WorldWideScience

Sample records for south-east asia region

  1. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  2. Regional fuel cycle centres for South and South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    A brief preliminary analysis of the economic feasibility of regional fuel cycle centres in South and South-East Asia is presented. The indicative break-even costs and break-even plant sizes for the various fuel cycle services are estimated and the timing for their establishment on the basis of IAEA and ESCAP nuclear power projections in the region are shown. The paper discusses the need for achieving regional self-sufficiency for nuclear fuel services and suggests that a detailed study should be undertaken by the IAEA in close co-operation with the countries of the region to find out their requirements for nuclear fuel services. (author)

  3. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  4. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  5. The Switch From Trivalent to Bivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Sunil; Hasman, Andreas; Eltayeb, Abu Obeida; James Noble, Douglas; Thapa, Arun

    2017-07-01

    This analysis describes an innovative and successful approach to risk identification and mitigation in relation to the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 11 countries of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) in April 2016.The strong commitment of governments and immunization professionals to polio eradication and an exemplary partnership between the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and other partners and stakeholders in the region and globally were significant contributors to the success of the OPV switch in the SEAR. Robust national switch plans were developed and country-specific innovations were planned and implemented by the country teams. Close monitoring and tracking of the activities and milestones through dashboards and review meetings were undertaken at the regional level to ensure that implementation time lines were met, barriers identified, and solutions for overcoming challenges were discussed and implemented.The SEAR was the first WHO Region globally to complete the switch and declare the successful withdrawal of trivalent OPV from all countries on 17 May 2016.A number of activities implemented during the switch process are likely to contribute positively to existing immunization practices and to similar initiatives in the future. These activities include better vaccine supply chain management, improved mechanisms for disposal of vaccination-related waste materials, and a closer collaboration with drug regulators, vaccine manufacturers, and the private sector for immunization-related initiatives. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-12-01

    To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4-5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country's Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations.

  7. Pipelines to power South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholes, W

    1994-07-01

    European, North American and Australian pipeline companies are busy building pipelines to transport natural gas to power stations throughout South East Asia. Many countries, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, have economies expanding at more than eight percent a year. Cambodia and Laos are awaiting energy development. Myanmar will not only benefit from the global economic expansion but from the flourishing economies of nearby Thailand and Malaysia which are now investing in neighbouring countries, while their national petroleum companies are starting to operate worldwide. It is the ever expanding rush of industrialisation, urbanisation and the move to raise living standards throughout the region that is accelerating the need for more power stations, both gas and coal-fired, throughout South East Asia. (author)

  8. Pipelines to power South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, W.

    1994-01-01

    European, North American and Australian pipeline companies are busy building pipelines to transport natural gas to power stations throughout South East Asia. Many countries, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, have economies expanding at more than eight percent a year. Cambodia and Laos are awaiting energy development. Myanmar will not only benefit from the global economic expansion but from the flourishing economies of nearby Thailand and Malaysia which are now investing in neighbouring countries, while their national petroleum companies are starting to operate worldwide. It is the ever expanding rush of industrialisation, urbanisation and the move to raise living standards throughout the region that is accelerating the need for more power stations, both gas and coal-fired, throughout South East Asia. (author)

  9. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  10. Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Dash, A P; Parnell, B; Bhattacharya, S K; Barua, S; Bhatia, R; Savioli, L

    2010-03-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which affect the very poor, pose a major public health problem in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Although more than a dozen NTDs affect the region, over the past five years four of them in particular - leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and yaws - have been targeted for elimination. These four were selected for a number of reasons. First, they affect the WHO South-East Asia Region disproportionately. For example, every year around 67% of all new leprosy cases and 60% of all new cases of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide occur in countries of the region, where as many as 850 million inhabitants are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. In addition, several epidemiological, technological and historical factors that are unique to the region make each of these four diseases amenable to elimination. Safe and effective tools and interventions to achieve these targets are available and concerted efforts to scale them up, singly or in an integrated manner, are likely to lead to success. The World Health Assembly and the WHO Regional Committee, through a series of resolutions, have already expressed regional and global commitments for the elimination of these diseases as public health problems. Such action is expected to have a quick and dramatic impact on poverty reduction and to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. This paper reviews the policy rationale for disease control in the WHO South-East Asia Region, the progress made so far, the lessons learnt along the way, and the remaining challenges and opportunities.

  11. Shippers’ Choice Behaviour in Choosing Transport Mode: The Case of South East Asia (SEA Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsun Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using South East Asia as a case study, shippers’ choice of transport modes taking into consideration their economic and environmental impacts was examined in this research. A triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative methods was deployed. First, a quantitative analysis using secondary data was conducted to establish the index score, which includes four quantitative factors (transport distance, cost, time, and CO2 emission, for each transport mode. In addition, in order to examine at what level of the importance weight shippers would change their decision on transport mode, a sensitivity analysis involving the four aforesaid factors was also conducted. Next, an in-depth interview with a major shipper in Singapore was also carried out to qualitatively validate the aforesaid four quantitative factors as well as two additional qualitative factors, namely, customer service and shipper-forwarder relationship in relation to shipper's choice. The results from this study indicate that shippers might change to the short-sea shipping (SSS mode when the importance weights of cost and CO2 emission increase, and to trucking mode when the weight of time decreases. It was also found that cost is the most important factor when shippers choose carriers/forwarders, whereas CO2 emission is not an important factor at the current stage. However, if the government imposes financial measures such as fine and/or tax for CO2 emission, shippers would choose eco-friendlier transport modes. This research is the first study considering the environmental issue as one of important factors that influence shippers’ choice behaviour. This research also facilitates managers’ understanding on how shippers may select LSPs taking into account important factors including the environmental consideration.

  12. Health spending, macroeconomics and fiscal space in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of

  13. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmy Bin Agam

    1992-01-01

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  14. Transborder Environmental Justice in Regional Energy Trade in Mainland South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Middleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is mainland South-East Asia’s largest energy consumer. Since the early 1990s, community and civil society opposition to new domestic large-scale power projects has strengthened within Thailand. Partly in response and facilitated by deepening regional economic integration, Thailand’s electricity utility, private sector energy, and construction companies have increasingly looked to- wards neighbouring Laos and Myanmar to supply Thailand’s energy markets. This paper assesses the political economy of Thailand’s power sector development through the lens of distributive and procedural environmental justice, including the role of social movements and civil society in Thailand in reforming the country’s power planning process. The environmental and social costs of domestic power projects and power import projects are discussed. The author concludes that Thailand’s exist- ing energy imports from hydropower projects in Laos and a gas project in Myanmar have exported environmental injustice associated with energy production across borders, exploiting the compara- tively weak rule of law, judicial systems, and civil and political freedoms in these neighbouring countries. ----- Thailand ist der größte Energieverbraucher in Festland-Südostasien. Seit den frühen 1990-er Jahren hat sich der zivilgesellschaftliche Widerstand gegen neue großflächige Energieprojekte in Thailand verstärkt. Teilweise als Antwort darauf und erleichtert durch sich vertiefende regionale Integration haben thailändische Stromversorgungsunternehmen sowie private Energie- und Bauunternehmen zunehmend in die Nachbarländer Laos und Myanmar geblickt, die den Energiebedarf Thailands decken sollen. Dieser Artikel beurteilt die politische Ökonomie der Entwicklung des thailändischen Energiesektors durch die Brille distributiver und prozeduraler Umweltgerechtigkeit sowie die Rolle von sozialen Bewegungen und Zivilgesellschaft in den Reformprozessen der

  15. Health promotion in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, N S

    1998-01-01

    The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka."

  16. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  17. Confidence- and security-building in South-East Asia. Working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappa, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion in the Working Group II focused on the following subjects: the establishment of a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality in South-East Asia; the establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone in South-East Asia; the Cambodian conflict; regional co-operation; military security confidence-building measures

  18. Youth tobacco use in South-East Asia: Implications for tobacco epidemic and options for its control in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Agarwal, Naveen

    2017-09-01

    Nearly half of all male population and two in every five females in the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) consume some form of tobacco. Preventing initiation among adolescents is critical for overall tobacco control. We assessed the trends in youth tobacco use and policies in SEAR. Data are used from school-based youth (Global Youth Tobacco Survey and global school student-based health survey) and adult (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, STEPS) tobacco surveys and the WHO Framework of Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation database. More than 10% of 13-15-year-old adolescent students reported tobacco use in 8 out of 11 countries. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco exceeded that of cigarettes except in Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor-Leste. No consistent declining trends in tobacco use were observed in any of the countries with 3 or more data points. More than half of all daily smokers aged 20-34 years initiated "daily" smoking before 20 years of age. 19% (Bangladesh) to 55% (Timor-Leste) of 13-17-year old students tried their first cigarette before their 14th birthday. Majority of adolescent students in most of the SEAR countries reported purchasing their cigarettes from store/shop/vendor and as single sticks, with few exceptions and purchased them as "single" cigarette. There is a limited change in affordability of cigarettes in SEAR over time. Tobacco use remains high among youth in SEAR. Efforts should be strengthened to fully implement/enforce recommended policy measures (legal minimum age, fiscal measures to reduce tobacco affordability; prohibiting sale of single cigarettes, etc.) and to explore new measures (e.g., tobacco-free generation).

  19. South-East Asia: Emerging Regional Identity. Interview with prof. Dmitry Mosyakov (Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н С Куклин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dmitry Mosyakov, leading Russian expert on South-East Asia, graduated from the History and Philology Department of Institute of Asian and African Countries at Lomonosov Moscow State Uni-versity, majoring as an interpreter of the Khmer language in 1979. In 1979-1983 he studied in the post-graduate school of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1983 he defended his thesis on the problems of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. He works for the Institute of Oriental Studies (IOS since 1985. In 1991, he was trained at the Yale University (USA. In 1994 he defended his doctoral dissertation on the modern history of Cambodia. He is the organizer of the multi-year project “Monitoring of the Modern History of Southeast Asian Countries”, within which the IOS hosts the annual inter-institute conference and, according to the results of the conferences, its materials are published in the peer-reviewed academic journal “Southeast Asia: To-pical Problems of Development”. Dmitry Mosyakov is an editor-in-chief of this journal. He is also the head of the center of South-Eastern Asia, Australia and Oceania of IOS, a member of the Academic Council of the IOS. He is a member of the dissertation council for historical sciences at the IOS, Moscow State Uni-versity, and of the editorial board of the journal “Asia and Africa Today”. Since 2001 he is a Professor and the head of the department of regional studies at the Moscow Humanitarian University (part-time. In 2015, Dmitry Mosyakov was the provisional director of the IOS. Since 2013 he is a member of Editorial Board of Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. The interview includes following topics: the state of development of the South-East Asian studies in Russia and abroad, the perception of international processes in the region, the contemporary problems of the South-East Asia, and the cooperation of Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union countries and integration

  20. National oil companies of South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip

    1998-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Pertamina; Petronas; Petroleum Authority of Thailand; Philippines National Oil Company; Petro Vietnam; Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise; Singapore; Asean Free Trade Agreement, and Appendix on Petroleum tax legislation in the main south east Asian countries. (Author)

  1. Online Health Search Experience: Sentiments from South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushia Inthiran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing an online health search is a popular activity conducted on the Internet. Research studies from developed countries provide information on source used, type of search performed and devices used to perform the search. However, the same cannot be said about the online health information searching scene in South East Asia. Online health information searching is gaining popularity in South East Asia. Citizens in these countries are turning to the Internet to obtain health information quickly. Current research studies pertaining to online health information searching in South East Asian is limited, particularly relating to search experiences of South East Asian health searchers. Search experience is pertinent asit could deter or encourage the possibility of conducting future health searches. In this research study, a user study was conducted to describe the online search experience of South East Asian health searchers. A face to face interview with 50 participants was conducted. The interview was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results indicate participants have positive and negative search experiences. In some cases, post search outcomes influenced the search experience. Results of this research study contribute to the growing domain of knowledge in relation to online health information searching. Results of this study also provide an understanding pertaining to the search experience of South East Asian online health searchers.

  2. Russian Golf Profile with the Perspective of Golf Tourism in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforova, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to formulate Russian golf profile and evaluate it from the perspective of golf tourism in South East Asian countries concentrating on five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Singapore. The research discovered and analyzed the factors that accelerate and prevent Russian golf players from traveling to South East Asia region with golf and tourism purposes. In the theoretical part of the study the main issue was to describe the current situation...

  3. Developments in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Reaz

    1992-01-01

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  4. Developments in South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Reaz [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1993-12-31

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  5. Manila and the World Dance Space: Nationalism and Globalization in Cold War Philippines and South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamomo, M.; Villaruz, B.E.; Balme, C.B.; Szymanski-Düll, B.

    2017-01-01

    The rise of South East Asia as a region is inextricably linked to the birth of the Cold War. In no other region did the Cold War feel quite so ‘hot’. After decolonization, South East Asian nation-states forming new national identities each found allegiances with one or other of the two Cold War

  6. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Minagar, Alireza; Pourmand, Shadi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common chronic immune-mediated diseases of the human central nervous system and an important cause of non-traumatic neurologic disability among young population in several countries. Recent reports from East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia have proposed a low to moderate prevalence of MS in these countries. A literature review search was carried out in December 2014 in Medline, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane library to recover original population-based studies on MS epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia countries published between January 1, 1950 and December 30, 2014. We intended search strategies using the key words: multiple sclerosis, prevalence, incidence and epidemiology. Based on our inclusion criteria, 68 epidemiologic studies were included in this systematic review. The most extensively used diagnostic criteria in the studies were McDonald's criteria. Most studies were performed in a multi-center hospital setting. The female to male ratio varied and ranged from 0.7 in India to 9.0 in China. The mean age at disease onset ranged from the lowest age of 25.3 in Iran to the highest age of 46.4 in China. MS prevalence ranged from 0.77 in 100,000 populations in Hong Kong (1999) to 85.80 in 100,000 in Iran (2013). Advances in MS registries around the globe allow nationwide population-based studies and will allow worldly comparisons between the prevalence and incidence in different regions that are provided to monitor estimation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, K; Rizwan, S A; Sinha, D N; Andes, L J; Amarchand, R; Krishnan, A; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use") in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0%) and Thailand (23.4%) and less common in Bangladesh (16.1%) and India (8.7%). Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3%) and India (20.6%) and less common on Indonesia (0.9%) and Thailand (3.5%). Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8%) and India (5.3%), but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8) and Thailand (0.4%). Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use increased among males and with increasing

  8. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  9. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Arwiyanto, Triwidodo

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum destroys many crops of different plant families in South East Asia despite many researches about the disease, and the availability of developed control method in other parts of the world. There is no chemical available for the bacterial wilt pathogen and biological control is then chosen as an alternative to save the crops. Most of the biological control studies were based on antagonism between biological control agent and the pathogen. ...

  10. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Nam Q.; Barnes, Irene; Chen, ShuaiFei; Pham, Thu Q.; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of

  11. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  12. Field evaluation of reflective insulation in south east Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Khar San; Yarbrough, David W.; Lim, Chin Haw; Salleh, Elias

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain thermal performance data for reflective insulations in a South East Asia environment. Thermal resistance data (RSI, m2 ṡ K/W) for reflective insulations are well established from 1-D steady-state tests, but thermal data for reflective insulation in structures like those found in South East Asia are scarce. Data for reflective insulations in South East Asia will add to the worldwide database for this type of energy-conserving material. RSI were obtained from heat flux and temperature data of three identical structures in the same location. One unit did not have insulation above the ceiling, while the second and third units were insulated with reflective insulation with emittance less than 0.05. RSI for the uninsulated test unit varied from 0.37 to 0.40 m2 ṡ K/W. RSI for a single-sheet reflective insulation (woven foil) varied from 2.15 to 2.26 m2 ṡ K/W, while bubble-foil insulation varied from 2.69 to 3.09 m2 ṡ K/W. The range of RSI values resulted from differences in the spacing between the reflective insulation and the roof. In addition, the reflective insulation below the roof lowered attic temperatures by as much as 9.7° C. Reductions in ceiling heat flux of 80 to 90% relative to the uninsulated structure, due to the reflective insulation, were observed.

  13. Regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in South-East Asia region: The journey so far and the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2017-09-01

    South-East Asia Region (SEAR) has more smokeless tobacco users as compared to smokers. The growing prevalence and cultural acceptance of consumption of flavored areca nut and related products, for example, supari and pan masala in many countries are confounding the scenario. The prevalence of a variety of tobacco products makes regulation a challenge which gets more complicated in view of weak enforcement of regulatory policies aggressive marketing of such products by the tobacco industry. Some countries have attempted to regulate smokeless tobacco and related products by enforcing bans. However, limited evidence base along with lack of technical and regulatory capacities have restricted the SEAR countries to effectively implement product regulation in respect of smokeless tobacco and related products. This paper lays out specific priorities for research and need to enhance regulatory capacity for smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in the SEAR countries. A systematic and comprehensive search was conducted to identify all original published literature related to regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut. Studies reporting on the same were obtained through searches in relevant academic databases. Relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and reports on tobacco products regulation were consulted. Generating the right evidence along with the need to build the capacity of the countries to test the smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products by establishing testing facilities and providing practical guidelines is of paramount importance. The countries of the SEAR need to prioritize the implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to strengthen the regulation of smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products.

  14. An adaptive thermal comfort model for hot humid South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a full procedure to develop an adaptive comfort model for South-East Asia. Meta-analysis on large number of observations from field surveys which were conducted in this region was employed. Standardization and bias control of the database were fully reported. Statistical tests of significance and weighted regression method applied in the analyses strengthened the reliability of the findings. This paper found a great influence of ‘Griffiths constant’ on the establish...

  15. Genetic diversity of Diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts across east and south-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Xu, Changbao; Tian, Mingyi; Deng, Xiaoling; Cen, Yijing; He, Yurong

    2017-10-01

    Diaphorina citri is the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the most widespread pathogen associated huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus. To enhance our understanding of the distribution and origin of the psyllid, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structures of 24 populations in Asia and one from Florida based on the mtCOI gene. Simultaneously, genetic diversity and population structures of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' and secondary endosymbiont (S-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' of D. citri were determined with the housekeeping genes. AMOVA analysis indicated that populations of D. citri and its endosymbionts in east and south-east Asia were genetically distinct from populations in Pakistan and Florida. Furthermore, P-endosymbiont populations displayed a strong geographical structure across east and south-east Asia, while low genetic diversity indicated the absence of genetic structure among the populations of D. citri and its S-endosymbiont across these regions. The 'Ca. C. ruddii' is more diverse and structured than the D. citri and the 'Ca. P. armatura' across east and south-east Asia. Multiple introductions of the psyllid have occurred in China. Management application for controlling the pest is proposed based on the genetic information of D. citri and its endosymbionts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Q. Pham

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Cylindrocladiella isolates from soils collected in forest nurseries and plantations in Vietnam and Malaysia. This was achieved using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological observations. The study revealed two previously described species, Cy. lageniformis and Cy. peruviana as well as five novel taxa, described here as Cy. arbusta sp. nov., Cy. malesiana sp. nov., Cy. obpyriformis sp. nov., Cy. parvispora sp. nov. and Cy. solicola sp. nov. A relatively small collection of isolates from a limited geographic sampling revealed an unexpectedly high level of Cylindrocladiella diversity suggesting that many more species in this genus await discovery in South-East Asia.

  17. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  18. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  19. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  20. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum destroys many crops of different plant families in South East Asia despite many researches about the disease, and the availability of developed control method in other parts of the world. There is no chemical available for the bacterial wilt pathogen and biological control is then chosen as an alternative to save the crops. Most of the biological control studies were based on antagonism between biological control agent and the pathogen. The biological control agents were intended to reduce the initial inoculum of the pathogen. The effort to minimize the initial inoculum of the pathogen by baiting with the use of hypersensitive host-plant was only reliable when conducted in the greenhouse experiments. Various microorganisms have been searched as possible biological control agents, for instance avirulent form of the pathogen, soil or rhizosphere bacteria (Bacillus spp. and fluorescent pseudomonads, actinomycetes (Streptomyces spp., yeast (Pichia uillermondii, Candida ethanolica, and a consortium of microorganisms known as effective microorganisms (EM. None of these biological control agents has been used in field application and they need further investigation in order to effectively control bacterial wilt. Opportunities and challenges in developing biological control to combat bacterial wilt are discussed in the paper. Penyakit layu bakteri yang disebabkan oleh Ralstonia solanacearum menghancurkan banyak tanaman dalam famili yang berbeda di Asia Tenggara meskipun telah banyak penelitian tentang metode pengendaliannya. Penyakit ini sulit dikendalikan karena banyaknya variabilitas patogen dan belum tersedianya sumber ketahanan yang mapan. Di samping itu, sampai saat ini belum ada bahan kimia yang tersedia untuk patogen layu bakteri ini sehingga pengendalian biologi kemudian dipilih sebagai cara alternatif untuk menyelamatkan tanaman. Sebagian besar penelitian pengendalian biologi didasarkan

  1. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  2. Vegetation Variability And Its Effect On Monsoon Rainfall Over South East Asia: Observational and Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chiu, L.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing population and urbanization have created stress on developing nations. The quickly shifting patterns of vegetation change in different parts of the world have given rise to the pertinent question of feedback on the climate prevailing on local to regional scales. It is now known with some certainty, that vegetation changes can affect the climate by influencing the heat and water balance. The hydrological cycle particularly is susceptible to changes in vegetation. The Monsoon rainfall forms a vital link in the hydrological cycle prevailing over South East Asia This work examines the variability of vegetation over South East Asia and assesses its impact on the monsoon rainfall. We explain the role of changing vegetation and show how this change has affected the heat and energy balance. We demonstrate the role of vegetation one season earlier in influencing rainfall intensity over specific areas in South East Asia and show the ramification of vegetation change on the summer rainfall behavior. The vegetation variability study specifically focuses on India and China, two of the largest and most populous nations. We have done an assessment to find out the key meteorological and human induced parameters affecting vegetation over the study area through a spatial analysis of monthly NDVI values. This study highlights the role of monsoon rainfall, regional climate dynamics and large scale human induced pollution to be the crucial factors governing the vegetation and vegetation distribution. The vegetation is seen to follow distinct spatial patterns that have been found to be crucial in its eventual impact on monsoon rainfall. We have carried out a series of sensitivity experiments using a land surface hydrologic modeling scheme. The vital energy and water balance parameters are identified and the daily climatological cycles are examined for possible change in behavior for different boundary conditions. It is found that the change from native deciduous forest

  3. Getting real with the upcoming challenge of electronic nicotine delivery systems: The way forward for the South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2017-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth - ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out. Weak regulation of these products might contribute to the expansion of the ENDS market - in which tobacco companies have a substantial stake - potentially renormalizing smoking habits and negating years of intense tobacco control campaigning. The current situation calls for galvanizing policy makers to gear up to this challenge in the Southeast Asia Region (SEAR) where the high burden of tobacco use is compounded by large proportion of young vulnerable population and limited established tobacco cessation facilities. Banning ENDS in the SEAR seems to be the most plausible approach at present. In the SEAR, Timor-Leste, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Thailand have taken the lead in banning these products. The other countries of the SEAR should follow suit. The SEAR countries may, however, choose to revise their strategy if unbiased scientific evidence emerges about efficacy of ENDS as a tobacco cessation aid. ENDS industry must show true motivation and willingness to develop and test ENDS as effective pharmaceutical tools in the regional context before asking for market authorization.

  4. Ethnic differences in survival after breast cancer in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The burden of breast cancer in Asia is escalating. We evaluated the impact of ethnicity on survival after breast cancer in the multi-ethnic region of South East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry, we analyzed the association between ethnicity and mortality following breast cancer in 5,264 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 (Chinese: 71.6%, Malay: 18.4%, Indian: 10.0%. We compared survival rates between ethnic groups and calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR to estimate the independent effect of ethnicity on survival. Malays (n = 968 presented at a significantly younger age, with larger tumors, and at later stages than the Chinese and Indians. Malays were also more likely to have axillary lymph node metastasis at similar tumor sizes and to have hormone receptor negative and poorly differentiated tumors. Five year overall survival was highest in the Chinese women (75.8%; 95%CI: 74.4%-77.3% followed by Indians (68.0%; 95%CI: 63.8%-72.2%, and Malays (58.5%; 95%CI: 55.2%-61.7%. Compared to the Chinese, Malay ethnicity was associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.19-1.51, independent of age, stage, tumor characteristics and treatment. Indian ethnicity was not significantly associated with risk of mortality after breast cancer compared to the Chinese (HR: 1.14; 95%CI: 0.98-1.34. CONCLUSION: In South East Asia, Malay ethnicity is independently associated with poorer survival after breast cancer. Research into underlying reasons, potentially including variations in tumor biology, psychosocial factors, treatment responsiveness and lifestyle after diagnosis, is warranted.

  5. South-East Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro- geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  6. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  7. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  8. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  9. Large-scale patterns of plant diversity and conservation priorities in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, S.T.; Brummitt, N.A.; Kok, de R.P.J.; Utteridge, T.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a complete floristic inventory, conservation priorities within South East Asia must often be based on incomplete knowledge or a rough approximation of diversity such as habitat cover. To help overcome this, a database containing distribution data for all 3 523 known flowering plant

  10. Environmental change in south-east Asia. People, politics and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnwell, M.J.G.; Bryant, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of politics and ecology in the quest for sustainable development in South East Asia is explored in this book by contributors who provide a broad range of perspectives. In the first of the four main sections, the political context of ecological change is examined. The topics discussed are: Indonesia and Thailand in a globalising pulp and paper industry; environmental organisations and different political contexts in Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam; Japan and South East Asia's environment. Some of the processes and forms of human-induced environmental change are illustrated in the second section. These include: the search for sustainable livelihoods in Indonesian transmigration settlements; the 210 MW hydro-power project on the Theun river in Laos which illustrates the tensions between environmental costs and potential economic benefits; forest management in Laos. Discussion of the various methods which strengthen understanding of human-induced environmental change in the region is integrated with further illustrations of its process and context in the third section where the following are considered: environmental change in Malaysian Borneo; the value of remote sensing and geographical information systems in mapping the environment; the weakness of Vietnam's tropical forestry action plan. In the final section, an examination of some of the options for change which are necessary if sustainable development is to become a reality includes: the sustainability of ecotourism in Indonesia; the potential stewardship role of the Bajau people in Indonesia's proposed marine parks; environmental degradation, non-timber forest products and Iban communities in Sarawak; conservation and development in Brunei's rainforests; Philippine community-based forest management. (27 figures; 23 tables; 752 references) (UK)

  11. Biodiversity in South East Asia: an overview of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that South East (SE Asia is considered as a biodiversity hotspot, knowledge of sessile invertebrates such as freshwater sponges (Porifera: Haplosclerida: Spongillina in this region is poor and scarcely reported. For this synopsis, diversity and distribution of SE Asian inland water sponges is reported on the basis of available literature and a recent biodiversity assessment of the Lower Mekong basin. A diagnostic key of families/genera from SE Asia is provided together with Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy protocols to prepare the basic spicular complement for taxonomic identification. So far, SE Asian freshwater sponges consist of widespread and/or endemic species belonging to the families Metaniidae, Potamolepidae, and Spongillidae. The highest diversity is recorded from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Myanmar, respectively. Data from the other countries are necessary for our understanding of their diversity and distribution. Biodiversity in SE Asia is strongly underestimated, as indicated by recent new records and the discovery of new species of freshwater sponges in Thailand. Further investigations should reveal higher values of taxonomic richness, highlighting biogeographic patterns at the family/genus/species levels. A cooperative network involving Thai, Laotian and Italian researchers, was set up to contribute and fulfil knowledge on taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potentialities of these neglected filter feeders, playing a key role in water purification and biomass production in both lentic and lotic ecosystems in the tropics.

  12. Women and AIDS in south and South-East Asia: the challenge and the response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboi, N

    1996-01-01

    South and South-East Asia are at the centre of the most aggressive advances of the AIDS epidemic today. The challenge this presents to the region is clear. While reported absolute numbers still lag behind the African region (11,160,900 in Africa; 3,081,235 in Asia) knowledgeable observers agree that the place of infection and potential devastation in this region exceed what we have seen in Africa. Those concerned with the welfare of the people of Asia, therefore, must make serious efforts to break the chain of HIV transmission as quickly and effectively as possible and identify and care for the infected. Women are entitled to protection by rights the same as men. However, for anatomical reasons, women are more vulnerable than men to infection by HIV. In addition, throughout the Asian region, women's "natural" vulnerability is vastly magnified by poverty and generally low levels of education and personal autonomy which make it difficult for them to gain access to information and appropriate services. Because of women's multiple roles in the epidemic-potential "infectee", care-giver, transmitter of infection-if we are to be successful in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS we must give particular attention to reaching, working with, and serving women. Meeting this challenge requires involvement of men as well as women, individuals and institutions, governments and NGOs, in four broad areas of activity: (i) HIV/AIDS education and information; (ii) basic education and economic activity to reduce gender inequities; (iii) improvements in policy and social environments; and (iv) provision of health and other services. Lack of commitment, skill, or persistence in meeting the challenge will cost lives across Asia.

  13. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  14. Geopolitics and security in post-cold-war South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, P.

    1997-01-01

    The most likely scenario is the one in which South-east Asia acquires a greater autonomy, as in Scenario 1. The recomposition of ASEAN as a larger and yet solid entity is far-reaching and requires a lot of mutual internal efforts and policy coordination on external issues. As aforementioned, a situation somewhere between the two sub-scenarios of Scenario I could be achieved. The broadened identity of ASEAN will definitely contribute to the autonomization of South-east Asia as a whole, at least in general geopolitical and security terms. In addition, a greater convergence may develop in economic, strategic and even political areas and gradually produce a subregional order with its own local character and specificities

  15. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2010-09-01

    Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Donor issues in Indonesia: A developing country in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarmono, Yuyun S M

    2010-01-01

    In most developing countries in South East Asia blood services have not been treated properly as an important service to support health program. Indonesia as a large archipelago country in South East Asia has specific obstacles in managing a blood service. To position the country blood service profile especially in term of donor issues, we compared our blood service with that in other South East Asia countries. Indonesia has 17 thousand islands with 220 million inhabitants. Blood services have been mostly run by the Indonesian Red Cross as a government assignment since 1950. Donor recruitment programs have been directed toward 100% of Voluntary Non Remunerated Blood Donor (VNRD), which now have reached 81.3%. Dissemination of information on VNRD, donor recruiter's training and VNRD appreciation programs are strategies to increase and maintain the VNRD. Limited female donors and insufficient blood supply during the fasting month and holidays constitute major challenges. Low hemoglobin level, low body weight and fear are reasons for low number of female donors. Poor management of blood stock during fasting month, long holidays and also poor networking of blood supply are reasons for insufficient blood supply during the year. Considering the great size of Indonesia with different ethnic groups and cultures, worsened by lack of infrastructure, decisive and effective strategies in donor recruitment and retention programs are needed. Copyright 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur.

  18. The treaty on the South-East Asia nuclear-weapon-free zone (the Bangkok treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Bangkok Treaty was signed in 1995 during the Fifth ASEAN Summit by the 10 South-East Asian countries. It represents a commitment on the part of the signatories to the Treaty to maintain peace and stability in the region in the spirit of peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding and cooperation

  19. Educational technology in transnational higher education in South East Asia: the cultural politics of flexible learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ziguras

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines appropriateness of using educational technologies to increase the flexibility of learning in transnational higher education in South East Asia. It considers the argument that while interactive educational technologies may be appropriate in countries in which self-directed study and student autonomy are emphasised, the same uses of technology may not be as appropriate in South East Asian countries in which education has traditionally been more tightly structured and teacher-directed. This paper examines government policies toward the use of educational technologies in higher education in Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam, and considers the experiences of five transnational institutions in these countries. The paper concludes that transnational educators are inevitably caught up in tensions between global modernising trends and local traditional practices. It argues that it is important for educators to recognise how their actions relate to local social changes in countries in which their students are located.

  20. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I

    1999-11-29

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.

  1. Reflective Insulation for Energy Conservation in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Teh, Khar; Yarbrough, David W.; Haw Lim, Chin; Salleh, Elias

    2017-05-01

    Thermal resistances have been measured for attic spaces insulated with reflective insulations. Three test units located in Malaysia were instrumented to provide heat flux and temperatures for the calculation of time-average RSI-values (RSI is representing R-value in SI units). The RSI for attics with enclosed reflective air spaces were in the range 2-3 m2·K/W while the uninsulated attics averaged about 0.4 m2·K/W. The RSI-values determined in this project were for heat-flow down, the predominant heat-flow direction for attic spaces in Equatorial regions. The observed thermal resistances due to the installation of the reflective insulation results in an 80-90% annual decrease in the heat transfer across the ceiling. This reduces utility usage for air conditioned units and improved comfort for occupants. The research demonstrates the use of transient data for the determination of thermal insulation performance and usefulness of enclosed reflective air spaces for thermal resistance.

  2. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbubani, K.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the continued ability of South-East Asia to remain as one of the most peaceful regions of the world hinges upon ASEAN's ability to remain an agile and viable organization, one that is sensitively attuned to the new challenges of the day and is able to rise to meet them. So far, ASEAN's track record has been quite remarkable, especially in comparison with other regions around the world. This Conference could usefully suggest that a greater effort be made to understand the mysterious reasons behind ASEAN's success, in the hope that it may hold lessons for other regions. ASEAN, for its part, must continue to remain humble and adaptable

  3. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation

  4. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Newton

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75, Cambodia (48, Lao PDR (115, Myanmar (Burma (137 and the Thai/Myanmar border (16, were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9% on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet. Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'. Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures.An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross

  5. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  6. The long winding road of opioid substitution therapy implementation in South-East Asia: challenges to scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Reid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users.

  7. Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, David

    2017-09-01

    In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.

  8. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  9. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, M. A.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Khan, A. E.; Ahmed, K. M.; Butler, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteoro...

  10. Calling line managers in employee continuous professional development in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubama Ramachandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to study the relationship of Line Managers’ (LMs Human Resource (HR role and its facets within employee’s Continuous Professional Development (CPD.Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative approach using 100 questionnaires were distributed to line managers in a South East Asia with a response rate of 87%.Findings: Results depict that LMs are actively involved in Strategic Partner, Employee Champion, and Change Agent roles. Study also shows that these three HR roles correlate with employee CPD. LMs’ are neither involved in Administrative Expert role, nor it correlates with employee Continuous Professional Development.Research limitations: Inability of the line managers to be fully involved with the four HR roles constraints the process of line manager deployment of HR roles specifically to employee CPD.Practical implications: Argues that the importance of strategic partner, employee champion, and change agent roles are the most important barrier and enabler of employee CPD, thus indirectly promoting organizational success and productivity.Social implications: Highlights the difficulties of managing organisations by getting the line managers directly involve in the development of employee CPD. Many line managers have to be made and given opportunities to develop their capabilities on this platform. Contends that HR can help an organization to succeed, provided that all line managers understand their roles, work together and take responsibility for their contribution. In addition is the adoption of the HR roles for the smooth delivery of HR functions which aligns with the overall organizational success.Originality/value: Specific HR roles are significant importance to the development of employee CPD within the setting of this South East Asian organization.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in South East Asia: time to ask the right questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Chatterjee, Pranab; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Grace, Delia; Lindahl, Johanna; Beeche, Arlyne; Jing, Fang; Chotinan, Suwit

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health concern, around which the international leadership has come together to form strategic partnerships and action plans. The main driving force behind the emergence of AMR is selection pressure created due to consumption of antibiotics. Consumption of antibiotics in human as well as animal sectors are driven by a complex interplay of determinants, many of which are typical to the local settings. Several sensitive and essential realities are tied with antibiotic consumption - food security, livelihoods, poverty alleviation, healthcare access and national economies, to name a few. That makes one-size-fits-all policies, framed with the developed country context in mind, inappropriate for developing countries. Many countries in the South East Asian Region have some policy structures in place to deal with AMR, but most of them lack detailed implementation plans or monitoring structures. In this current debates piece, the authors argue that the principles driving the AMR agenda in the South East Asian countries need to be dealt with using locally relevant policy structures. Strategies, which have successfully reduced the burden of AMR in the developed countries, should be evaluated in the developing country contexts instead of ad hoc implementation. The Global Action Plan on AMR encourages member states to develop locally relevant National Action Plans on AMR. This policy position should be leveraged to develop and deploy locally relevant strategies, which are based on a situation analysis of the local systems, and are likely to meet the needs of the individual member states.

  12. Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions.

  13. Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions.

  14. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  15. Barcoding, biobanking, ebanking for “One Health” projects in South-East Asia: considering ethics and international law

    OpenAIRE

    Lajaunie, Claire; Morand, Serge; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    A first workshop held within the framework of the PathodivSEA project has been the occasion to identify the major research challenges regarding the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases in South East Asia and the spread of pathogens responsible from those diseases. Based on supporting evidences indicating the zoonotic origins of those diseases, it appeared urgent to investigate the factors controlling the pathogens-human interface by addressing the “One Health” concept which integrates th...

  16. Are South East Asia Countries Capital Markets Characterized by Nonlinear Structures? An Investigation from Indonesia, Philippine and Singapore Capital Market Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Minarnita Yanti Verawati Bakara; Bambang Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    This research paper tries to detect the nonlinear structure in the South East Asia Countries Capital Markets. The capital markets of three South East Asia Countries are chosen: Indonesia, Philippine, and Singapore. Daily return data of Capital Markets composite indices are observed: Straits Times Index (STI) of Singapore Exchange from January 04, 1985 to December 31, 2007, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index (PSEi) of Philippines Stock Exchange from March 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007 and Jakarta Co...

  17. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  18. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  19. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithosphere and the atmosphere/ionosphere, continuously exchange energy through various coupling mechanisms. Earthquake creates waves of energy, e.g. direct shock acoustic waves (SAWs and Rayleigh wave induced acoustic waves (RAWs. In the event of an earthquake occurring beneath the sea, atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs are also generated. If the earthquake is large enough (Mw > 6, SAWs, RAWs and AGWs induce detectable ionospheric plasma perturbations. Inferring the seismological information from these seismo-ionospheric manifestations is the subject that pertains to ionospheric seismology. Both ground and satellite based advanced radio techniques are being used in monitoring ionospheric plasma perturbations. In this study, seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia are discussed, mainly pertaining to the following. (1 From the ionospheric plasma response to 2015 Nepal earthquake, the estimated group velocity for Andaman and Indian shield regions are 2100 ms−1 and 3900 ms−1 respectively and validated from ground measurements. (2 Atmospheric acoustic resonance at 4.0 mHz and a train of wave packet of TEC variation resulting from the beat phenomenon observed at the site ‘umlh’ and (3 GNSS-based tsunami warning which is going to be promising tool in augmenting the existing tsunami warning systems.

  20. Climate conditions, workplace heat and occupational health in South-East Asia in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Occupational health is particularly affected by high heat exposures in workplaces, which will be an increasing problem as climate change progresses. People working in jobs of moderate or heavy work intensity in hot environments are at particular risk, owing to exposure to high environmental heat and internal heat production. This heat needs to be released to protect health, and such release is difficult or impossible at high temperatures and high air humidity. A range of clinical health effects can occur, and the heat-related physical exhaustion leads to a reduction of work capacity and labour productivity, which may cause substantial economic losses. Current trends in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region are towards higher ambient heat levels during large parts of each year, and modelling indicates continuing trends, which will particularly affect low-income individuals and communities. Prevention activities need to address the climate policies of each country, and to apply currently available heat-reducing technologies in workplaces whenever possible. Work activities can be adjusted to reduce exposure to daily heat peaks or seasonal heat concerns. Application of basic occupational health principles, such as supply of drinking water, enforcement of rest periods and training of workers and supervisors, is essential.

