the AcademicEntrepreneurship and Innovation Network of South Eastern European Universities, or shortlyRESITA Network, is presented in this paper as a positive example of successful networking inentrepreneurship and innovation at academic level.

  8. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  9. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Beneditto Ana Paula M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.

  10. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  11. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  12. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  13. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae) in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; McSpadden, Kate; Baker, Sara; Jenkins, David J

    2017-12-01

    Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris) and feral cats (Felis catus), and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), feral pigs (Sus scrofa), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), goats (Capra hircus) and a European hare (Lepus europaeus), from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37), 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55) and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164) were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s) acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia.

  14. Anomalous gold contents in brown coals and peat in the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Maslov, S.G.; Arhipov, V.S.; Belyaeva, A.M. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-02

    One hundred twenty-two samples of Jurassic and Paleogene brown coals and 1254 peat samples from the south-eastern region of the Western-Siberian platform were analyzed for gold by the neutron-activation method. Mean content of Au in Jurassic coals is 30+/-8 ppb, in Paleogene coals is 10.6+/-4.8 ppb, and in peat is 6+/-1.4 ppb. Concentrations of gold as high as 4.4 ppm were found in coal ash and 0.48 ppm in the peat ash. Coal beds with anomalous gold contents were found at Western-Siberian platform for the first time. Negative correlation between gold and ash yield in coals and peat and highest gold concentrations were found in low-ash and ultra-low-ash coals and peat. Primarily this is due to gold's association with organic matter. For the investigation of mode of occurrence of Au in peat the bitumen, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances, humic acids, cellulose and lignin were extracted from it. It was determined that in peat about 95% of gold is combined with organic matter. Forty to sixty percent of Au is contained in humic acids and the same content is in lignin. Bitumens, water-soluble and high-hydrolyzed substances contain no more than 1% of general gold quantity in peat. The conditions of accumulation of high gold concentrations were considered. The authors suggest that Au accumulation in peat and brown coals and the connection between anomalous gold concentrations and organic matter in low-ash coals and peat can explain a biogenic-sorption mechanism of Au accumulation. The sources of formation of Au high concentration were various Au-Sb, Au-Ag Au-As-Sb deposits that are abundant in the Southern and South-Eastern peripheries of the coal basin. (author)

  15. CO-EXISTENCE AND SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN A MALARIA-ENDEMIC METROPOLIS OF SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and typhoid are known major causes of febrile conditions in the South-Eastern Nigeria, hence healthcare providers usually co-administer antibiotics and anti-malaria on febrile patients without or before proper laboratory diagnosis. Despite this, fever and other symptoms of malaria sometimes persist after repeated treatment regimens. We investigated possible co-existence and prevalence of another fever-causing condition and ndash; brucellosis, with malaria and typhoid. The systematic study done between January 2015 and June 2016 involved 682 febrile patients referred to a private medical laboratory in Enugu metropolis in South-Eastern Nigeria for investigation for malaria and typhoid only. The number was made up of 295(43.3% males and 387(56.7% females, aged between 10 and 50 years. Identification of malaria parasites was done using thick films stained with Giemsa stain while typhoid and brucellosis were investigated serologically using Chromatest and reg; febrile antigen kits. Our results showed prevalence of 39.1%, 66.0% and 28.6% for malaria, typhoid and brucellosis respectively in the studied population. Prevalence among male and female patients was 46.1% and 33.9% for malaria, 80.3% and 55.0% for typhoid, and 34.2% and 24.3% for brucellosis respectively. The results also showed that prevalence of malaria decreased with age while typhoid and brucellosis increased with age. We opine that 28.6% prevalence of brucellosis in a city with rare pastoral activities is high, and may be the cause of persistent fever after repeated combined treatment for malaria and typhoid. We advocate that these disease conditions should be simultaneously investigated for in all cases of febrile conditions to ensure wider investigation and treatment options, improvement on patients\\' recovery time and reduction in man-hour loss.