  1. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  2. Food consumption patterns and nutrition transition in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoeto, Nur Indrawaty; Geok Lin, Khor; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda

    2013-09-01

    The present study was done to confirm the relationship between changes in food patterns and nutrition transition in three South-East Asian countries, namely the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and August 2009 using three methods: interviews, focus group discussions and analyses of government reports. The study was conducted in rural and urban areas in Manila and Calabanga (Philippines), Selangor and Kuala Selangor (Malaysia), and Padang, Pariaman Tanah Datar and Limapuluh Kota (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Adults aged 18 to 77 years. The results showed that Filipinos, Malaysians and Indonesians have retained many aspects of their traditional diets. In fact, most participants in the study considered Western-style and franchise fast foods as snack or recreational foods to be consumed once in a while only. However, a significant difference was noted between urban and rural areas in food varieties consumed. Participants in urban areas consumed more varieties of traditional foods owing to their availability and the participants’ food purchasing power. Although traditional food patterns were maintained by most of the participants, more sugar and vegetable oils were consumed and added to the traditional recipes. The rapid nutrition transition in this region may be due, instead, to increasing food availability and food purchasing power, rather than to a shift in food preferences towards modern Western foods.

  3. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  4. Electrifying integration Electricity production and the South East Europe regional energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Elizabeth; Medvedev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics, we explore the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hydro electric generation. Differences in countries' resource endowment and the possibility of intertemporal substitution between electricity generated from various fuels could stimulate a regional trade in electricity. As an alternative to nationally independent energy policy, regional trade could displace a proportion of the substantial investment in generation facilities required to avert serious supply shortages. Finally, we consider the environmental impact of electricity generation, and identify some of the key trade-offs between different policy objectives. (author)

  5. Are South East Asia Countries Capital Markets Characterized by Nonlinear Structures? An Investigation from Indonesia, Philippine and Singapore Capital Market Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarnita Yanti Verawati Bakara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research paper tries to detect the nonlinear structure in the South East Asia Countries Capital Markets. The capital markets of three South East Asia Countries are chosen: Indonesia, Philippine, and Singapore. Daily return data of Capital Markets composite indices are observed: Straits Times Index (STI of Singapore Exchange from January 04, 1985 to December 31, 2007, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index (PSEi of Philippines Stock Exchange from March 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007 and Jakarta Composite Index (JCI of Indonesia Stock Exchange from January 05, 1988 to December 31, 2007.Should nonlinearity be found, the outcomes of each observation are compared to analyze the implications of each country in global, regional and local position of their competition in the continuously changing world of interdependency environment. The implications of nonlinearity finding in the three ASEAN countries capital markets to the current issues of AFAS on Financial Services, Harmonization among ASEAN countries capital markets in the ASEAN region and ASEAN integration and liberalization on Financial Services are analyzed.BDS statistic and R/S Analysis as our tools for nonlinearity testing are applied. Nonlinearity evidences in Jakarta Composite Index, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index and Straits Times Index are found.

  6. Sub-Regional Cooperation of the Republic of Moldova on the South-East European Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIACON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the country image on the world arena can be analyzed from the perspective of sub-regional cooperation. In this respect, we emphasize that Moldova has joined a number of initiatives, programs and organizations which, by their status and the range of the promoted objectives, became "antechamber" to the European Union. Fixing the borders of the sub-regional cooperation area, we note that in the Central Europe Moldova attends the Central European Initiative, while in the South-East Europe are carried out activities in the South-East European Cooperation Process and the Organization for the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and assists in the Organization for Democracy and Economic Development GUAM.

  7. A product innovation toolkit for green business in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.; Hong Long, N.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the available Sustainable Product Innovation (SPI) approaches and tools have been developed in Western Europe, based upon European experiences. However, in South-East Asian economies like Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, needs are different and more immediate. Also the characteristics of the

  8. Rice lands of South and South East Asia, some soil physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide about 148 million ha are planted to rice each year, taking into account double and triple cropping. About 90 percent of this area is in Asia and two thirds in South and South-East Asia, where rice is the most dominant crop grown during the wet season. When wetland rice is included in a cropping system, the soils undergo unique changes in physical properties. Wet tillage or puddling has become synonymous with wetland rice culture and it refers to the destruction of aggregated condition of the soil by mechanical manipulation within a narrow range of moisture contents above and below field capacity, so that soil aggregates lose their identity and the soil is converted into a structurally more or less homogenous mass of ultimate particles. During puddling, soils are subjected to two kinds of deforming stresses: (a) the normal stress (load) associated with compression and (b) tangential stress causing shear. The compression is more effective below the upper plastic limit (moisture content at which the soil-water system can flow as a sticky fluid paste); shearing effects dominate above the upper plastic limit. Puddling destroys and coverts aggregates and peds into plastic mud. When an initially dry soil is wetted, there is uneven swelling of aggregates, which subsequently explode due to entrapped air resulting in aggregates slaking. Continuous wet tillage (repeated plowings and harrowings) converts the soil into a plastic mud with massive structure. Puddling effects on bulk density are dependent on the aggregation status of the soil before puddling. If a parallel oriented, closely packed structure is produced from a well aggregated open structure, bulk density would increase. The strong inter-particle forces favor well oriented structure, while weak inter-particle forces favor an open gel structure. Initial submergence before tillage (a practice in many parts of Asia) also decreases bulk density. Bulk density increases when the puddled soils undergo desiccation

  9. One Health/EcoHealth capacity building programs in South and South East Asia: a mixed method rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Joseph, Jessy; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-09-29

    Although One Health (OH) or EcoHealth (EH) have been acknowledged to provide comprehensive and holistic approaches to study complex problems, like zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases, there remains multiple challenges in implementing them in a problem-solving paradigm. One of the most commonly encountered barriers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is limited capacity to undertake OH/EH inquiries. A rapid review was undertaken to conduct a situation analysis of the existing OH/EH capacity building programs, with a focused analysis of those programs with extensive OH engagement, to help map the current efforts in this area. A listing of the OH/EH projects/initiatives implemented in South Asia (SA) and South East Asia (SEA) was done, followed by analysis of documents related to the projects, available from peer-reviewed or grey literature sources. Quantitative data was extracted using a data extraction format, and a free listing of qualitative themes was undertaken. In SEA, 13 unique OH/EH projects, with 37 capacity building programs, were identified. In contrast, in SA, the numbers were 8 and 11 respectively. In SA, programs were oriented to develop careers in program management, whereas, in SEA, the emphasis was on research. Two thirds of the programs in SEA had extensive OH engagement, whereas only one third of those in SA did. The target for the SEA programs was wider, including a population more representative of OH stakes. SEA program themes reveal utilization of multiple approaches, usually in shorter terms, and are growing towards integration with the traditional curricula. Such convergence of themes was lacking in SA programs. In both regions, the programs were driven by external donor agencies, with minimal local buy-in. There is limited investment in research capacity building in both SA and SEA. The situation appears to be more stark in SA, whilst SEA has been able to use the systematic investment and support to develop the OH

  10. Attribution of the Main Sources of Biomass Burning in South East Asia that Impact on Air Quality in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. B.; Kendall, E.; Chew, B. N.; Chong, W. M.; Gan, C.; Hort, M. C.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning in South East Asia causes intense haze episodes in Singapore, these are of major concern to the local government and the population exposed to the haze. Using a Lagrangian dispersion model we have studied haze in the seven most recent years (2010 - 2016) to gain a deeper understanding of intense haze in Singapore. In this study, modelled haze time-series at one eastern and one western monitoring station in Singapore are compared to local observed PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations. The haze time-series are broken down by season or month, source region, and monitoring location.The analysis, presented as time series and pie charts, illustrates the relative contribution to haze in Singapore from different regions, variations between seasons and the correlation of impact to the combined timing of burning activity and meteorological patterns. Air history maps, showing where air arriving in Singapore originates from and/or has travelled through, are used to isolate the meteorological dependence of impacts. These show a strong monsoonal variation and help explain the inter-annual differences between sources and actual concentrations of biomass burning PM in Singapore. For example, there is a strong correlation in 2013 between burning in Riau and haze in Singapore, but a weak correlation in other years when a significant part of haze originates from, e.g., Peninsula Malaysia, but emissions are seemingly negligible. We see that, in spite of the size of Singapore, there is significant difference in concentrations and major contributing source regions between the two monitoring stations, annually and seasonally. The differences at the two monitoring stations are seen in varying degrees in the years 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015, throughout different seasons. Although only biomass burning is considered in the simulations, our modelled results are in good agreement with local observations. We have identified the source regions with the biggest contributions to haze

  11. A regional cooperative clinical study of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in east and south-east Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo; Cao, Jianping; Zhou Juying; Susworo, Raden; Supriana, Nana; Sato, Shinichiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Suto, Hisao; Nakamura, Yuzuru; Cho, Chul-Koo; Ismail, Fuad B.; Calaguas, Miriam J.C.; Reyes, Rey H. de los; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Thephamongkhol, Kullathom; Nguyen Ba Duc; To Anh Dung; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia

  12. South-East Europe Regional Energy Market: challenges and opportunities for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper takes as its starting point the Athens Memorandum signed by countries of South-East Europe whereby a regional energy market in power and gas will be developed. The aim under the Athens Memorandum is that the South-East Europe Regional Energy Market (SEEREM) will be liberalized in a phased manner from 2005, and - ultimately - that this will form part of the EU's internal energy market. The subject of the paper is the extent to which Romania, one of the biggest countries in South-East Europe and traditionally a net energy exporter to the region, complies with requirements under the Athens Memorandum, and outstanding challenges related to successful SEREM accession. The paper argues that much progress has been made in energy sector reform in Romania: power prices have increased, payments discipline in the power sector has improved, independent regulators have been established for power and gas sectors, and power and gas utilities have been restructured. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain if Romania is to fully benefit from participation in the SEEREM. Further power price increases will be required in the medium term, whilst payments discipline remains poor by industry best practice standards. In the gas sector, retail prices do not reflect border prices, and payments discipline remains a problem. The paper argues that gas price reform would likely have adverse affordability impacts, and proposes means to mitigate these through rationalization of existing social safety nets for gas and heat. On investment requirements, the paper notes that these are significant in power generation, and proposes a contract framework that would support mobilization of finance

  13. Sediment Properties along Gradients of Siltation in South-East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp-Nielsen, Lars; Vermaat, J.; Wesseling, I.

    2002-01-01

    sediment properties, SE Asia, siltation, resuspension, iron, calcium, seagrass, corals, mangroves, mudflats......sediment properties, SE Asia, siltation, resuspension, iron, calcium, seagrass, corals, mangroves, mudflats...

  14. Livestock Production - Current Status in South and South-East Asia, Future Directions and Priority Areas for Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, B. M.A. Oswin, [Kandy (Sri Lanka)

    2014-01-15

    The role of livestock in agriculture in South and South-East Asia is complex and significantly different from that of industrialized nations. The traditional farming systems are mostly based on mixed crop-livestock systems, with small farms predominating. The most important livestock species in the region are cattle (Bos indicus, Bos taurus and their crosses), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, both river and swamp types), goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. In some high altitude areas Yaks (Poephagus grunniens) and Mithun or Gayal (Bos frontalis) are also important. Although the contribution of the livestock sub-sector to national GDP in most Asian countries is low, it is a crucial source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins to the population, by way of milk, meat and eggs. For millions of smallholder farmers it provides food security, draught power, fibre, manure and fuel, and also serves as a 'living bank' in periods of economic hardship. The farming systems in the region vary widely (Perera et al., 2005), determined by a matrix of several interacting factors that include climate (latitude, altitude and rainfall), location (rural, peri-urban or urban), cropping systems (rain-fed or irrigated, annual or perennial crops), type of operation (small or large farm, subsistence or commercial), and the species and their primary purpose (milk, meat, eggs, draught, capital or mixed). The ruminant production systems that were largely extensive or semi-intensive in the past (grassland-based or mixed crop-livestock, with rain-fed or irrigated mixed farming), which were sustained with locally available resources, have become constrained due to many factors. Competition for land from the increasing human population that demands space for habitation, crop production and other economic activities have dwindled grazing lands. Mechanization of agricultural operations and commercial market forces have also made such systems less competitive. Thus some enterprising farmers have moved

  15. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  16. Study of Landslide Disaster Prevention System in Malaysia as a Disaster Mitigation Prototype for South East Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Tien Tay, Lea; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Hazarika, Hemanta; Jamaludin, Suhaimi; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of landslides occur in Malaysia and other tropical monsoon South East Asia countries. Therefore, prevention casualties and economical losses, by rain induced slope failure, are those countries government most important agenda. In Malaysia, millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for slope monitoring and mitigation in every year budget. Besides monitoring the slopes, here, we propose the IT system which provides hazard map information, landslide historical information, slope failure prediction, knowledge on natural hazard, and information on evacuation centres via internet for user to understand the risk of landslides as well as flood. Moreover, the user can obtain information on rainfall intensity in the monitoring sites to predict the occurrence of the slope failure. Furthermore, we are working with PWD, Malaysia to set the threshold value for the landslide prediction system which will alert the officer if there is a risk of the slope failure in the monitoring sites by calculating rainfall intensity. Although the IT plays a significant role in information dissemination, education is also important in disaster prevention by educating school students to be more alert in natural hazard, and there will be bottom up approach to alert parents on what is natural hazard, by conversion among family members, as most of the parents are busy and may not have time to attend natural hazard workshop. There are many races living in Malaysia as well in most of South East Asia countries. It is not easy to educate them in single education method as the level of living and education are different. We started landslides education workshops in primary schools in rural and urban area, in Malaysia. We found out that we have to use their mother tongue language while conducting natural hazard education for better understanding. We took questionnaires from the students before and after the education workshop. Learning from the questionnaire result, the students are

  17. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  19. Adaptation to Climate Change and Managing Disaster Risk in the Caribbean and South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolcemascolo, G. [Asian Disaster Preparedness Center ADPC, Pathumthani (Thailand); Collymore, J.; Keipi, K. [Inter-American Development Bank IDB, Christ Church (Barbados)

    2004-05-01

    Small island and coastal nations of the world have long been recognized as being among the most likely to be affected by the potential impacts of global climate change. Such nations may be found in both the Caribbean and Asian regions. These regions share other commonalities as well, such as tropical climates and, to some extent, the hazards to which these countries are vulnerable. The inextricable linkage between climate change and disaster management emerges from the potential of the former to result in an increased frequency and severity of hydro-meteorological hazards and the associated increase in risk faced by countries as a whole and by vulnerable communities in particular. Within the Caribbean, the most visible of these impacts has been the increasing vulnerability to severe storms and the increased frequency and intensity of flood events. In Asia, the severity of weather extremes associated with the El Nino phenomenon has been apparent. Recent events have resulted in significant social, economic and environmental losses. But, the more gradual-yet nevertheless potentially as catastrophic-impacts expected from climate change include enhanced coastal and beach erosion; loss of land and property; dislocation of people; reduced resilience of coastal ecosystems and hence reduced viability for fisheries; and the bleaching and destruction of coral reefs. For the island states of both the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, which depend heavily on tourism, agriculture and fisheries for their livelihood, these impacts could be ruinous. For many countries, increased vulnerability to water shortages due to climate change is also a very significant concern. The need for a comprehensive integrated approach to natural hazard risk management that would combine the broader climate change and risk management agendas, as well as the urgency to advance the mainstreaming of disaster management and climate change, resulted in the convening of the Seminar on Climate Change and Severe

  20. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Scheelbeek, P F D; Vineis, P; Khan, A E; Ahmed, K M; Butler, A P

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteorological variability and climate change along the (ca. 6000 km) coastline of SSE Asia. The risks of increasing climatic stresses are first considered, and then maps of relative vulnerability along the entire coastline are developed, using data from global scale land surface models, along with an overall vulnerability index. The results show that surface and near-surface drinking water in the coastal areas of the mega-deltas in Vietnam and Bangladesh-India are most vulnerable, putting more than 25 million people at risk of drinking 'saline' water. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this problem, with adverse consequences for health, such as prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for identifying locations that are most at risk of salinisation in order for policy makers and local officials to implement strategies for reducing these health impacts. To counter the risks associated with these vulnerabilities, possible adaptation measures are also outlined. We conclude that detailed and fine scale vulnerability assessments may become crucial for planning targeted adaptation programmes along these coasts.

  1. Pricing appraisal of anti-cancer drugs in the South East Asian, Western Pacific and East Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Shahrzad; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Neoh, Chin Fen; Elrggal, Mahmoud E; Babar, Zaheer-Ud- Din; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-12-28

    Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions. Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study. Pricing data from ten counties including one from South-East Asia, two from Western Pacific and seven from Eastern Mediterranean regions were used in this study. Purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted mean unit prices for 26 anti-cancer drug presentations (similar pharmaceutical form, strength, and pack size) were used to compare prices of anti-cancer drugs across three regions. A structured form was used to extract relevant data. Data were entered and analysed using Microsoft Excel®. Overall, Taiwan had the lowest mean unit prices while Oman had the highest prices. Six (23.1%) and nine (34.6%) drug presentations had a mean unit price below US$100 and between US$100 and US$500 respectively. Eight drug presentations (30.7%) had a mean unit price of more than US$1000 including cabazitaxel with a mean unit price of $17,304.9/vial. There was a direct relationship between income category of the countries and their mean unit price; low-income countries had lower mean unit prices. The average PPP-adjusted unit prices for countries based on their income level were as follows: low middle-income countries (LMICs): US$814.07; high middle income countries (HMICs): US$1150.63; and high income countries (HICs): US$1148.19. There is a great variation in pricing of anticancer drugs in selected countires and within their respective regions. These findings will allow policy makers to compare prices of anti-cancer agents with neighbouring countries and develop policies to ensure accessibility and affordability of

  2. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dittrich

    Full Text Available Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos, raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013, northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453 and southern (Salavan: n = 171 Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367, identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82 to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2% Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%, acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations.

  3. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Phuklia, Weerawat; Turner, Gareth D H; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Chansamouth, Vilada; Dumler, Stephen J; Ferguson, David J P; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos), raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013), northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453) and southern (Salavan: n = 171) Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367), identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82) to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2%) Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%), acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations.

  4. Current status of nutrition labelling and claims in the South-East Asian region: are we in harmony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-Siong; Tamin, Suryani; Ilyas, Rosmulyati; Ramos, Adelisa; Tan, Wei-Ling; Lai, Darwin Kah-Soon; Kongchuntuk, Hataya

    2002-01-01

    This review includes the situation of nutrition labelling and claims in six countries in South-East Asia: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. With the exception of Malaysia, there is no mandatory nutrition labelling requirements for foods in these countries except for special categories of foods and when nutritional claims are made for fortified or enriched foods. Nevertheless, several food manufacturers, especially multinationals, do voluntarily label the nutritional content of a number of food products. There is, therefore, increasing interest among authorities in countries in the region to start formulating regulations for nutrition labelling for a wider variety of foods. Malaysia has proposed new regulations to make it mandatory to label a number of foodstuffs with the four core nutrients, protein, carbohydrate, fat and energy. Other countries have preferred to start with voluntary labelling by the manufacturers, but have spelt out the requirements for this voluntary labelling. The format and requirements for nutrition labelling differ widely for countries in the region. Some countries, such as Malaysia, closely follow the Codex guidelines on nutrition labelling in terms of format, components to be included and mode of expression. Other countries, such as the Philippines and Thailand, have drafted nutrition labelling regulations very similar to those of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) of the United States. Nutrition and health claims are also not specifically permitted under food regulations that were enacted before 1998. However, various food products on the market have been carrying a variety of nutrition and health claims. There is concern that without proper regulations, the food industry may not be certain as to what claims can be made. Excessive and misleading claims made by irresponsible manufacturers would only serve to confuse and mislead the consumer. In recent years, there has been efforts in countries in

  5. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Silver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia.We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis.Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23% followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19% and hookworm (12%, 9-15%. Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh. When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24% and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%. Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63% and Ascaris (32%, 23-43% than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively. Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90% was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31% and Trichuris (22%, 14-34% were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16% was comparable.Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  6. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Zachary A; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar P; Samuel, Prasanna; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Kang, Gagandeep; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ajjampur, Sitara S R

    2018-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD) worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia. We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis. Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23%) followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19%) and hookworm (12%, 9-15%). Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh). When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24%) and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%). Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63%) and Ascaris (32%, 23-43%) than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively). Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90%) was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC) were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31%) and Trichuris (22%, 14-34%) were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16%) was comparable. Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  7. Modeling biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions using a new, satellite constrained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R.; Cohen, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    regions being burned at significantly higher rates than previously known. These findings, however, are consistent with the current rapid economic development and population movement throughout South, South East and East Asia, as well as independent studies which have observed long-range transport of smoke throughout portions of this region.

  8. Failure of miltefosine treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in children and men in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ostyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High frequency of relapse in miltefosine-treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients in India and Nepal followed up for twelve months. OBJECTIVE: To identify epidemiological and clinical risk factors for relapse of VL in patients recently treated with standard dosing of miltefosine in India and Nepal. DESIGN: Prospective observational study in three Primary Health Centers and one reference center in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India; and two zonal hospitals and a university hospital in South-east Nepal; records of all consenting patients diagnosed with VL and treated with miltefosine according to the current treatment guidelines of the Kala azar elimination program between 2009 and 2011. RESULTS: We compared the clinical records of 78 cases of relapse with those of 775 patients who had no record of subsequent relapse. Relapse was 2 times more common amongst male patients (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.27-3.61, and 2 to 3 times more frequent in the age groups below 15 compared to the over 25 year olds (age 10 to 14: IRR 2.53; 95% CI 1.37-4.65 and Age 2 to 9: IRR 3.19; 95% CI 1.77-5.77. History of earlier VL episodes, or specific clinical features at time of diagnosis such as duration of symptoms or spleen size were no predictors of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Young age and male gender were associated with increased risk of VL relapse after miltefosine, suggesting that the mechanism of relapse is mainly host-related i.e. immunological factors and/or drug exposure (pharmacokinetics. The observed decrease in efficacy of miltefosine may be explained by the inclusion of younger patients compared to the earlier clinical trials, rather than by a decreased susceptibility of the parasite to miltefosine. Our findings highlight the importance of proper clinical trials in children, including pharmacokinetics, to determine the safety, efficacy, drug exposure and therapeutic response of new drugs in this age group.

  9. Blindness and Visual Impairment Profile and Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in South East Asia: Analysis of New Data. 2017 APAO Holmes Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Taraprasad

    2018-03-13

    The International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) South East Asia region (SEAR) that consists of 11 countries contains 26% of the world's population (1,761,000,000). In this region 12 million are blind and 78.5 million are visually impaired. This amounts to 30% of global blindness and 32% of global visual impairment. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey analysis. RAAB, either a repeat or a first time survey, was completed in 8 countries in this decade (2010 onwards). These include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Cataract is the principal cause of blindness and severe visual impairment in all countries. Refractive error is the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 countries: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka; cataract continues to be the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 other countries: Bhutan, Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Outcome of cataract surgery is suboptimal in the Maldives and Timor Leste. Rigorous focus is necessary to improve cataract surgery outcomes and correction of refractive error without neglecting the quality of care. At the same time allowances must be made for care of the emerging causes of visual impairment and blindness such as glaucoma and posterior segment disorders, particularly diabetic retinopathy. Copyright 2018 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  10. Assessment of nitrate pollution of groundwater in South-East of Isfahan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheisari, M. M.; Hoodaji, M.; Najafi, P.; Abdollahi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Because the increasing population and food in the world, as well as unavailability and limitation of agricultural lands, needs to increase the agricultural yield quality and quantity. One way to have high quality products is applying fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizer is the most common one used for this purpose. Impractical and weak management in controlling the improper use of fertilizer causes high concentration of Nitrate in soil and groundwater resources. High concentration of Nitrate in water causes many health problems. This research is conducted to determine the rate of Nitrate polluted water in South-East of Isfahan. In this research, sampling was done from selected water wells and the amount of Nitrate in water was determined by using special Electrodes and Ion -Selective method. Surfer Software identified the variation process. Then, the results were compared with US-Environmental Protected Agency (US-EPA). In some areas, the results show the concentration of Nitrate more than US-EPA standards, especially in South-East of the region. The highest Nitrate concentrations in the first and second sampling in the polluted area were 189.1 and 248.3 mg per liters, respectively. In the first sampling 80.0% and in the second sampling 90.0% of wells were identified to have high concentration of Nitrate. The Nitrate pollution averages in the first and second sampling were 76.9 ppm and 93.1 ppm, respectively. Therefore, in order to apply this kind of fertilizer, proper management, scientific and practical control must be employed so that increasing concentration of Nitrate can be controlled

  11. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  12. South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter I.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

  13. Supplier development and cost management in South-East Asia - Results from a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; van Jarwaarde, Ewout; Groen, B.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about supplier development when international companies have production sites in Southeast Asia and look for opportunities to switch from international suppliers to local suppliers. We conducted a field study involving site visits to companies in Thailand and Vietnam, and interviews at

  14. Notes on the Vegetation of the Fast-flowing Streams in Peninsular Thailand, the Tropical Mainland of South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Stankovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and structure of the plant communities along and in the fast-flowing streams on different bedrock types of the tropical mainland South-East Asia were investigated. The study was carried out in Peninsular Thailand, on the Nakhon Si Thammarat mountain range. A total number of 14 plots were placed within the five selected streams where vascular plants species had been collected, starting from November 2010 until July 2012. The estimation of the species was calculated by computer program EstimateS, and in order to distinguish plant communities, a cluster analysis was performed. A total number of 109 species of vascular plants has been recorded, with 59 species in the granite and 60 in the calcareous bedrock streams. There were four types of plant communities that had were categorized; of which three types occurred in the granitic bedrock streams and the other could be seen exclusively in the calcareous bedrock. It is convinced that the types of the bedrock as well as the topographic features of the streams might have major impact on the characterization of the plant communities.

  15. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William A.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Cockerill, Timothy D.; Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Broad, Gavin R.; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

  16. Setting-up a cost recovery system for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønholdt, J; Elberg Jørgensen, P; O'Hearn, D

    2005-01-01

    A tariff system has been set up for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia, the Samut Prakarn Wastewater Treatment Plant south of Bangkok, which is currently under completion. Fully functional the plant will have a design capacity for 500,000 m3 per day and will service a combined residential and industrial area with approximately 600,000 residents and 2,300 factories. The tariff system, which includes a tariff model, is based on water consumption and BOD load. As background for setting the tariffs a comprehensive monitoring system including an industrial permitting system has been developed. The paper presents the background and rationale for setting up the system as well as the objective, scope and content of the tariff system and the industrial permit system. Further, the feasibility of introducing cost recovery systems, which is widely accepted in developing economies on the conceptual level and to some extent implemented at the legal and regulatory level, but has yet to be implemented at large, is discussed.

  17. Assessment of cirrus cloud and aerosol radiative effect in South-East Asia by ground-based NASA MPLNET lidar network data and CALIPSO satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Fatkhuroyan, Fatkhuroyan; Gu, Yu; Marquis, Jared W.

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol, together with cirrus clouds, play a fundamental role in the earth-atmosphere system radiation budget, especially at tropical latitudes, where the Earth surface coverage by cirrus cloud can easily reach 70%. In this study we evaluate the combined aerosol and cirrus cloud net radiative effects in a wild and barren region like South East Asia. This part of the world is extremely vulnerable to climate change and it is source of important anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions. The analysis has been carried out by computing cirrus cloud and aerosol net radiative effects through the Fu-Liou-Gu atmospheric radiative transfer model, adequately adapted to input lidar measurements, at surface and top-of-the atmosphere. The aerosol radiative effects were computed respectively using the retrieved lidar extinction from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization in 2011 and 2012 and the lidar on-board of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations for the South East Asia Region (27N-12S, 77E-132E) with 5° x 5° spatial resolution. To assess the cirrus cloud radiative effect, we used the ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar Network measurements at Singapore permanent observational site. Results put in evidence that strong aerosol emission areas are related on average to a net surface cooling. On the contrary, cirrus cloud radiative effect shows a net daytime positive warming of the system earth-atmosphere. This effect is weak over the ocean where the albedo is lower and never counter-balances the net cooling produced by aerosols. The net cooling is stronger in 2011, with an associated reduction in precipitations by the four of the five rain-gauges stations deployed in three regions as Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java with respect to 2012. We can speculate that aerosol emissions may be associated with lower rainfall, however some very important phenomena as El Nino Southern Oscillation , Madden-Julian Oscillation, Monsoon and Indian Dipole are not

  18. A Comparative Study of Surgical Training in South East Asia, Australia and The United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kheong Lum

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Quality of training can be improved by changing to a curriculum and competency based model, utilization of continuous assessment methods, reducing service requirements and better compensation for trainers. Southeast Asia has the potential to provide centres of excellence for surgical training. Surgical educators in SEA will find useful information in this paper to improve their programs which will hopefully evolve into a common core curriculum and enable cross border exchange of surgical trainees in SEA for broader exposure.

  19. Advancing Positive Psychology in South East Asia: the Importance of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hashim, Intan Hashimah

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of positive psychology has been overwhelming. This can be observed from the number of academic conferences and journals attributed to this field. Similar patterns can be observed in Asia where more and more research are concentrating on investigating constructs deemed as important within the field of positive psychology. However, comparable to other fields within psychology, positive psychology cannot ignore the importance of culture. This is especially true in South Eas...

  20. Extrabudgetary programme on the safety of nuclear installations in South East Asia Pacific and Far East countries. Report of the consultative meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Based on the good experience with the rapid expansion of nuclear utilization in Japan and South Korea, China is planning to significantly expand its nuclear programme, and other countries in the region are likely to follow this example in order to meet their expected high electricity demand growth. The building of NPPs is being considered in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is however recognized that countries in the region are in different stages of nuclear power programme, and that their needs for assistance in nuclear safety will be substantially different. In this situation it would be advantageous for all countries to establish regional co-operation on nuclear safety to learn from each other, use the experience accumulated in the world, and to commonly assess the progress made in nuclear safety matters. The objective of this Consultative Meeting was to discuss co-operation and the needs for assistance by Member States in South-East Asia, Pacific and Far East to strengthen the safety of their nuclear installations. Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Regional supply, demand and utilization of forest biomass in South-East Finland; Metsaeenergian kaeytoen kasvun liiketoimintamahdollisuudet Kaakkois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laihanen, M.; Karhunen, A.; Ranta, T.

    2011-07-01

    Rising demand of forest biomass in South-East Finland has created need to evaluate the impact for different energy users and producers. The aim of this study is to settle the current demand and availability of forest biomass and to evaluate the opportunities the growth offers. Initial data of study base on current structure of energy supply and on current energy demand. The information can be used as a guideline when evaluating local sufficiency of energy wood and business opportunities for local actors such as energy producers and forest fuel suppliers. Main aim of the study is to create prosperity and entrepreneurship to South-East Finland. Analysis included following tasks: gathering data about the current and potential use and users of forest biomass (logging residues, stumps and small diameter energy wood), settling local availability of forest fuels, creating forest biomass balance to indicate the sufficiency of local resources and to identify the effects of current business opportunities around forest biomass sector. Results of the study illustrate local balance between use and availability of energy wood, need for labor and revenue of forest biomass supply in South-East Finland. Evaluation analysis constructed for regional and local needs combine the current and potential use of forest biomass with local availability. Analysis represents model for evaluating local possibilities of utilization of forest biomass. Co-operation with Forestry Centre of South-East Finland was productive through entire study. (orig.)

  2. Culture and mental health of women in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIAZ, UNAIZA; HASSAN, SEHAR

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of South Asian women. Marked gender discrimination in South Asia has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and self-image, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women's lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women's mental health. PMID:16946955

  3. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of lightning and convective activity over South/South-East Asia with an emphasis during El Niño and La Niña

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Siingh, Devendraa; Midya, S. K.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The present analysis investigates the spatio-temporal variability of the convective parameters and associated lightning flash rates during the period 1997-2013 including the El Niño and La Niña episode. It reveals that north-western and north-eastern part along the foothills of Himalayas as well as Indo-China peninsular region and South China Sea are much convective prone zones over the South/South-East Asia. The terrain/orography of the Himalayan range, the influence of cross-equatorial low-level jet and large-scale circulation during pre-monsoon and active phase of monsoon, the western Pacific Warm Pool with increased sea surface temperature as well as the solar-heating-originated local instability instigate the convective anomaly to propagate over the north-western and north eastern Indian sub-continent along with the Indo-China peninsula and South China Sea respectively. The land surfaces of the Indian sub-continent and the sea surface of South China Sea possesses significant correlation with lightning flash rates and convective parameters whereas the sea surface surrounding Indian sub-continent do not show such good correlations among them. Although, the occurrence of convective activities during the El Niño (La Niña) gets reduced (increased), the occurrence of lightning flashes gets enhanced (diminished) during this period which may be the direct consequence of warming atmosphere in relation to changing patterns of regional climate. Fig. S2 Spatial trend distribution per year of (a) LFR, (b) CAPE, (c) SCP, (d) LI, (e) CINE and (f) AT anomaly over South/South-East Asia during January-December for the years 1997-2013 (Trend is significant at 95% confidence level). Fig. S3 Correlation maps of LFR with (a) CAPE, (b) SCP, (c) CINE and (d) LI over South/South-East Asia during January-December for the years 1997-2013. Fig. S4 Synoptic wind direction patterns during (a)-(b) El Niño (May 2002 - February 2003) conditions and (c)-(d) La Niña (July 1998 - March

  5. Parental migration and the mental health of those who stay behind to care for children in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P; Yeoh, Brenda S A

    2015-05-01

    The international migration of parents from the global south raises questions about the health impacts of family separation on those who stay behind. This paper uses data collected in 2008 and 2009 for a project on Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) to address a largely neglected research area by investigating the mental health of those who stay behind in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam to care for the children of overseas migrants. A mixed-methods research design is employed to answer two questions. First, whether carers in transnational (migrant) households are more likely to suffer mental health problems than those in non-migrant households; and secondly, whether transnational family practices and characteristics of migration are associated with mental health outcomes for stay-behind carers. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was completed by carers in selected communities (N = 3026) and used to identify likely cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Multivariate logistic regression and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 149) reveal a nuanced picture. All stay-behind carers in the Indonesian sample are more likely than carers in non-migrant households to suffer CMD. Across the three study countries, however, it is stay-behind mothers with husbands working overseas who are most likely to experience poor mental health. Moreover, infrequent contact with the migrant, not receiving remittances and migrant destinations in the Middle East are all positively associated with carer CMD, whereas greater educational attainment and greater wealth are protective factors. These findings add new evidence on the 'costs' of international labour migration and point to the role of gendered expectations and wider geopolitical structures. Governments and international policy makers need to intervene to encourage transnational family practices that are less detrimental to the mental health of those who stay behind to care for the

  6. Towards robust subsidence-based soil carbon emission factors for peat soils in south-east Asia, with special reference to oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm and Acacia pulpwood plantations are being established at a rapid rate on drained peatland in south-east Asia. Accurate measurements of associated carbon losses are still scarce, however, due mainly to difficulties of excluding autotrophic carbon fluxes from chamber-based flux measurements and uncertainties about the extent of waterborne losses. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach to determining total net carbon loss from subsidence records that is applicable to steady state conditions under continuous land use. We studied oil palm and Acacia plantations that had been drained for 5–19 years. Very similar subsidence rates and dry bulk density profiles were obtained, irrespective of crop type or age of the plantation, indicating that the peat profiles were in a steady state. These are conditions that allow for the deduction of net carbon loss by multiplying the rate of subsidence by the carbon density of the peat below the water table. With an average subsidence rate of 4.2 cm y-1 and a carbon density of 0.043 g cm-3, we arrive at a net carbon loss of ~18 t ha-1 y-1 (~66 t CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for typical oil palm and Acacia plantations more than five years after drainage, without large differences between the plantation types. The proposed method enables calculation of regional or project-specific carbon loss rates to feed into mitigation schemes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  7. Quantifying South East Asia's forest degradation using latest generation optical and radar satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.; Wijaya, A.; Weisse, M.; Stolle, F.

    2017-12-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation form the 2nd largest source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While deforestation is being globally mapped with satellite image time series, degradation remains insufficiently quantified. Previous studies quantified degradation for small scale, local sites. A method suitable for accurate mapping across large areas has not yet been developed due to the variability of the low magnitude and short-lived degradation signal and the absence of data with suitable resolution properties. Here we use a combination of newly available streams of free optical and radar image time series acquired by NASA and ESA, and HPC-based data science algorithms to innovatively quantify degradation consistently across Southeast Asia (SEA). We used Sentinel1 c-band radar data and NASA's new Harmonized Landsat8 (L8) Sentinel2 (S2) product (HLS) for cloud free optical images. Our results show that dense time series of cloud penetrating Sentinel 1 c-band radar can provide degradation alarm flags, while the HLS product of cloud-free optical images can unambiguously confirm degradation alarms. The detectability of degradation differed across SEA. In the seasonal forest of continental SEA the reliability of our radar-based alarm flags increased as the variability in landscape moisture decreases in the dry season. We reliably confirmed alarms with optical image time series during the late dry season, where degradation in open canopy forests becomes detectable once the undergrowth vegetation has died down. Conversely, in insular SEA landscape moisture is low, the radar time series generated degradation alarms flags with moderate to high reliability throughout the year, further confirmed with the HLS product. Based on the HLS product we can now confirm degradation within time series provides better results than either one on its own. Our results provide significant information with application for carbon trading policy and land management.

  8. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, South East Region: Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the South East Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the South East Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  9. Labour migration from South and South-East Asia: some policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, M I

    1984-01-01

    The rise in migration for employment since the mid-1970s has had serious consequences for many Asian countries. This discussion examines the issues raised by the migration abroad of thousands of skilled workers and the efforts that sending countries have made in recent years to bring the effects of labor migration more closely into line with their development objectives. It also considers several problem areas requiring the attention of policymakers and authorities responsible for the administration of overseas employment policies. It is estimated that between 1976-81 annual labor migrant flows from the 8 major sending countries in Asia increased sevenfold, from a mere 146,400 to over 1 million. The Asian migrant workers tend to be young, male, married (with dependents in the sending country), and better educated than the average home population. Most of them come from rural areas and are predominantly employed in construction and labor. The most distinctive feature of these workers is their concentration in a few blue collar occupations--carpenters, masons, electricians, plumbers, lorry drivers, mechanics, and heavy equipment operators. These production and trnasport workers outnumber the professional and technical workers by anywhere from 3 to 1 (Philippines) to 17 to 1 (Pakistan and Sri Lanka). At the aggregate level labor emigration affects the sending country's economy through its impact on the labor market, on the financial market, and on the market for goods and services. It can be argued that the outflow of a significant proportion of the labor force should lead directly to a rise in labor projectivity in the sending country since capital per worker among those left behind will increase, yet it can also be argued that since migration sifts out the most skilled and experienced workers there will be an erosion of the country's human captial resources. Specific measures have been adopted in most labor sending Asian countries to protect the welfare of migrant

  10. Toward an Architecture of Dissensus: Participatory Urbanism in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Boano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Adopting Rancière’s principles of equality, his concepts of aesthetics and le partage du sensible as an intellectual toolbox, this paper examines how practices of participation in informal settlement development might encourage one to think differently about the relationship between politics, design and the city – contributing thus to the debate about participatory urbanism.A critical reflection of the Thai programme Baan Mankong (secure housing and its regional counterpart Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA – an entity aimed at creating an alternative development process in which people that were previously ignored and marginalized are engaged at the centre of a process of transforming their lives, spaces and position in the city – sheds light on such relationship in order to promote a re-conceptualisation of the role of architecture and design in the process of socially just urban development, participatory urbanism and the struggle for democracy.

  11. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  12. The economic impact of foot and mouth disease and its control in South-East Asia: a preliminary assessment with special reference to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Kalpravidh, W; Coleman, P G; Horst, H S; McDermott, J J; Randolph, T F; Gleeson, L J

    1999-08-01

    A pilot study of the economic impact of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the countries and region of South-East Asia is described. Previous economic impact assessments are reviewed and summarised and a synthesis of these contributions is constructed. A framework for the future economic impact of the disease is then developed, incorporating analyses at the sectoral (production system), national and regional levels. Data requirements for such studies are also identified. Integrated epidemiological and economic models for impact assessment were developed and applied to the case study country of Thailand. The models were used to evaluate the economic viability of FMD control programmes in the country. Scenarios evaluated include the effect of improving vaccination coverage and thus reducing productivity losses, and the effect of eventual eradication of the disease. The results indicate that economic returns to the high expenditures incurred in FMD control could be achieved in the short term if greater international trade in pork products was made possible and export prices higher than those in the domestic market could be attained. If FMD were to be eradicated from Thailand in 2010, the eradication would be economically viable, even without exports, with a predicted benefit-cost ratio of 3.73. With additional exports, the economic justification for control becomes much stronger with a benefit-cost ratio of up to 15:1 being achieved. If eradication is not achieved until 2020, returns remain positive without exports, but at a lower rate. The authors propose that the integrated epidemiological and economic models developed be applied to other countries of the region to gain a more accurate insight into the future benefits of FMD control and eradication in the region.

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE HIGHLANDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA: GENERAL LESSONS FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fullen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil conservation in the highlands of South-East Asia is essential for sustainable agro-environmental development. The effectiveness of soil conservation treatments developed in runoff plots was investigated in farmer-managed plots on a natural catchment. This wasachieved by the development and scientific evaluation of modified and novel cropping practices in a representative highland catchment in Yunnan Province, China. Wang Jia Catchment covers 40.1 hectares near Kedu, in Xundian County, north-east Yunnan (25o28'N, 102o53'E. The initial project consisted of an evaluation of the effects of modified cropping practices on maize productivity and soil properties. This programme was extended to investigate ways of increasing the productivity of maize, wheat and soybean on fragile slopes in a sustainable and environmentally-friendly way. The approach incorporates modified and novel agronomic and soil conservation measures, with the evaluation of their agricultural, environmental and socio-economic impacts using multidisciplinary approaches. This European Union funded project involved an international research team from Belgium, China, Ireland, Thailand and the U.K. Five co-ordinated work packages were implemented. Involving: (1 Background agricultural and environmental assessment of Wang Jia Catchment. (2Implementation and evaluation of modified and novel cropping systems for wheat, maize and soybean in the catchment. (3 Cost-benefit analyses of the socio-economic impacts of the changed cropping practices. (4 Comparative scientific evaluation of the cropping techniques in the highlands of northern Thailand. (5 Dissemination of project outcomes and establishment of training programmes for best practice in highland rural development. The lessons of the Project for promoting sustainable agro-environmental development in tropical and subtropical highlands include: (1 Recognizing the importance of both ‘north-south’ and ‘south-south’ co

  14. Use of evidence-based practices in pregnancy and childbirth: South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing Countries project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Laopaiboon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The burden of mortality and morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth remains concentrated in developing countries. SEA-ORCHID (South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health In Developing countries is evaluating whether a multifaceted intervention to strengthen capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improves adoption of best clinical practice recommendations leading to better health for mothers and babies. In this study we assessed current practices in perinatal health care in four South East Asian countries and determined whether they were aligned with best practice recommendations.We completed an audit of 9550 medical records of women and their 9665 infants at nine hospitals; two in each of Indonesia, Malaysia and The Philippines, and three in Thailand between January-December 2005. We compared actual clinical practices with best practice recommendations selected from the Cochrane Library and the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library. Evidence-based components of the active management of the third stage of labour and appropriately treating eclampsia with magnesium sulphate were universally practiced in all hospitals. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section, a beneficial form of care, was practiced in less than 5% of cases in most hospitals. Use of the unnecessary practices of enema in labour ranged from 1% to 61% and rates of episiotomy for vaginal birth ranged from 31% to 95%. Other appropriate practices were commonly performed to varying degrees between countries and also between hospitals within the same country.Whilst some perinatal health care practices audited were consistent with best available evidence, several were not. We conclude that recording of clinical practices should be an essential step to improve quality of care. Based on these findings, the SEA-ORCHID project team has been developing and implementing interventions aimed at increasing

  15. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  16. Health and safety management practices of contractors in South East Asia: A multi country study of Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, P.; Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Phung, V. M.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ath, C.; Heng, A. Y. T.; Kit, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The construction sector is notorious for accounting for numerous occupational deaths, injuries and illnesses in many countries. In emerging economies this situation could be direr, and health and safety (H&S) management by contractors is important to tackling this. This study investigated the H&S management practices of contractors in three South East Asian countries (Malaysia, Vietnam, and Cambodia) with the view to highlighting implementation issues. A questionnaire instrument containing 40...

  17. INDIA’S GROWING INFLUENCE IN STABILIZING REGIONAL SECURITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    East Policy’ focusing on engagement with Southeast Asia .2 Following the reforms, Indian economy grew rapidly with an...civilizational neighbors in Southeast Asia and East Asia .”19 Thus, LEP and recognition of India’s economic, political, security and cultural potential by ASEAN...point. 21 During the 10th East Asia Summit, Prime Minister Modi emphasized the importance of South East Asian region and informed that his

  18. Jalons pour une anthropologie de l’éthique entrepreneuriale en Asie du Sud-Est Groundwork for an Anthropology of Entrepreneurial Ethics in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Gallenga

    2013-06-01

    élargi aux marges sino-indiennes.The entrepreneurship ethics is widely mobilized in business and enterprise milieu in South-East Asia where it is most often presented as a set of moral, ideological or religious precepts that local actors designate by the term “Asian values”. The purpose of this introduction is to put these so called values in the context of entrepreneurship on the basis of seminal works dealing with South-East Asian entreprises. We will see that in most cases these works oscillate between two poles: first, Max Weber’s sociology of industrial capitalism through the prism of religious ethics, and secondly the substantivist approach of Karl Polanyi. If the analytical tools of these debates have been applied mostly to entrepreneurs from the Chinese Diaspora, it is the question of the entrepreneurs’ dominant ideology through the prism of philosophical and religious currents which serve as benchmarks. How values and ideologies are perpetuated, adapted or implemented by company management? How do they fit also in micro-strategies of local actors? How does entrepreneurial ethics decline in business of various statutes and in entrepreneurs’ families? What images these families do build, and what are the values involved in the construction of this ethics? In other words, we mean to observe existing practices in this part of the world and understand their logic through anthropological analysis. Thus, contributions of this issue provide both some answers and open to other ideas to contribute to outline what “entrepreneurship ethics” can be in the region of South-East Asia expanded to Sino-Indian margins.

  19. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  20. A cadinene biopolymer in fossil and extant dammar resins as a source for cadinanes and bicadinanes in crude oils from South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarssen, B. G. K.; Cox, H. C.; Hoogendoorn, P.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1990-11-01

    The chemical composition of a fossil resin from a Miocene outcrop in Brunei, South East Asia, is compared with its extant counterpart dammar, obtained from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae, to establish the nature of the precursor of bicadinanes. The alcohol soluble fractions of the resins consist of functionalised triterpenoids and a small amount of sesquiterpenoids. None of the compounds present in this fraction bears any structural relation to bicadinanes. The alcohol insoluble fractions of the resins consist of a polymer based on cadinene. A structure for this polymer is proposed. Heating the polymer in dammar resin resulted in the formation of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric cadinenes. It is thought that the naturally occurring bicadinanes result from dimeric cadinenes upon cyclisation.

  1. Media audit reveals inappropriate promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinje, Kristine Hansen; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Nguyen, Tuan Thanh; Henjum, Sigrun; Ribe, Lovise Omoijuanfo; Mathisen, Roger

    2017-06-01

    To review regulations and to perform a media audit of promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in South-East Asia. We reviewed national regulations relating to the Code and 800 clips of editorial content, 387 advertisements and 217 Facebook posts from January 2015 to January 2016. We explored the ecological association between regulations and market size, and between the number of advertisements and market size and growth of milk formula. Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Regulations on the child's age for inappropriate marketing of products are all below the Code's updated recommendation of 36 months (i.e. 12 months in Thailand and Indonesia; 24 months in the other three countries) and are voluntary in Thailand. Although the advertisements complied with the national regulations on the age limit, they had content (e.g. stages of milk formula; messages about the benefit; pictures of a child) that confused audiences. Market size and growth of milk formula were positively associated with the number of newborns and the number of advertisements, and were not affected by the current level of implementation of breast-milk substitute laws and regulations. The present media audit reveals inappropriate promotion and insufficient national regulation of products under the scope of the Code in South-East Asia. Strengthened implementation of regulations aligned with the Code's updated recommendation should be part of comprehensive strategies to minimize the harmful effects of advertisements of breast-milk substitutes on maternal and child nutrition and health.

  2. Security in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Working Group began by discussing the meaning of security in terms of its comprehensive, cooperative and human dimensions. In doing so, the members of the Group focused on major issues which could endanger regional stability and non-proliferation. In order to identify the major problems and sources of tension, it was agreed that the Group would concentrate on two sub-regions, namely, East Asia and South East Asia and then to compare these briefly with South Asia and Latin America, the aim being to identify common security concerns. The discussion was framed in terms of: (i) evaluating the adequacy of the existing institutional framework for security cooperation; (ii) evaluating linkages between economic development and security; and (iii) seeking ways to reduce tension and to increase security in the region. Discussion was focused on the broad subject of security risks and challenges as well as opportunities for effective cooperative security in the Asia Pacific region. Attention was devoted to ways of changing Cold War mentalities, which still hinder the normalization process and the achievement of comprehensive security cooperation among the countries in the region

  3. What drives the Tibetan crust to the South East Asia? Role of upper mantle density discontinuities as inferred from the continental geoid anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet orogen formed as a result of the northward convergence of India into the Asia over the past 55 Ma had caused the north south crustal shortening and Cenozoic upliftment of the Tibetan plateau, which significantly affected the tectonic and climatic framework of the Asia. Geodetic measurements have also shown eastward crustal extrusion of Tibet, especially along major east-southeast strike slip faults at a slip rate of 15-20 mm a-1 and around 40 mm a-1. Such continental scale deformations have been modeled as block rotation by fault boundary stresses developed due to the India-Eurasia collision. However, the Thin Sheet model explained the crustal deformation mechanism by considering varying gravitational potential energy arise out of varying crustal thickness of the viscous lithosphere. The Channel Flow model, which also suggests extrusion is a boundary fault guided flow along the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime. Although many models have proposed, but no consensus in these models to explain the dynamics of measured surface geodetic deformation of the Tibetan plateau. But what remains conspicuous is the origin of driving forces that cause the observed Tibetan crustal flow towards the South East Asia. Is the crustal flow originated only because of the differential stresses that developed in the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime? Or should the stress transfer to the shallow crustal layers as a result of gravitational potential energy gradient driven upper mantle flow also to be accounted. In this work, I examine the role of latter in the light of depth distribution of continental geoid anomalies beneath the Himalaya-Tibet across major upper mantle density discontinuities. These discontinuity surfaces in the upper mantle are susceptible to hold the plastic deformation that may occur as a result of the density gradient driven flow. The distribution of geoid anomalies across these density discontinuities at 220, 410 and 660 km depth in the

  4. Nuclear safety cooperation in Southeast Asia. Lessons from Asia's regional networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajano, Julius Cesar I.

    2017-01-01

    Debate has been ongoing among key stakeholders on whether South-east Asia should use or reject nuclear power. However, there are still significant regional concerns over nuclear safety and security in South-east Asia. As some ASEAN countries plan to pursue nuclear power, they need to create and maintain a pool of local nuclear professionals with actual relevant experience in the nuclear industry. While the IAEA does not influence a country's decision on introducing nuclear power, it supports Member States' efforts to evaluate all options towards making a knowledgeable decision. Nuclear safety is the responsibility of every nation that utilizes nuclear technology. National governments are responsible for regulations that govern how safety at nuclear facilities is maintained, as well as to reduce radiation risks, including emergency response and recovery actions. But nuclear energy has transboundary/ regional implications if nuclear safety in each member state is not strengthened. ASEAN countries share a common goal in achieving high level of public safety and confidence in nuclear and radiation related issues. Can regional cooperation help ASEAN Member-States strengthen nuclear safety? The paper examines the importance of regional cooperation on nuclear energy governance and the role of regional organisations in Asia in strengthening nuclear safety cooperation and emergency preparedness and response in Southeast Asia. (author)

  5. Results of a real-world study on vortioxetine in patients with major depressive disorder in South East Asia (REVIDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheuk Ngen; Zain, Azhar; Hemrungrojn, Solaphat; Ung, Eng Khean; Kwansanit, Patanon; Au Yong, Koon Choong; Chong, Marvin Swee Woon; Inpa, Chalowat; Yen, Teck Hoe; Yeoh, Boon Beng David; Tay, Liam Kai; Bernardo, Carmina; Lim, Lionel Chee-Chong; Yap, Chin Hong; Fones, Calvin; Nayak, Ashwini; Nelleman, Lars

    2018-05-17

    The REVIDA study aimed to assess the evolution of major depression symptoms in South East Asian (SEA) patients treated with vortioxetine for major depression in real-world clinical practice. This non-interventional study was conducted from Aug 2016 to Apr 2017. A total of 138 patients (aged 18-65 years) with an active episode of major depression were recruited from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Vortioxetine was initiated on the first visit and patients were followed for 3 months. Depression severity was assessed using the PHQ-9 questionnaire (patient-assessed) and CGI-S scale (physician-assessed); cognitive function was assessed with the PDQ-D questionnaire; work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) was assessed with the WPAI questionnaire. At baseline, 89.9% of patients were moderately to severely depressed (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10). During the 3-month treatment period, mean±SD PHQ-9 score decreased from 18.7±5.7 to 5.0±5.3, mean±SD CGI-S score decreased from 4.4±0.7 to 2.2±1.1, and mean±SD PDQ-D score decreased from 42.1±18.8 to 13.4±13.0. By month 3, response and remission rates reached 80.8% and 59.0%, respectively. Work productivity loss decreased from 73.6% to 30.5%, while activity impairment decreased from 71.5% to 24.6%. Positive correlations were observed between PHQ-9, PDQ-D, and WPAI work productivity loss and activity impairment. By month 3, 82.0% of patients were either not depressed or only mildly depressed (PHQ-9 score ≤ 9). In real-world clinical settings, vortioxetine was effective in reducing depression severity and improving cognitive function and work productivity in SEA patients with major depression.

  6. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jänisch Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of ongoing local malaria transmission, identified though local surveillance and reported to regional WHO offices, by S-E Asian countries, forms the basis of national and international chemoprophylaxis recommendations in western countries. The study was designed to examine whether the strategy of using malaria transmission in a local population was an accurate estimate of the malaria threat faced by travellers and a correlate of malaria in returning travellers. Methods Malaria endemicity was described from distribution and intensity in the local populations of ten S-E Asian destination countries over the period 2003-2008 from regionally reported cases to WHO offices. Travel acquired malaria was collated from malaria surveillance reports from the USA and 12 European countries over the same period. The numbers of travellers visiting the destination countries was based on immigration and tourism statistics collected on entry of tourists to the destination countries. Results In the destination countries, mean malaria rates in endemic countries ranged between 0.01 in Korea to 4:1000 population per year in Lao PDR, with higher regional rates in a number of countries. Malaria cases imported into the 13 countries declined by 47% from 140 cases in 2003 to 66 in 2008. A total of 608 cases (27.3% Plasmodium falciparum (Pf were reported over the six years, the largest number acquired in Indonesia, Thailand and Korea. Four countries had an incidence > 1 case per 100,000 traveller visits; Burma (Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia and Laos (range 1 to 11.8-case per 100,000 visits. The remaining six countries rates were Conclusion The intensity of malaria transmission particularly sub-national activity did not correlate with the risk of travellers acquiring malaria in the large numbers of arriving visitors. It is proposed to use a threshold incidence of > 1 case per 100,000 visits to consider targeted malaria prophylaxis

  7. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory P D; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-11-27

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change-and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined.

  8. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  9. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory P. D.; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change—and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined. PMID:22006974

  10. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia : attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using human and animal trypanocidal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Desquesnes, M.; Yangtara, S.; Kunphukhieo, P.; Jittapalapong, S.; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Beside typical human trypanosomes responsible of sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America, there is a growing number of reported atypical human infections due to Trypanosoma evansi, a livestock parasite, or Trypanosoma lewisi, a rat parasite, especially in Asia. Drugs available for the treatment of T. brucei ssp. in humans are obviously of choice for the control of T. evansi because it is derived from T. brucei. However, concerning T. lewisi, there is an urgent need to ...

  11. Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances Using Radio and Optical Observations in South-East Asia -- The Initial Results of the ASI and FPI Observations in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Komonjinda, S.; Komolmis, T.; Somboon, E.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of monitoring and forecasting equatorial ionospheric disturbances, SEALION (SouthEast Asia Low-latitude IOnospheric Network) has been developed since 2003 as a cooperation project by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) in Thailand, Chiang Mai University (CMU) in Thailand, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) in Indonesia, Hanoi Institute of Geophysics (HIG), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology in Vietnam, Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, Kyoto University in Japan, and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University in Japan. SEALION consists of five ionosondes, four GPS receivers, two GPS scintillation monitors, and a magnetometer. As a part of this project, we newly installed an all-sky imager (ASI) and a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) at Sirindhorn observatory in Chiang Mai (18.8N, 98.9E, Dip lat. 13.1), Thailand. This site is located near conjugate to EAR site in Kototabang, Indonesia. One of main targets of the ASI observation is the large-scale wave structure (LSWS) with wavelengths of 100-1000 km. The LSWS is thought to be connected to the generation mechanism of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPB). The optical observations in Chiang Mai started in February 2010, and we have detected several ionospheric disturbance events with these instruments In this paper, we will show the initial results of the optical observations from Sirindhorn observatory, and discuss the features of ionospheric disturbances in Southeast Asia.

  12. Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP Region in Turkey. Methods A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 % than in rural (22.8 % regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Conclusion Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking.

  13. Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Vinod, K.; Saravanan, K.R.; Anbalagan, T.; Saravanan, R.; Sanaye, S.V.; Mojjada, S.K.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 43 (4), April 2014, pp. 618-633 Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India A. Murugan...] Introduction The role of human activity on marine ecosystems is receiving increased attention with the perception that human activities are causing considerable economic loss for local fishing communities1. In particular, the increase in fishing pressure...

  14. The use of local natural stone in construction of St. Petersburg region and south-east Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luodes, Hannu; Härmä, Paavo; Panova, Elena; Pirinen, Heikki; Selonen, Olavi

    2013-04-01

    A three-year project, started in 2012, "Efficient use of natural stone in the Leningrad region and South-East Finland", studies the use and durability of natural stone in the city environments in the Nordic climate and especially along the Eastern Baltic Sea coastline between Helsinki and St. Petersburg. The project is lead by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and the partners in the project are Saimaa University of Applied Sciences from Finland and Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Petersburg Complex Geological Expedition" Russian together with Saint-Petersburg State University from the Russian Federation. As associates in this project are also natural stone companies from Finland, Ylämaa Group Oy and Palin Granit Oy. The project is co-funded by the European Union, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Finland through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI). A great potential of natural stone that can be used in construction is located in the border zone between South-East Finland and the Leningrad region. Rapakivi granite from that area has been utilized for several important buildings worldwide since 18th century and the area holds still potential for future economic growth. The use of the stone particularly from this area is based on its visual expression and good properties with high durability and long life cycle that can be used as arguments in the future development. Strengthening of the knowledge of the material reserves in the area gives a long term basement for economic development. Special aim of the project is to promote the use of natural stone in the city construction, especially the use of left-over stone generated in the production. In the project the use of natural stone in larger cities from the 18th century until today including the towns St. Petersburg, Vyborg, Helsinki, Kuopio and Kotka will be reported. Also an analysis of the near future needs of natural stone (qualities and quantities) in reconstruction and

  15. Nuclear-weapon-free zones in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    The Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty decided on the indefinite extension of the Treaty, and adopted two documents 'principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament' and 'Strengthening the Review Process for the Treaty'. In the former document, the Conference encourages the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones, on the conviction that such zones will enhance global and regional peace and security. Besides the Rarotonga Treaty, ASEAN countries plan to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the South-East Asia

  16. Estimating radiotherapy demands in South East Asia countries in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorazrul; Roslan, Nurhaziqah

    2018-01-08

    As about 50% of cancer patients may require radiotherapy, the demand of radiotherapy as the main treatment to treat cancer is likely to rise due to rising cancer incidence. This study aims to quantify the radiotherapy demand in countries in Southeast Asia (SEA) in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions. SEA country-specific cancer incidence by tumor site for 2015, 2025 and 2035 was extracted from the GLOBOCAN database. We utilized the optimal radiotherapy utilization rate model by Wong et al. (2016) to calculate the optimal number of fractions for all tumor sites in each SEA country. The available machines (LINAC & Co-60) were extracted from the IAEA's Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) from which the number of available fractions was calculated. The incidence of cancers in SEA countries are expected to be 1.1 mil cases (2025) and 1.4 mil (2035) compared to 0.9 mil (2015). The number of radiotherapy fractions needed in 2025 and 2035 are 11.1 and 14.1 mil, respectively, compared to 7.6 mil in 2015. In 2015, the radiotherapy fulfillment rate (RFR; required fractions/available fractions) varied between countries with Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia are highest (RFR > 1.0 - available fractions > required fractions), whereas Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Timor-Leste and Vietnam have RFR fractions, estimation for number of machines required can be obtained which will guide acquisition of machines in SEA countries. RFR is low with access varied based on the economic status. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  18. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using human and animal trypanocidal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desquesnes, Marc; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kunphukhieo, Pawinee; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    Beside typical human trypanosomes responsible of sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America, there is a growing number of reported atypical human infections due to Trypanosoma evansi, a livestock parasite, or Trypanosoma lewisi, a rat parasite, especially in Asia. Drugs available for the treatment of T. brucei ssp. in humans are obviously of choice for the control of T. evansi because it is derived from T. brucei. However, concerning T. lewisi, there is an urgent need to determine the efficacy of trypanocidal drugs for the treatment in humans. In a recent study, pentamidine and fexinidazole were shown to have the best efficacy against one stock of T. lewisi in rats. In the present study suramin, pentamidine, eflornitine, nifurtimox, benznidazole and fexinidazole, were evaluated at low and high doses, in single day administration to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi recently isolated in Thailand. Because none of these treatments was efficient, a trial was made with the most promising trypanocide identified in a previous study, fexinidazole 100mg/kg, in 5 daily administrations. Results observed were unclear. To confirm the efficacy of fexinidazole, a mixed infection protocol was set up in cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed rats. Animals were infected successively by T. lewisi and T. evansi, and received 10 daily PO administrations of 200mg/kg fexinidazole. Drastic effects were observed against T. evansi which was cleared from the rat's blood within 24 to 48h; however, the treatment did not affect T. lewisi which remained in high number in the blood until the end of the experiment. This mixed infection/treatment protocol clearly demonstrated the efficacy of fexinidazole against T. evansi and its inefficacy against T. lewisi. Since animal trypanocides were also recently shown to be inefficient, other protocols as well as other T. lewisi stocks should be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  19. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (Easter Island. ?? 1995

  20. Paleolimnological reconstruction of environmental variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the south-east Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublitskiy, Iurii; Subetto, Dmitriy; Druzhinina, Olga; Kulkova, Marianna; Arslanov, Khikmatula

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of our research is the high-resolution reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes in SE Baltic region since the Last Glacial Maximum by palaeolimnological data. The 6 objects - lakes and peat-bogs, were studied since 2009 in the Kaliningrad region, Russian Federation. According to palaeolimnological studies of bottom sediments of the Kamyshovoe Lake (N 54°22,6`; E22°42,8`, 189 m a.s.l.), located in the Vishtynets Highland, the south-east part of Kaliningrad district, the environmental and climatic changes after the late glacial have been reconstructed. At that moment the radiocarbon and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data, geochemistry and diatom analysis for the whole sediment core, and pollen analyze for the bottom part of the core have been completed. According to the pollen data the Alleröd interstadial starts at 13 200 cal. yrs BP and is marked by the rising of birch and pine pollen. The transition to the Younger Dryas around 12 700 cal. yrs BP corresponds with the development of patches of shrublands in which light-demanding species, such as juniper, flourished and communities of steppe herbs. The late Preboreal is marked by the appearance of Populus and an increase of the role of grasses in the vegetation cover 11 300-11 100 cal. yrs BP (Druzinina et al., 2015). The Holocene climatic zones have been identified by LOI and geochemistry analyses. The Boreal period started about 10 200 cal. yrs BP, Atlantic around 9100 cal. yrs BP, Subboreal 5800 cal. yrs BP, and Subatlantic 3200 cal. yrs BP (Kublitskiy et al., 2015). During the conference the new palaeolimnological data of environmental variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in SE Baltic region will be presented. Acknowledgements The investigations have been granted by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (12-05-33013, 13-05-41457, 15-35-50721). References Druzhinina, O., Subetto, D., Stančikaitė, M., Vaikutienė, G., Kublitsky, J., Arslanov, Kh., 2015. Sediment record from the

  1. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2: Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  2. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  3. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  4. Larval development rates of Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart, 1842 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) within its native range in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanmanee, Surasuk; Husemann, Martin; Benbow, Mark Eric; Suwannapong, Guntima

    2016-09-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies represents an important indicator species in forensic entomology that is often used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) in crime scene investigation. However, developmental rates differ locally, so that estimates should be based on regionally generated development data. Therefore, we determined the developmental rates of C. rufifacies within its native range in Thailand under nine constant temperature regimes: 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36 and 39°C. Developmental times from egg to adult varied among the temperatures and were longest at 15°C (618h) and shortest at 33°C (168h). No pupae emerged at 39°C. We used linear regression models to estimate the minimum development threshold temperatures for each life stage: egg stage=9.5°C, first to second instar=10.8°C, second to third instar=11.5°C, third instar to pupariation=11.4°C, pupariation to adults=5.0°C; the minimum threshold to complete all larvae stages was 11.1°C and to complete all life stages from eggs to adult was 9.5°C. We further generated isomorphen and isomegalen diagrams that can be used to quickly estimate the PMImin for forensic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Pami

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  6. Zwischen Khao San und Lonely Planet: Aspekte der postmodernen Backpacking-Identität in Südostasien [Between Khao San and Lonely Planet: Aspects of Postmodern Backpacking Identity in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Spreitzhofer

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to highlight some aspects of postmodern backpacking, which has come to be more appreciated by South-East Asian governments as a development tool after the decrease of package tourist arrivals due to terrorism, diseases and natural disasters. Special focus has been put on backpacking performance, perception and transformation within the region, where the accumulation of youthful travellers has been obvious for more than three decades, when the first underground guidebo...

  7. Iran’s scientific dominance and the emergence of South-East Asian countries in the Arab Gulf Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, H.

    2016-07-01

    A longitudinal bibliometric analysis of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters' Incites and Elsevier's Scopus, and published from the Arab Gulf States and neighbouring countries, shows clear effects of major political events during the past 35 years. Predictions made in 2006 by the US diplomat Richard N. Haass on political changes in the Middle East have come true in the Gulf States’ national scientific research systems, to the extent that Iran has become in 2015 by far the leading country in the Arab Gulf, and South-East Asian countries including China, Malaysia and South Korea have become major scientific collaborators, displacing the USA and other large Western countries. But collaborations patterns among Gulf States show no apparent relationship with differences in Islam denominations. (Author)

  8. Impact of land use change on the land atmosphere carbon flux of South and South East Asia: A Synthesis of Dynamic Vegetation Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervarich, M.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Stocker, B.; Arneth, A.; Viovy, N.; Kato, E.; Wiltshire, A.; Koven, C.; Sitch, S.; Zeng, N.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding our present day carbon cycle and possible solutions to recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide is dependent upon quantifying the terrestrial carbon budget. Currently, global land cover and land use change is estimated to emit 0.9 PgC yr-1 compared to emissions due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production of 8.4 PgC yr-1. South and Southeast Asia (India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Singapore) is a region of rapid land cover and land use change due to the continuous development of agriculture, deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, and the increased demand of land for people to live. In this study, we synthesize outputs of nine models participated in Global Carbon Budget Project to identify the carbon budget of South and southeast Asia, diagnose the contribution of land cover and land use change to carbon emissions and assess areas of uncertainty in the suite of models. Uncertainty is determined using the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of net ecosystem exchange and its component parts. Results show the region's terrestrial biosphere was a source of carbon emissions from the 1980 to the early 1990s. During the same time period, land cover and land use change increasingly contributed to carbon emission. In the most recent two decades, the region became a carbon sink since emission due to land cover land use changes. Spatially, the greatest total emissions occurred in the tropical forest of Southeast Asia. Additionally, this is the subregion with the greatest uncertainty and greatest biomass. Model uncertainty is shown to be proportional to total biomass. The atmospheric impacts of ENSO are shown to suppress the net biosphere productivity in South and Southeast Asia leading to years of increased carbon emissions.

  9. Geological data indicate that the interpretation for the age-calibrated phylogeny for the Kurixalus-genus frogs of South, South-east and East Asia (Lv et al., 2018) needs to be rethought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jason R

    2018-02-12

    Recently, Lv et al. (2018) published an age-calibrated phylogenetic tree for the Kurixalus frogs, members of which occur across parts of South, South-east and East Asia. A clade on Taiwan, represented by Kurixalus idiootocus and the Kurixalus eiffingeri species complex, is deemed to have been resident since the middle Cenozoic; its closest congeners are in southern Indochina (not in the adjacent parts of south-east China), and the split between the two is dated at 32.8 Ma. Furthermore, a sub-population of Kurixalus eiffingeri is believed to have colonized islands in the western Ryukyus c. 13.5 Ma. There is, however, a problem with this scenario: the landmass regarded as modern-day Taiwan has existed only for 4-5 million years (it results from a young and ongoing tectonic-plate collision). Assuming the Kurixalus phylogeny and the dating of its branchings are correct, then a palaeobiogeographical scenario involving an older, alternative land surface with later transfer to Taiwan, possibly involving over-water dispersal, would reconcile the biology, but testing this may be difficult/impossible. If the ages of the nodes in the proposed tree are found to be significantly overestimated, the geology and biology might more easily be accommodated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Current knowledge of the South East Asian large branchiopod Crustacea (Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, Cyclestherida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The large branchiopod crustaceans (fairy shrimp, tadpole shrimp and clam shrimp of South East (SE Asia have only recently been examined with scientific vigor. Although more than 70 species have been reported for Asia and Indonesia, only six native taxa and one introduced species are known from SE Asia. The majority of records are from Thailand, with fewer than three records each from Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Singapore. Eleven genera reported from adjacent regions may potentially occur in SE Asia. Spinicaudatan clam shrimp have been collected from Thailand and Cambodia, but have not been identified beyond genus. Four of the five native fairy shrimp species are endemic to SE Asia. The limited distributions of these few taxa suggest that this region has a distinct branchiopod fauna. In addition, we present new species and records of clam shrimp from Thailand. Future survey efforts will undoubtedly reveal additional taxa.

  11. Prevalence, risk factors and secondary prevention of stroke recurrence in eight countries from south, east and southeast asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Y Y; Sakinah, H; Aryati, A; Hassan, B M

    2018-04-01

    In most Asian countries, stroke is one of the major causes of mortality. A stroke event is life-changing for stroke survivors, which results in either mortality or disability. Therefore, this study comprehensively focuses on prevalence, risk factors, and secondary prevention for stroke recurrence identified in South, East, and Southeast Asian countries. This scoping review uses the methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley. A comprehensive search of academic journals (English) on this topic published from 2007 to 2017 was conducted. A total of 22 studies were selected from 585 studies screened from the electronic databases. First-year stroke recurrence rates are in the range of 2.2% to 25.4%. Besides that, modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with pathophysiological factors (hypertension, ankle-brachial pressure index, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and atrial fibrillation) and lifestyle factors (obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and high salt intake). Furthermore, age, previous history of cerebrovascular events, and stroke subtype are also significant influence risk factors for recurrence. A strategic secondary prevention method for recurrent stroke is health education along with managing risk factors through a combination of appropriate lifestyle intervention and pharmacological therapy. To prevent recurrent stroke, health intervention should be geared towards changing lifestyle to embody a healthier approach to life. This is of great importance to public health and stroke survivors' quality of life.

  12. Insight into Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Toll-Like Receptor/Interferon Signalling Pathways for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Chia Chai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes involved in toll-like receptor/interferon signalling pathways have been reported previously to be associated with SLE in many populations. This study aimed to investigate the role of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms within TNFAIP3, STAT4, and IRF5, which are involved in upstream and downstream pathways of type I interferon production, in SLE in the South East Asian populations. Genotyping of 360 Malaysian SLE patients and 430 normal healthy individuals revealed that minor alleles of STAT4 rs7574865 and rs10168266 were associated with elevated risk of SLE in the Chinese and Malay patients, respectively (P=0.028, odds ratio (OR=1.42; P=0.035, OR=1.80, respectively. Polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 and IRF5 did not show significant associations with SLE in any of the ethnicities. Combined analysis of the Malays, Chinese, and Indians for each SNP indicated that STAT4 rs10168266 was significantly associated with the Malaysian SLE as a whole (P=0.014; OR=1.435. The meta-analysis of STAT4 rs10168266, which combined the data of other studies and this study, further confirmed its importance as the risk factor for SLE by having pooled OR of 1.559 and P value of <0.001.

  13. Insight into Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Toll-Like Receptor/Interferon Signalling Pathways for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kek Heng; Lim, Soo Kun; Phipps, Maude Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in toll-like receptor/interferon signalling pathways have been reported previously to be associated with SLE in many populations. This study aimed to investigate the role of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms within TNFAIP3, STAT4, and IRF5, which are involved in upstream and downstream pathways of type I interferon production, in SLE in the South East Asian populations. Genotyping of 360 Malaysian SLE patients and 430 normal healthy individuals revealed that minor alleles of STAT4 rs7574865 and rs10168266 were associated with elevated risk of SLE in the Chinese and Malay patients, respectively (P = 0.028, odds ratio (OR) = 1.42; P = 0.035, OR = 1.80, respectively). Polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 and IRF5 did not show significant associations with SLE in any of the ethnicities. Combined analysis of the Malays, Chinese, and Indians for each SNP indicated that STAT4 rs10168266 was significantly associated with the Malaysian SLE as a whole (P = 0.014; OR = 1.435). The meta-analysis of STAT4 rs10168266, which combined the data of other studies and this study, further confirmed its importance as the risk factor for SLE by having pooled OR of 1.559 and P value of <0.001. PMID:24741605

  14. The Asia-Pacific region: non-proliferation and other disarmament issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years, the United States and the former Soviet Union began to adjust their force structures in Asia-Pacific region. In this respect, a large range of issues have been raised in discussions on the non-proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Apart from the issues and trends related to proliferation, military expenditure, arms transfer and other disarmament matters, the specific situations in the respective subregions of South-East Asia, South Asia and North-East Asia were discussed. Comprehensive and verified commitments not to possess any such weapons is stressed as the main goal of the meeting. It is vitally important that opportunities that were opened should be seized to prevent the spread of nuclear, chemical, biological as well as highly destabilizing conventional weapons

  15. A Socio-Ecological Approach to GIS Least-Cost Modelling for Regional Mining Infrastructure Planning: A Case Study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Lechner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional planning approaches to mining infrastructure aim to reduce the conflict associated with mining operations and existing land uses, such as urban areas and biodiversity conservation, as well as the cumulative impacts that occur offsite. In this paper, we describe a method for conducting Geographical Information System (GIS least-cost path and least-cost corridor analysis for linear mining infrastructure, such as roads. Least-cost path analysis identifies the optimal pathways between two locations as a function of the cost of traveling through different land use/cover types. In a case study from South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia, we identify potential linear networks for road infrastructure connecting mines, smelters, and ports. The method used interview data from government officials to characterise their orientation (perceived importance and positive/negative attitude toward the social and environmental factors associated with mining infrastructure. A cost-surface was constructed by integrating spatial layers representing the social and environmental factors to identify areas that should be avoided and areas that were compatible with linear infrastructure using the least-cost path analysis. We compared infrastructure scenario outputs from local and national government officials by the degree of spatial overlap and found broad spatial agreement for infrastructure corridors. We conclude by discussing this approach in relation to the wider social-ecological and mine planning literature and how quantitative approaches can reduce the conflict associated with infrastructure planning.

  16. Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ... the low donor awareness of societal needs and the lack of donor education and skills development. ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... Supporting sustainable economic growth in ASEAN.

  17. Glaucoma in Asia: regional prevalence variations and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Errol Wei'en; Li, Xiang; Tham, Yih-Chung; Liao, Jiemin; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate glaucoma prevalence and disease burden across Asian subregions from 2013 to 2040. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 population-based studies of 1318 primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases in 66,800 individuals and 691 primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) cases in 72,767 individuals in Asia. Regions in Asia were defined based on United Nations' (UN) classification of macro-geographic regions. PubMed, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched for population-based glaucoma prevalence studies using standardised criteria published to 31 December 2013. Pooled glaucoma prevalence for individuals aged 40-80 years was calculated using hierarchical Bayesian approaches. Prevalence differences by geographic subregion, subtype and habitation were examined with random effects meta-regression models. Estimates of individuals with glaucoma from 2013 to 2040 were based on the UN World Population Prospects. In 2013, pooled overall glaucoma prevalence was 3.54% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.83 to 6.28). POAG (2.34%, 95% CrI 0.96 to 4.55) predominated over PACG (0.73%, 95% CrI 0.18 to 1.96). With age and gender adjustment, PACG prevalence was higher in East than South East Asia (OR 5.55, 95% CrI 1.52 to 14.73), and POAG prevalence was higher in urban than rural populations (OR 2.11, 95% CrI 1.57 to 2.38). From 2013 to 2040, South Central Asia will record the steepest increase in number of glaucoma individuals from 17.06 million to 32.90 million compared with other Asian subregions. In 2040, South-Central Asia is also projected to overtake East Asia for highest overall glaucoma and POAG burden, while PACG burden remains highest in East Asia. Across the Asian subregions, there was greater glaucoma burden in South-Central and East Asia. Sustainable public health strategies to combat glaucoma in Asia are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  18. Study on the concentration of airbone respirable asbestos fibres in rural areas of the Lublin region in south-east Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Buczaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was measurement of the concentrations of airborne asbestos fibres in the rural environment of the Lublin Region in south-east Poland. Methods. Measurements of concentrations of respirable asbestos fibres were carried out in the rural areas of the Lublin Region (Lublin and Włodawa counties for a period of 24 months. The studies were conducted on 3 farms with various technical conditions of asbestos-containing materials: Farm A – good technical condition of asbestos products, Farm B – poor technical condition, and Farm C – with no asbestos containing products and no such products in its direct vicinity (up to 500 m. On the selected farms, 3 samples on each were simultaneously collected at 3 measuring sites. During the period 2009–2011, a total number of 216 samples were collected on all farms. Sampling was performed using JSH 16,000 stationary aspirators, with air flow velocity of 16 l/min. and sampling time 60–80 minutes. The number of fibres on filters was determined using an optical phase contrast microscope. Results. The study showed that the mean concentration of respirable asbestos fibres on the farms examined was 296 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup]. The highest concentrations were noted on Farm B was 529 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup], on average; on farm A the mean concentration of respirable fibres was 328 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup] , whereas the lowest mean concentration of airborne respirable asbestos fibres was noted on farm C, where there were no asbestos products (30 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup] .