  16. Using Key Informant Method to Determine the Prevalence and Causes of Childhood Blindness in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada E; Ezegwui, Ifeoma R; Shiweobi, Jude O; Mamah, Cyril C; Okoloagu, Mary N; Onwasigwe, Ernest N

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of childhood blindness in an underserved community in south-eastern Nigeria using the key informant method. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Key informants (KI) appointed by their respective communities received 1-day training on identification of blind children in their communities. Two weeks later, the research team visited the agreed sites within the community and examined the identified children. The World Health Organization eye examination record for blind children was used for data collection. Data entry and analysis were done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Fifteen blind or severely visually impaired children (age range 3 months to 15 years) were identified in this community; nine of these were brought by the KIs. The prevalence of childhood blindness/severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) was 0.12 per 1000 children. By anatomical classification, operable cataract in 6 (40.0%) was the leading cause of BL/SVI in the series; followed by optic nerve lesions (atrophy/hypoplasia) in 3 (20.0%). The etiology of BL/SVI is unknown for the majority of the children (66.7%). It was presumed hereditary in four children (26.7%). Sixty percent of the blindness was judged avoidable. Only three children (20.0%) were enrolled in the Special Education Centre for the Blind. The prevalence of childhood BL/SVI in our study population is low but over half of the blindness is avoidable. There may be a significant backlog of operable childhood cataract in south-eastern Nigeria. The KI method is a practical method for case finding of blind children in rural communities.

  17. Visiting the United States Without Leaving Your Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Roberta

    1987-01-01

    Ways in which teachers can interest students about learning more about the United States are presented, focusing on a planned "pretend" visit to a particular state or region. Research topics include geography, history, population, climate, chief products, and background information. State tourism agencies are listed. (CB)

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  19. Forests of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota, the 20 Northern States have a larger population and a higher proportion of forest cover than other comparably sized U.S. regions. Forest-associated issues across the North include insect and disease pests, invasive species, forest management capacity, management standards, biodiversity, forest fragmentation, water...

  20. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  1. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad, tech. coord. Smith; Patrick D., data coord. Miles; Charles H., map coord. Perry; Scott A., Data CD coord. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data and trends are analyzed...

  2. Forest statistics of the United States, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Danlel D. Oswald; Douglas S. Powell

    1989-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 (88 Stat. 476 as amended) directs the U.S. Department of Agriculture to conduct a comprehensive assessment of all forest and range land resources on both public and private lands. Forest resource data collected from periodic surveys in each State and Forest Service Region were entered into a...

  3. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    specific sug- gestions that the Ambassador had made but that with regard to the larger issues brought up by the Ambassador. I felt sure that these...mediation, "should France propose it ." Secretary of State Frclinghuysen cables Young with " persona l" points for settlement with France. Chinese

  4. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    historical grounding. Prior to the Revolution, the defense of the colonies as a whole was left to the British crown , and the colonial militia handled...communication while preparing for and then executing the invasion of the continent. In the Pacific, it meant establishing airfields and naval bases and...perspectives that dominated at the time, a judgment was made that communist states acted more or less monolithically and that an armed response was needed

  5. Narcoterrorism - A Threat to the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-21

    hydrochloride (HCL). The capital of the nation is Bogota . There are five major cities in the country. Two of them, Medellin and Cali, are narcotrafficker...absentee rate. The Pinkerton Security Company states that 80 percent of the corporate theft investigated was drug related. 12 The symptoms (and impact) of...his drugs to survive and will do what he must to get those drugs. This may involve theft or even marketing the product. He or she is in a predicament

  6. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  7. Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation The Federation of State Medical Boards Foundation undertakes educational and scientific research projects designed to expand public and medical professional knowledge and awareness of challenges impacting health care and health care regulation. Learn ...