  19. Characterizing and modelling river channel migration rates at a regional scale: Case study of south-east France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale. As a case study, 99 reaches were sampled in the French part of the Rhône Basin and nearby tributaries of the Mediterranean Sea (111,300 km 2 ). We explored the spatial correlation between the channel migration rate and a set of simple variables (e.g., watershed area, channel slope, stream power, active channel width). We found that the spatial variability of the channel migration rates was primary explained by the gross stream power (R 2  = 0.48) and more surprisingly by the active channel width scaled by the watershed area. The relationship between the absolute migration rate and the gross stream power is generally consistent with the published empirical models for freely meandering rivers, whereas it is less significant for the multi-thread reaches. The discussion focused on methodological constraints for a regional-scale modelling of the migration rates, and the interpretation of the empirical models. We hypothesize that the active channel width scaled by the watershed area is a surrogate for the sediment supply which may be a more critical factor than the bank resistance for explaining the regional-scale variability of the migration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A review of nickel toxicity to marine and estuarine tropical biota with particular reference to the South East Asian and Melanesian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Francesca; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Golding, Lisa A; Adams, Merrin S; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-11-01

    The South East Asian Melanesian (SEAM) region contains the world's largest deposits of nickel lateritic ores. Environmental impacts may occur if mining operations are not adequately managed. Effects data for tropical ecosystems are required to assess risks of contaminant exposure and to derive water quality guidelines (WQG) to manage these risks. Currently, risk assessment tools and WQGs for the tropics are limited due to the sparse research on how contaminants impact tropical biota. As part of a larger project to develop appropriate risk assessment tools to ensure sustainable nickel production in SEAM, nickel effects data were required. The aim of this review was to compile data on the effects of nickel on tropical marine, estuarine, pelagic and benthic species, with a particular focus on SEAM. There were limited high quality chronic nickel toxicity data for tropical marine species, and even fewer for those relevant to SEAM. Of the data available, the most sensitive SEAM species to nickel were a sea urchin, copepod and anemone. There is a significant lack of high quality chronic data for several ecologically important taxonomic groups including cnidarians, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, macroalgae and fish. No high quality chronic nickel toxicity data were available for estuarine waters or marine and estuarine sediments. The very sparse toxicity data for tropical species limits our ability to conduct robust ecological risk assessment and may require additional data generation or read-across from similar species in other databases (e.g. temperate) to fill data gaps. Recommendations on testing priorities to fill these data gaps are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  2. Upaya Sekuritisasi Pemerintah Malaysia Dalam Menangani Masalah Perdagangan Manusia Di Kawasan Asia Tenggara Tahun 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    ", Afrizal; Fajar, Satria Putra

    2016-01-01

    This research describes the securitization aspect Government of Malaysia to anticipation of human trafficking in South East Asia in 2010-2014. Nowdays human trafficking are one of criminalization form, and South East Asia regions are the region that has increase of human trafficking. The research method used was a qualitative with descriptive as a technic of the research. Writer collects data from books, encyclopedia, journal, mass media and websites to analyze the securitization aspect Gover...

  3. Biotrop – Seameo Regional Center for Tropical Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahertian-Bakhoven, P.

    1975-01-01

    The idea to establish a regional organization in order to improve the quality of education in South East Asia was conceived in a meeting of Ministers of Education and Culture in 1965. This idea took shape and was realized in an organization called the SEAMEO (South East Asian Ministers of Education

  4. United Nations regional disarmament workshop for Asia and the Pacific. Disarmament fellowship, training and advisory services programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the Workshop have been to promote a better understanding and awareness of the current disarmament negotiations and issues, particularly those of common concern to the region, and to facilitate conflict resolution, strengthen disarmament efforts and enhance regional security. 19 papers were presented. The Workshop (a) considered the concepts of peace and security in the Asia-Pacific context; (b) assessed the global efforts to achieve a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons and to strengthen the non-proliferation regimes of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction; (c) reviewed regional disarmament efforts in general and examined in detail efforts and proposals from the South Asian, South-East Asian and Pacific perspectives; and (d) discussed, through various case studies, conflict resolution in the Asia-Pacific region. The discussions which followed the presentations could be grouped under the following headings: Perception of the role to be played by the major Powers in Asia and the Pacific; approach to peace and security; NPT; PTBT; the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) and the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South-East Asia (SEANWFZ)

  5. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  6. Exploring the Impact of ClNO2 on the Tropospheric Oxidation Capacity in South East Asia during KORUS-AQ 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, D.; Seco, R.; Gu, D.; Lee, Y.; Knote, C. J.; McGee, T. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Nault, B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Blake, D. R.; Sanchez, D.; Guenther, A. B.; Tanner, D.; Huey, L. G.; Ahn, J. Y.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is a night time radical and NOx reservoir that photolyzes in the morning to release chlorine radicals (Cl·) and NO2. This highly reactive Cl· will react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce organic peroxy radicals (RO2) eventually producing O3 and increasing the HOx (OH+HO2) radical pool. ClNO2 is generated from heterogeneous reactions of chlorine containing aerosols and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), which is also a night time NOx reservoir. The reactive chlorine can come from both natural (e.g., ocean, biomass burning) and anthropogenic (e.g., steel making, coal combustion, pulp industries etc.) sources. Previous model studies show that the photolysis of ClNO2 can increase O3 and HOx by 20 %. However, ClNO2 observations have been very limited especially in East Asia with only a few field measurements conducted. In this study, we present the ClNO2 observation results from the KORUS-AQ 2016 field campaign conducted in May-June in South Korea. ClNO2 was measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) on the DC-8 and in two ground sites. Olympic park and Taehwa research forest represents a heavily populated urban area and a forest nearby respectively. Both ground sites are 50 km from the ocean, the largest source of chlorine. A comprehensive set of trace gas, aerosol, and meteorology parameters have also been carried out during the observation period. We explore the influence of ClNO2 on tropospheric oxidation chemistry mainly focusing on 3 main points: 1) What are the factors controlling the production of ClNO2 (night time v.s. morning)? 2) What are the relative importance of the possible sources of reactive chlorine (oceanic v.s. anthropogenic)? 3) What are the implications of ClNO2 on the local radical chemistry based on box model simulations (F0AM v3.1) embedded with heterogeneous and a comprehensive Cl· + VOC chemistry?

  7. Land rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A

    2003-01-01

    Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...

  8. Spectral Discrimination of Fine and Coarse Mode Aerosol Optical Depth from AERONET Direct Sun Data of Singapore and South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Cortijo, S.; Chew, B.; Liew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol particle size, with Angstrom exp. values greater than 2 indicating small (fine mode) particles associated with urban pollution and bio-mass burning. Around this region, forest fires are a regular occurrence during the dry season, specially near the large land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. The practice of clearing land by burning the primary and sometimes secondary forest, results in a smog-like haze covering large areas of regional cities such as cities Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and sometimes the south of Thailand, often reducing visibility and increasing health problems for the local population. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from the industrial and urban areas. The proximity to the sea adds a possible oceanic source. However, as stated above and depending on the time of the year, there can be a strong bio-mass component coming from forest fires from various regions of the neighboring countries. Bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. In this work, we analyze three years of direct Sun measurements performed with a multi-channel Cimel Sun-Photometer (part of the AERONET network) located at our site. In order to identify bio-mass burning events in this region, we perform a spectral discrimination between coarse and fine mode optical depth; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponents (and its derivative) are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set.

  9. Emergence of the Asian 1 Genotype of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 in Viet Nam: In Vivo Fitness Advantage and Lineage Replacement in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ty Hang, Vu Thi; Holmes, Edward C.; Veasna, Duong; Quy, Nguyen Thien; Tinh Hien, Tran; Quail, Michael; Churcher, Carol; Parkhill, Julian; Cardosa, Jane; Farrar, Jeremy; Wills, Bridget; Lennon, Niall J.; Birren, Bruce W.; Buchy, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    A better description of the extent and structure of genetic diversity in dengue virus (DENV) in endemic settings is central to its eventual control. To this end we determined the complete coding region sequence of 187 DENV-2 genomes and 68 E genes from viruses sampled from Vietnamese patients between 1995 and 2009. Strikingly, an episode of genotype replacement was observed, with Asian 1 lineage viruses entirely displacing the previously dominant Asian/American lineage viruses. This genotype replacement event also seems to have occurred within DENV-2 in Thailand and Cambodia, suggestive of a major difference in viral fitness. To determine the cause of this major evolutionary event we compared both the infectivity of the Asian 1 and Asian/American genotypes in mosquitoes and their viraemia levels in humans. Although there was little difference in infectivity in mosquitoes, we observed significantly higher plasma viraemia levels in paediatric patients infected with Asian 1 lineage viruses relative to Asian/American viruses, a phenotype that is predicted to result in a higher probability of human-to-mosquito transmission. These results provide a mechanistic basis to a marked change in the genetic structure of DENV-2 and more broadly underscore that an understanding of DENV evolutionary dynamics can inform the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs. PMID:20651932

  10. Survey in South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    In early 1959 an IAEA mission visited Burma, Ceylon, Indonesia and Thailand. In each of the four countries, the mission held detailed discussions with scientists and officials, collected information and exchanged ideas. Besides general discussion, consultations were held in small working groups on specific topics and problems. The members of the mission also visited atomic energy centres, other scientific and technical organizations, educational institutions as well as sites of actual or possible projects. The reports of the mission contain, a general description of the atomic energy programmes of the four countries, covering both current and planned activities, the mission's comments and recommendations and lists of specific requests for Agency assistance made by these countries after discussions with the mission. Atomic energy work in Burma is primarily the responsibility of the Union of Burma Atomic Energy Centre (UBAEC). Set up in 1955, the Centre is a part of the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). The programme of UBAEC includes a broad training scheme, the setting up of a Nuclear Radiation Laboratory by 1960-61, a study of the possibilities of installing a research reactor by 1962-63 and the possible erection of other reactors at a later date. The mission discussed with the Burmese authorities their tentative plans for atomic energy legislation and the advice given might help in the early establishment of an independent atomic energy commission. Ceylon too is embarking on several atomic energy activities and long-range plans are being developed. The emphasis, it is expected, will be mainly on education, raw material prospecting, isotopes and nuclear power development. A Committee on Atomic Energy was created in 1958 by Ceylon's National Planning Council, and the Committee is now working towards the early formation of a central atomic energy authority. The IAEA mission advised the officials of the Committee on the framing of such legislation as is considered immediately necessary for this purpose. A State Commission on Radioactivity and Atomic Energy was established in Indonesia in 1954. In 1958, the Commission was replaced by the Council for Atomic Energy as an advisory body to the Cabinet; an Institute of Atomic Energy is to be formed to serve as the operational arm of the Council. At present, all work in this field is centred in Bandung, Bogor, Djakarta and Jogjakarta. Training and research reactors are contemplated for both Bandung and Jogjakarta, and should serve in the near future as focal points in the gradual development of a programme of research and training. There are also plans for the use of radioisotopes in agriculture, medicine and industry. In Thailand, a good start has already been made with a broad atomic energy programme. Work is planned or under way for training, research, the use of radioisotopes in agriculture and medicine, atomic power, raw materials and other related fields. The Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace, established in 1956, is charged with the promotion, development and control of all peaceful atomic energy activities in the country. The Commission made early plans to install a research reactor and has entered into a contract with the Curtiss Wright Corporation of the USA for the construction of a swimming pool reactor with a maximum output of 1 mw. The estimated period of construction is twenty-four months and the reactor is expected to become operational by 1961 or 1962. The Commission has also established a programme of training for Thai scientists, a substantial number of whom have already studied or are now studying abroad. The mission paid particular attention to the possibilities of applying the tools of atomic energy to agriculture, medicine, health physics and raw materials needed in atomic energy. The reports of the mission also contain considerable information on a variety of other related subjects. On all issues of interest, the members of the mission held detailed discussions with the national authorities. On the basis of these discussions, ea ch of the four countries has formulated requests for assistance from the Agency, -mainly for the provision of experts and equipment. Some of these requests have already been approved by IAEA's Board of Governors

  11. Foreign direct investments in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöholm, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Foreign direct investment has been of large importance in economic growth and global economic integration over the last decades. South East Asia has been part of this development with rapidly increasing inflows of FDI. However, there are large variations over time and between countries in the region as regard to the policies towards FDI, and in actual inflows of FDI. This chapter aims at examining the size of FDI in South East Asia and the trends in it. The main determinants of FDI in Southea...

  12. Study of effects of climate change in the Great South East. Stage 1. PACA report - Part I: Context and study summary, Part II: Climate simulations, Part III: Impact sector sheets, General report. Prospective study of effects of climate change in the Great South East (phase 2) - Mission of study of inter-regional and European collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornmann, Francois; Guiran, Ghislaine; Sadoux, Emmanuel; Weill, Frederic; Benkhelifa, Fouzi

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of study objectives and scope, a first report outlines the actuality of climate change, describes predicted climate changes for the PACA region in terms of warming and decrease of precipitations. Regional social-economic challenges and sector impacts are also briefly described. The second report presents the adopted climate simulation parameters, and discusses results obtained in terms of temperature and of precipitations by 2030, 2050 and 2080 for the whole Great South East region. The third part proposes sector sheets which contain discussions of effects of climate change on the water resource, on biodiversity, on forest, on agriculture, on human health, on tourism, on energy, on building and transports, on natural risks. The next document is based on the previous ones. It discusses and comments the outcome of the first phase, the present situation of the region in terms of territorial dynamics and effects of climate change, and indicators of climate change. It also draws lessons from the prospective study which resulted in three scenarios for which a strategic assessment is proposed

  13. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Low Carbon Energy Supply for South East Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    South East Europe consists of several smaller countries in terms of energy systems and thus,integrating energy systems of the whole region has significant benefits for all the countries included. However, as there are large differences between energy mixes of the countries included, careful energ...

  15. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low…

  16. Zwischen Khao San und Lonely Planet: Aspekte der postmodernen Backpacking-Identität in Südostasien [Between Khao San and Lonely Planet: Aspects of Postmodern Backpacking Identity in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Spreitzhofer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to highlight some aspects of postmodern backpacking, which has come to be more appreciated by South-East Asian governments as a development tool after the decrease of package tourist arrivals due to terrorism, diseases and natural disasters. Special focus has been put on backpacking performance, perception and transformation within the region, where the accumulation of youthful travellers has been obvious for more than three decades, when the first underground guidebook for independent travellers was published in the 1970s. Special attention has been given to the increasing commercialization (Lonely Planet and the booming urban infrastructure (Khao San of this “anti-tourist” travel style, which seems to attract a new comfort-, shopping- and fun-oriented backpacker clientele rather than the ideologically-minded anti-consumerism backpackers of the early 1980s. However, apart from regional development opportunities and disparities, backpacking offers a wide range of personal development chances for postmodern mobile professionals, who seem to be more interested in western lifestyle traveller enclaves and self-fulfillment than in exploring and understanding foreign cultures. ----- Im Mittelpunkt dieses Beitrages steht eine Diskussion von Aspekten des Rucksacktourismus („Backpacking“, den zahlreiche südostasiatische Staaten als Entwicklungsmotor entdeckt (und akzeptiert haben, nachdem die Zahl der Pauschaltouristen aufgrund von Terrorangst, Umweltkatastrophen und regionalen Seuchen drastisch gesunken ist. Besonderer Schwerpunkt wurde auf die regionale Manifestation und Perzeption von Backpacking an der Wiege des Rucksacktourismus gelegt, wo die erste einschlägige Reiseliteratur seit den 1970ern die anfangs anti-touristischen Reiseströme bündelte. Die zunehmende Kommerzialisierung der Backpacker-Infrastruktur in den Quellländern (Fallbeispiel: Lonely Planet, ein Reisebuchverlag und Zielländern (Fallbeispiel: Khao

  17. Modern Political and Economic Aspects of the Oil and Gas Complex in the Southeast Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstracUThe article reviews the problems caused by the conflict of interests between certain Southeast Asian countries and other states, China foremost, which aroused from oil and gas field development on disputable offshore sections. At the same time the positions of the region's leading transnational corporations in the field of oil and gas policy and their relationships with the countries-ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations members are outlined. Separately are represented the foreign policy stands of Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei, Philippines and Malaysia on territorial disputes over offshore oil and gas fields. These processes are pushing both European and American business to abandon the conventional schemes and accept the new conditions of their activity in Southeast Asia.

  18. Globalization and language policies of multilingual societies: some case studies of south east Asia Globalização e políticas linguísticas em sociedades multilíngues: estudos de caso do sudeste da Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Kumar Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world. These changes also have put a significant mark on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. There is a clear movement towards multilingual practices in the world, which is also evident in the title of UNESCO 2003 education position paper, "Education in a multilingual world." Given the long-standing history of multilingual contexts of the Himalayan region and the emergence of the two major global economic power centers of 21st century, China and India, language policies and practices of the region have become a great matter of interests for linguists and policy makers around the world. This paper uses case studies to investigate how globalization influences language education policies and practices in multilingual countries. The case studies that we have drawn from the four nations of South East Asia - Afghanistan, China, India, and Nepal offer insights for other multilingual nations of the world, as they portray the influences of globalization on language policies and practices of multilingual countries. This paper suggests more research on comparative studies of multilingual education across multilingual nations in the world.Nas últimas décadas, transformações econoômicas e políticas significativas transcorreram no mundo. Essas mudanças deixaram sua marca também nas práticas de ensino e aprendizagem de línguas em todo o globo. Há um claro movimento em prol de práticas multilíngues, o que fica evidente no título do artigo de posição da UNESCO sobre a educação de 2003, "Education in a multilingual world". Frente à longa história de contextos multilíngues na região do Himalaia e à emergência de duas potências mundiais no século 21, a Índia e a China, as práticas e políticas linguísticas da região tornaram-se assunto de grande interesse para linguistas e legisladores de todo o mundo. Este artigo

  19. Quantitative status of resources for radiation therapy in Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Levin, Cecil Victor

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Resources for radiation therapy in Asian and Pacific countries were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of the status of radiation oncological practice in the region. Methods and Materials: The data were obtained mainly through surveys on the availability of major equipment and personnel which were conducted through an International Atomic Energy Agency regional project. The study included 17 countries in South Asia, South East Asia, East Asia and Australasia. Data were related to national populations and economic and a general health care indices. Results: Large differences in equipment and personnel among countries were demonstrated. The availability of both teletherapy and brachytherapy was related to the economic status of the countries. The shortage of teletherapy machines was evident in more countries than that of brachytherapy. Many departments were found to treat patients without simulators or treatment planning systems. The number of radiation oncologists standardized by cancer incidence of a country did not correlate well with economic status. Conclusions: There were significant deficiencies in the availability of all components of radiation therapy in the analyzed countries. The deficiencies were linked predominantly to the economic status of the country. Cognisance should be taken of the specific shortfalls in each country to ensure that expansion or any assistance offered appropriately match its needs and can be fully utilized. The information on the resources currently available for radiation oncological practice in the region presented in this paper provides a valuable basis for planning of development aid programs on radiation therapy

  20. Central Asia in Asia: Charting growing trans-regional linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola P. Contessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the so-called ‘Asian Century’ unfolds, Central Asian countries are increasingly directing their foreign relations eastward. Meanwhile, Asian states are equally turning to Central Asia in their search for energy resources and new markets. This dual dynamic is giving rise to closer and deeper ties in three key areas. As far as infrastructures are concerned, various Asian powers have adopted Silk Road policies that see Central Asia as a fundamental transit route for their long-haul connectivity projects. In the field of trade, Central Asia's exchanges with other Asian countries have been growing steadily since the 1990s, in some cases even coming to rival, in comparative terms, exchanges with the West. Lastly, in terms of multilateralism, Central Asia is increasingly enmeshed in a web of overlapping institutions with a strong Asian identity, coexisting with the region's Western institutional references. The article then problematizes this emerging pattern by sketching out some of the possible ramifications that could stem from the sustainment and consolidation of these trends for the international order and the global balance of power.

  1. Nuclear issues in the Asia-Pacific region: socio-political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the prospect of peaceful use of nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region, criteria for judging the acceptability of nuclear electric power in the region, and alternative worldviews on the basis of which a regional nuclear order should be established. First, current nuclear power issues in Japan are discussed. Secondly, the Asia-Pacific countries are classified according to their stages of civil nuclear development, Thirdly, the acceptability of civil nuclear power in the region is discussed, using nuclear nonproliferation, safety, and public acceptance as three major criteria. Fourthly, conflicts of interest that cut across North/South, East/West, nuclear/non-nuclear, and nuclear weapons states/non-nuclear weapons states boundaries are discussed. Lastly,it is proposed that an international forum be convened of all the countries concerned with nuclear issues in the region. Several major objectives of this forum are suggested, including construction of a rational model for a solution for non-zero-sum gain to everyone regarding use of nuclear power in the region. (author)

  2. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  3. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular

  4. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Hsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA. Two typical episode periods (27–28 March and 13–14 April were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m−3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m−3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia, CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind

  5. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m-3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m-3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active

  6. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Asia/Pacific region are featured here.

  7. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  8. Integrated approach to natural gas utilization in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdestad, W.R.; Egbogah, E.O.

    1995-01-01

    The rapidly expanding economies in the Pacific Rim have placed increasing demands upon indigenous natural gas supplies in South East Asia and Australia. Competing demands include exports of liquefied natural gas (LNG), domestic consumption, and potential use for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to extend the useful life of maturing oil fields. An additional competing demand for gas exports may emerge as the interstate pipeline grid is expanded. An integrated approach incorporating the evolving nature of gas demands and discrete physical supplies would provide a means to mitigate against potential mismatching of supply and demand. The consideration of the evolving nature of gas demands could promote economically beneficial changes to gas field development. The development of high carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) content gas fields has been slowed by the lack of a market for CO 2 . Utilization of by-product CO 2 for EOR could improve development economics, thus facilitating earlier development of gas supplies to satisfy gas demands including domestic use and LNG exports. End users would also benefit from the assurance that gas supplies would become available as needed. The maturity and increasingly complex natural gas industry in the Asia Pacific Region has led to a qualitative change. The model of single projects to satisfy single markets is no longer valid. The current environment is more dynamic, creating the need to anticipate changes to market demands and to find value-added markets for by-products. The integrated approach to gas utilization discussed in this paper presents a new model more appropriate to the gas industry existing today in the Asia Pacific Region. This approach is particularly significant to widely discussed proposals for an Asia Pacific energy grid extending to Australia

  9. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including nearly 30 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. This document highlights a few examples of the Solutions Center's work in the region.

  10. Population genetic structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), from China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Jun L; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Run J

    2008-11-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, is a species of fruit flies of significant agricultural interest. Of supposed Indian origin, the melon fly is now widely distributed throughout South East Asia up to China, while it has been recently eradicated from Japan. The population structure of seven geographic populations from coastal China, as well as samples from other regions of South East Asia and Japan, including lab colonies, have been studied using a 782 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence. The observed genetic diversity was exceedingly low, considering the geographic scale of the sampling, and one single haplotype was found to be predominant from Sri Lanka to China. We confirm that Bactrocera cucurbitae exists in South East Asia as a single phyletic lineage, that Chinese populations are genetically uniform, and that no apparent genetic differentiation exists between these and three available Japanese melon fly sequences.

  11. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. Northeast Asia regional energy infrastructure proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Gulidov, Ruslan; Kalashnikov, Victor; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in the countries of Northeast Asia has spurred a massive increase in the need for energy, especially oil, gas, coal, and electricity. Although the region, taken as a whole, possesses financial, technical, labor, and natural resources sufficient to address much of the region's needs now and into the future, no one country has all of those attributes. As a result, over the past two decades, there has been significant interest in regional proposals that would allow sharing of resources, including infrastructure to develop and transport energy resources from the Russian Far East to South Korea, China, and Japan, and cooperation on energy-efficiency, renewable energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle as well. In this article we review some of these proposals, identify some of the factors that could contribute to the success or failure of infrastructure proposals, and explore some of the implications and ramifications of energy cooperation activities for energy security in the region.

  13. Tectonic significance of changes in post-subduction Pliocene–Quaternary magmatism in the south east part of the Carpathian–Pannonian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seghedi, I.; Maţenco, L.; Downes, H.; Mason, P.R.D.; Szakács, A.; Pécskay, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The south-eastern part of the Carpathian–Pannonian region records the cessation of convergence between the European platform/Moesia and the Tisza–Dacia microplate. Plio-Quaternary magmatic activity in this area, in close proximity to the ‘Vrancea zone’, shows a shift from normal calc-alkaline to

  14. Building Maritime Security in Southeast Asia: Outsiders Not Welcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Najib Razak , has called for greater vigi- lance and intelligence sharing to combat piracy and prevent terrorism along the Malacca Strait.21 To improve...part a reward for its partnership in the war on terrorism. Weatherbee, International Rela- tions in Southeast Asia, p. 37. 18. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun...Abd Razak , “The Security of the Straits of Malacca and Its Im- plications to the South East Asia Regional Se- curity” (speech, Seoul, 13 March 2007

  15. Modelling obsidian trade routes during late Neolithic in the south-east Banat region of Vršac using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the possible trajectory of the movement of the obsidian that was brought to the region of present day Vršac from Carpathian 1 and Carpathian 2 sources, located between Košice and Miškolc (the present day border area between Hungary and Slovakia. This objective has been fulfilled using computer aided modelling performed within the constraints of geographic information system software based on the physical characteristics of the terrain and the reconstruction of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions in the period of the late Neolithic. The second largest obsidian collection in the territory of Vinča culture originates from the site of Potporanj, south of Vršac. The abundance of finds indicates the importance this region had in the distribution of this resource during late Neolithic. In the paper the modelling of two different possibilities of land based distribution from the flow of the river Tisza are shown; the first from Perlez/Opovo (western route and the other from Mureє (northern route, i.e. present day Arad and Timiєoara. The modelled results indicate the existence of a settlement patterning close to the modelled pathways in the period of Vinča culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Society, Culture and Communications in the Balkans in Proto - and Early History

  16. Simulating growth dynamics in a South-East Asian rainforest threatened by recruitment shortage and tree harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, P. [Centre for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kurt-Wolters-Str. 3, D-34109 Kassel (Germany); Huth, A. [Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Ecological Modelling, P.O. Box 500 136, D-04301 Leipzig (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that the future recruitment in South-East Asian dipterocarp trees species depending on mast-fruiting events might be endangered by climate change or enhanced seed predation in forest fragments. Especially in combination with the ongoing tree harvesting in this region the recruitment threat imposes a severe danger on the species richness and forest structure of the whole area. We here assess with the process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 the impacts of common tree-logging strategies in those recruitment endangered forests. FORMIND2.0 is based on the calculations of the carbon balance of individual trees belonging to 13 different plant functional types. Even single logging events in those rainforests threatened by a lack of recruitment led to shifts in the abundances of species, to species loss, and to forest decline and dieback. The results show that current logging practices in South-East Asia seriously overuse the forests especially in the light of changing climate conditions.

  17. Tectonic significance of changes in post-subduction Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism in the south east part of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Maţenco, Liviu; Downes, Hilary; Mason, Paul R. D.; Szakács, Alexandru; Pécskay, Zoltán

    2011-04-01

    The south-eastern part of the Carpathian-Pannonian region records the cessation of convergence between the European platform/Moesia and the Tisza-Dacia microplate. Plio-Quaternary magmatic activity in this area, in close proximity to the 'Vrancea zone', shows a shift from normal calc-alkaline to much more diverse compositions (adakite-like calc-alkaline, K-alkalic, mafic Na-alkalic and ultrapotassic), suggesting a significant change in geodynamic processes at approximately 3 Ma. We review the tectonic setting, timing, petrology and geochemistry of the post-collisional volcanism to constrain the role of orogenic building processes such as subduction or collision on melt production and migration. The calc-alkaline volcanism (5.3-3.9 Ma) marks the end of normal subduction-related magmatism along the post-collisional Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita volcanic chain in front of the European convergent plate margin. At ca. 3 Ma in South Harghita magma compositions changed to adakite-like calc-alkaline and continued until recent times (< 0.03 Ma) interrupted at 1.6-1.2 Ma by generation of Na and K-alkalic magmas, signifying changes in the source and melting mechanism. We attribute the changes in magma composition in front of the Moesian platform to two main geodynamic events: (1) slab-pull and steepening with opening of a tear window (adakite-like calc-alkaline magmas) and (2) renewed contraction associated with deep mantle processes such as slab steepening during post-collisional times (Na and K-alkalic magmas). Contemporaneous post-collisional volcanism at the eastern edge of the Pannonian Basin at 2.6-1.3 Ma was dominated by Na-alkalic and ultrapotassic magmas, suggesting a close relationship with thermal asthenospheric doming and strain partitioning related to the Adriatic indentation. Similar timing, magma chamber processes and volume for K-alkalic (shoshonitic) magmas in the South Apuseni Mountains (1.6 Ma) and South Harghita area at a distance of ca. 200 km imply a

  18. The Tourist Potential and Sustainable Development – New Trends and Opportunities for Galati Located in Romania´S South-East Development Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Galati, danubian harbor city from the South Eastern Development Area of Romania, in not found on the UNESCO patrimony list of tourist attractions but disposes of a huge tourist potential that can be capitalized. Along with the neighbouring danubian harbour city – Braila – it forms one of the unique urban groups in the country through its geographical position, number of inhabitants, history and culture and both towns are regarded as poles of urban development. For the time being, the lack of the abilities/ competences of comprehensible formulation of efficient capitalization of the tourist potential generated by the natural environment and cultural inheritance of Galati Town, through the cosmopolitan character of great Danube harbour and fair (with agricultural products- cereals, honey and wax and so on close to the Black Sea and everything that belongs to it restrains and detains the manifestation of its tourist identity and competitiveness and identity. Thus, the identification of novelty elements as opportunities on which the paper focuses and which can ensure the promotion and development of the real needs of the town through tourism comes from an integrated correlation of the aspects that belong to the whole potential of Galatzi area, from the impact arising out of the geographical, geopolitical, political and economical position of Galati,the level of implication various actors can have, the policies and contemporary local / regional / European strategies, etc. The development of ideas in an integrated and partial way can constitute even the support of a proeminent consulting base (work groups formed of spokesmen with high qualification from academic, economic and business fields and who know the real needs of development ; consultation and public debates, including the local population and the formulation of a direction of short, medium or long term strategic action and their transposition through a portfolio of projects. Only through

  19. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  20. Dietary Guidelines for the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin W; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu; Low, Wah Yun; Liqian, Qiu; Guldan, Georgia S; Hokama, Tomiko; Nanishi, Keiko; Oy, Sreymom; Tang, Li; Zerfas, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program. It may also be of value in reminding public health practitioners, educators, administrators, and policy makers of current nutrition issues. It may additionally be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs and regulations. The main areas of nutrition that are included in the Guidelines are eating a variety of foods, including vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, and nuts. Choose fish, poultry, and meats grown in a sustainable way. Appropriate growth, including avoiding obesity, and physical activity are important. Breastfeeding is the basis of infant nutrition and nutrition of mothers is an important public health measure. Negative factors in the Asian diet include salt, refined sugar, alcohol and fats. The APACPH Dietary Guidelines will need to be kept under review and modified to meet regional differences in food supply. The Guidelines will be useful as a checklist of the issues to be considered in public health programs, addressing both acute and chronic diseases.

  1. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP) aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam) chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important steps. However, a much higher

  2. Partnering with law enforcement to deliver good public health: the experience of the HIV/AIDS Asia regional program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Mukta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the South-East Asia region, the drug control and supply reduction agenda is of high political importance. A multitude of law enforcement agencies are engaged in this work. Nationwide campaigns such as the “Strike- Hard” campaign in China or the “war on drugs” in Thailand dominate the landscape. Viet Nam’s response to drug use has historically focused on deterrence through punishment and supply-side measures. This policy environment is further complicated by lack of evidence-based drug dependence treatment in several settings. The public health consequences of this approach have been extremely serious, with some of the highest documented prevalence of preventable blood-borne viral infections, including HIV, and hepatitis B and C. The wider socioeconomic consequences of this have been borne by families, communities and the governments themselves. The HIV/AIDS Asia Regional Program (HAARP aims to stop the spread of HIV associated with drug use in South-East Asia and parts of southern China. HAARP works across five countries (Cambodia, China Burma, Laos, Viet Nam chiefly through the Ministries of Health and Social Affairs, National Drug Control Agencies, and Public Security sectors, including prisons. HAARP has also engaged with UN agencies and a wide range of civil society organisations, including organisations of people who use drugs, to ensure their meaningful involvement in matters that directly affect them. We describe the experience of HAARP in implementing a large-scale harm reduction programme in the Sub-Mekong Region. HAARP chose to direct its efforts in three main areas: supporting an enabling environment for effective harm reduction policies, building core capacity among national health and law enforcement agencies, and supporting “universal access” goals by making effective, high-coverage services available to injecting drug users and their partners. The activities supported by HAARP are humble yet important

  3. Tissue banking in Asia Pacific region: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, Aziz; Mandy, Foong Shi Yun; Ning, Tan; Kaiying, Wang

    2018-04-25

    Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific regions is driven by two main forces-firstly the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) via Regional Co-operative Agreement projects and secondly by the Asia Pacific Association of Surgical Tissue Banking (APASTB). This overview is written in three sections: (1) History of tissue banking in individual country in the region. (2) History of APASTB. (3) History of IAEA programme in Asia Pacific region. The current status and future of the tissue banking programme in the region will be discussed.

  4. Can computer models stimulate learning about sustainable land use? Experience with LUPAS in the humid (sub-)tropics of Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paassen, van A.; Roetter, R.P.; Keulen, van H.; Hoanh, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    In many rice-cultivating regions of east and south-east Asia, competition for land and water resources is strong and increasing. This calls for exploration of future technology and policy options in support of sustainable land (and water) use. Sustainable land use is a complex issue, that involves

  5. Confidence-building measures in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Huasun

    1991-01-01

    The regional confidence-building, security and disarmament issues in the Asia-Pacific region, and in particular, support to non-proliferation regime and establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones are reviewed

  6. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  7. Positions, Dispositions and Practices in Education Policy in Central and South East Europe (Research in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos Kecojevic, Živa; Gaber, Slavko

    2012-01-01

    In the article, we present the conceptualisation and selected results of ongoing research dealing with the particular area of top decision making in education in Central and South East Europe. Aiming at a Bourdieuian type of objectification of key agents of decision making in education--ministers--a group of researchers from the region is in the…

  8. RCA and its regional office for cooperative activities in the applications of nuclear techniques in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Sol

    2008-01-01

    The Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an intergovernmental agreement among 17 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in South Asia, South East Asia, Far East and the Pacific, established for promoting regional cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Established in 1972, the RCA is a unique development within the technical cooperation framework coordinated by IAEA is support of the regional cooperation in the applications of nuclear technology to the benefit of its Member States. It has a well established network of scientists trained in the use of nuclear technologies in the agricultural, medical, industrial, and environmental sectors, with a good potentiality to use its regional technical and scientific resources to contribute to the solution of some of the significant problems in the region. The achievements recorded in the several decades of RCA history cover a wide spectrum of areas and these achievements have been published a Success Stories. Having recognized a need to enhance ownership of the region, the RCA Member States had wished to establish its Regional Office (RCARO). The Regional Office which is hosted by the Government of Republic of Korea was established in 2002. Located in Daejeon, the RCARO has been active in its endeavors toward increasing visibility of the RCA and establishing cooperative partnership between RCA and other international organizations. The RCARO has also played a key role in successfully implementing an RCA Project on Post-Tsunami Environment Impact Assessment in partnership with UNDP (Republic of Korea) with the participation of 14 RCA Member States. A number of projects for capacity building in the region are also being implemented by RCARO, mostly by providing training opportunities for young professionals in the region. The RCA community welcomes any contacts from potential end-users or

  9. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    using a grid of 160*120*30 points. The obtained meteorological fields were used in the HYPACT model; the source of Lagrangian particles was located over the Aral Sea region. As the result for 2008 11 days were detected when aerosol from the Aral Sea was actively transported to the observation sites. Comparative chemical analysis of aerosol samples at the stations of observation and soil samples from the Aral Sea region would confirm the presence of emissions and regional transport. It should be noted that the main source of aerosol in Central Asia is Taklamakan desert. Average value and AOT variability over it several times higher than corresponding AOT values over the rest of the region. The greatest variability aerosol over Taklamakan observed from late March to mid-May. For example, on April 22, 2008 average of the AOT in cell 5° x 5° over the western part of Taklamakan - value reached 3,171. AOT virtually throughout the region positively correlated with AOT over Taklamakan desert. The most noticeable effect makes an aerosol of Taklamakan found in the south-east Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan in the east and north of the Tibetan highlands. The impact of the Aral Sea area is restricted significantly less. In doing so, AOT in the central part of the region reveals a weak negative correlation with the AOT over the Aral Sea.

  11. Development of wood pellets market in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood pellets market in nine countries in South East Europe and Slovakia. Objective of the research was to observe the actual situation regarding the number of producers, size of installed capacities, production volume, foreign trade flows and existing problems and obstacles which significantly limit the sustainable development of wood pellets market in the selected countries. Selection of such an objective results from the fact that according to the stated elements there are no sufficiently reliable data, wherefore this region is a huge gap in numerous reports of international and national organizations and institutions. Results of the conducted research show that in the middle of 2014, 245 producers were engaged in wood pellets production in South East Europe and Slovakia, 116 of which were located in Bulgaria and Serbia. Most of the producers of wood pellets has installed capacities of 1,000-5,000 tons annually, while only 18 factories in the entire region have the installed capacity over 30,000 tons/year. Observed collectively in all stated countries, the total installed capacities for wood pellets production were 2.2 million tons in 2013 and the realized production was 1.36 million tons. The largest part of the produced amounts of wood pellets in this region is exported. 1.06 million tons were exported from the region in 2013, which is 77.9% of the realized production. Such high export is the result of the underdevelopment of the local market (Slovenia is the only exception and the problems which exist and limit its faster development in most countries.

  12. Governance, corruption, and trade in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Kazutomo; Wilson, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of reducing corruption and improving transparency to lower trade costs in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation region. The authors find, based on a computable general equilibrium model, significant potential trade and welfare gains for Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation members, with increased transparency and lower levels of corruption. Results suggest that ...

  13. A regional chemical transport modeling to identify the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg/m3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg/m3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. An impact pattern can be found in April, while the impact becomes slightly broader and goes up to Yangtze River Delta. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward tendency from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active biomass burning year to obtain an upper limit and climate effects.

  14. Cross-border transmission capacity allocation mechanisms in South East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    South East Europe (SEE) is moving rapidly toward the creation of a regional electricity market and wholesale electricity market/power exchange that will improve competitive performance and increase liquidity and reliability. We describe the current applied and future possible congestion management methods in Europe including the SEE region. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a regional electricity and cross-border trade within the region and neighboring countries, and concludes with a brief discussion of policy issues. (author)

  15. Moving Toward a Regional Safeguards System in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Griggs, James R.

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the nuclear nonproliferation challenges of South Asia, it is useful to examine the similar past nonproliferation problems in South America. The nuclear rapprochement between Argentina and Brazil involved several developments in progression. We conclude that two developments are particularly applicable to the India/Pakistan problem: technical cooperation and a regional safeguards system. This paper reviews the history of Argentina/Brazil rapprochement, discusses application to India/Pakistan, and proposes specific actions to move South Asia toward regional stability.

  16. Idiosyncratic Features of the Contemporary Regional Economic Architecture in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip K. Das

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the characteristic features of contemporary policy-led regionalism in Asia. It identifies the positive and negative features associated with the free trade agreements that have proliferated in Asia during the first decade of the 21st century. There has been a marked transformation in Asia's regional architecture in a short span of a decade-and-a-half. The mode and conduct of multilateral trade has been signifThe objective of this article is to examine the characteristic features of contemporary policy-led regionalism in Asia. It identifies the positive and negative features associated with the free trade agreements that have proliferated in Asia during the first decade of the 21st century. There has been a marked transformation in Asia's regional architecture in a short span of a decade-and-a-half. The mode and conduct of multilateral trade has been significantly transformed during recent years and Asia could not possibly remain immune to this transformation. The importance of regionalism in multilateral trade has increased steadily. In addition, the trade-investment-services nexus has developed and grown increasingly important. As business firms now manufacture parts of their products across the border, bilateral trade agreements (BTAs, regional trade agreements (RTAs and free trade agreements (FTAs of the contemporary period need to take into account the new kind of trade barriers that have been created due to the changing mode of trade. The contemporary regional agreements need to be designed to facilitate the new modes of conducting business and trade. It was understood rather late in Asia that the 'WTO-Plus' FTAs are more functional and result-oriented than their predecessors.

  17. Regional cooperative agreement for the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Among the means available to the International Atomic Energy Agency to promote cooperative efforts in the nuclear field is the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development, and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asia and Pacific Region. Under the terms of this agreement, which came into force on June 12, 1972, participating countries aim to promote and coordinate research, development, and training projects in nuclear fields through collaborative efforts among relevant national institutions in the region. The Agency's role is to provide organizational, administrative, advisory, technical, and financial assistance when needed to secure successful execution of the projects undertaken within the framework of the RCA. Although this presentation deals primarily with the benefits of regional cooperation under the agreement, a review of the RCA would be somewhat imbalanced without a mention of its shortcomings. One of the principal impediments to more rapid progress, as is the case in many other areas, is financing. There is no stable source of funding outside the research contract program and, the likelihood of large-scale UNDP support notwithstanding, a greater willingness on the part of participating Member States to support the program along with the development of a greater sense of common purpose are called for. In this connection serious consideration is being given to the possibility of establishing an Asian Centre for Research and Training, an institute that would bring together scientists from the region to collaborate on problems common to the RCA countries. A study group has already been convened to investigate the feasibility of this proposal

  18. Human development and South East Asian countries: Special emphasis on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpa

    2013-08-31

    'Development' is to improve the quality of people's lives by creating an environment for them to engage in a wide range of activities, to be healthy and well nourished, to be knowledgeable and to be able to participate in the community life. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a multi-dimensional index of development as it is the combination of three development indices- health index, education index and income index. This article attempts to compare the HDI and its components between various South East Asian countries. Secondary data is used. India's position on the HDI scale is equivalent to the South East Asian average and rank 134 out of more than 190 countries. In South East Asia, India stood fifth in HDI, behind Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives and Indonesia. Country has launched several schemes and programs to improve the health indicators, to provide elementary education to every child and to alleviate poverty. India's HDI value has improved with time but still country has a long way to go in achieving an acceptable HDI. Need is to strengthen the existing schemes and programs.

  19. Nuclear energy in Asia and regional co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing concern in East Asia about regional cooperation in the field of nuclear power. At the APEC conference in Osaka in 1995, APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) established an Energy Research Center. The center has started to perform joint research forecasts on energy supply and demand for the region. Japan proposed the inauguration of a Conference on Nuclear Safety in Asia at the Moscow Nuclear Energy Summit in 1996. The first conference was held in Tokyo that year. This year, the conference will be held in Seoul. Japan's Atomic Energy Commission sponsors the International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia every year. This year marks the eighth conference. The outstanding feature of this year's conference was that so many countries stressed regional cooperation. South Korea proposed the installation of a regional online radiation monitoring system. The Philippines asserted the need for a cooperative mechanism on the lines of ASIATOM. Why is so much concern now being focused on nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? What kind of regional cooperation is necessary, and what kind is possible? What are the unique features of nuclear power cooperation in East Asia? These are the points addressed in this paper. (author)

  20. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  1. Land Administration and Management in South East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Enemark, Stig

    2008-01-01

    A 2000 World Bank report on higher education in developing countries highlighted the growing gap in the quality and participation rates of higher education between developed and developing countries. Some of the problems facing higher education institutions in developing countries include a heavy...... in developing countries is also discussed. This paper commences the dialogue on this important issue and identifies areas that warrant further research....

  2. Financial Crisis and Social Change in South East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    1) Crisis - Dangers and Opportunities 2) "Creative destruction" or Robbery in Open Daylight! 3) Strings and Conditionalities of the IFIs 4) De-regulating Labor Markets/Targetting the Poor And Avoiding Social Chaos 5) Introducing Flexibility in Labor Markets/Impacts 6) Growing inequalities...... - Distributional consequences 7) Informalization of Labor Markets 8) Increased Social and Political Instability 9) Concluding Remarks...

  3. The Prosea Programme (Plant Resources of South-East Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Task Force ‘PROSEA beyond 2000’ [members: Dr. A.R.M. Ali (FRIM), Dr. B.P. del Rosario (PCARRD), Dr. J. Kartasubrata (PROSEA-BO) and Dr. J.S. Siemonsma (PROSEA-WAG)], met several times and prepared a report with items for discussion at the Third International PROSEA Workshop on 15-17 November

  4. The Prosea Programme (Plant Resources of South-East Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    On 25 and 26 June 2001 FRIM and PROSEA Country Office Malaysia organised a First National Workshop on Environmental Education (EE) in Forest Recreational Areas. The workshop was attended by 75 participants, most from municipalities and government agencies. The issue is actual because tourism is

  5. Palmoil as a Transnational Crisis in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the recent palm oil expansion as a multiple crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss, and (failed development. It draws on recent research on the Malaysian "Palm Oil Industrial Complex" and on transnational campaign coalitions around palm oil to explore the transnational dimensions of the palm oil crisis. It argues that a new campaign coalition around the issue of agrofuel policies in the European Union has emerged that links social and environmental struggles in Indonesia and Europe. This new transnational activism not only rejects the palm oil development paradigm, but also points to possible alternative development futures. --- Dieser Beitrag analysiert die gegenwärtige Palmölexpansion in Südostasien als multiple Krise von Klimawandel, Biodiversitätsverlust und (gescheiterter Entwicklung. Forschungen zum malaysischen "Palmöl-industriellen Komplex" und zu transnationalen Kampagnenkoalitionen um das Thema Palmöl werden herangezogen, um die transnationalen Dimensionen der Palmölkrise zu skizzieren. Es wird gezeigt, dass eine neue Kampagnenkoalition gegen die Agrotreibstoffpolitik der Europäischen Union entsteht, die soziale und umweltbezogene Bewegungen in Indonesien mit europäischen Netzwerken verbindet. Diese transnationale Kampagne lehnt das Palmöl-Entwicklungsparadigma ab und zeigt mögliche Alternativen auf.

  6. Global research collaboration: Networks and partners in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, Richard; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Costas, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    This is an empirical paper that addresses the role of bilateral and multilateral international co-authorships in the six leading science systems among the ASEAN group of countries (ASEAN6). The paper highlights the different ways that bilateral and multilateral co-authorships structure global networks and the collaborations of the ASEAN6. The paper looks at the influence of the collaboration styles of major collaborating countries of the ASEAN6, particularly the USA and Japan. It also highlig...

  7. The Prosea Programme (Plant Resources of South-East Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    At the 9th Country Officers Meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam (9-11 September 1997) it was decided to start with PHOTPHILE. PHOTPHILE is a database of illustrations (photographs, slides, and drawings) of species covered by the PROSEA Handbook which are intended to be published on the Commodity Group

  8. Maritime Security In South East Asia: Indonesian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadno, Melda Kamil Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Maritime security is an important issue particularly for the archipelagic state. As the largest archipelagic state in the world, Indonesia has its own responsibility to guard its waters from any threat. Indonesian waters have been used for centuries to accelerate International trade. In addition, Indonesia needs to address its boundary problems, handling of piracy, combating Transnational Organized Crime, such as, human trafficking, drugs trafficking, and human smuggling. This article explai...

  9. An analysis of the South East Europe electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstrovic, G.; Tot, M.; Medic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Until October 2004, the South East European (SEE) power system had never been connected in unified parallel operation. For the first time in history, all of continental Europe became a single synchronous electricity area with 450 million people in 22 countries. At the Union for the Co-ordination of Transmission of Electricity (UCTE), regional countries in the SEE agreed to create a stable common regulatory and market framework capable of attracting investment in gas networks, power generation and transmission networks, so that all countries would have access to the stable and continuous gas and electricity supply that is essential for economic development and social stability. This paper provided an overview of the electricity market in the SEE and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the regional market. A brief description of each relevant country in the context of power issues was presented. It also provided some results of a long term generation and transmission development planning Geographic Information system study for the SEE region and analysed the influence on regional security of supply. In this regard, investment opportunities were identified. It was concluded that the main disadvantages in regional energy market establishing include differences in levels of economy; production and consumption structure; energy prices; purchasing power parity; energy sector organization; transmission bottlenecks; power plant aging, low efficiency and problems in environmental protection. The main advantages should cover lower total development expense and system operation as well as higher supply security. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 8 refs

  10. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, T.

    2001-01-01

    There are 438 nuclear power reactors operating in the world. Of these, 95 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 36 reactors currently under construction in the world, 19 are in the Asia-Pacific region. Of the 44 planned reactors in the world, 36 are in this region. At the start of the 'New Nuclear Century' the Asia-Pacific region has become the main area for growth and innovation in nuclear power. This paper describes the nuclear power developments in each country and examines the status of the construction programme and the planned projects. Countries included are China, India, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), Republic of Korea, Pakistan and Taiwan. New projects include the HTR in China, Advance Breeder Water Reactors in Japan, KEDO in the DPRK and the Advance Pressurised Water Reactor in the Republic of Korea

  11. Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Some respondents observed self-imposed restrictions on exercises, food items, visits and sex in order to ...

  12. Gender Equity Employment in Polytechnics in South East Zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Uduchukwu (2001) observes that there is gender inequality in ... 2. The Gender Equity Employment Status in State-owned. Polytechnics in South East Zone of Nigeria .... traditional Occupation as well as the Perspectives of Married.

  13. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  14. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckman, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region

  15. IAEA program of regional technical cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    A list of project activities of the IAEA's Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for Asia and the Pacific regions is presented. They cover the fields of food and agriculture, industry, medicine and nuclear science. Activities under the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Industrial Project are summarised

  16. Internal and external dynamics of regional cooperation in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzokhid Rakhimov

    2010-07-01

    Challenges of the 21-century require a broader partnership and cooperation. Future prospects of multilateral regional and international cooperation in Central Asia will depend on correlations of national, regional and global interests. It is necessary first of all strong dialogs between Central Asian republics itself. Central Asian geopolitical, economic and security challenges are connected and solution could come jointly. Future regional cooperation, strong international partnership would promote more stability, economic reforms and democratization to region and beyond.

  17. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  18. THE PROBLEM OF ILLEGAL MIGRATION OF ETHNIC ROHINGYA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Сомкамнерд, Навапат

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of illegal migration of ethnic Rohingya in the region of South-East Asia, in some ASEAN countries, especially in Myanmar and Thailand. An overview focuses on the role of Thailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh and the role of international and regional organizations, especially the role of the UN and ASEAN in resolution of the problem of illegal migration of Rohingya. Particular emphasis is placed on activities of ASEAN and Thailand to tackle the problem of illegal...

  19. Transitional processes and the role of cities in east and South-East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cities of Eastern and South East Europe, passing through dynamic and uncertain processes of social, economic and political transition, are being confronted with serious challenges in relation to more stabilized cities of Central and, especially, Western Europe. The former policy of centralization is faced with political, administrative and economic changes, as well as with aspirations towards decentralization, regionalization and polycentrism. The confronted tendencies still dominantly influence to the level of Eastern and South East cities' competitiveness. This urgently asks for orientation towards functional positioning of cities within wider metropolitan and regional frameworks. Another crucial orientation is presented by initial tendencies of metropolitan areas linking or networking in wider regional context. Both tendencies indicate the crucial problem of city governance quality level, according to contemporary criteria instead classical and hierarchical model of executing governmental power. Some examples of cities in Eastern and South East Europe are presented in the article, as well as of some cities in Central Europe where initial phase of transition has been completed.

  20. Security trends in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong

    1992-01-01

    The drastic world changes are less conspicuous in Asia-Pacific region than in it was the case in Europe, although they must be considered as stabilizing factors as well as sustained economic dynamism. Due to these changes some progress was achieved in world disarmament and arms control. But this is considered only a first step, there remains a long way to go. In the case of Asia-Pacific, possessors of largest nuclear arsenals and most sophisticated conventional arms need to further reduce their forces, support the proposals of setting up nuclear-weapon-free zones and commit themselves to no-first-use of nuclear weapons and non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear states. Their fulfilment of these demands would undoubtedly contribute towards the prevention of a new round of the arms race and to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Asia-Pacific region

  1. Some thoughts on nuclear cooperation in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaloeis, Azhar

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes some thoughts of the author on the importance of the role of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region in giving significant contributions to the development of the individual countries and to the region as a whole. The paper focuses on the role of nuclear science and technology and the importance of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, in particular to meet the challenges and opportunities in the new millennium. The paper starts off with a brief discussion on some important aspects of the Asia-Pacific region in view of its strategic location and its vast potential in terms of human and natural resources. Some of the major needs, challenges and opportunities in association with a future vision are briefly presented in terms of areas of activities that can be supported by the application of nuclear science and technology. The paper then discusses some ideas on how to further strengthen the nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by some concluding remarks and suggestions. (author)

  2. Advancing regional collaboration — IDRC supporting Asia's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Richard Fuchs believes that people who want to understand how the world is ... The positive aspects of the current transformation are often stunning. ... the practice of clearing land by burning forests blanketed the entire region in haze in 1997, ...

  3. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  4. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE

  5. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  6. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS OF CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION OF REGIONS OF THE SOUTHERN MACROREGION OF RUSSIA AND REGIONS OF THE SOUTH-EAST OF UKRAINE IN THE CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Mitrofanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the political and economic innovations connected with the transformation of the region «Donbass» in the context of decrease of the risks caused by a military-political and economic conflict in Ukraine are investigated. On the basis of creative synthesis of theoretical and practical approaches of studying the evolution of nonlinear economic systems and the formation of megaregions, and also the analysis of the geopolitical situation developing on the world scene between Russia, the USA and China provisions are developed according to which the region «Donbass» can be considered as «a critical point» of the European regionalization. Authors believe that the important strategic prospect of border cooperation of Russia and Ukraine is connected with the formation of a cross-border agglomeration «Nizhnedonbassky» and «Verkhnedonbassky» the creation of which consists in realization of the linking function between Nizhnedonbassky, Volga region, Moscow and Petersburg transport corridors. One of the condition of social and economic stabilization in the subjects of the foreign Caspian and the Black Sea zones is the realization of geotransit capacity of the region «Donbass» with the formation of a geotransit architecture of its economy. Strategically realization of the processes of an international city formation is possible either on the basis of federal principles or by a geopolitical split of the territory of the region “Donbass” on the line Kharkov – Donetsk – Lugansk with a bent to Russia.

  7. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; pAustria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  8. Indoor radon levels in schools of South-East Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; Leonardi, Federica; Simeoni, Carla; Tonnarini, Sabrina; Veschetti, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate average levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in all educational buildings (506 schools) located in South-East Italy (the Salento peninsula, province of Lecce). In this paper the final findings relating to measurements performed with SSNTD dosemeters in 438 schools (86% of the sample) are reported. The average annual activity concentration of radon in schools located in the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . Radon values actually ranged from 21 Bq/m 3 to 1608 Bq/m 3 . About 7% of schools showed radon concentration values above 500 Bq/m 3 , the Italian action level for workplaces. - Highlights: ► The annual radon concentration in schools of the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . ► Schools radon values (209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 ) are higher than the regional average (52 ± 2 Bq/m 3 ). ► Nursery schools showed higher radon values. ► Nursery schools had the highest percentage of schools (12%) over 500 Bq/m 3 .

  9. Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation: the role of the People’s Republic of China, the emerging market in biofuels in Southeast Asia, and diverse feed-in tariffs for renewable energy. The three main ways regional cooperation can strengthen national policies on energy security are (i) sharing information and knowledge to create a sound evidence base for policies, (ii) agreeing on...

  10. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  11. Efforts to promote scientific co-operation in South-East Europe

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    On 13 and 14 May this year CERN hosted a meeting of a task force entrusted with the task of making recommendations for the reconstruction of scientific collaboration in the countries of South-East Europe (1). This meeting follows a conference attended by delegates from the countries of South-East Europe and international experts which was held in Venice between 24 and 27 March this year. The conference was organised under the aegis of UNESCO's Regional Office for Science and Technology for Europe (ROSTE), attended by representatives of the European Science Foundation (ESF), the European Union and the Academia Europaea as well as by observers from CERN. The aim of the conference was to seek resources and assess the prospects for integration of R&D facilities in the countries of South-East Europe into the networks of European countries. Les membres du groupe de Reconstruction d'une coopération scientifique dans l'Europe du sud-est, réunis au CERN, le 14 mai dernier, dé...

  12. Nuclear developments in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Countries in the Asia and Pacific region are engaged in many aspects of nuclear science and technology, often as part of national development plan. A number of them are members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology which was developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide a basis for nuclear technical assistance and cooperation in the Asia and Pacific region. The report describes nuclear developments, from power and research reactors to reprocessing facilities, in these countries. The information was gathered from a range of sources, including relevant journals, publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the OECD/ Nuclear Energy Agen, and annual reports of national nuclear institutes. 4 tabs

  13. Observed regional distribution of sulfur dioxide in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, G.R.; Ferm, M.; Adikary, S.; Ahmad, J.; Mohan, M.; Hong, M.S.; Chen, L.; Fook, L.; Liu, C.M.; Soedomo, M.; Tran, G.; Suksomsank, K.; Zhao, D.; Arndt, R.; Chen, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Increased use of coal for energy in Asia has led to increased SO 2 emissions. SO 2 concentrations have been measured for one year at forty-five locations throughout Asia using passive samplers. Duplicate samples were exposed at each site for one month intervals. The sites were selected to provide background information on the distribution of SO 2 over wide geographical regions, with emphasis on the regional characteristics around areas estimated to be sensitive to sulfur deposition. The annual mean values ranged from less than 0.3 μg/m 3 at Tana Rata, located at 1545 m on the Malaysia Peninsula, Lawa Mandau (Borneo), Malaysia, and Dhankuta, Nepal, to values greater than 20 μg/m 3 at Luchongguan (Guiyang) China, Babar Mahal, Nepal, and Hanoi, Vietnam. In general high concentrations were measured throughout China, with the highest concentrations in the heavy industrial areas in Guiyang. The concentrations in east Asia around the Korea peninsula were ∼ 5 μg/m 3 . The concentrations in the southeast Asia tropics were low, with no station in Malaysia and Indonesia having average concentrations exceeding 1.7 μg/m 3 . The observed SO 2 concentrations were found to display a distinct seasonal cycle which is strongly influenced by the seasonality of winds and precipitation patterns. 3 refs., 3 figs

  14. Evaluating the Predictability of South-East Asian Floods Using ECMWF and GloFAS Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillosu, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Between July and September 2017, the monsoon season caused widespread heavy rainfall and severe floods across countries in South-East Asia, notably in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, with deadly consequences. According to the U.N., in Bangladesh 140 people lost their lives and 700,000 homes were destroyed; in Nepal at least 143 people died, and more than 460,000 people were forced to leave their homes; in India there were 726 victims of flooding and landslides, 3 million people were affected by the monsoon floods and 2000 relief camps were established. Monsoon season happens regularly every year in South Asia, but local authorities reported the last monsoon season as the worst in several years. What made the last monsoon season particularly severe in certain regions? Are these causes clear from the forecasts? Regarding the meteorological characterization of the event, an analysis of forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) for different lead times (from seasonal to short range) will be shown to evaluate how far in advance this event was predicted and start discussion on what were the factors that led to such a severe event. To illustrate hydrological aspects, forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) will be shown. GloFAS is developed at ECMWF in co-operation with the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) and with the support of national authorities and research institutions such as the University of Reading. It will become operational at the end of 2017 as part of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. GloFAS couples state-of-the-art weather forecasts with a hydrological model to provide a cross-border system with early flood guidance information to help humanitarian agencies and national hydro-meteorological services to strengthen and improve forecasting capacity, preparedness and mitigation of natural hazards. In this case GloFAS has shown good potential to become a useful tool for better and

  15. Zero carbon energy system of South East Europe in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominković, D.F.; Bačeković, I.; Ćosić, B.; Krajačić, G.; Pukšec, T.; Duić, N.; Markovska, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% renewable energy system of the South East Europe has been achieved. • Sector integration makes the zero carbon system cheaper compared to the base year. • Numerous renewable technologies needed to achieve zero carbon in the year 2050. • Energy efficiency is a crucial part in a transition to the zero carbon energy system. • No technology has a larger share than 30%; increased security of energy supply. - Abstract: South East Europe is the region in a part of Europe with approximately 65.5 million inhabitants, making up 8.9% of Europe’s total population. The countries concerned have distinct geographical features, various climates and significant differences in gross domestic product per capita, so the integration of their energy systems is considered to be a challenging task. Large differences between energy mixes, still largely dominated by fossil-fuel consumption, make this task even more demanding. This paper presents the transition steps to a 100% renewable energy system which need to be carried out until the year 2050 in order to achieve zero carbon energy society. Novelty of this paper compared to other papers with similar research goals is the assumed sustainable use of biomass in the 100% renewable energy system of the region considered. It is important to emphasize here that only the sustainable use of biomass can be considered carbon-neutral. The resulting biomass consumption of the model was 725.94 PJ for the entire region, which is in line with the biomass potential of the region. Modelling the zero-carbon energy system was carried out using the smart energy system concept, together with its main integration pillars, i.e. power-to-heat and power-to-gas technologies. The resulting power generation mix shows that a wide variety of energy sources need to be utilized and no single energy source has more than a 30% share, which also increases the security of supply. Wind turbines and photovoltaics are the main technologies with

  16. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of institutional balancing theory, I argue that (i) China’s rise has led to a competition among different regional orders, that is, the US-led bilateralism versus ASEAN-centered and China-supported multilateralism. However, conflicts or wars are not inevitable since the contested regional orders...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  17. Relevance of CBR for the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Yuenwah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the focus of CBR action is at the community level, it is pertinent to note some of the Asia-Pacific region’s overall development trends. In an interconnected world, these trends have significant implications for the practice of CBR and its advancement in the region.This paper discusses how CBR could give impetus to a community-supported self-help movement for change. The paper presents seven prisms for akaleidoscopic view to highlight some parameters that are unique to the Asia-Pacific scenario for CBR. The relevance of CBR for this region is discussed in relation to two groups of issues: the first refers to chronic issues of poverty, hunger and inequalities; and the second, to dramatic emerging challenges, from urbanisation to the current economic scenario.

  18. The case for regional exchange rate arrangement in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Kinkyo

    2004-01-01

    The Asian crisis highlighted the difficulties for developing countries to actively manage exchange rates in an environment of high capital mobility. Now it became fashionable to argue that the exchange rate should be either allowed to float freely or irrevocably fixed. This paper examines the case for regional exchange rate arrangements as an instrument to enhance the manageability of exchange rates and discusses the options in East Asia. It critically assess the existing proposal of common b...

  19. SEEWIND - South-East European Wind Energy Exploitation. Wind energy research in South East Europe under the EC FP6 programme; SEEWIND - South-East European Wind Energy Exploitation. Windenergieforschung im 6. Rahmenprogramm der Europaeischen Union in Suedosteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmeier, H. [Verein Energiewerkstatt (Austria)

    2008-08-15

    Large areas in South East Europe offer perfect conditions for the Utilisation of Wind Energy. Local wind systems like ''Bora'', which occurs along the Adriatic Sea, or ''Koshava'', which flows between the ridge of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkan Mountains from Romania over to Serbia, are generated through differences in pressure and temperature between the adjacent regions. Those wind systems therefore can be described as 'home made' and have very individual characteristics. Despite the excellent wind conditions of those locations, the mainly cliffy and complex terrain and the extreme wind conditions with turbulences and strong gusts make great demands on the design and operation of the wind turbines. Exactly those problems the European Commission asked to be investigated and therefore defined 'Complex terrain and local wind systems' as one of the research topics in the last call of the 6th Framework Programme. Under the lead management of Verein Energiewerkstatt, a consortium of ten partners from seven middle- and southeast European countries took part in this call for proposals and received acceptance for the submitted Project ''SEEWIND - South-East European Wind Energy Exploitation''. (orig.)

  20. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid

  1. A new species of Australotaenia (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from a snake in Cambodia: host switching or postcyclic parasitism in a distant region?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2012), s. 279-286 ISSN 0015-5683 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * zoogeography * tapeworms * helminths * Reptilia * South East Asia * Indomalayan Region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/detail.php?id=22092

  2. Developing regional weight-for-age growth references for malaria-endemic countries to optimize age-based dosing of antimalarials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayes, Daniel J.; van Buuren, Stef; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Stasinopoulos, D. Mikis; Rigby, Robert A.; Terlouw, Dianne J.

    2015-01-01

    To derive regional weight-for-age growth references to help optimize age-based dosing of antimalarials in Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia and the Western Pacific. A weight-for-age database was constructed from pre-existing population-based anthropometric data obtained from household surveys

  3. The 13th South-East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise selected, edited papers that were presented at the 13th SOUTH EAST ASIAN CONGRESS OF MEDICAL PHYSICS with the theme of “Improving the quality of human health through physics”, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 10-12 December 2015. It was hosted by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN Sunan Kalijaga), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and University of Indonesia (UI) in association with the South East Asia Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP). Yogyakarta was the ancient capital of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. It is famous for the UNESCO world heritage site of Borobudur temple. This temple was built in the 9 th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty. The temple was designed in the Javanese Buddhist architectural style. The monument was restored by the Indonesian government with UNESCO's help in 1975 and 1982. The congress attracted about 241 participants from 13 countries. Twelve invited speakers delivered nine plenary lectures as well as four pre-congress workshops. A total of 86 oral and 65 poster presentations were given. A variety of topics were discussed, ranging from the most advanced topics such as proton therapy, image-guided radiotherapy, functional MRI to the more conventional ones such as dose distribution, simulation, dosimetry, quality assurance, etc. In this proceedings papers are published under five categories, namely therapeutics, diagnostics, nuclear medicine, biomedical engineering and biophysics. (paper)

  4. Library Services To Prisoners In South East Geopolitical Zones Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prison inmates tend to be side -lined in information provision in Nigeria. Library services to prisoners are critical to their rehabilitation into the larger society on release. The paper is an assessment of Provision of Library services to prison inmates in South East Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The questionnaire method was ...

  5. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  6. Nuclear developments in the Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, M.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    Countries in this part of the world are engaged in many aspects of nuclear science and technology, often as part of a national development plan. A number of them are members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology which was developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency to provide a basis for nuclear technical assistance and cooperation in the Asia and Pacific region. In contrast to North America and most of western Europe, where growth in installed nuclear generating capacity has ceased, a number of regional countries are planning, ordering and building new power reactors to meet their increasing demands for electricity. Major fuel cycle facilities, such as commercial enrichment and reprocessing plants in Japan, are also being developed. This report describes nuclear developments from power and research reactors to reprocessing facilities in countries of the Asia and Pacific region listed in alphabetical order. Power Reactor and Research Reactors programs in the region as well as lists of regional centres with irradiation facilities are presented in the appendixes The information was gathered from a range of sources, including relevant journals, publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency(NEA), and annual reports of national nuclear institutes. 1 tab., ill

  7. Research reactor collaboration in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Byung Jin

    2006-01-01

    The number of research reactors over the world has been decreasing since its peak in the middle of the 1970s, and it is predicted to decrease more rapidly than before in the future. International collaboration on research reactors is an effective way for their continued safe service to human welfare in various technical areas. The number of new research reactors under construction or planned for in the Asia-Pacific region is the greatest in the world. Among the regional collaboration activities on research reactors, safety has been the most important subject followed by neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production and neutron beam applications. It is understood that more regional collaboration on basic technologies important for the safety, management and utilization of the research reactors is demanding. The new project proposal of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia on 'Research Reactor Technology for Effective Utilization' is understood to meet the demands. Meanwhile, there is a consensus on the need for research reactor resource sharing in the region. As a result of the review on the international collaboration activities in the region, the author suggests a linkage between the above new project and IAEA/RCA project considering a possible sharing of research reactor resources in the region. (author)

  8. Regional Air Pollutions in Three Different Regions of Asia From a Transcontinental Transport Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Liu, Y.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-12-01

    Asia is known as one of the regions with the fastest rate of growing in industrialization and urbanization. As a result, the rapid increases of large-scale air pollution in Asia emerge as a serious concern at both domestic and international levels. Apart from the problems of air quality degradation, emission control, environmental risk, and health effect in a domestic level, evidences from scientific studies indicate that by the long-range transport, Asian air pollution is becoming a global problem. Observations and model studies confirm that air pollution from Asia could be transported to North America or farther. In this work, we investigate the Asian air pollutions, in particular ozone and some other atmospheric components such as carbon monoxide and black carbon, from the ground- based observations in the three different regions, namely 1) background region of Siberia and central Asia, 2) highly anthropogenic region in eastern China, and 3) the rim region of the Asia-Pacific. In a transcontinental transport perspective, these regions are regarded as the inflow region, source region, and outflow region of Asia, respectively. From the results, it is found that the influences from large-scale emission in East Asia are observed clearly in the source region, and to the significant extent in the outflow region. For the inflow region of Asia, our data in Siberia and Kyrgyzstan indicate that air masses in this region are mostly intact from large-scale anthropogenic emission, and remain much of the global background atmospheric pollution characteristic. When the air masses are transported to source region, the air pollutants level increased sharply and frequent episodes of extremely high pollutions have been observed. Our results show good correlation between the residence time of air masses over the source region in eastern China and the observed levels of air pollutants verifying the strong enhancements by anthropogenic emissions from industrialization and

  9. Regional modelling of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, M.; Leong, C. P.

    A co-operative research project between the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) focussing on the usage of an atmospheric transport and chemistry model, has just been initiated. Here, we describe the main features of the dispersion model and discuss a first set of calculations in light of available measurements of sulphuric species in Southeast Asia. According to our results, anthropogenic sulphur concentrations and depositions are particularly high near the large cities of the region, around a metal smelter in the southern Philippines, and in a region extending from northern Vietnam into southeastern China. These areas coincide with the high-emissions regions of Southeast Asia and we tentatively conclude that regional transport of acidifying species is not as far-reaching as in the mid-latitudes. From our calculations, and from supporting measurements we conclude that most of rural Southeast Asia is not yet severely affected by anthropogenic sulphur, but given the rapid rate of economical development in this region the situation may deteriorate quickly. Areas that are particularly at risk include the large cities, northern Vietnam, most of central Thailand, most of peninsular Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and parts of Java, all of which receive total-sulphur depositions in excess of 0.5 g S m -2 yr -1. Our model simulates sulphate in precipitation in accordance with measurements, but it has a tendency to overestimate atmospheric SO 2. It remains to be investigated whether this is a problem in the model formulation or a result of unrepresentative sampling. An immediate continuation of this study should be performed with higher spatial resolution than the currently used 100×100 km 2. Other imperfections in this model study, which should be addressed in future work, include parameterised vertical transport in deep convective clouds, the influence of natural emissions (primarily from volcanoes) on the

  10. Natural gas in Asia: Trade, markets and regional institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas trade in Asia has been dominated by long-established market structures, under which liquefied natural gas (LNG) has remained indexed based on the price of crude oil. High transaction costs in the region in recent years imply that the regional market is sub-optimally organized. Since 2010, the continued prevalence of oil-indexation has had the most adverse effect on Japan, the world’s largest LNG importer. In response, Japan implemented several strategies to challenge traditional LNG pricing mechanisms in the region and ultimately reduce transaction costs. Japan’s efforts include an increase in the share of spot and short-term purchases, sourcing new supplies from the United States under alternative pricing arrangements and driving regional buyer cooperation. This paper evaluates the potential effect of Japan’s LNG strategy on regional pricing in the broader institutional context, arguing that LNG pricing in the region will only partially shift away from oil-indexation by the end of the decade. While recent cooperation among regional LNG importers indicates that there may be scope for change in the regional institutional setting, the degree of cooperation is insufficient to have a profound effect on regional pricing. - Highlights: • Sub-optimal natural gas market outcomes in Asia since 2010. • Asian buyers have challenged oil-indexation in the region. • Concrete evidence of Japan-led buyer cooperation since 2013. • Pricing will only partially shift from oil-indexation by 2020. • Security of supply remains a top policy priority

  11. The Asia 2 specific signal peptide region and other domains in fusion protein genes characterized Asia 1 and Asia 2 canine distemper viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Serageldeen; Charoenvisal, Nataya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Maeda, Ken; Kai, Kazushige

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV) was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H) gene, the fusion (F) protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had not been identified. So, the sequence analysis of F gene was carried out to elucidate the genotypic varaitons among Asian isolates. Results The phylogenetic analysis of F and H gene sequences from fourteen CDV isolates obtained from diseased dogs in Japan and Thailand indicated that the F genes had a new initiation codon and extra 27 nucleotides upstream of the usual open reading frame (ORF) and the F proteins had extra 9 amino acids at the N-terminal position only in Asia 2 isolates. On the contrary, the Asia 1 isolates had three extra putative N-glycosylation sites (two sites in the signal peptide region and one site in the F1 region) except for two strains of Th12 and Ac96I (two sites in signal peptide region) adding to four putative N-glycosylation sites that were conserved among all Asian isolates and Onderstepoort strain. In addition to this difference in N-glycosylation sites, the signal peptide region had a great diversity between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Also, characteristic amino acids were detected for some strains. Conclusion Asia 2 isolates were distinguished from other CDV lineages by the extra 27 nucleotide sequence. The signal peptide region of F gene gives a remarkable differentiation between Asia 1 and Asia 2 isolates. Strains Th12 and Ac96I were differentiated from other Asia 1 strains by the F protein glycosylation sites. PMID:19807927

  12. Asia-Pacific Regional Economic Integration: Coopetition vs. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuJane Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of economic globalization, promoting regional trade agreements or regional cooperation has become a plausible strategy to attract foreign direct investment and to promote national competitiveness at a global level. Nonetheless, facing the differential national economic interests and the needs of protection of domestic industries, as well as the diverse levels of economic liberalization domestically, the involvement of FTA negotiation in every country is universally in the situation of struggling between securing economic sovereignty and national economic development. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region are in the same situation. This article analyzes how countries balance between securing economic sovereignty and promoting national economic development when they are involved in TPP and RCEP negotiations. By confirming the appropriate linkage between each participating countries’ decision for balancing between domestic economic sovereignty and further integrating into regional economic cooperation institutions the validity of the proposition for this research project can be verified.

  13. Nuclear Power in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    To understand the role of nuclear energy in Asia today, it is important to recognize that nuclear technology has had a long period of development in the region and has helped shape present Asian political and economic patterns. Nuclear power shares with some of the renewable energy systems the problem of capital intensiveness and technological uncertainty, which tends to prevent both from becoming economically attractive during rapid changes in the oil market. The economic and physical risks associated with nuclear power expansion are likely to lead to low growth rates, although nuclear power will remain an important way to help reduce oil dependency. 156 references, 4 figures, 10 tables

  14. Future fuels for the asia-pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegart, G.

    2006-01-01

    The debate about climate change, the role of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for reduction of fossil fuel consumption has largely been between developed economies. The rapidly growing economic activities of China and India and other Asian and South American economies have not been factored into the debate. Many of these economies are members of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, a grouping of 21 economies around the Pacific Rim, which has been concerned, among other issues such as trade liberalisation and economic cooperation, about the future energy needs of economies in the region

  15. Epidemiology of Dyslipidemia in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Feng Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Dyslipidemia, including high levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis that leads to various cardiovascular diseases. This article compares the epidemiology of dyslipidemia among countries of the Asia Pacific region, including Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and Taiwan, based on public-accessible data from websites. Sources of lipid management guidelines of the countries are also summarized. Before comparing the data from each of the countries, the readers should pay attention to the impact of lipid testing methods, medication use, the year of data acquisition, the age range of the examinees, and the definition of dyslipidemia in each country. Apart from the mentioned factors that may affect the epidemiology data, some of the countries have unique features. For example, substantial ethnic differences existed in Indonesia and Malaysia; whereas the reports from China and Thailand exhibited significant regional variations. However, a common feature is that the levels of serum lipids change with age, and men and women may have quite different levels of serum lipids even of the same age range. Nevertheless, there is a lot of room for improvement in the awareness, treatment, and control rate of dyslipidemia. To reduce the prevalence of dyslipidemia and promote cardiovascular health, the epidemiological surveys of dyslipidemia and implementation of management guidelines according to their own national conditions are encouraged. Keywords: Asia Pacific region, dyslipidemia, epidemiology

  16. PLACING INDIA IN THE EMERGING REGIONAL DYNAMICS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Singh Roy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to examine India’s initiatives in the region in the context of the emerging regional geo-strategic landscape. With an aim to enhance political, economic and strategic ties, India’s policy towards the region has moved from ‘Look North’ to ‘Connect North’. Notably, the full membership of SCO offers India greater synergies to play a more active role in the region. India is, thus, all set to build more meaningful partnerships with the region in the context of new geo-political changes shaping Central Asia. More importantly, the region is seeking India to play a more active role. It is argued that the beginning of a new era of cooperation initiated by PM Modi can only be sustained if New Delhi continues to implement its various agreements and commitments. While building stronger bilateral ties with the region is important, working closely in the regional groupings will also help address regional economic and security challenges

  17. Health facilities safety in natural disasters: experiences and challenges from South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-05-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  18. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  19. Depositor Discipline and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence From the South-East Asian Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kabir Hassan; M. Ershad Hussain

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether the risk-taking behavior of commercial banks in five countries of South-East Asia changed after the Asian Crises of 1997. The paper utilizes the framework created by Gruben et al (1997, 1998, and 2003). It also examines the connection between the risk-taking behavior and depositor discipline of these banks after the Asian Crises of 1997. Based on bank level data from the Bank Scope, 2005 CD, he paper presents evidence that the state of depositor discipline is very ...