  8. The magnitude of abdominal adiposity and atherogenic dyslipidemia among geriatric Nigerians with arterial hypertension in a rural hospital in South-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloh, Gup; Amadi, A N; Njoku, P U; Ofoedu, J N; Awa-Madu, J

    2012-01-01

    As the case detection rate of arterial hypertension increases daily in rural Nigeria, screening for its associated abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia is an important healthcare challenge. Of great concern in rural Nigeria is that most geriatric hypertensives with abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia are not routinely diagnosed and therefore do not receive appropriate management. This study was aimed at describing the magnitude (prevalence and pattern) of abdominal adiposity using waist circumference (WC) index and dyslipidemia among geriatric Nigerians with arterial hypertension in a rural hospital in South-eastern Nigeria. A descriptive hospital-based study was carried out from June 2008 to June 2011 on 122 consecutive geriatric patients with systemic hypertension who met the selection criteria at St. Vincent De Paul Hospital, Amurie-Omanze, a rural Mission General Hospital in Imo state. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm for men and women, respectively. Dyslipidemia was defined using the third report of National Cholesterol Education Panel in adult (ATP III). The data collected included basic demographic variables, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 50.8% and was the most common pattern of abdominal adiposity. Fifty-four (44.3%) out of 122 patients had at least one dyslipidemia with the most frequent being low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 38.5%). There was statistically significant difference between male and female gender based on abdominal adiposity (X 2 = 5.406, P value = 0.04) while their mean lipid differentials were not statistically significant. This study has shown that abdominal adiposity and dyslipidemia exist among geriatric hypertensives in the study area with abdominal obesity being the most common abdominal adiposity and low HDL-C being the most frequent lipid abnormality. This study therefore urges the necessity to consider

  9. Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in South Eastern Europe in the last decade: gaps persist compared with the rest of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaor, Ariana; van den Hurk, Corina; Primic-Zakelj, Maja; Agius, Dominic; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Dimitrova, Nadia; Eser, Sultan; Karakilinc, Hulya; Zivkovic, Snezana; Bray, Freddie; Coebergh, Jan W Willem

    2013-05-01

    Cancer registration coverage and cancer control programmes in South Eastern (SE) Europe, embracing about six new EU member states, remain thin, despite a relatively high incidence and mortality burden from avoidable cancers, particularly in males. We assembled the most recent cancer registry data to estimate the burden of the 17 most common cancers in the region, from Slovenia to Cyprus and Malta. Data were made available for analysis from Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Malta, Romania (Cluj County), Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey (Antalya and Izmir provinces). We analysed incidence and mortality of the 17 most common cancers (counts and age-standardised rates, for the most recent year available and for the period 1999-2008). We used Joinpoint regression to quantify recent trends. For much of SE Europe, there were no marked declines in overall cancer mortality rates during 1999-2008. In men, lung cancer incidence and mortality rates were high compared to other European countries (age-standardised rates (ASRW) of incidence being 50-60/100,000 in most of the countries), and still increasing in Bulgaria, Serbia and Turkey. Prostate cancer incidence rapidly increased throughout the region by 3-12% annually, largely without any clear declines in mortality. Colorectal cancer incidence increased throughout the region, as did mortality especially in Croatia, Serbia and Bulgaria (average annual percentage change (AAPC) 1.5-2%). In women, breast cancer mortality significantly declined in Slovenia, Croatia and Malta (Average Annual Percentage of Change [AAPC] -2%, -1% and -5%, respectively), but not elsewhere. Cervical cancer incidence rates remained very high in Romania, Serbia and Bulgaria (ASRW>20/100,000). Our data confirmed the North West to South East Europe gradient of increasing incidence and mortality rates of tobacco-related cancers, as well as increasing mortality rates of screen-detectable cancers. The lack of decline in overall cancer mortality also indicates suboptimal

  10. Irrigated Agricultural in the United States, State-Level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hanchar, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents previously unreported State-level data on the structure and characteristics of irrigated farms in Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida, and the 17 Western States, which together account for 93 percent of all irrigated acres in the Nation. Irrigated farms produce about 30 percent of the sales of agricultural products from all U.S. farms. Data include distributions of irrigated farms, irrigated acres, and value of agricultural products sold from irrigated farms for a variety of far...