  20. Solar energy support in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avril, Sophie; Mansilla, Christine; Lemaire, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    The transition to a sustainable energy system now seems to be inevitable. The role of renewable energy sources in this mutation will be crucial. Amongst these, photovoltaic electricity has recently grown due to strong national policy support. Indeed, it appears as a good solution to substitute conventional fossil fuel, especially in the Asia Pacific region where reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a real challenge. This paper aims to review public support for photovoltaic energy by focusing on the policies of three emblematic developed countries of the Asia Pacific region: Australia, Japan and Korea. The efficiency of these different policies is assessed by comparing their estimated total costs. These costs can have different origins: market incentives, demonstration programs and subsidies for research and development (R and D). The public investment was compared with installed capacities in order to evaluate the efficiency of the energy strategy. The point made by this study is that a well-planned policy limiting unwanted side effects should be preferred. Even if expensive in the short term, innovative technologies are beneficial in the longer term, and thus R and D subsidies should be maintained. (authors)

  1. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  2. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  3. Russia's economic prospects in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fortescue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia has declared a priority interest in developing a strong economic relationship with the Asia Pacific Region. There has been considerable internal debate over the best strategic approach to such a relationship. While a policy victory has been won by a strategy focusing on the export into the region of manufactured goods and services, a resource-export strategy is still dominant in practice and funding. Here the prospects of each strategy are assessed. Regarding resource exports, hydrocarbons, copper and iron ore prospects are reviewed, but most detail is provided on the coal sector. That involves an account of infrastructure issues, including a major debate over the expansion of the BAM and TransSiberian railways. The analysis suggests that Russia will struggle both to revitalise the Russian Far East through manufacturing exports to the APR and to replace revenues earned through resource exports to the West through an economic ‘turn to the East’.

  4. Coordination of nuclear developments in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, H.; An, S.

    1984-01-01

    Healthy, coordinated development of nuclear energy in the Asia-Pacific region requires the securing of human resources. This is an important component of development and should be well designed in advance, notwithstanding the fact that each country and area has its own unique system for nuclear research, education, and training. Differences are even more pronounced where preparedness for nuclear abnormal occurrences are concerned, despite the international impact of such incidents. From this point of view, we examine the current situation in international education and training of nuclear specialists, encompassing nuclear education and training systems, IAEA efforts, bilateral and multilateral transregional cooperation, and matters relating to national and transnational preparedness for nuclear abnormal occurrences. We present a proposal to create a regional center that would establish cooperation in nuclear research, education, training, and preparedness for abnormal occurrences. (author)

  5. Promoting regional energy co-operation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Misra, Neha

    2007-01-01

    Energy is a key ingredient of the socio-economic development of any region. South Asia is not only one of the fastest growing regions in the world; it is also one of the poorest, which thus puts energy at the very heart of the development process in the region. This paper looks at the challenges faced by the South Asia sub-region for economic co-operation (SASEC) comprised of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and also at the role of greater regional energy co-operation therein. The region is characterized by pressures of growing economies and increasing population. While the per capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world, energy intensity continues to be very high. A large portion of the population lacks access to modern sources of energy and depends on traditional sources that are not only inefficient but also have severe health and environmental problems associated with them. Increasing oil import dependency and huge investment needs for energy market development pose a further challenge. The region has a good resource potential and tremendous scope for energy co-operation, which can play a key role in addressing many of these energy security concerns and in putting it on the path of sustainable development. It is ironic that the record in the area has been so limited and that too in the most basic form of co-operation, i.e. bilateral arrangements between countries. This paper puts forth a multi-pronged strategy for sub-regional energy co-operation encompassing softer options aimed at confidence building to more substantial and larger scale co-operation efforts. Delays in decision making to ensure stronger and mutually beneficial co-operation efforts are associated with high costs not only to the energy sector but also for the entire development agenda. With the precarious energy situation in the region and unprecedented increases in international oil prices seen in recent times, it is high time for policy makers, financing institutions, NGOs

  6. Sustainability and Security: Timber Certification in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Ivanova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on Asia – Pacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.

  7. The nuclear power industry in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the nuclear reactor industry in the Pacific Basin began in the United States and Canada and spread to Japan and, more recently, to South Korea and Taiwan. The American and Canadian industries face serious economic and political difficulties; indeed, their current plight is so severe that their survival no longer seems assured. Because of the key regional role played up to now by the North American industries, and by the U.S. industry in particular, the realization of this scenario would have important repercussions for nuclear trade and investment throughout the region. In the longer run some basic structural changes would seem likely, with the focal point of industrial strength and technological leadership in the region shifting to Northeast Asia, and to Japan in particular. Already there is evidence of this shift. But the prospect of a smooth, gradual transition toward a new regional industrial structure centered on Japan may be misleading. What is missing from this picture is a full measure of the extent to which nuclear industrial development elsewhere in the region is positively correlated with the trend in the United States. (author)

  8. Regional security in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Amba

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the weapons of mass destruction have become an international currency of power, the efforts for their control and elimination have also developed simultaneously, as an important stream in international politics. Countries all over the globe have strived to evolve various devices to ensure security against these weapons at international, regional as well as national levels. One such regional effort for nuclear arms control is the creation of nuclear-free zone. The nuclear free zones present a potentially effective option to supplement the global nuclear disarmament regime. This is an endeavour towards crisis management, reducing the threat perception, common security and confidence building. In addition, they help in creating a regional security order by developing a code of conduct which binds external actors as well as the regional countries. They are meant to reduce if not eliminate the likelihood of a region getting involved into the war of mass destruction. It is in this context the cases of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific nuclear-free zones have been discussed in this book

  9. Factors Influencing the Capacity of Anticorruption Law Enforcement Bodies in South East European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ALISTAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a regional perspective regarding the independence of judiciary system, based on the magistrates’ perception. Taking into consideration that the independence of judiciary is a concept which has to be not only guaranteed by constitutional and statutory provisions, but mostly perceived as a functional reality, the present article analyses the factors which influence the capacity to act efficiently of the judicial structures in South East European countries. The article is presenting ones of explanation for low capacity to fight corruption in this region of Europe. The analyse is built on a sociological survey conducted in nine countries from the standpoint of the hierarchical relationships and of the guarantees of operational and professional independence, legislative framework, resources as well as the relationship between justice and the society. The data used in this articles provided by the study “Integrity and resistance to corruption of the law enforcement bodies in South East European countries”. The concluding remarks are based on questionnaires sent out to judges and prosecutors and emphasis cultural, managerial and functional aspects of judicial system, exposed by magistrates themself.

  10. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  11. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  12. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  13. Energy options and regional cooperation on nuclear energy in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae In

    1986-10-01

    This paper reviews the extensive forms of Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power to develop and provide economical and reliable energy supply for sound economical growths of developing countries in this region, which has seen rapid growth of energy consumption more than anywhere else in recent years. Nuclear power has received keen attention from DCs because it can provide a self-reliable energy supply and promote development of high technology in the associated engineering and manufacturing industries locally. However, due to the particular characteristics in nuclear power technology, a close cooperation is required between the seller(industrialized) and buyer(developing) countries. The Asia-Pacific regional cooperation in nuclear power is a step toward providing mutual benefits to the countries involved in this region, and this paper explores potential ways in formulating basic and systematic approaches and areas of full scope cooperation. (author)

  14. Tissue banking in the Asia Pacific region - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasim Mohamad

    1999-01-01

    Tissue banking is a relative new entity in the Asia-Pacific region. Sporadic cases of tissue transplantation were reported in the early sixties whereby corneas mainly from Sri Lanka were airflown to ophthalmic surgeons in this region. Till today Sri Lanka has been playing a key role in supplying corneas and other tissues throughout the globe. Similar cases of allograft bone transplantation were reported from Myanmar during that period. However it was not until early eighties when a group of scientist medical doctors from various countries in this region met in Colombo under IAEA to discuss the possibilities of developing tissue banks in their respective countries. This development had been very slow and until today only about fourteen countries are directly involved. Due to the lack of financial support both from the authorities or non-government organizations most of the tissue banks survived by research grants from universities, the government research and development grants or grants from private bodies which are hard to come by and are usually inadequate to sustain or to maintain the banks. Most of our tissue banks started small by involving in amniotic membrane processing for use in bum patients in their initial stage of development. These are true for countries like China, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia where amniotic membranes are easily available and the processing cost is cheap. The availability of cobalt source for radiation of these tissues is also an important factor. Some of these banks until today still focussed on these areas whereas others had rapidly progress into production of other tissue such as bones, heart valves, allograft skin, and xenograft bones. Richer counties in the Pacific rim, where financing is not a major problem, the progress of their banks depends greatly on the demands of tissue by the clinicians and the availability of raw materials and tissue bank facilities. At the moment due to the lack of donors the raw

  15. Impacts of logging on density-dependent predation of dipterocarp seeds in a South East Asian rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Robert; Philipson, Christopher D; Slade, Eleanor M; Hector, Andy; Phillips, Sam; Villanueva, Jerome F; Lewis, Owen T; Lyal, Christopher H C; Nilus, Reuben; Madran, Adzley; Scholes, Julie D; Press, Malcolm C

    2011-11-27

    Much of the forest remaining in South East Asia has been selectively logged. The processes promoting species coexistence may be the key to the recovery and maintenance of diversity in these forests. One such process is the Janzen-Connell mechanism, where specialized natural enemies such as seed predators maintain diversity by inhibiting regeneration near conspecifics. In Neotropical forests, anthropogenic disturbance can disrupt the Janzen-Connell mechanism, but similar data are unavailable for South East Asia. We investigated the effects of conspecific density (two spatial scales) and distance from fruiting trees on seed and seedling survival of the canopy tree Parashorea malaanonan in unlogged and logged forests in Sabah, Malaysia. The production of mature seeds was higher in unlogged forest, perhaps because high adult densities facilitate pollination or satiate pre-dispersal predators. In both forest types, post-dispersal survival was reduced by small-scale (1 m(2)) conspecific density, but not by proximity to the nearest fruiting tree. Large-scale conspecific density (seeds per fruiting tree) reduced predation, probably by satiating predators. Higher seed production in unlogged forest, in combination with slightly higher survival, meant that recruitment was almost entirely limited to unlogged forest. Thus, while logging might not affect the Janzen-Connell mechanism at this site, it may influence the recruitment of particular species.

  16. Autochthonous leptospirosis in South-East Austria, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Wallner, Carina; Allerberger, Franz; Schmoll, Friedrich; Seeber, Katharina; Wagner, Jasmin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Flick, Holger; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the world's mostly spread zoonoses causing acute fever. Over years, leptospirosis has been reported to occur rarely in Austria and Germany (annual incidence of 0.06/100,000 in Germany). Only imported cases have been on the increase. Objectives of this case-series study were to retrospectively assess epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of leptospirosis illnesses in South-East Austria, to describe risk exposures for autochthonous infections, and to compare patients with imported versus autochthonous infection. During the 9-year period between 2004 and 2012, 127 adult patients (49 females, 78 males) who tested positive by rapid point-of-care test for Leptospira-specific IgM (Leptocheck®) were identified through electronic hospital databases. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with 82 patients. A total of 114 (89.8%) of the 127 patients enrolled had acquired leptospirosis within Austria and 13 (10.2%) had potentially imported infections. Most autochthonous cases were diagnosed during the months of June and July, whereas fewest were diagnosed during the winter months. Exposure to rodents, recreational activities in woods or wet areas, gardening, cleaning of basements or huts were the most common risk exposures found in autochthonous infection. Serogroups Australis (n = 23), Sejroe (n = 22), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (n = 11) were identified most frequently by MAT testing in autochthonous infections. Patients with imported leptospirosis were significantly younger, less likely to be icteric and had significantly lower liver transaminase levels (p = 0.004) than those with autochthonous infections. Leptospirosis is endemic in South-East Austria. In contrast to reports from other countries we found a relatively high proportion of leptospirosis cases to be female (39% vs. ∼ 10%), likely the result of differing risk exposures for South-East Austria.

  17. Fishery Development and Exploitation in South East Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Novaglio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the full extent of past ecological changes in human-influenced marine systems is needed to inform present management policies, but is often hampered by the scarcity of information about exploitation practices and population status over the entire history of fishing. The history of commercial fishing in South East Australia is relatively recent and thus easier to document. Our aim is to reconstruct such history and to use this information to understand general patterns and consequences of fishing exploitation. Intense exploitation of marine resources arrived in South East Australia with European colonization in the early 1800s, and unregulated sealing, whaling and oyster dredging resulted in the first documented significant impact on local marine populations. Exploitation extended to demersal resources in 1915 when the trawl fishery developed. Between the early 1800s and the 1980s, some of the exploited stocks collapsed, but fishing moved further offshore and in deeper waters as technology improved and new resources became available or were discovered. This phase of fisheries expansion masked the unsustainable nature of some fishing industries, such as trawling and whaling, and postponed the need for management regulations. From the 1990s onward, an increasing awareness of the depleted nature of some fisheries led to the establishment of management strategies aiming at a more sustainable exploitation of target stocks and, from the mid-2000s onwards, management strategies were revised and improved to better address the effect of fishing on multiple components of marine ecosystems. This led to the recovery of some depleted populations and to increased habitat protection. The relatively short history of fishing exploitation and the small scale of the fishing industry in South East Australia played a significant role in limiting the magnitude of fishing impacts on local populations and helped to achieve recoveries when fisheries

  18. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  19. Zero carbon energy system of south east europe in 2050 - poster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Ćosić, Boris

    2016-01-01

    -neutral. Smart energy systems’approach has been used in planning of 100% RES, which considers significant integration of the electrical, heating and gas sectors. Many technologies have been employedin the year 2050, but the major share is put on photovoltaics and wind energy, followed by geothermal, solar......South East Europe consists of several smaller countries in terms of energy systems and thus, integrating energy systems of the whole region has significant benefits for allthe countries included. However, as there are large differences between energy mixes of the countries included, careful energy...... planning needs to be carried out in order tosatisfy energy needs of all the countries of the region.Due to the significant differences in geography and the climate of different parts of the region, many different technologies need to be introduced in order to have optimal,low-carbon energy mix...

  20. Contemporary Trans-regional Cooperation between Europe and Asia in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beginda Pakpahan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with contemporary trans-regional cooperation between Europe and Asia in a changing world. It examines the emerging economic relationship between the EU and Asia and possible challenges and implications facing both regions. It argues that Europe - Asia economic and commercial ties are likely in the future to result in unbalanced economic development between both these regions; in short, future agreements are likely to disproportionately favour Europe. Therefore, the economic and commercial ties between these two regions should aim to develop the least advanced countries in Asia. The article argues that ASEM can be empowered as a common flexible framework for bilateral and inter-regional trade initiatives between both regions; it can be empowered to manage and monitor these trade initiatives and their social implications for vulnerable ASEM countries. The main objective of this article is to contribute a clearer understanding of the current EU - Asia relationship in the context of ASEM.

  1. Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This document explores some of the examples of peatland restoration under different circumstances around the World in order to present an overview of the variety of benefits and inspiring ways in which peatland restoration can be delivered, and so avoid serious and costly consequences for society. Richard Lindsay wrote the Asia and Americas sections of this edited publication.

  2. Sustainability in Business Education in the Asia Pacific Region: A Snapshot of the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Malik; Neal, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into business school education and learning in the Asia Pacific region. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was developed, and administered to business schools in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to measuring the number of…

  3. Portfolio Diversification in the South-East European Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaimovic Azra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversification potential enables investors to manage their risk and decrease risk exposure. Good diversification policy is a safety net that prevents a portfolio from losing its value. A well-diversified portfolio consists of different categories of property with low correlations, while highly correlated markets have the feature of low possibilities for diversification. The biggest riddle in the world of investments is to find the optimal portfolio within a set of available assets with limited capital. There are numerous studies and mathematical models that deal with portfolio investment strategies. These strategies take advantage of diversification by spreading risk over several financial assets. Modern portfolio theory seeks to find the optimal model with the best results. This paper tries to identify relationships between returns of companies traded in South-East European equity markets. A Markowitz mean-variance (MV portfolio optimization method is used to identify possibilities for diversification among these markets and world leading capital markets. This research also offers insight into to the level of integration of South-East European equity markets. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to determine components that describe the strong patterns and co-movements of the dataset. Finally, we combined MV efficient frontier and equity, which represent PCA components, to draw conclusions. Our findings show that PC analysis substantially simplifies asset selection process in portfolio management. The results of the paper have practical applications for portfolio investors.

  4. Circles South East: the first 10 years 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Andrew; Williams, Dominic; Wilson, Chris; Wilson, Robin J

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the first 10 years of the implementation of Circles of Support and Accountability (Circles) in the management of sexual offenders in South-East England by Circles South East (CSE). The Circles of 71 core members are reviewed in detail, with reference to demographic data, offense and sentencing histories, risk assessment data, and considerations regarding Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. A group of 71 comparison subjects who were referred to CSE and deemed suitable for but did not receive the service was identified. Follow-up behaviors of both groups are examined (including all forms of reconviction, breach of orders, and prison recall). Over a comparable follow-up period of 55 months, the incidence of violent and contact sexual reconviction in the comparison group was significantly higher than for the Circles cohort. Comparisons are made between expected and actual levels of sexual reconviction, with the Circles cohort showing lower than expected rate of sexual reconviction but not to a statistically significant degree. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Booming Asia-Pacific oil trade spawns regional storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that surging oil trade in the Asia-Pacific region is spawning a number of big petroleum storage projects there. Among the biggest are those in Indonesia and Singapore. A group led by Singapore's Sembawang Group plans to build a $272 million (Singapore) oil storage terminal on Karimun Island in Riau province, Indonesia. Other participants include Kuo International, Hong Kong, and likely companies from Japan, Europe, and the U.S. According to press reports from Jakarta and Singapore, Van Ommeren Terminals of Netherlands was also reportedly involved in negotiations on the projects. A joint venture agreement was expected to be signed by the third quarter. Plans call for building a terminal with a capacity of 1.5 million cu m on the island, where Sembawang has a 100 year lease. Ultimately, Sembawang and Indonesian company Bangun Cipta want to develop the site as an industrial city with petrochemical plants, engineering and manufacturing industries, and shipyards. Semabawang Project Engineering recently completed a feasibility study of the Karimun storage project

  6. Cost of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. W. Lai

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The substantial morbidity caused by asthma suggests that the disease is associated with a large economic burden. The current study analysed the burden of asthma in eight countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Responses to questions regarding resource use from a survey of people with asthma were analysed. Unit costs were obtained for each resource use element. Individual patient costs were estimated and means calculated for each country. A multivariate model was developed to identify potential predictors of resource use. Annual per-patient direct costs ranged from US$108 for Malaysia to US$1,010 for Hong Kong. When productivity costs were included, total per-patient societal costs ranged from US$184 in Vietnam to US$1,189 in Hong Kong. Urgent care costs were responsible for 18–90% of total per-patient direct costs. Overall, total per-patient direct costs were equivalent to 13% of per capita gross domestic product and 300% of per capita healthcare spending. Extremes of age, greater severity of asthma, and poorer general health status were predictive of high cost. The per-patient cost of asthma in these countries is high, particularly when seen in the context of overall per-patient healthcare spending. Strategies to improve asthma control are likely to not only improve patient outcomes, but also to decrease societal costs.

  7. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-15

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  8. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  9. Training of tissue bank operators in Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz Nather

    1999-01-01

    To raise quality standards of Tissue Bank in Asia Pacific Region and to meet training needs of tissue bank operators. Singapore (NUH Tissue Bank) was officially appointed by IAEA on 18 September 1996 in Vienna to be the IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre for RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement). Member of States including Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. The Singapore Ministry of Environment gave a grant of $225,500 for setting up of this centre with National Science and Technology Board as funding agency, $100,000 being allocated for production of IAEA Developed Curriculum into Multi-Media. (authors being National Project Co-ordinators, Directors of Tissue Banks in the region). The Modules included Guide to Curriculum, Historical Background (0), Rules and Regulation (1), Organisation (2), Quality Assurance (3), Procurement (4), Processing (5), Distribution and Utilisation (6) and Future Developments (7). The Distance Learning Package included case studies from the region in text, in slides and videotapes. A new purpose-built NUH Tissue Bank with separate Wet and Dry Processing laboratories equipped with hands-on facilities was completed in July 1997. This was inaugurated as; IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre for RCA; IAEA/NUS Interregional Training Centre; and NUS Diploma Course on Tissue Banking also launched by Deputy vice-chancellor, NUS, in conjunction with the IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on 3 November 1997. One year NUS Open Distance Learning Diploma Course started with two weeks Intensive Course with Core Lectures on Modules (0-7) in the Curriculum and Practical Hands-on Demonstrations. One theory and two practical assessments were conducted. Nineteen participants registered for the Diploma Course. Production of IAEA Multi-Media Curriculum was completed and the Curriculum was distributed to member States during a 2-week-RCA 'Train the Trainers' Workshop on 27 April

  10. Social Media and Academic Performance of Business Education Students in South-East Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwazor, Joseph Chukwudi; Godwin-Maduike, Chinwe Constance

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze effects of social media on academic performance of business education students in south-east Nigeria. To achieve this, an instrument was designed and sent out to four universities in south-east Nigeria. Out of the 600 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 520 were completely filled and returned giving a…

  11. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  12. British Council Project in Romania the South-East European Network of Creative Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor IONESCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A Guidebook to Creative Industries in Iasi, Romania, 2006 is a project initiated by the British Council Centre Iasi concerning “creativeindustries”. After the conferences and workshops – in Plovdiv with the regional partners, in Iasi and Bucharest with the British and the localconsultants, the team has managed to put into practice one of the key projects it set out to achieve: publishing a unified inventory of the main actorsof the industrial-creative sector in Iasi. The purpose of this project is to bring to the attention of the potential partners and supporters the city‘spotential for economic and image “re-invention”, which “unify” Iasi through its creative energies and resources and to facilitate the creation of newcreative/ profitable partnership projects – in Romania, in the UK and in South-East Europe. This guidebook is the tangible sign of the beginning ofthe journey.

  13. Biowaste fuels South-East Asian COGEN schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the COGEN Programme of the European Commission in association with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and considers the benefits of using biowaste for the production of energy using cogeneration with the corresponding reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. The substitution of rice husks for the fuel in a cogeneration plant at a Thai rice mill, and the combustion of wood in the cogeneration plant at the Homet Raya plant in Malaysia are described, and details are given of the backgrounds to the projects, locations, the technologies used, and the process economics. The next phase of the COGEN programme due to start in 1998 which will see the programme expanded to include coal-fired and gas-fired cogeneration projects is discussed

  14. Saltburn following a summar gale in south-east England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlin, H L

    1957-01-01

    On July 29, 1956, a south-westerly gale of unusual violence swept Britain, and its effects on trees in the south-east are here discussed. Trees of most kinds near the coast showed extensive browning of leaves, followed by partial or complete foliation, on their seaward side; this is due to the deposition of salt. The varying susceptibility of different species is reviewed. Saltburn could be observed up to 50 miles inland and 750 ft. above sea level, but only on exposed ridges where the flow of air is apparently concentrated. Some trees near the coast put out fresh foliage, and even flowers. Although broadleaved trees were in full leaf, comparatively few were uprooted.

  15. SEM in Central Asia: A Look at Professional Needs in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmareva, Larissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Private tuition-dependent universities in Central Asia compete for fee-paying students not only within the country and the region, but also internationally--in the CIS, East Asia, Europe, and the United States. In the universities where state financial support is limited or unavailable, steady student enrollment is the key to budget, development,…

  16. Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria.

  17. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Yee Peng; Muhammad, Junaina; Amin Noordin, Bany Ariffin; Cheng, Fan Fah

    2017-01-01

    This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy,...

  18. Relationships between cancer pattern, country income and geographical region in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teo, Chin Hai; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Tan, Wei Phin; Tan, Hui Meng

    2015-09-03

    Cancer incidence and mortality varies across region, sex and country's economic status. While most studies focused on global trends, this study aimed to describe and analyse cancer incidence and mortality in Asia, focusing on cancer site, sex, region and income status. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates of cancer were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Cancer mortality to incidence ratios (MIRs) were calculated to represent cancer survival. The data were analysed based on the four regions in Asia and income. Cancer incidence rate is lower in Asia compared to the West but for MIR, it is the reverse. In Asia, the most common cancers in men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophageal cancers while the most common cancers in women are breast, lung, cervical, colorectal and stomach cancers. The MIRs are the highest in lung, liver and stomach cancers and the lowest in colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Eastern and Western Asia have a higher incidence of cancer compared to South-Eastern and South-Central Asia but this pattern is the reverse for MIR. Cancer incidence rate increases with country income particularly in colorectal and breast cancers but the pattern is the opposite for MIR. This study confirms that there is a wide variation in cancer incidence and mortality across Asia. This study is the first step towards documenting and explaining the changing cancer pattern in Asia in comparison to the rest of the world.

  19. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours.

  20. Defense Spending Databases for Countries in the Asia-Pacific Region: An Analysis and Comparison

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuning, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze a select number of unclassified databases that cover defense spending and other defense related criteria for countries in the Asia-Pacific region...

  1. Evolution of Value Added Chains in Asia Pacific Region and Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alekseevich Makarov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the changing patterns of transnational value chains in the Asia-Pacific region. The methodology is based on the analysis of data extracted from the OECD – WTO Trade in Value Added Database (2016. The study demonstrates that 1 Asia-Pacific countries show extremely high involvement in the global value chains; 2 intra-Asian value chains develop at a fast pace, reflecting the trend towards regiona-lization of economic ties in Asia-Pacific (caused by the processes of transformation within China, the growing income divergence in the region and the development of regional integration mechanisms; 3 the level of participation in global value chains differs across countries and is subject to constant changes. In particular, Chinese manufacturers are moving to the processes with higher value added, and the role of an ‘assembly shop’ in the region is shifting to the ASEAN countries. Russia’s participation in the value chains in the Asia-Pacific region is currently limited to its role as a supplier of raw materials. High tariffs make manufacturing oriented towards Asia less viable, especially considering that most of Asia-Pacific countries have free trade agreements with each other. However, favorable rules of origin in Asian RTAs as well as good political relations with leading Asian countries in conditions of tensions between them still create some opportunities for involving Russia in regional value chains at the more advanced stages

  2. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Cord, Anna; Hearn, Andrew J; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J W; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-03-17

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key

  3. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  4. Policy Paper 05: Regional Cooperation and Environmental Issues in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Peter; Zarsky, Lyuba

    1993-01-01

    Hayes and Zarsky describe the rapidly emerging agenda for regional collaboration on environmental issues in Northeast Asia. In Part One, they describe briefly some of the major transfrontier or regional environmental issues in Northeast Asia that represent a menu of opportunities for cooperation (and potential conflict) between states. These issues include transfrontier air pollution (acid rain only), marine pollution (radionuclides and oil only), migratory species (fish only), and trade-envi...

  5. The Consumption of Dairy and Its Association with Nutritional Status in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Bao, Khanh Le; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Huu, Chinh Nguyen; Sumedi, Edith; Aini, Jamil Nor; Senaprom, Sayamon; Deurenberg, Paul; Bragt, Marjolijn; Khouw, Ilse

    2018-06-13

    Despite a major decrease in undernutrition worldwide over the last 25 years, underweight and stunting in children still persist as public health issues especially in Africa and Asia. Adequate nutrition is one of the key factors for healthy growth and development of children. In this study, the associations between dairy consumption and nutritional status in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS) were investigated. National representative data of 12,376 children in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam aged between 1 and 12 years were pooled, representing nearly 88 million children in this age category. It was found that the prevalence of stunting and underweight was lower in children who consumed dairy on a daily basis (10.0% and 12.0%, respectively) compared to children who did not use dairy (21.4% and 18.0%, respectively) ( p diet plays an important role in growth and supports a healthy vitamin A and vitamin D status.

  6. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eui-soon, E-mail: shine@yonsei.ac.k [School of Economics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Savage, Tim, E-mail: seoul@nautilus.or [Nautilus Institute, 58-14 Shinmun-ro 1-ga, Hangeul Hall Room 503, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-061 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: {yields} Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. {yields} There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. {yields} No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. {yields} Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  7. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eui-soon; Savage, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: → Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. → There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. → No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. → Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  8. Mexico's challenges in the Asia-Pacific region: prospects in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María Ramírez Meda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to make a count of the actions taken by Mexico for its correct insertion in the Asia Pacific region and subsequently, to assess whether these strategies have been enhanced and promoted a real membership in the region. In the first part a theoretical and conceptual count of the term "region" and "regionalism" it's done. Second section deals with the question; can Asia Pacific be considered a region by addressing economic, political, social and cultural elements? Subsequently, in a third section the question; "in which region it's Mexico located?" its answered and in this way, finally we analyze if Asia Pacific is or not a mega (macro region unlikely to Mexico, where the latter could benefit if some recommendations that are seen at the end of the present work are applied.

  9. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Joon Ahn

    1995-01-01

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  10. Nuclear power developments in the Asia-pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Each Asia-Pacific country has a unique set of energy needs and capabilities: a). Some need large amounts of baseload power and have the political will to install nuclear capacity, but they have no funds b). Others have mature nuclear energy programs to which extra capacity needs to be planned-for. So there is no common Asian drive to install (or reject) nuclear power. However, the Asia-Pacific countries do all seem to have a long term view in regard to their future electricity supply. This paper will briefly discuss China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. Indonesia remains an interesting prospect for the nuclear power industry, however, there is little real information about when a unit might be built

  11. Supply Chains and Rural Development in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid income growth and urbanization are having profound impacts on the food system, food producers and rural areas in the developing Asia Pacific economies. Meeting the challenge of rural development will depend on better integrating rural areas with fast-growing urban areas where the composition of food demand is changing and the logistics of supply are growing more complex. Possible government options include investment in transportation infrastructure—roads, railroads and waterway—and pro...

  12. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  13. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  14. Regional integration in Central Asia: From knowing-that to knowing-how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulugbek Azizov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines regional integration in Central Asia in the context of two types of knowledge, that is, knowing-that and knowing-how. While knowing-that prioritizes representational (i.e. “talking” practices of actors to explain region-building processes, knowing-how focuses on non-representational (i.e. “doing” practices. The article demonstrates that the orthodox scholars, who deal with the region of Central Asia, mostly employ knowing-that to explain region-building processes. The article criticizes knowing-that, assuming that this type of knowledge limits our understanding with regard to how regions get their boundaries and symbolism in the era of globalization and standardization of sectoral activities. Thus the article develops and introduces an alternative knowing-how framework to better understand the region-building processes in Central Asia and beyond it.

  15. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%, NO (22% and total peroxy radicals (27%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with

  16. Gas demand growth and trade in South-East Europe: What perspectives for Bulgaria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    2002-01-01

    Gas demand and trade are said to grow in South-East Europe, and inter-regional gas transit is believed to gain importance. Despite a 5 to 10 year delay in economics and energy reforms compared to EU accession countries, prospects for economic recovery and a sustained growth of gas demand around 3.9%/year to 2020 in the region and 6.7% in Bulgaria appear real. Growth is contained by investment needs, vested interests in, and competition from, coal and nuclear as well as concerns about future gas prices, and import dependence. The densification of national and regional gas systems will proceed. Inter-regional (North-South and East-West) high-capacity gas pipeline will emerge as a tempting business perspective. While these perspectives are medium- and long-term, competition among pipeline projects is already waging at present. Bulgaria, Romania and Greece position themselves so as to safeguard future transit revenues, the latter country, in cooperation with Turkey, appearing to move fast with the support of the EU. A region wide optimisation of infrastructure projects appears desirable, however national strategic interests may conflict. (author)

  17. a survey of rice production and processing in south east nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A SURVEY OF RICE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA. ... in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. ... labour and traditional approach in the production and processing of rice.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, E.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    In vitro antimicrobial screening of nine marine sponges (Porifera) and two seaweeds, collected from south east coast of India, against selected clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi was conducted in this study. Methanolic extracts of all...

  19. Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia | Dell | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and nutrition of plantation eucalypts in Asia. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Due to the high humidity and temperatures throughout the year, fungal leaf diseases such as Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum have had a huge impact on the eucalypt plantation industry in South-east Asia. Often poor ...

  20. Bolster Ground Force Capabilities in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    created them.” – Albert Einstein INTRODUCTION Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the United States...The Case for Archipelagic Defense,” 84. 37. Thomas Bickford, Lisa Hannett, Edward Skolnick, and Albert Willner, “The Role of the U.S. Army in...for Archipelagic Defense,” 84-85. 47. Thomas Bickford, Lisa Hannett, Edward Skolnick, and Albert Willner, “The Role of the U.S. Army in Asia

  1. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  2. Visualisation and globalisation in the Asia-Pacific region: the Taipei Biennial 1996-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Whilst globalisation, urbanisation and explosive expansion of urban spaces are the most dynamic and challenging issues in the Asia-Pacific region today, modernisation and cultural re-interpretation are also taking place at a rapid speed. Asia-Pacific metropolises, combining most of their nations’ population and resources, are at the centre of its globalisation process and intend to create their own characters whilst information and fashion have been moving between territories. Taipei, being t...

  3. Confidence-building in the Asia-Pacific region. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed presentations of South and North Korea offers positive evaluation concerning bilateral agreements, which aim both reconciliation between the two states and denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. Consideration was given to confidence building measures in the Asia-Pacific region as a whole as well as to the progress made in introducing such measures in various Subregions of Asia-Pacific. The concept of confidence building actually implies a two-part agenda, particular procedures and general process

  4. Quest for Middle East oil: the US versus the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salameh, Mamdouh G.

    2003-01-01

    Two very powerful geopolitical factors will decisively determine whether the quest for Middle East oil (mainly Gulf oil) could enhance the global oil security or could lead to oil supply disruptions and also instability and conflict in the Asia-Pacific region. The two factors are the United States' growing dependence on oil imports from the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region's thirst for oil and the increasingly likely Chinese dependence on oil from the region. The Asia-Pacific countries are increasingly growing concerned about their ability to supply enough oil to fuel future economic growth. The region's phenomenal economic growth up to July 1997 and its economic recovery since then, and its steadily rising energy needs lend urgency to the question of how the region would meet its considerable energy challenges. This paper will endeavour to analyze the impact of this growing dependence on Middle East oil, on global oil supplies, the price of oil and global oil security. It will argue that such dependence on a volatile region like the Middle East and the perception of scarcer energy resources in the Asia-Pacific region, have the potential to lead to conflict in both regions unless these issues are dealt with in geoeconomic rather than geostrategic terms. The paper will strongly express the view that potential conflicts can be resolved not by force but through markets and investment and also through the diversification of energy sources and the promotion of alternative energy development and use across the region

  5. Intrinsic Work Values on Building Association of South-EastAsian Nation’s Future Workforce: A Comparison of ThreeNations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Bahtiar; Zulkepli, Jafri; Ismail, Ahmed Rageh; Bakar, Hassan Abu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the intrinsic work values that were perceived by the university undergraduates in the three nations (Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia) to influence cooperative communication. These three nations are among the founders of Association of South-East Asian Nations in 1967 that represents half of the population of the region. Intrinsic work values are an important medium through which employee behaviour can be understood and managed. Previous research suggests t...

  6. Systematic investigation of gridding-related scaling effects on annual statistics of daily temperature and precipitation maxima: A case study for south-east Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Francia B. Avila; Siyan Dong; Kaah P. Menang; Jan Rajczak; Madeleine Renom; Markus G. Donat; Lisa V. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Using daily station observations over the period 1951–2013 in a region of south-east Australia, we systematically compare how the horizontal resolution, interpolation method and order of operation in generating gridded data sets affect estimates of annual extreme indices of temperature and precipitation maxima (hottest and wettest days). Three interpolation methods (natural neighbors, cubic spline and angular distance weighting) are used to calculate grids at five different horizontal gridded...

  7. Political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region: Assessment of trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donowaki, Mitsuro

    1992-01-01

    Within the attitude of Japan concerning its policy for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region the the need for dialogue and cooperation was underlined specifying the importance of economic cooperation, diplomatic efforts to solve the political problems and the presence of United States in the region. Particular emphasis was put on the relations with China and Russia

  8. Natural gas supply and demand projections for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of rapid economic growth in the Asia Pacific has inevitably led the countries of this region to expand and diversify their energy sources in order to satisfy their burgeoning energy demands. Natural gas has become an increasingly marketable energy source in this region benefitting from vast reserves and its advantages as an environmentally clean fuel. As a result of the impact of the two oil shocks of the 1970's on the Asia Pacific economy, the governments in the region set about the development of energy strategies which would make their national economies more resilient to the instabilities of world energy price and supply. The Japanese Gas Industry has estimated that the overall rise in demand for energy in Asia, set at an average rate of 3.7% per annum, will see a corresponding growth in demand for natural gas at 5%. Experts from a number of major oil companies, such as Exxon, expect an annual growth in the Asian natural gas market of 6.0 to 6.3%. These figures are over shadowed by the worldwide demand for natural gas which is expected to gain an 8% increase within the next two decades. Approximately 8.75% of the world's proven natural gas reserves are held in Asia-Pacific region (Table I). Most of the region's natural gas production will provide over 100 years of supply. A review of natural gas supply/demand in the Asia-Pacific region is presented in sub-regions, namely ASIAN, Northeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Oceania

  9. Future regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia: Energy security costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Hayes, Peter; Kang, Jungmin; Katsuta, Tadahiro

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in East Asia has rapidly increased regional energy, and especially, electricity needs. Many of the countries of East Asia have sought or are seeking to diversify their energy sources and bolster their energy supply and/or environmental security by developing nuclear power. Rapid development of nuclear power in East Asia brings with it concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation associated with uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel management. This article summarizes the development and analysis of four different scenarios of nuclear fuel cycle management in East Asia, including a scenario where each major nuclear power user develops uranium enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel individually, scenarios featuring cooperation in the full fuel cycle, and a scenario where reprocessing is avoided in favor of dry cask storage of spent fuel. The material inputs and outputs and costs of key fuel cycle elements under each scenario are summarized. - Highlights: → We evaluate four scenarios of regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia and the Pacific. → The scenarios cover fuel supply, enrichment, transport, reprocessing, and waste management. → We evaluate nuclear material flows, energy use, costs, and qualitative energy security impacts. → Regional cooperation on nuclear fuel cycle issues can help to enhance energy security. → A regional scenario in which reprocessing is rapidly phased out shows security and cost advantages.

  10. Past, Present, and Future Anthropogenic Emissions over Asia: a Regional Air Quality Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jung-Hun; Jung, Bujeon; Choi, Ki-Chul; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Rokjin J.; Youn, Daeok; Jeong, Jaein; Moon, Byung-Kwon; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2010-05-01

    Climate change will also affect future regional air quality which has potential human health, ecosystem, and economic implications. To analyze the impacts of climate change on Asian air quality, the NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea) integrated modeling framework was developed based on global-to-regional climate and atmospheric chemistry models. In this study, we developed emission inventories for the modeling framework for 1980~2100 with an emphasis on Asia emissions. Two emission processing systems which have functions of emission projection, spatial/temporal allocation, and chemical speciation have been also developed in support of atmospheric chemistry models including GEOS-Chem and Models-3/CMAQ. Asia-based emission estimates, projection factors, temporal allocation parameters were combined to improve regional modeling capability of past, present and future air quality over Asia. The global CO emissions show a 23% decrease from the years 1980 to 2000. For the future CO (from year 2000 to 2100), the A2 scenario shows a 95% increase due to the B40 (Residential-Biofuel) sector of Western Africa, Eastern Africa and East Asia and the F51 (Transport Road-Fossil fuel) sector of Middle East, USA and South Asia. The B1 scenario, however, shows a 79% decrease of emissions due to B40 and F51 sectors of East Asia, South Asia and USA for the same period. In many cases, Asian emissions play important roles for global emission increase or decrease depending on the IPCC scenarios considered. The regional ozone forming potential will be changed due to different VOC/NOx emission ratio changes in the future. More similarities and differences of Asian emission characteristics, in comparison with its global counterpart, are investigated.

  11. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  12. Regional Business Cycles in East Asia: Synchronization and its Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics and nature of regional business cycle synchronization for East Asian countries in the period of 2000:Q1-2011:Q4. Estimating a dynamic two-factor model extracts the common factor and the nation- specific factor from both the macroeconomic aggregates and plausible driving forces of regional business cycles. Evidence for regional business cycle synchronization is particularly strong for Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines, while Japan shows weak evidence of regional synchronization. On the other hand, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and China are decoupling from regional business cycles. The driver of monetary aggregate is the most significant determinant of regional fluctuations of macroeconomic aggregates, whereas oil price and productivity are on average important driving forces of nation-specific fluctuations of real economic activities.

  13. Regional Business Cycles in East Asia: Synchronization and its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Joon Park

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics and nature of regional business cycle synchronization for East Asian countries in the period of 2000:Q1-2011:Q4. Estimating a dynamic two-factor model extracts the common factor and the nation- specific factor from both the macroeconomic aggregates and plausible driving forces of regional business cycles. Evidence for regional business cycle synchronization is particularly strong for Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines, while Japan shows weak evidence of regio...

  14. Radon derived air mass fetch regions during the ACE-Asia campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, S.; Zahorowski, W.; Werczynski, S.; Wang, T.; Poon, S.; Kim, J.; Oh, S.-N.; Knag, H.; Uematsu, M.; Matsumoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal variations in fetch regions for air masses exhibiting the greatest and least terrestrial influence at three sites in East Asia are discussed. Results are based on the first year of hourly atmospheric radon concentration observations made as part of the Asian Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (ACE-Asia). Fetch regions for Asian continental outflow to the Pacific Basin within the boundary layer are shown to be distinct from corresponding tropospheric outflow events. Analysis of the hourly radon time series in conjunction with back trajectory analysis indicates the presence of a large localised radon source in south eastern China

  15. Global change and biogeochemical cycles: The south Asia region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitra, A.P.; DileepKumar, M.; Kumar, K.R.; Abrol, Y.P.; Kalra, N.; Velayutham, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    stream_size 33 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt stream_source_info Global-Region_Linkage_Earth_Syst_2002_75.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  16. Hillslope runoff and sediment transport in south east Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken (Nee Bull), L. J.; Kirkby, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Runoff from semi-arid hillslopes in SE Spain is generated very selectively at all scales. Site response at the 1 m2 scale may be described by the dynamics of local infiltration and crusting, defining Hydrologically Similar Surfaces (HYSS), which are strongly associated with soil type and vegetation cover. This study reports the use of several reconnaissance methods to define HYSS consistently. These methods are (1) the use of small sediment traps which disturb the surface minimally,(2) the use of painted lines and (3) the identification of Morphological Zones associated with different levels of runoff and sediment transport. Five monitoring sites were established on hillslope concavities in two semi-arid catchments in South East Spain. Rainfall data were also collected from the nearest gauge established during previous research. Results show that a storm event in the Rambla de Nogalte on the 30th of June of 83.0 mm was responsible for a maximum runoff depth of 12 cm and a maximum hillslope sediment transport of 1886 cm3 m-1. The same storm in the Rambla de Torrealvilla produced 53.4 mm of rainfall on the 1st of July 2002, had a maximum runoff depth of 26 cm and was responsible for a maximum hillslope sediment transport of 2311 cm3 m-1. In general sediment transport rate and sediment travel distance increased with the distance downslope into the hillslope hollow, and these were related to the maximum depth of flow produced over the hillside. Very little sediment movement occurred directly downslope of bushes as was expected. No significant relationships were established between sediment transport and slope angle or vegetation cover. However, sediment transport and depth of runoff varied with lithology, with marl sites producing the most runoff and sediment transport. The site located on red schist was particularly unresponsive to rainfall and did not experience much sediment transport. Initial models for the response of larger areas suggest that runoff is controlled

  17. Palaeoflood evidence on the River Nore, South East Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Ciara; Turner, Jonathan; Bourke, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Past geomorphic changes can be detected in sediment sinks, through the investigation of natural sediment archives. Since the advent of palaeoflood hydrology in the 1980s, numerous authors have demonstrated that such sediment deposits record valuable evidence of past flooding events. Many of these studies have focussed on fluvial systems in arid environments, with bedrock channels proving to be particularly successful field sites. In some districts, the collected datasets are now routinely employed to augment analyses of flood frequency and magnitude, which have traditionally relied on extrapolation of short hydrometric datasets. This study targets river reaches in a temperate humid environment, with a predominantly alluvial channel. The River Nore is one of the largest catchments draining South East Ireland. It is situated in a valley with an inherited glacial legacy and is principally a lowland river catchment. Specific morphological zones have been targeted which are optimal for flood deposit preservation, including palaeochannels, tributary junctions and floodplain overbank settings.There are a variety of anthropogenic pressures evident in this landscape. Among them are channelisation of select tributaries, a legacy of coal mining in the upland Carboniferous limestones, and the installation of man-made obstacles or modifications along the length of the river channel such as sluices and weirs. Regarding land-use, the majority of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, mainly pasture with some tillage. This study investigates palaeoflood evidence in the River Nore catchment and examines the development of the river floodplain using a variety of complementary field and desk-based methods. The sub-surface and micro-topography of river reaches are investigated using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. Flood deposits have been characterised by examination of bank exposures and sediment cores. Installation of sediment traps

  18. Land surface albedo and vegetation feedbacks enhanced the millennium drought in south-east Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Evans, Jason P.; Meng, Xianhong; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the extended drought that occurred throughout the period of 2002 through 2007 in south-east Australia. In particular, the ability to reproduce the two drought peaks in 2002 and 2006 was investigated. Overall, the RCM was found to reproduce both the temporal and the spatial structure of the drought-related precipitation anomalies quite well, despite using climatological seasonal surface characteristics such as vegetation fraction and albedo. This result concurs with previous studies that found that about two-thirds of the precipitation decline can be attributed to the El Ninõ–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Simulation experiments that allowed the vegetation fraction and albedo to vary as observed illustrated that the intensity of the drought was underestimated by about 10ĝ% when using climatological surface characteristics. These results suggest that in terms of drought development, capturing the feedbacks related to vegetation and albedo changes may be as important as capturing the soil moisture–precipitation feedback. In order to improve our modelling of multi-year droughts, the challenge is to capture all these related surface changes simultaneously, and provide a comprehensive description of land surface–precipitation feedback during the droughts development.

  19. Volatility Forecasting Models and Market Co-Integration: A Study on South-East Asian Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erie Febrian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatility forecasting is an imperative research field in financial markets and crucial component in most financial decisions. Nevertheless, which model should be used to assess volatility remains a complex issue as different volatility models result in different volatility approximations. The concern becomes more complicated when one tries to use the forecasting for asset distribution and risk management purposes in the linked regional markets. This paper aims at observing the effectiveness of the contending models of statistical and econometric volatility forecasting in the three South-east Asian prominent capital markets, i.e. STI, KLSE, and JKSE. In this paper, we evaluate eleven different models based on two classes of evaluation measures, i.e. symmetric and asymmetric error statistics, following Kumar's (2006 framework. We employ 10-year data as in sample and 6-month data as out of sample to construct and test the models, consecutively. The resulting superior methods, which are selected based on the out of sample forecasts and some evaluation measures in the respective markets, are then used to assess the markets cointegration. We find that the best volatility forecasting models for JKSE, KLSE, and STI are GARCH (2,1, GARCH(3,1, and GARCH (1,1, respectively. We also find that international portfolio investors cannot benefit from diversification among these three equity markets as they are cointegrated.

  20. Preventing Australian bat lyssavirus: community knowledge and risk perception of bats in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J

    2014-04-01

    Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.

  1. Land surface albedo and vegetation feedbacks enhanced the millennium drought in south-east Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Evans, Jason P.

    2017-01-24

    In this study, we have examined the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the extended drought that occurred throughout the period of 2002 through 2007 in south-east Australia. In particular, the ability to reproduce the two drought peaks in 2002 and 2006 was investigated. Overall, the RCM was found to reproduce both the temporal and the spatial structure of the drought-related precipitation anomalies quite well, despite using climatological seasonal surface characteristics such as vegetation fraction and albedo. This result concurs with previous studies that found that about two-thirds of the precipitation decline can be attributed to the El Ninõ–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Simulation experiments that allowed the vegetation fraction and albedo to vary as observed illustrated that the intensity of the drought was underestimated by about 10ĝ% when using climatological surface characteristics. These results suggest that in terms of drought development, capturing the feedbacks related to vegetation and albedo changes may be as important as capturing the soil moisture–precipitation feedback. In order to improve our modelling of multi-year droughts, the challenge is to capture all these related surface changes simultaneously, and provide a comprehensive description of land surface–precipitation feedback during the droughts development.

  2. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs, brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant’s sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual.

  3. Local perspectives on global tourism in the Asia-Pacific region [introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahles, H.; Meijl, A.H.M. van

    1999-01-01

    The articles brought together in this special issue of the IIAS Newsletter are centered on the question of how people at the grassroots level in the Asia-Pacific region have responded to international tourism. In view of the widespread negative view of the potential impact of tourism on local

  4. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  5. Perceptions of International Teacher Turnover in East Asia Regional Council of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachyk, Leon Michael

    2017-01-01

    High teacher turnover has become a serious problem globally, in many international schools, and is a growing concern in segments of the East Asia Regional Council of Schools (EARCOS). This persistent problem has a detrimental effect on student learning and upsets the culture of school communities. Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory served as the…

  6. Network performance, hub connectivity potential, and competitive position of primary airports in Asia/Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumoto, H.; Veldhuis, J.; de Wit, J.; Burghouwt, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, hub-and-spoke network configurations are more and more developed in the Asia/Pacific region. In this paper, it is argued that the measurement of network performance in hub-and-spoke systems should take into account the quantity and quality of both direct and indirect connections. The

  7. Social Welfare and Harmony in East Asia and the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide a critical assessment and a comparative perspective on social policies in East Asia and the Nordic region. Are there lessons to be learned from the models of social provisioning ensuring decent, secure and harmonious lives for all citizens - particular...

  8. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  9. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  10. HIV and AIDS Data Hub for Asia Pacific: a regional tool to support strategic information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yu Shwe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 global commitments towards controlling HIV made by Asia-Pacific countries require considerable improvement in strategic information and response tracking. The HIV and AIDS Data Hub can serve as an important tool for stakeholders with its regional database of subnational indicators, web site and data synthesis capacity.

  11. NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  12. Reflections about nuclear power for the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.J.; Wakabayashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    This introductory essay touches briefly on the following: fuel supply, energy security, cost, environment, health, prevention of nuclear war, lead time for construction of plants, size of reactors, nuclear wastes, finance, planning, economics, energy policy, CO 2 buildup from fossil fuels, what kind of reactor best in the circumstances, high technology, electric utilities, generating capacity, accidents, labour productivity, regional cooperation. (U.K.)

  13. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)

  14. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author).

  15. For Smooth Expansion of Coal Trade in the Asia-Pacific Region and the World:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, H.

    1996-01-01

    This document deals with issues related to the smooth expansion of coal trade in the Asia-Pacific region and the world. Since the oil crises, the coal trade has significantly expanded and will further expand, but there remain barriers to this expansion. This paper describes the issues discussed during the first Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Coal Flow Seminar which took place in Tokyo on October 4 to 6, 1994. With the expected increase in coal demand, there will be less barriers concerning its trade. (TEC)

  16. An arms race is coming to the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Yuan Hsieh

    1997-01-01

    After nearly half a century of the Cold War, the USA and Russia have finally come to carrying out their arms control agreements, drastically cutting their nuclear and conventional weapons as well as military personnel. One would imagine that the world would gradually cease to manufacture and sell weapons. The reality has seen quite the opposite. The Asia-Pacific region needs to establish urgently a forum for dialogue in security and cooperation negotiations in order to resolve peacefully outstanding territorial and political disputes. Certain arms control measures should be initiated by the Asia-Pacific nations, otherwise they will face the 21st century with the prospect of many military confrontations

  17. The energy supply and demand outlook in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    1993-01-01

    The 1980s witnessed spectacular growth rates in the Asia-Pacific region. While the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption is not necessarily one-to-one, energy is a required input for economic activity and trade. Energy demand growth in the Asia-Pacific region has been accordingly rapid. At this point in history, oil and economic growth are so inter-related that changes in one invariably have major repercussions on the other. During the coming decade, continued economic growth is foreseen for the Asia-Pacific region, coupled with the fastest rate of oil demand growth of any region on earth. Pressure will come to bear on the regional oil and gas markets, since demand growth will take place concurrently with a decline in the availability of local, low-sulfur crudes. The region will become even more dependent on imports of Middle Eastern crude, which will result in a higher-sulfur crude slate. Moreover, we anticipate that the existing and planned refinery complexes will lack the capacity and the flexibility to fully satisfy product demand. The consequence will be a higher level of refined product imports. The paper looks in greater detail at the supply and demand situation with respect to oil and natural gas, at regional oil import dependency and refining capacity. (10 figures). (author)

  18. The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    after drawn-out discussions to do with the positions of such eminences as Le Duc Tho and Truong Chinh following the death of old-guard leader Le Duan in...in regional social capital as shown in interstate and trans -state relationships. The Indo-Pakistani rivalry has been at the center of the depletion...dialogues will mean for the region’s existing ‘alphabet soup’ of trans -Pacific institutions. This means not only APEC and the ARF but also ASEAN

  19. Central Asia as a Regional Security Complex from the Perspectives of Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Putri Pratama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis kawasan Asia Tengah, dilihat dari perspektif Realisme, Liberalisme dan Konstruktivisme, melalui teori Regional Security Complex oleh Barry Buzan dan Ole Waever. Teori ini hendak menunjukkan keamanan regional berdasarkan interdependensi antar unit dalam kawasan dilihat dari struktur power dan proses sekuritisasi di dalamnya, demikian pola hubungan keamanan dalam kawasan Asia Tengah berusaha dijelaskan dengan elemen-elemen dari ketiga paradigma yang terdapat dalam teori tersebut. Hasil analisis tulisan ini menunjukkan bahwa Asia Tengah dipandang sebagai bentuk insecurity interdependence by external forces dari perspektif Realis, security interdependence by interest dari perspektif Liberalis dan securitization interdependence by understanding of threat/security dari perspektif Konstruktivis. Kompleks keamanan Asia Tengah termasuk dalam tipe kompleks keamanan Great Power, terlihat dari peran besar kekuatan-kekuatan eksternal terutama Rusia dan Cina dalam kawasan tersebut; baik dalam pembentukan pola pertemanan dengan kerjasama, pola permusuhan dengan persaingan dan ketakutan, juga proses sekuritisasi isu separatisme, ekstremisme dan terorisme sebagai ancaman terhadap keamanan regional.Tulisan ini diambil dari tugas karya akhir penulis yang diajukan untuk medapatkan gelar Sarjana Sosial dari Departemen Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Universitas Indonesia.

  20. Security in the Asia-Pacific region. Report on working group 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Security in the Asia-Pacific region is highly dependent on nuclear weapons-proliferation which can be achieved in two steps: non-introduction of nuclear weapons by nuclear powers, and creation of nuclear-weapon-free zone. The causes and steps towards arms build-up in the region are discussed. On of the indispensable factors in improving the relations between the countries in the zone is creation of confidence building measures and a security forum

  1. Development and Restructuring of Regional Production/Distribution Networks in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuyo ANDO

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the features of development and restructuring patterns of production/distribution networks in East Asia, mainly in machinery sectors, using international trade data at the most disaggregated level, to discuss their resilient nature, and to provide policy implications for the regional production networks and the economic development in the region. Although the negative impacts of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2008 were initially transmitted through the...

  2. Murgabskaya Oblast, a promising gas region of Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanniyazov, K.N.; Abdyyev, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Gas fields of the Murgabskiy region are multiple-bed. The industrial gas content is associated with the sandy-terrigenous formations of the Shatlyk productive level of the lower Goterivskiy stage. The gas formation is anticlinal, occasionally floating. A map is compiled for the dispersal of the Shatlyk level which isolates the lithological composition, thickness, zones of dispersal of sandstone, etc. A description is provided for the map plan of the Shatlyk level. Alternation of sandy-argillaceous and carbonate rocks created favorable prerequisites for the development in the deposits of the Neocomian of lithological-physical pairs of ''collectors-mantles'', the basis for trap formation in structures and zones of lithological substitution. Within the Murgabskiy region, the greatest outlook for discovering new gas fields is confined to the Shatlyk level. It is associated with the central part of the Murgabskiy Basin where major deposits have already been discovered. A group of structures in the eastern submersion of the Kopetdag trough at the junction of the Murgabskiy Basin is important. The structures at the junction of East Kopetdag and the Murgabskiy Basin may be promising. The outlook for possible gas is associated with deposits of the lower cretaceous and Sharaplinksiy level. The main task must be comprehensive in investigation of the suprasaline apt-Neocomian and Kimmeridgian-Tithonian deposits as possible multiple-bed gas and oil containing masses.

  3. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  4. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Gongal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies.

  5. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  6. Inclusiveness and Exclusiveness of Japanese-Style Management Abroad - Some Evidence from South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Diefenbach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that, when Japanese companies go abroad, they continue to apply their distinctive Japanese-style management – with perhaps some adaptation to local economic and socio-cultural contexts. What has not been researched so far is how inclusive or exclusive Japanese-style management is for those working within the organisation. Based on case studies carried out in eight Japanese companies in Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam, this paper investigates how Japanese and local managers and employees are either included or excluded by the values, management styles and ways of decision-making prevailing in their company. The evidence not only shows differences in perceptions but also reveals some questionable aspects of Japanese-style management. It seems to be much more exclusive than suggested by either most stereotypical research on or popular understanding of Japanese management.  

  7. THE MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE LOW-COST MARKETS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconu Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to be considered a low-cost market, the cost advantage of one or more factors of production offered by a state – generally, a developing one – must be exploited by the multinational firms. Therefore, we may speak about these markets only after 19

  8. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Greenhill, Simon J; Gray, Russell D; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Mace, Ruth

    2010-10-14

    There is disagreement about whether human political evolution has proceeded through a sequence of incremental increases in complexity, or whether larger, non-sequential increases have occurred. The extent to which societies have decreased in complexity is also unclear. These debates have continued largely in the absence of rigorous, quantitative tests. We evaluated six competing models of political evolution in Austronesian-speaking societies using phylogenetic methods. Here we show that in the best-fitting model political complexity rises and falls in a sequence of small steps. This is closely followed by another model in which increases are sequential but decreases can be either sequential or in bigger drops. The results indicate that large, non-sequential jumps in political complexity have not occurred during the evolutionary history of these societies. This suggests that, despite the numerous contingent pathways of human history, there are regularities in cultural evolution that can be detected using computational phylogenetic methods.

  9. Impact of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Effect on Hilsa Fishery Management in South-East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2014-01-01

    Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) is one of the most important anadromous fish species of the trans-boundary ecosystem of Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Hilsa is not only an economically important species specially for Bangladesh and India but also the integral part of the culture of the Bangladesh......, restricted mesh size etc. Unfortunately, no such management plans are available for Indian and Myanmar territory. As Hilsa is a highly migratory trans- boundary fish in the Bay of Bengal (and all of these countries share the same stock), it is essential to adopting a joint management policy (by Bangladesh-India-Myanmar...

  10. Direct ecosystem fluxes of volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first direct eddy covariance fluxes of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs from oil palms to the atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS, measured at a plantation in Malaysian Borneo. At midday, net isoprene flux constituted the largest fraction (84 % of all emitted BVOCs measured, at up to 30 mg m−2 h−1 over 12 days. By contrast, the sum of its oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR exhibited clear deposition of 1 mg m−2 h−1, with a small average canopy resistance of 230 s m−1. Approximately 15 % of the resolved BVOC flux from oil palm trees could be attributed to floral emissions, which are thought to be the largest reported biogenic source of estragole and possibly also toluene. Although on average the midday volume mixing ratio of estragole exceeded that of toluene by almost a factor of two, the corresponding fluxes of these two compounds were nearly the same, amounting to 0.81 and 0.76 mg m−2 h−1, respectively. By fitting the canopy temperature and PAR response of the MEGAN emissions algorithm for isoprene and other emitted BVOCs a basal emission rate of isoprene of 7.8 mg m−2 h−1 was derived. We parameterise fluxes of depositing compounds using a resistance approach using direct canopy measurements of deposition. Consistent with Karl et al. (2010, we also propose that it is important to include deposition in flux models, especially for secondary oxidation products, in order to improve flux predictions.

  11. Direct ecosystem fluxes of volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Misztal; E. Nemitz; B. Langford; C. F. Di Marco; G. J. Phillips; C. N. Hewitt; A. R. MacKenzie; S. M. Owen; D. Fowler; M. R. Heal; J. N. Cape

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the first direct eddy covariance fluxes of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from oil palms to the atmosphere using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), measured at a plantation in Malaysian Borneo. At midday, net isoprene flux constituted the largest fraction (84 %) of all emitted BVOCs measured, at up to 30 mg m−2 h−1 over 12 days. By contrast, the sum of its oxidation products methyl vinyl k...

  12. Factors influencing HIV screening decisions for pregnant migrant women in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Kenda; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Pfeil, Michael

    2013-07-01

    universal screening in pregnancy for HIV is common and migrant women are an identified high risk group. The increasing mobility within countries and migration across borders affects the growing prevalence of HIV, but little is understood about how migrant women view risk of HIV in relation to pregnancy. to explore factors that relate to HIV screening decisions for migrant women. the HIV antenatal counselling experiences of pregnant migrant women were explored in a Grounded Theory study. the four settings were antenatal care units of border hospitals in northern Thailand 38 migrant pregnant women who had been through the HIV screening process at participating antenatal clinics as well as 26 health personnel at the units were purposively recruited and interviewed about their experiences and attitudes to HIV counselling and testing for this group. in-depth interviews were conducted from January to March 2008. The grounded theory technique of open coding was employed and constant comparison took place throughout until saturation was achieved. four themes were identified as common to the women and the health professionals: ineffective provision of information; internal and external barriers to information; implications of migrant status; and perception of risk. where language barriers exist interpreters are required and creative approaches to information giving that do not rely on text are necessary. The organisation of clinics does not currently meet the needs of migrant women and causes stress for health staff due to time constraints. Extra resources should be focussed where there are large numbers of migrants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  14. Capacity Building for Sustainable Marine Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liuming; Avril, Bernard; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    An international workshop on capacity building (CB) for marine research in the Asia-Pacific region (http://www.imber.info/index.php/Science/Working-Groups/Capacity-Building/2012-CB-Workshop) was held at the East China Normal University (ECNU), in Shanghai, China. The workshop brought together about 20 marine researchers and CB experts from 14 countries to discuss CB experiences, assess regional CB needs, and consider recommendations to improve regional CB, which would be of interest to other groups and other geographical regions.

  15. Month of the Year Effect Pada Beberapa Pasar Modal di Asia Tenggara dan Pasar Komoditas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiyanto Robiyanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of prominent phenomenon in capital market is month of the year effect which is the occurence of certain monthly pattern in capital market return during trading years. There were enormous researches, which had been done to explain this phenomenon in capital market but the results always varied. Unfortunately there was a few research to explain this phenomenon in commodities market. Based on these facts, research about this seasonality still need to be done both in capital market and commodities market. Data used in this study were several South East Asia monthly closing stock market indexes and several commodity product monthly closing prices such as gold, silver, platinum, paladium and West Texas Intermediate Crude Oil during January 1999 – March 2014 period. GARCH (1,1 was employed to analyze the data. The finding shows that month of the year effect still exist in capital market in South East Asia and commodity market during research period with various occurences. Each capital market and commodity market behaves variously during trading year. This may lead to an opportunity, which can be grabbed by active market switching strategy for sophisticated investors, and investors who have multiple access to regional capital markets and commodity markets.

  16. TPP: Is the best path to regional integration of Asia Pacific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carlos Martínez Jurado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia-Pacific has distinguished itself for its high levels of interdependence and its fast economic growth, however, it lacks of a strong regional institutional framework. Despite the existence of APEC as a forum which includes the region’s diversity of economic development levels and cultural differences, its voluntary approach which relays on open regionalism has not allowed member economies to advance towards its ambitious goals of trade and investment liberalization. Therefore, several of its members have decided to embrace binding schemes, at a bilateral and multilateral basis, among them the TPP, which due to its comprehensive approach, for many represents the better route to achieve regional integration. However, there are questions raised regarding the convenience for Asia-Pacific to transit from a flexible model towards a reciprocal one, and the possible costs involved in such process.

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  18. Application of radiation processing in Asia and the pacific region: focus on Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman, H.J.; Mohd Dahlan

    1995-01-01

    Applications of radiation processing in Malaysia and other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region is increasing as the countries move toward industrialisation. At present, there are more than 85 gamma facilities and 334 electron accelerators in Asia and the Pacific region which are mainly in Japan, Rep. of Korea and China. The main applications which are in the interest of the region are radiation sterilisation of medical products; radiation crosslinking of wire and cable, heat shrinkable film and tube, and foam; radiation euring of surface coatings, printing inks and adhesive; radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex; radiation processing of agro-industrial waste; radiation treatment of sewage sludge and municipal waste; food irradiation; tissue grafts and radiation synthesis of bioactive materials. (author)

  19. Application of radiation processing in Asia and the Pacific region: focus on Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, K.Z.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Applications of radiation processing in Malaysia and other developing countries in Asia and the Pacific region is increasing as the countries move toward industrialisation. At present, there are more than 85 gamma facilities and 334 electron accelerators in Asia and the Pacific region which are mainly in Japan, Rep. of Korea and China. The main applications which are in the interest of the region are radiation sterilisation of medical products; radiation crosslinking of wire and cable, heat shrinkable film and tube, and foam; radiation curing of surface coatings, printing inks and adhesive; radiation vulcanisation of natural rubber latex; radiation processing of agro-industrial waste; radiation treatment of sewage sludge and municipal waste; food irradiation; tissue grafts and radiation synthesis of bioactive materials. (author)

  20. The Asia-Pacific Region on the Paris Agreement against Climate Change: Geopolitics and Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertha Cuevas Tello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity surrounding climate change, it is argued that the willingness to cooperate on the part of the States is based on one of the faces that, for the climate field, can offer geopolitics: strengths or weaknesses (understood as vulnerability of geographical conditions, location and territory. That is, the physical, geographic, economic and demographic factors of each State influence the decision making of the foreign climate policy, which induces them to cooperate or the abstention of it. This paper will address, broadly speaking, the participation of the main economies of the Asia-Pacific region in the institutionalization of climate change in the International Agenda; the importance of the economies of the Asia-Pacific region with regard to the Paris Agreement; and the geopolitical strengths and weaknesses that explain the cooperative or non-cooperative behavior of the region in the fight against climate change.

  1. Measurement of the X-Ray Proper Motion in the South-East Rim of RXJ1713.7-3946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Fabio; Katsuda, Saturo; Ballet, Jean; Petre, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We report on the first proper motion measurement in the supernova remnant RX J1713.73946 using the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope on a 13 yr time interval. This expansion measurement is carried out in the south-east region of the remnant, where two sharp filament structures are observed. For the outermost filament, the proper motion is 0.75(+0.05-0.06) +/- 0.069 syst arcsec/ yr which is equivalent to a shock speed of approx. 3500 km/s at a distance of 1 kpc. In contrast with the bright north-west region, where the shock is interacting with the border of the cavity, the shock in the south-east region is probably expanding in the original ambient medium carved by the progenitor and can be used to derive the current density at the shock and the age of the remnant. In the case where the shock is evolving in a wind profile (p varies as r(sup -s), s = 2) or in a uniform medium (s = 0), we estimate an age of approx. 2300 yr and approx.1800 yr respectively for an ejecta power-law index of n = 9. The specific case of an ejecta power-law index of n = 7, and s = 0, yields an age of approx. 1500 yr, which would reconcile RX J1713.73946 with the historical records of SN 393. In all scenarios, we derive similar upstream densities of the order of 0.01/cu cm, compatible with the lack of thermal X-rays from the shocked ambient medium.

  2. Impact of Desiccation of Aral Sea on the Regional Climate of Central Asia Using WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Huang, Huei-Ping; Zavialov, Peter; Khan, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impacts of the desiccation of the Aral Sea and large-scale climate change on the regional climate of Central Asia in the post-1960 era. A series of climate downscaling experiments for the 1960's and 2000's decades were performed using the Weather Research and Forecast model at 12-km horizontal resolution. To quantify the impacts of the changing surface boundary condition, a set of simulations with an identical lateral boundary condition but different extents of the Aral Sea were performed. It was found that the desiccation of the Aral Sea leads to more snow (and less rain) as desiccated winter surface is relatively much colder than water surface. In summer, desiccation led to substantial warming over the Aral Sea. These impacts were largely confined to within the area covered by the former Aral Sea and its immediate vicinity, although desiccation of the Sea also led to minor cooling over the greater Central Asia in winter. A contrasting set of simulations with an identical surface boundary condition but different lateral boundary conditions produced more identifiable changes in regional climate over the greater Central Asia which was characterized by a warming trend in both winter and summer. Simulations also showed that while the desiccation of the Aral Sea has significant impacts on the local climate over the Sea, the climate over the greater Central Asia on inter-decadal time scale was more strongly influenced by the continental or global-scale climate change on that time scale.

  3. Contributing to environmental protection and regional balance - Asia. Action Plan 2013-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Asia now represents an essential engine of the world economy: more than half the world population lives in Asia and the region's international trade share is rapidly growing. At the same time, Asia's development is also critical to the future of the planet, as the region faces important challenges with local, national and global implications. Asia's rapid development is causing an exponential demand for energy, mostly met by fossil fuels. It is also putting more and more pressure on the environment, natural resources and biodiversity that are paying a heavy price for the region's booming economy. The continent produces more than a third of global greenhouse gas emissions, and 12 of the 20 most polluted cities on earth are in Asia. The social issues at stake are huge, from the challenges resulting from the exponential growth of urbanisation, to the poverty which still affects much of its population. While economic growth has resulted in a fall in extreme poverty and the rise of the middle class, more than two thirds of the world's poor live in Asia. More than six out of every ten Asians are at risk of food insecurity and almost a billion people still do not have access to electricity. In addition, conflicts and tensions, both internal and between states, represent an important threat to regional and global stability. Over the last ten years, AFD has significantly expanded its activities and financial commitments in Asia. Given the considerable contextual variety in Asian countries, AFD has adapted its positioning according to the diversity of its intervention countries. In emerging and middle-income countries, AFD has been involved in promoting green and inclusive growth, with the aim of supporting environmental protection and reducing social inequality. Between 2009 and 2011, AFD approved more than 1.5 billion euros to fund projects addressing climate change. In failed or fragile states and least developed countries, AFD has supported initiatives strengthening

  4. Dust Aerosols at the Source Region During ACE-ASIA: A Surface/Satellite Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  5. Characterization of Dust Properties at the Source Region During ACE-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally-occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, east coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS overpass, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with MODIS retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  6. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-Pacific region, 1955-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Banu

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas.The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02 of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004. The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region.This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  7. A survey on pulmonary thromboendarterectomy in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar Izzat, Mohammad; Almohammad, Farouk; Raslan, Ahmad F

    2017-06-01

    Background Surgical pulmonary thromboendarterectomy has been established as the treatment of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We conducted a survey among Asia-Pacific cardiothoracic surgeons to examine their current practice demographics and reflect their views on the future prospects for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery. Methods All cardiothoracic surgeons who were registered on the CTSNet.org website and based in the Asia-Pacific region were invited to participate in an online survey. The electronic questionnaire was completed by 172 (6.3%) surgeons. Responses were recorded anonymously and tabularized as absolute figures and fractions. Results Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery has been performed by few Asia-Pacific surgeons and in small numbers of patients, but survival rates and functional outcomes were satisfactory in most experiences. Failures were thought to have resulted primarily from the difficulty in selecting suitable candidates for surgery. The need for greater clinical experience was clear, yet this might be hampered by the limited recognition of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery as a potential cure for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Most surgeons considered that this procedure should be restricted to designated expert centers, and acknowledged the need to organize dedicated regional meetings where clinical practice guidelines can be established and updated as appropriate for regional healthcare facilities. Conclusions Although much effort is needed before pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery becomes widely adopted in the Asia-Pacific region, many surgeons and centers are already seeking its implementation. Designating expert centers, bringing together a regional working group on pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, and establishing clinical practice guidelines as appropriate for regional healthcare facilities were recommended.

  8. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  9. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  10. NASA's High Mountain Asia Team (HiMAT): collaborative research to study changes of the High Asia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, A. A.; Houser, P.; Kapnick, S. B.; Kargel, J. S.; Kirschbaum, D.; Kumar, S.; Margulis, S. A.; McDonald, K. C.; Osmanoglu, B.; Painter, T. H.; Raup, B. H.; Rupper, S.; Tsay, S. C.; Velicogna, I.

    2017-12-01

    The High Mountain Asia Team (HiMAT) is an assembly of 13 research groups funded by NASA to improve understanding of cryospheric and hydrological changes in High Mountain Asia (HMA). Our project goals are to quantify historical and future variability in weather and climate over the HMA, partition the components of the water budget across HMA watersheds, explore physical processes driving changes, and predict couplings and feedbacks between physical and human systems through assessment of hazards and downstream impacts. These objectives are being addressed through analysis of remote sensing datasets combined with modeling and assimilation methods to enable data integration across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Our work to date has focused on developing improved high resolution precipitation, snow cover and snow water equivalence products through a variety of statistical uncertainty analysis, dynamical downscaling and assimilation techniques. These and other high resolution climate products are being used as input and validation for an assembly of land surface and General Circulation Models. To quantify glacier change in the region we have calculated multidecadal mass balances of a subset of HMA glaciers by comparing commercial satellite imagery with earlier elevation datasets. HiMAT is using these tools and datasets to explore the impact of atmospheric aerosols and surface impurities on surface energy exchanges, to determine drivers of glacier and snowpack melt rates, and to improve our capacity to predict future hydrological variability. Outputs from the climate and land surface assessments are being combined with landslide and glacier lake inventories to refine our ability to predict hazards in the region. Economic valuation models are also being used to assess impacts on water resources and hydropower. Field data of atmospheric aerosol, radiative flux and glacier lake conditions are being collected to provide ground validation for models and remote sensing

  11. Diagnosis of common hemoglobinopathies among South East Asian population using capillary isoelectric focusing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S

    2017-02-01

    We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Changes in ocean circulation in the South-east Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important ocean gateway because major oceanic systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian Ocean via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern ocean. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east Atlantic during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.

  13. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in South East European Countries and New Member States of European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardhyl Dauti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper accounts for the main determinants of Foreign Direct Investment flows to 5-SEEC and the 10-New Member States of the EU countries by using an augmented Gravity Model. The study takes into account country specific institutional factors that determine foreign investors’ decisions from 14 core European Union countries to invest into SEE-5 and EU-NMS-10 countries. From the results of the study we find that gravity factors and institutional related determinants like control of corruption, political stability, bilateral FDI agreement, WTO membership and transition progress appear to significantly determine inward FDI flows from core EU countries to host economies of South East European region and new European Union member states.

  14. Evaluating energy security in the Asia-Pacific region: A novel methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivoda, Vlado

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes an 'energy security assessment instrument' based on a new and expanded conceptualisation of energy security. The instrument is a systematic interrogative tool for evaluating energy security of individual states or regions. It consists of eleven broad energy security dimensions associated with the current global energy system. These energy security dimensions take into account numerous quantitative and qualitative attributes of each country's energy security and policy, and include both traditional energy security concerns and many new factors, such as environmental, socio-cultural and technological. Another dimension, largely absent from previous analyses, is the existence of, and the issues addressed in, energy security policy in each country. This instrument serves as an assessment system with which to evaluate energy security in the Asia-Pacific region. The existing studies on energy security in the Asia-Pacific region suffer from serious limitations. No study to date examines regional energy security policies by adopting a more comprehensive energy security definition as a starting point. Most studies also focus on a single country or issue. Even if they examine energy security in major regional economies, they lack critical comparative analysis. The instrument is valuable as it may be utilised to draw a comprehensive map of regional energy security situation, which can also include comparative analysis of energy security characteristics across the Asia-Pacific region. Ultimately, it may be utilised to set up a framework for improved regional energy cooperation with the aim of providing regional leaders with a blueprint for improving regional energy security and policy.

  15. Reconstruction of regional mean temperature for East Asia since 1900s and its uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, W.

    2017-12-01

    Regional average surface air temperature (SAT) is one of the key variables often used to investigate climate change. Unfortunately, because of the limited observations over East Asia, there were also some gaps in the observation data sampling for regional mean SAT analysis, which was important to estimate past climate change. In this study, the regional average temperature of East Asia since 1900s is calculated by the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF)-based optimal interpolation (OA) method with considering the data errors. The results show that our estimate is more precise and robust than the results from simple average, which provides a better way for past climate reconstruction. In addition to the reconstructed regional average SAT anomaly time series, we also estimated uncertainties of reconstruction. The root mean square error (RMSE) results show that the the error decreases with respect to time, and are not sufficiently large to alter the conclusions on the persist warming in East Asia during twenty-first century. Moreover, the test of influence of data error on reconstruction clearly shows the sensitivity of reconstruction to the size of the data error.

  16. A Survey of Home Enteral Nutrition Practices and Reimbursement in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Wong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Literature regarding the use of home enteral nutrition (HEN and how it is reimbursed in the Asia Pacific region is limited. This research survey aims to determine the availability of HEN, the type of feeds and enteral access used, national reimbursement policies, the presence of nutrition support teams (NSTs, and clinical nutrition education in this region. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 20 clinical nutrition societies and leaders in the Asia Pacific region in August 2017, where thirteen countries responded. Comparison of HEN reimbursement and practice between countries of different income groups based on the World Bank’s data was investigated. Financial support for HEN is only available in 40% of the countries. An association was found between availability of financial support for HEN and health expenditure (r = 0.63, p = 0.021. High and middle-upper income countries use mainly commercial supplements for HEN, while lower-middle income countries use mainly blenderized diet. The presence of NSTs is limited, and only present mainly in acute settings. Sixty percent of the countries indicated an urgent need for funding and reimbursement of HEN. This survey demonstrates the varied clinical and economic situation in the Asia Pacific region. There is a lack of reimbursement, clinical support, and inadequate educational opportunities, especially for the lower-middle income countries.