  11. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ayesha Siddiqa , Military Inc.: Inside Paki- stan’s Military Economy , London: Pluto Press, 2007; Nawaz, 2008b; Dennis Kux, The United...20060427181948ndybl ehs0.8380701.html Siddiqa , Ayesha , Military Inc.: Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy , London: Pluto Press, 2007. Siddiqui, Rehana, “The Pakistani...of the military and intelligence agencies. All of these options augur more instability inside and outside Pakistan and

  12. United States National Will: A Psychodynamic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    requires active preservation of the group which can be effected in three general ways: dependence, pairing, and fight or flight . At any time 1 7Ibid...these ways. A group in such a state as a basic assumption group is labeled "Ba" with a letter - "V" (dependent) or "P" (pairing) or "F" ( fight or flight ) appended...The BZAF ( fight or flight ) group makes decisions in an aura of the need to protect the group from outside threats. The decisions are in terms of

  13. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States Share: On This Page ... new findings on Americans' use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The findings are from the 2007 National ...

  14. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  15. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  16. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  17. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  18. United States Tornado Touchdown Points 1950-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows tornado touchdown points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950 to 2004. Statistical data were obtained from...

  19. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  20. Aerosol from Organic Nitrogen in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) contribute significantly to organic aerosol in the southeastern United States. During the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS), a portion of ambient organic aerosol was attributed to isoprene oxidation and organic nitrogen from BVO...

  1. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  2. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  3. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  4. United States Mortality Database, 1988-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains mortality information for United States Health Service Areas (805 groups of counties). Included are mortality rates by sex and race (white...

  5. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  6. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  7. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  8. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  9. Health care in the United States: organization, management, and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Howard P

    2010-01-01

    "Health Care in the United States discusses the basic structures and operations of the U.S. health system. This resource includes examples, tables, and a glossary with key terms and acronyms to help understand important concepts...

  10. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest disturbance and recovery for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to det...

  11. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Land Surface Forms of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated land surface form classes for the contiguous United States. These land surface form classes were created as part of...

  12. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  13. Elevation in the Western United States (180 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  14. Streams and Waterbodies of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  15. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1990-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1990-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  16. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Isobioclimates of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated and mapped isobioclimate classes for the contiguous United States. These isobioclimate classes were created as part...

  17. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  18. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  19. Night Air Combat. A United States Military-Technical Revolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Merrick

    1997-01-01

    ... our apparent advantage over potential adversaries. Understanding how the United States reached the critical jump in military effectiveness through the application of night air combat technologies is critical to project future military revolutions...

  20. United States in Outer Space: Security Assurance and Preservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, Richard V

    2007-01-01

    Free access to-and-use of space assets by all nations in today's highly interdependent globalize society has been the long-standing policy of the United States dating back to the Eisenhower Administration...

  1. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  2. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  3. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), prior to undertaking...

  4. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  5. Ozone injury across the Southern United States, 2002–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita K. Rose; John W. Coulston

    2009-01-01

    In the Eastern United States, hourly concentrations of ozone typically range from 30 to 50 parts per billion(ppb), with events that may exceed 100 ppb. Typical exposure levels can cause visible foliar injury to

  6. Gifted education in the United States: Perspectives of gender equity

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Melinda R.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of education for gifted and talented children and adolescents in the United States will be presented. Issues of gender equity will be discussed and suggestions for creating equal opportunities for all students will be outlined.

  7. United States Air Force Nurse Crops Captains' Perceived Leadership Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    ... effectiveness of nurses who lacked the additional training. Two hundred and seventy-nine United States Air Force Nurse Corps Captains with management experience completed Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practice Inventory-Self (LPI...

  8. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  9. Assessing real-time Zika risk in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauren A Castro; Spencer J Fox; Xi Chen; Kai Liu; Steven E Bellan; Nedialko B Dimitrov; Alison P Galvani; Lauren Ancel Meyers

    2017-01-01

    Background Confirmed local transmission of Zika Virus (ZIKV) in Texas and Florida have heightened the need for early and accurate indicators of self-sustaining transmission in high risk areas across the southern United States. Given...

  10. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  11. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  12. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than ...

  13. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  14. Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001–2006 Recommend on ... deficiency, inadequacy In 2001–2006, what was the vitamin D status of the U.S. population based on ...

  15. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  16. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  17. Women doctors: productivity in Great Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, M; Braslow, J

    1981-01-01

    There is a difference in the productivity of women doctors in Great Britain and the United States. Postulated reasons for this difference are discussed as well as the implications for medical education and meeting health manpower needs.

  18. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  19. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  20. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  1. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2000-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2000-2004. Parameter-elevation...

  2. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1990-1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1990-1994. Parameter-elevation...

  3. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1995-1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1995-1999. Parameter-elevation...

  4. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2005-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2005-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  5. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  6. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  7. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  8. Occupational Adjustment of Refugees: The Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Barry N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of the pattern of occupational adjustment of the Vietnamese refugees to the United States and compares their experiences with other recent refugee and immigrant groups. (Author)

  9. Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains data for wet and dry nitrogen-species deposition for the United States and Western Europe. Deposition data were acquired directly from...

  10. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  11. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hotez, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty...

  12. The wildland-urban interface in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff; Roger B. Hammer

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a map of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) in 2000 for the lower 48 States of the United States. The WUI was extensive, covering 9 percent of the land area in the lower 48 States and encompassing 38 percent of all homes. Major WUI areas are located along the west coast, the Colorado Front Range, southeast Texas, the Great Lakes States, and across...

  13. The New Migrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hien Duc

    1996-01-01

    Presents instructional materials for a unit of study reexamining the effects of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese migration to the United States. These materials discuss the historical background of this migration as well as the development of Vietnamese American communities and their relationship to other Asian American communities. (MJP)

  14. The United States and Colombia: Untying the Gordian Knot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    and equipped paramilitary forces such as the 10 Campesino Self-Defense Force of C6rdoba and Urabd (ACCU) and United Self-Defense [groups] of Colombia...to the campesinos , and start the process of building a true democracy-none of which the United States ever forced on the Saigon regime. And the

  15. Immigrants to the United States and Adult Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes documented and undocumented immigrant populations in the United States. It discusses salient factors influencing their status as immigrants as well as adult education services available to them through publicly funded programs, social units, and community centers, especially churches and libraries.

  16. Nuclear liability coverage developments in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown II, Omer F.

    1995-12-31

    The availability of such nuclear liability coverage has been a concern of nuclear power plant vendors, suppliers and operators, and public officials in the United States or many years. This paper addresses implications of the Federal Price-Anderson Act (42 U.S.C. 2014, 2020; Sections 11 and 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended); on the financial liability of persons accountable for an accident in the United States. (author).

  17. Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    will not result in w\\rongful appropriation. For example. a person who fails to return a borrowed boat at the time agreed upon because the boa ...practice. See. e.g., Estrada v. UnitedStates, 457 F2d 255 (7thCir.) cert. denied. 409 U.S. 858(0972); UnitedStates v.Mitchell, 427F.2d 12890(3dCi. 170

  18. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  19. Expeditionary Economics and Its Implications on the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    microfinance is ineffective in resolving conflicts in active war zones, it does play an important role in Phase IV operations. The importance of micro...Private Sector Growth and Employment Generation: The Iraq Microfinance Strategy (Washington, D.C.: United States Agency for International Development...and The Services Group, Inc. “Iraq Private Sector Growth and Employment Generation: The Iraq Microfinance Strategy.” Washington, D.C.: United States

  20. The United States Space Force: Not If, But When

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of goods and services into and through space, to include providing space launch and electronic goods and services such as telecommunications...United States Coast Guard serves as a law enforcement arm at sea, performing duties anywhere from counter-drug operations to anti- piracy . The...United States Space Guard may have a similar function in countering the efforts of “space piracy ” which may take on the form of hijacking satellites