  17. Upwelling and ocean structures off Algoa Bay and the south-east ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This situation is investigated off Algoa Bay and along the south-east coast to Port Alfred, where measurements demonstrate that marked temperature variability occurs at the coastline, particularly in summer when temperature structures are more intense and easterly-component winds more common. There is no indication ...

  18. Hydrothermal flake graphite mineralisation in Paleoproterozoic rocks of south-east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosing-Schow, Nanna; Bagas, Leon; Kolb, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Flake graphite mineralisation is hosted in the Kuummiut Terrane of the Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, south-east Greenland. Eclogite-facies peak-metamorphic assemblages record temperatures of 640–830 °C and pressures of 22–25 kbar, and are retrogressed in the high-pressure amphibolite-f...

  19. 25 October 2017 - Meeting on a South-East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Meeting on a South-East European International Institute for Sustainable Technologies at CERN, organised by the Ministry of Science of Montenegro, followed by a lunch hosted by CERN Director-General F. Gianotti and a site visit to CMS counting room and S'Cool LAB.

  20. A review of the platanaceous woods from the Eocene paratropical rainforest of south-east England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Davies, Kevin L.; Wilkinson, Hazel P.

    2002-01-01

    Small diameter pyritized axes, commonly referred to as ‘twigs’, of fossil platanaceous wood are described from the Lower Eocene London Clay Formation of south-east England. These twigs are characterized by solitary vessels with scalariform perforation plates, opposite intervessel pits, and tall,

  1. Cancer incidence in south-east Nigeria: a report from Nnewi Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study is the first population based cancer incidence report from a cancer registry in south-east Nigeria. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of some invasive cancers in southeast Nigeria. Methodology: We collected all new cases of invasive cancers between 1st January and 31st December, 2013.

  2. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  3. Tropical South-East Atlantic response to ENSO as an ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases were selected based on indices of Pacific sea surface temperature and South-East African rainfall. ... an El Niño event, and higher sardine Sardinops sagax catches tend to follow a La Niña event, through the northward and southward shift respectively of the South Atlantic anticyclone and attendant coastal upwelling.

  4. Acceptance and Adoption of Open Access Publication (OAP) in University Libraries in South East Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Manasseh Tyungu; Raphael, Gabriel Okplogidi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the kinds of open access scholarly publication or information resources accepted and adopted by federal university libraries in South East Nigeria. The purpose was to determine the factors that affect open access scholarly publication or information resources acceptance and adoption in university libraries. The study adopted…

  5. Eurasian continental background and regionally polluted levels of ozone and CO observed in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, Pakpong; Kato, Shungo; Katsuno, Takao; Akimoto, Hajime

    The roles of Eurasian/Siberian continental air masses transport and the impact of large-scale East Asian anthropogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide levels in northeast Asia were investigated. Seasonal behaviors of O 3 and CO mixing ratios in background continental (BC) air masses and regionally polluted continental (RPC) air masses were identified using trajectory analyses of Eurasian continental air masses and multi-year O 3 and CO data observed at Happo, a mountain site in Japan. RPC air masses show significantly higher O 3 and CO mixing ratios (annual average of 53.9±6.0 and 200±41 ppb, respectively) than BC air masses (44.4±3.6 and 167±17 ppb, respectively). Large scale anthropogenic emissions in East Asia are suggested to contribute about 10 ppb of photochemical O 3 and 32 ppb of CO at Happo. A comparative study of O 3 and CO observed at other sites, i.e., Oki Islands and Mondy in northeast Asia, showed similarities suggesting that O 3 mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo could be representative for remote northeast Asia. However, CO mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo are higher than the background level in Siberia. The overestimate is probably related to an increase in the CO baseline gradient between Siberia and the East Asia Pacific rim, and perturbations by sub-grid scale pollution transport and regional-scale boreal forest fires in Siberia when the background continental air masses are transported to Japan.

  6. Modern Integration Processes in the Asia-Pacific Region: the Formation of Trans-Regional Mega-Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliuta Iryna A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, especially in the last decade, new intercontinental integration projects appear on the global stage with a high potential for influencing the regional economic structure and at the same time bearing certain challenges for the international geo-economic and geo-political map of the world. Comprehensive new-generation inter-regional agreements are being formed, such as the TTP, the TTIP, the RCEP, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada and the EU (CETA, the Japan-EU Economic Partnership. The Asia-Pacific region has been an active participant in the creation and promotion of mega-regional trade agreements. Mega-regional trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the TTP and the RCEP, are analyzed as mega-projects with an unprecedented scale of liberalization within the framework of the agreement that include provisions complementing the WTO framework or extending beyond it. There identified reasons for the emergence of mega-regional trade agreements and prospects for the implementation of these projects, as well as possible consequences for the international economic system. It is established that new trans-regional projects, providing certain advantages to the participating countries, simultaneously carry both opportunities and challenges for the world economy. The latter are associated with the threats of crowding the countries that do not take an active part in the integration processes out of the global chains of value creation as well as of the processes of international trade.

  7. Global evidence directing regional preventive strategies in Southeast Asia for fighting TB/HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Moolphate, Saiyud; Paudel, Damodar; Jayathunge Ph, Mangalasiri; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Wangdi, Kinley; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Higuchi, Kazue

    2013-03-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemics form a huge burden of disease in the Southeast Asia region. Five out of eleven nations in this region are high TB/HIV burden countries: Myanmar, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Nepal. The trends of TB incidence in these countries have been rising in recent years, in contrast to a falling global trend. Experts in the field of TB control and health service providers have been perplexed by the association of TB and HIV infections which causes a mosaic clinical presentation, a unique course with poor treatment outcomes including death. We conducted a review of contemporary evidence relating to TB/HIV control with the aims of assisting integrated health system responses in Southeast Asia and demystifying current evidence to facilitate translating it into practice.

  8. Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Pal, Jeremy S; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2017-08-01

    The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions. The most intense hazard from extreme future heat waves is concentrated around densely populated agricultural regions of the Ganges and Indus river basins. Climate change, without mitigation, presents a serious and unique risk in South Asia, a region inhabited by about one-fifth of the global human population, due to an unprecedented combination of severe natural hazard and acute vulnerability.

  9. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Griffin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Capital and operating cost estimates for converting microalgae to oil or biodiesel are compared. These cost comparisons are based on Australian locations, which are expected to fall at the lower end of the cost spectrum in the Asia-Pacific Region and other parts of the world.  It is assumed that microalgae are grown in a concentrated saltwater medium in raceway ponds, then are harvested, dewatered and the oil is extracted and converted to biodiesel by transesterification. The size of the desired pond system affects the number of potential locations due to constraints in resource availability. Cost estimates vary significantly due to differences in the assumed oil productivity, the harvesting equipment and the method of converting residual biomass to electric power. A comparison is made with recent cost estimates from other parts of the world, in which the expected costs of microalgae oil production from a number of publicly available sources lay between 0.34–31.0 USD/L.  The resulting cost estimates of between 1.37—2.66 USD/L are at the lower end of this scale, thereby confirming that Australia has the potential to be a low-cost producer of algal oil and biodiesel in the Asia-Pacific Region.  It was significant that, despite similar assumptions for the microalgae-to-oil process, cost estimates for the final biodiesel or oil price differed by a factor of 2.  This highlights the high degree of uncertainty in such economic predictions. Keywords: Asia-Pacific region; biodiesel; economics; microalgaeThis article is cited as :Griffin, G., Batten, D., Beer, T., & Campbell, P. (2013. The Costs of Producing Biodiesel from Microalgae in the Asia-Pacific Region. International Journal Of Renewable Energy Development (IJRED, 2(3, 105-113. doi:10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113Permalinkhttp://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2.3.105-113

  10. Asymmetric Power Balance and Its Implications for Regionalism in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    constitutes an ideal grouping for economic integration.16 The political dimensions are mainly overshadowed with security concerns among member states...United States’ to the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ).39 The region’s geo-politics strongly suggest that India is the best candidate for...dynamics in South Asia. Many scholars have put forth their view on what constitutes regional cooperation and integration. E.B. Haas defines the

  11. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhat Kumar Rai; Mayanglambam Muni Singh

    2016-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Developm...

  12. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  13. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: National Interests and Strategic Imperatives (Strategic Forum, Number 239, April 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    policymakers. U.S. Interests From its earliest days, the United States has been engaged in trade with East Asia. In February 1784, the Empress of...larger East Asia region dating to the Empress of China and the opening of Japan. Taking into consideration the nearly 225- year history of U.S

  14. Modelling and prediction of air pollutant transport during the 2014 biomass burning and forest fires in peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Bang, Ho Quoc; Quang, Ngo Xuan

    2016-02-01

    During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA). Following these studies, in this paper, we study the transport of particulate air pollution across the peninsular region of SEA and beyond during the March 2014 burning period using meteorological modelling approach and available ground-based and satellite measurements to ascertain the extent of the aerosol pollution and transport in the region of this particular event. The results show that the air pollutants from SEA biomass burning in March 2014 were transported at high altitude to southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and beyond as has been highlighted in the BASE-ASIA and 7-SEAS studies. There are strong evidences that the biomass burning in SEA especially in mid-March 2014 has not only caused widespread high particle pollution in Thailand (especially the northern region where most of the fires occurred) but also impacted on the air quality in Hong Kong as measured at the ground-based stations and in LulinC (Taiwan) where a remote background monitoring station is located.

  15. Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders: Proposed recommendations for children of the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Donald; Hock, Quak Seng; Kadim, Musal; Mohan, Neelam; Ryoo, Eell; Sandhu, Bhupinder; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Jie, Chen; Hoekstra, Hans; Guarino, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) were strongly recommended as adjunct treatment to oral rehydration therapy for gastroenteritis. Lactobacillus reuteri could also be considered. Probiotics may be considered for prevention of (with the indicated strains): antibiotic-associated diarrhea (LGG or Sb); Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea (Sb); nosocomial diarrhea (LGG); infantile colic (L reuteri) and as adjunct treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Sb and others). Specific probiotics with a history of safe use in preterm and term infants may be considered in infants for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. There is insufficient evidence for recommendations in other conditions. Despite a diversity of epidemiological, socioeconomical and health system conditions, similar recommendations apply well to Asia pacific countries. These need to be validated with local randomized-controlled trials. PMID:29259371

  16. South-East Asian Fortified Stone Walls: Angkor Thom (Cambodia, Ho Citadel (Vietnam and Ratu Boko (Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Lluís Pérez Garcia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze three significant examples of defensive walls from South-East Asia made of solid stone blocks (both rock as well as stone-like laterite and provided with different but equivalent functions –a fortified imperial capital-city (Angkor Thom, in Cambodia, a fortified royal citadel (Ho Citadel, in the North of Vietnam and a royal palace with a partly fortified appearance (Ratu Boko, in Java Island, Indonesia–, focusing on their constructive and technical characteristics and establishing parallels between them and their closest counterparts, from China and India. We will see how their design and structure can be closely related to the fortifications of neighbouring empires, as places of origin of their strong cultural influences and, at the same time, we will try to identify the local particularities. We will pay special attention to the form of the fortified enceintes, considering the long tradition of the quadrangular plan in the walls of royal capitals, inspired in the ideal model of Chinese and Indian cities. Our research also make us think that the walls of Ratu Boko, despite their functions as symbolic limits or for retaining the soil, could also have had a defensive purpose, no matter if secondary, or at least they could be used to provide protection to the complex in case of external menace.

  17. Challenges of Tsunami Disaster and Extreme climate Events Along Coastal Region in Asia-Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, S.

    2017-12-01

    South Asia is more vulnerable to Geo disasters and impacts of climate changes in recent years. On 26 December 2004 massive waves triggered by an earthquake surged into coastal communities in Asia and East Africa with devastating force. Hitting Indonesia, Sri Lanka , Thailand and India hardest, the deadly waves swept more than 200 000 people to their deaths. Also in an another extreme climate change phenomenon during 2005 - 2006,causing heavy rains and flooding situation in the South Asia - Europe and Pacific region ,more than 100 million population in these regions are witnessing the social- economical and ecological risks and impacts due to climate changes and Geohazards. For mitigating geo-disasters, marine hazards and rehabilitation during post tsunami period, scientific knowledge is needed, requiring experienced research communities who can train the local population during tsunami rehabilitation. Several civil society institutions jointly started the initiatives on the problem identifications in management of risks in geo-disasters, tsunami rehabilitation ,Vulnerability and risk assessments for Geohazards etc., to investigate problems related to social-economic and ecological risks and management issues resulting from the December tsunami and Geo- disaster, to aid mitigation planning in affected areas and to educate scientists and local populations to form a basis for sustainable and economic solutions. The poster aims to assess the potential risk and hazard , technical issues, problems and damage arising from Tsunami in the Asia-pacific region in coastal geology, coastal ecosystems and coastal environmental systems . This poster deals with the status and issues of interactions between Human and Ocean Systems, Geo-risks, marine risks along coastal region of Asia- Pacific and also human influence on the earth system . The poster presentation focuses on capacity building of the local population, scientists and researchers for integration of human and ocean

  18. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  19. The great triangular seismic region in eastern Asia: Thoughts on its dynamic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge triangle-shaped tectonic region in eastern Asia plays host to numerous major earthquakes. The three boundaries of this region, which contains plateaus, mountains, and intermountain basins, are roughly the Himalayan arc, the Tianshan-Baikal, and longitude line ∼105°E. Within this triangular region, tectonism is intense and major deformation occurs both between crustal blocks and within most of them. Outside of this region, rigid blocks move as a whole with relatively few major earthquakes and relatively weak Cenozoic deformation. On a large tectonic scale, the presence of this broad region of intraplate deformation results from dynamic interactions between the Indian, Philippine Sea-West Pacific, and Eurasian plates, as well as the influence of deep-level mantle flow. The Indian subcontinent, which continues to move northwards at ∼40 mm/a since its collision with Eurasia, has plunged beneath Tibet, resulting in various movements and deformations along the Himalayan arc that diffuse over a long distance into the hinterland of Asia. The northward crustal escape of Asia from the Himalayan collisional zone turns eastwards and southeastwards along 95°–100°E longitude and defines the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. At the western Himalayan syntaxis, the Pamirs continue to move into central Asia, leading to crustal deformation and earthquakes that are largely accommodated by old EW or NW trending faults in the bordering areas between China, Mongolia, and Russia, and are restricted by the stable landmass northwest of the Tianshan-Altai-Baikal region. The subduction of the Philippine and Pacific plates under the Eurasian continent has generated a very long and narrow seismic zone along trenches and island arcs in the marginal seas while imposing only slight horizontal compression on the Asian continent that does not impede the eastward motion of eastern Asia. In the third dimension, there may be southeastward deep mantle flow beneath most of

  20. The energy supply and demand outlook in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, Fereidun; Yamaguchi, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s witnessed spectacular growth rates in the Asia-Pacific region, the rising economic power of Japan, an unprecedented opening of China's economy, the emergence of the ''Four Tigers'' or the ''Little Dragons'' (Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong), a rapid growth of exports from the region - in short, remarkable economic success and an increase in entrepreneurialism and the free-market philosophy. Even the United States, which historically has been Atlantic-oriented, sat up and took notice. While the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption is not necessarily one-to-one, energy is a required input for economic activity and trade. Energy demand growth in the Asia-Pacific region has been accordingly rapid. At this point in history, oil and economic growth are so interrelated that changes in one invariably have major repercussions on the other. During the coming decade, continued economic growth is foreseen for the Asia-Pacific region, coupled with the fastest rate of oil demand growth of any region on Earth. Pressure will come to bear on the regional oil and gas markets, since demand growth will take place concurrently with a decline in the availability of local, low-sulphur crudes. The region will become even more dependent on imports of Middle Eastern crude, which will result in a higher-sulphur crude slate. Moreover, we anticipate that the existing and planned refinery complexes will lack the capacity and the flexibility to fully satisfy product demand. The consequence will be a higher level of refined product imports. (author)

  1. The energy supply and demand outlook in the Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesharaki, Fereidun; Yamaguchi, Nancy (East-West Centre, Honolulu, Hawaii (US))

    The 1980s witnessed spectacular growth rates in the Asia-Pacific region, the rising economic power of Japan, an unprecedented opening of China's economy, the emergence of the ''Four Tigers'' or the ''Little Dragons'' (Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong), a rapid growth of exports from the region - in short, remarkable economic success and an increase in entrepreneurialism and the free-market philosophy. Even the United States, which historically has been Atlantic-oriented, sat up and took notice. While the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption is not necessarily one-to-one, energy is a required input for economic activity and trade. Energy demand growth in the Asia-Pacific region has been accordingly rapid. At this point in history, oil and economic growth are so interrelated that changes in one invariably have major repercussions on the other. During the coming decade, continued economic growth is foreseen for the Asia-Pacific region, coupled with the fastest rate of oil demand growth of any region on Earth. Pressure will come to bear on the regional oil and gas markets, since demand growth will take place concurrently with a decline in the availability of local, low-sulphur crudes. The region will become even more dependent on imports of Middle Eastern crude, which will result in a higher-sulphur crude slate. Moreover, we anticipate that the existing and planned refinery complexes will lack the capacity and the flexibility to fully satisfy product demand. The consequence will be a higher level of refined product imports. (author).

  2. Air pollution reduction and control in south asia need for a regional agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Shaheen, N.; Sherazi, A.; Shaheen, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing urbanization and economic growth, air pollution is becoming an urgent concern in South Asia. The objective of this study is to look into and discuss the socioeconomic situation of South Asia, the existing situation of air pollution in the countries of the region, resulting health impacts of air pollution on the population and the responses, if any, of national governments to combat this problem. With the increase in industrial activity and exponential growth in number of vehicles and population, the contribution of each South Asian country to the regional air pollution will increase over time. As evident from the review of the available country data, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been rising steadily over past few decades. The air pollutants can be transported across state and national boundaries, therefore, pollutants produced by one country can, as well, have adverse impacts on the environment and public health of neighboring countries. It has been reported by the country national health authorities that air pollution has pushed respiratory diseases up in the ranks as the leading cause of hospitalization. To minimize the socio-economic and health impacts, resulting from air pollution, South Asian states have developed environmental legal and regulatory frameworks in their respective countries. However, the implementation of country national environmental action plan has been limited due to lack of financial resources and technical know-how. Recommendations have been made for policy actions, including a legally binding agreement for South Asia (LBA-SA), for strengthening the framework for air pollution reduction at regional and national levels in South Asia. (author)

  3. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  4. Panel discussion: Roles of space program in the Asia Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tamiya

    1992-03-01

    A panel discussion on the subject 'Roles played by space development in Asia Pacific region' was held chaired by Space Activities Commission member and attended by the representatives of the participating countries, special attendance and observers. Opinions were expressed by each representative on three subjects, that is, social effects and benefits obtained by remote sensing data, observation data desired to augment the effect, and expectation for developed countries in space development. President of NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) expressed his intension to promote international cooperation for the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) verification program, utilization augmentation of Japanese earth observing satellites and human resource training and education. Deputy Director-General for Science and Technology Agency (STA) outlined ASCA (Association for Science Cooperation in Asia) seminar and STA fellowship in relation to human resource development. Chairman of the Japan International Space Year (ISY) Association cited the necessity of closer and extensive communication networks free from the existing commercial communication. Deputy-Minister for Posts and Telecommunications outlined the PARTNERS project (Post-operational utilization of the Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5)) for international cooperation in space activities in Asia Pacific region. President of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) outlined Japan's present status of and international cooperation in space science.

  5. Prospects and challenges for new security arrangements in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered in this presentation are as follows: prospects and challenges for arms limitations; cooperation for new regional security arrangements; role of the United nations in conflict prevention, peace-keeping and disarmament. Developments in former Soviet Union which create concern are: the possible dispersion of Russian nuclear expertise and personnel to would be nuclear powers; the continuing friction between Russia and Ukraine over disposal of ex-Soviet ICBMs and tactical nuclear weapons, and the transfer to Russia of 3000 nuclear warheads in Ukraine; the Black Sea fleet, and the Crimea question. These dramatic events have global as well as regional impact as Russia is an Asia-Pacific Country

  6. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Yang, Pingfang; Woo, Sun-Hee; Chin, Chiew Foan; Gehring, Christoph A; Haynes, Paul A.; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  7. Proteomics of Important Food Crops in the Asia Oceania Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-06-02

    In the rapidly growing economies of Asia and Oceania, food security has become a primary concern. With the rising population, growing more food at affordable prices is becoming even more important. In addition, the predicted climate change will lead to drastic changes in global surface temperature and changes in rainfall patterns that in turn would pose a serious threat to plant vegetation worldwide. As a result, understanding how plants will survive in a changing climate will be increasingly important. Such challenges require integrated approaches to increase agricultural production and cope with environmental threats. Proteomics can play a role in unravel the underlying mechanisms for food production to address the growing demand for food. In this review, the current status of food crop proteomics is discussed, especially in regards to the Asia and Oceania regions. Furthermore, the future perspective in relation to proteomic techniques for the important food crops is highlighted.

  8. Additional protocols and regional cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kwan Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The main object of this article is to clarify the relations between the implementation of the Protocols Additional to Safeguards Agreement (hereinafter referred to as the Additional Protocols) and the feasibility of the regional cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Northeast Asia (NEA). The regionalism has a strong tendency to be based in advance on regional cooperation. The regionalism has three main structural elements in its definition: geographical proximity, cultural resemblance, and cooperative attitudes among all the countries concerned. The Additional Protocols allow the IAEA to access to more detailed information and nuclear activities of a State party. The aspect that the Additional Protocols could increase the nuclear transparency will result in ultimately promoting the confidence among the regional nations concerned.

  9. A perspective of the evolving nuclear power programs in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmo, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the issues related to the need for nuclear power in the Asia-Pacific region. It further discusses the benefits for nuclear power introduction, as they have been reported in countries with significant nuclear power programs and as they are now being computed and forecasted in this region. A large body of experience in commercializing and operating nuclear power plants bas been accumulated worldwide and some of the most significant nuclear power achievements have occurred in this region. Examples are the large nuclear plants standardisation program implemented in Japan, culminating in the construction of the two advanced boiling water reactors (ABWRs) in Kashiwakaki-Kariwa and the recent record short 48 months construction time for Hamaoka - 4 unit, the Korean standard nuclear plant design and the impressively high lifetime capacity factors achieved in the Korean and Taiwanese nuclear power programs. These and other examples enhance the confidence that further nuclear power expansion can be implemented successfully in the Asia-Pacific region, and provide the region with the benefits of large scale economic supply of electricity required for future economic development. 16 figs

  10. Petroleum systems in rift basins – a collective approach in South-east Asian basins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Sumner, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper synthesizes some of the main conclusions reached in a recent regional review of the Tertiary basins of Southeast Asia, carried out by Shell. Four distinctive types of petroleum systems, correlating with the four main stages of basin evolution (early to late syn-rift and early to late

  11. Studies on Enhancing Nuclear Transparency in the Asia-Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Y.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is defined as ''a cooperative process of providing information to all interested parties so that they can independently assess the safety, security, and legitimate management of nuclear materials'' by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Since the Asia- Pacific region has a broad spectrum of nuclear development underway and planned in the future, nuclear transparency is recognized as essential to provide additional assurance and enhance confidence building in this area. It is expected that elevated nuclear transparency should also supplement International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. With this recognition, JAEA has committed various studies and activities for enhancing regional nuclear transparency mainly with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its national laboratories. The efforts include concept study, development of secure data transmission technologies at the Experimental Fast Reactor ''Joyo'' for the use of regional nuclear transparency, and support for Council for Security and Cooperation in Asia Pacific (CSCAP) to develop internet-based transparency tools. JAEA also organized several workshops to discuss with stakeholder organizations to build acceptance for transparency tools and activities. Based on the past studies, JAEA, jointly with SNL, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), initiated a new phase of study in 2011 to design and establish an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) which was defined as ''a communication platform on which nuclear nonproliferation experts can provide and/or receive relevant information in a practical and sustainable manner''. During the period of two-year study, partner organizations identified essential elements to establish ISF and developed the requirements. Currently, JAEA and KINAC are planning to implement demonstration of ISF under Asia Pacific

  12. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source

  13. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Critical issues in implementing low vision care in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-thirds of the world′s population with low vision resides in the Asia-Pacific region. Provision of comprehensive low vision services is important to improve vision-related quality of life (QoL for people with this condition. This review outlines the critical issues and challenges facing the provision of low vision services in the Asia-Pacific region. The review offers possible strategies to tackle these issues and challenges facing service providers and policy makers in lieu of Vision 2020 strategies in this area. Pertinent findings from the global survey of low vision services and extensive ground work conducted in the region are used; in addition, a discussion on the availability of services, human resources and training, and funding and the future sustainability of low vision care will be covered. In summary, current issues and challenges facing the region are the lack of specific evidence-based data, access, appropriate equipment and facilities, human resources, funding, and sustainability. These issues are inextricably interlinked and thus cannot be addressed in isolation. The solutions proposed cover all areas of the VISION 2020 strategy that include service delivery, human resources, infrastructure and equipment, advocacy and partnership; and include provision of comprehensive care via vertical and horizontal integration; strengthening primary level care in the community; providing formal and informal training to enable task shifting and capacity building; and promoting strong government and private sector partnership to achieve long-term service financial sustainability.

  15. Political and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region: Assessment of trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.F. II

    1992-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the fundamental shift has taken place in international relations, away from a world dominated by the bipolar super-Power confrontation. There is a today to be more concerned about regional instabilities, which are made more threatening by the potential proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Just as every nation was affected by the cold war, regional instabilities and proliferation concern each member of the world community. In the Asia-Pacific region, the goal is clear: safer, more stable military postures; transparency and confidence-building; and stronger non-proliferation norms. In working together towards that goal, there is a need to foster greater security through bilateral and multilateral dialogue. In that way, one could promote the change within and among societies; that is the best hope for defusing regional tensions, preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction, and building a lasting peace

  16. E-Government in the Asia-Pacific Region: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Wescott

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on two issues: (i recent e-government progress and challenges, and (ii the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits. Beginning with an overview of efforts to improve governance in the region, it then analyzes recent progress in the use of information and communication technology (ICT in the Asia-Pacific region to promote more efficient, cost-effective, and participatory government, facilitate more convenient government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accountable to citizens. Successful adoption of e-government presents major challenges. The paper concludes by examining the practices regional organizations follow to cope with the challenges, while maximizing the benefits.

  17. RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparisons in East Asia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshizawa, M.; Murakami, H.; Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Kanai, K.; Cruz-Suarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or inter-regional basis. In East Asia region, a third phase of the intercomparison finished in mid 2004. It was organised within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during 1990-1992 and 1995-1996. The results of this intercomparison for the determination of operational quantities were satisfactory for all Member States. The laboratories demonstrated a good performance in quantities tested. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the RCA/IAEA intercomparison and the future of RCA activities in support of assessment of occupational exposure by organising intercomparison runs. (authors)

  18. Regional Focus Editorial ~ Changing Faces of Open and Distance Learning in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Jung

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is no incident that IRRODL begins the year of 2007 with this regional focus edition on “Changing Faces of Open and Distance Learning in Asia.” Over the recent years, there has been tremendous growth and diversity in open and distance learning (ODL in Asia. With over 56 percent of the global population, Asia has over 70 universities that are dedicated to open access to education, including seven out of 11 of the world's mega universities (universities with over 100,000 active students in degree-level courses serving six million active students all together (Daniel, 1996. Quite a few distance teaching universities or programs such as the Bangladeshi Open University, the Hanoi Open University, the Open University Malaysia, and the Open and Distance Learning Program in Singapore, have been established since the 1990s and now provide tertiary level education to those seeking continuing education opportunities. Virtual universities are growing fast and, with 17 virtual universities in Korea alone! Many conventional, campus-based universities have started to offer e-Learning programs as well. For example, 67 e-Colleges have been established within conventional research universities in China.

  19. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  1. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pattern of cardiovascular admissions at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South East Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osuji, Charles Ukachukwu; Onwubuya, Emmanuel Ikechukwu; Ahaneku, Gladys Ifesinachi; Omejua, Emeka Godwin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the top killer diseases in the world sparing neither developed or developing countries. The study was carried out to determine the pattern of cardiovascular admissions at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi South East Nigeria. Methods The study was a retrospective study covering the period January 2007 to December 2009. SPSS version 13 software was used to analyze data. Results 537 (15%) patients were admitted into the study ou...

  3. Macroeconomic dataset for generating macroeconomic volatility among selected countries in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Peng Chow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides macroeconomic data that can be used to generate macroeconomic volatility. The data cover a sample of seven selected countries in the Asia Pacific region for the period 2004–2014, including both developing and developed countries. This dataset was generated to enhance our understanding of the sources of macroeconomic volatility affecting the countries in this region. Although the Asia Pacific region continues to remain as the most dynamic part of the world's economy, it is not spared from various sources of macroeconomic volatility through the decades. The reported data cover 15 types of macroeconomic data series, representing three broad categories of indicators that can be used to proxy macroeconomic volatility. They are indicators that account for macroeconomic volatility (i.e. volatility as a macroeconomic outcome, domestic sources of macroeconomic volatility and external sources of macroeconomic volatility. In particular, the selected countries are Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, which are regarded as developing countries, while Singapore, Japan and Australia are developed countries. Despite the differences in level of economic development, these countries were affected by similar sources of macroeconomic volatility such as the Asian Financial Crisis and the Global Financial Crisis. These countries were also affected by other similar external turbulence arising from factors such as the global economic slowdown, geopolitical risks in the Middle East and volatile commodity prices. Nonetheless, there were also sources of macroeconomic volatility which were peculiar to certain countries only. These were generally domestic sources of volatility such as political instability (for Thailand, Indonesia and Philippines, natural disasters and anomalous weather conditions (for Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan and Australia and over-dependence on the electronic sector (for Singapore. Keywords

  4. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, T; Azhari, HA; Voon, EO; Cheung, KY; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, NM; Bold, L; Win, UM; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, JCL; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world’s population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Results and discussion: Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. Conclusion: As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:22970066

  5. Long range transport of CO and ozone from source regions in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, D.; Mahura, A. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)]|[Institute of Northern Ecological Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novelli, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Merrill, J. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narraganset, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Based on current understanding of the atmosphere, CO and photochemically produced ozone can be transported thousands of kilometers prior to being removed. Emissions from Asia have a possible impact on the CO and ozone concentrations over the U.S. west coast following transport across the Pacific Ocean. If this is correct, then there are implications for ozone control strategies in the downwind region. Evidence includes: (1) Global 3D chemical transport models indicating a monthly mean enhancement of 10-20% on the US west coast for both CO and ozone during winter-spring due to emissions from Asia; and (2) CO and O{sub 3} data from several Pacific sites which demonstrate that Asian pollutants can be transported great distances. The weekly flask data clearly define a CO seasonal cycle. In the present analysis we use a locally weighted smoothing technique to identify individual data outliers from the smoothed seasonal cycle. We hypothesize that these outliers represent periods when continental emissions influenced the atmospheric mixing ratios at these locations. Using isentropic back trajectories we try to identify a possible source region or pathway for each event and present a distribution of the trajectory types for the events. For the events at Midway, Mauna Loa, Guam and Shemya, we are able to identify a source region for elevated CO in 82, 72, 65 and 50% of the events, respectively. At Mauna Loa and Midway a majority of the events occur during spring and are mostly associated with transport from Asia. These events bring the highest CO mixing ratios observed at any time during the year to these sites, with CO enhancements up to 46 ppb. For Mauna Loa, a small number of events during summer are due to transport from North and Central America. In-situ ozone from Mauna Loa also demonstrates an impact from Asian emissions.

  6. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  7. Intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring services in the Asia/Pacific region- our participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhond, R.V.; Worlikar, R.M.; Saralamma Nair, D.; Pathak, A.S.; Sankaran, M.P.; Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation Protection Services Division participated in the intercomparison of personal monitoring services in Asia/Pacific region during 1991-92 organised by Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL). The exposed films returned by ARL were processed in our laboratory. The nature and energies of the incident radiations were identified and doses evaluated in terms of new operational quantities. The doses evaluated were within ± 20% except in two cases where energy determination did not match with the ARL values. The results are presented in the paper. (author). 1 ref., 3 tabs

  8. Probiotic research in Australia, New Zealand and the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, R; Bird, A R; Gopal, P; Henriksson, A; Lee, Y K; Playne, M J

    2005-01-01

    Although the epicentres of probiotic research in the past decade have been Japan and Europe, researchers in the Asia-Pacific region have actively contributed to the growing understanding of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, and interactions between gut bacteria, diet and health of the human host. A number of new probiotic strains have been developed in the region that have been demonstrated to have beneficial impacts on health in animal and human trials, including improved protection against intestinal pathogens and modulation of the immune system. Probiotics targeted to animals, including aquaculture, feature heavily in many Asian countries. Developments in probiotic technologies have included microencapsulation techniques, antimicrobial production in fermented meats, and synbiotic combinations. In particular, the impact of resistant starch on the intestinal environment and fermentation by intestinal bacteria has been intensively studied and new probiotic strains selected specifically for synbiotic combinations with resistant starch. This paper provides an overview of probiotic research within Australia, New Zealand and a number of Asian countries, and lists scientists in the Asia-Pacific region involved in various aspects of probiotic research and development.

  9. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Paciifc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny R.Youlden; Susanna M.Cramb; Cheng Har Yip; Peter D.Baade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Paciifc region. Methods: Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results: Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and hTailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion: It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  10. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  11. Capital Markets, Infrastructure Investment and Growth in the Asia Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Regan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure investment activity, capital market development, the role of public institutions and economic development in the Asia Pacific. It adopts a review approach drawing on empirical evidence over recent decades. Infrastructure is shown to be an important asset class playing a central role in a nation’s output, growth, productivity and microeconomic performance. Infrastructure investment also requires investment and predictions of a widening gap in the future supply of infrastructure in the Asia Pacific will require new forms of capital from both traditional and new sources including wider use of private participation, institutional investment, asset recycling and revenue bonds. Capital market development is also necessary to raise long-term local currency finance and evidence suggests that progress with regional capital market integration is slow and a continuing reform agenda is required. The dividend for regional countries is the prospect of higher levels of economic growth with infrastructure investment, capital market development, and foreign direct investment shown to have a strong and positive association with growth. A crucial link in this association identified in the review is the part played by national and regional institutions in improving the efficiency with which infrastructure is managed and providing promising ground for further research where the importance of these links can be researched in greater depth.

  12. Development of the regional policy process for air pollution in South Asia, southern Africa and Latin America

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hicks, WK

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available issues in three sub-regions of three continents. Experiences gained through activities within a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries are used to illustrate progress. The sub-regional process in South Asia developed through a series...

  13. A Case of Fascioliasis from South-East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Sharifi-Mood

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Human is accidentally infected by ingesting contaminated drinking water or plants in endemic area (mainly North of Iran. The disease is usually reported from the sheep raising area of our country. We report a case of human fascioliasis in south-eastern Iran with dry climate without any history of travel to endemic regions.

  14. Respiratory health issues in the Asia-Pacific region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; Musk, Arthur William

    2011-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region is home to a large heterogeneous population whose respiratory health is influenced by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Despite this variability, the most prevalent causes of respiratory morbidity and mortality are tobacco smoking, infection, and air pollution. This review aims to summarize current respiratory health issues in the region including smoking-related diseases especially COPD, lung cancer and infectious problems such as pandemic influenza, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis, as well as the contribution of air pollution to respiratory disease. Published data on trends in the epidemiology and management of respiratory diseases and are summarized; finally, the limitations of available data and projections for the future of respiratory health in the region are discussed. © 2010 Commonwealth of Australia. Respirology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA). A mechanism for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Muslim, N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the regional cooperation programs of the IAEA which have as purpose to promote the applications of peaceful uses of atomic energy and to transfer technology to the developing countries. The paper focusses on the (RCA) program for Asia and the Pacific, it is considered the most important mechanism for genuine technology transfer. The annex no 1 lists the full text of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (13 articles). The annex no.3 lists also the full text of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (14 articles). 11 refs., 17 tabs

  16. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  17. Role of Russia in development of intra-regional integration process between countries of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Kayumovich Kayumov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The character of partnership of Central Asia countries is described. Prosperity of each of these countries for natural resources is analyzed. Is highlighted that the countries of region complete each other in the context of resources. In order to resist a negative influence of globalization, countries of a region should become integrated using complementarity of their economic potentials. The countries of region derived from the USSR productions united into the single technological and transport net. Meanwhile, there were more disintegration processes in the last years. China placed into the region very big investments. Chinese capital is being placed in Tajikistan, for example, into energetic, road building, agriculture. Position of Russia in the region is feeble. Critically is evaluated economic cooperation of the region with non-CIS states. Leader of integration in the region can become Russia. It is reasonable to use Russia for the organization of links. The positiveinfluence of policy of tsarist Russia on theregion in theforetimeis underlined. External and internal factors of disintegration in the region are analyzed. It is supposed to create within the SCO a research fund for solving scientific problems of an international character

  18. Is the recent south-east Australian drought a sign of climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, Michael; Braganza, Karl; Collins, Dean; Jones, David

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The national climate archive reveals that Australia has warmed by almost 1 0 C since the middle of the 20th century, while rainfall has decreased in the east and far south-west and increased substantially in the north-west (Jones etal. 2006). The warming (Karoly and Braganza 2005) and the rainfall decline in the far south-west (Timbal er al. 2006) have been partly attributed to human activities. However, causes for rainfall changes elsewhere in Australia are yet to be confidently established. Severe and protracted rainfall downturns have been recorded in far south-west Australia, Victoria, southern New South Wales and parts of central Queensland since the mid-1990s. The resulting pattern of decadal rainfall anomalies show some consistencies with climate change projections that generally show drying across southern Australia (CSIRO 2001). However, there are some discrepancies and it is premature to attribute the decadal rainfall decline in south-east Australia to climate change. Most of eastern Australia experienced severe rainfall deficits during the 2002/03 and 2006/07 El Nino events, with poor rainfall in between. There is no evidence linking these El Nino events to climate change. In terms of rainfall alone, the most recent multi-year drought is not unlike droughts of the early 1900s and around 1940. Thus the rainfall downturns over eastern Australia in recent years could simply mark a recurrence of similar protracted downturns observed during the first half of the 20th century. Nevertheless, climate change is likely to have contributed to the severity of recent droughts. Temperatures have been exceptionally high over most parts of Australia during the past five years, exacerbating the water stress experienced during the last two El Nino droughts. This combination of low rainfall and record high temperatures is without historical precedent in most regions. Recent prolonged bushfire seasons may be a further consequence. Regardless of whether

  19. Zero carbon energy system of South East Europe in 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Ćosić, B.

    2016-01-01

    and photovoltaics are the main technologies with shares of 28.9% and 22.5%, followed by hydro power, concentrated solar power, biomass (mainly used in cogeneration units) and geothermal energy sources. To keep the biomass consumption within the sustainability limits, there is a need for some type of synthetic fuel..