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Sample records for south turkana kenya

  1. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species, construction (42 species, tools (31 species, food (29 species and ceremonial use (19 species ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a

  2. Lake Turkana National Parks Kenya.

    2005-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest, most northerly and most saline of Africa's Rift Valley lakes and an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities. The three National Parks are a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile and hippopotamus. The Koobi Fora deposits are rich in pre-human, mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains and have contributed more to the understanding of Quaternary palaeoenvironments than any other site on ...

  3. Geochronology of the Turkana depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

    Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Turkana Grits - a Cretaceous braided alluvial system in northern Kenya

    Handford, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Rather spotty but excellent exposures of the Cretaceous-age Turkana Grits occur near the western shore of Lake Turkana, northern Kenya. These very coarse to pebbly arkosic sandstones and sandy conglomerates were derived from and rest unconformably upon Precambrian metamorphic basement; they are overlain by late Tertiary basaltic flows that comprise much of the volcanics in the East African Rift Zone. The formation ranges up to 2000 ft thick in the Laburr Range. Several outcrops contain sauropod, crocodile, and tortoise remains as well as abundant trunks of petrified wood (Dryoxylon). Five major facies make up the Turkana Grits and record a major episode of continental fluvial deposition in basins flanked by Precambrian basement. Facies 1 is crudely stratified, cobble and boulder conglomerate (clast-supported); Facies 2 is crudely stratified pebble-cobble conglomerate and pebbly sandstone; Facies 3 is trough cross-bedded, very coarse sandstones containing fossils wood and vertebrate remains; Facies 4 is crudely stratified to massive sandstones with ironstone nodules; and Facies 5 is red, purple, and gray mudstone and mud shale with carbonate nodules. Facies 1 through 3 record deposition in proximal to medial braided-stream channel, longitudinal bar and dune complexes. Facies 4 is a lowland, hydromorphic paleosol, and Facies 5 represents overbank and abandoned channel-fill sedimentation in an alluvial plain.

  5. [Pediatric case series in an ophthalmic camp in Turkana (Kenya)].

    Noval, S; Cabrejas, L; Jarrín, E; Ruiz-Guerrero, M; Ciancas, E

    2013-12-01

    Turkana is the largest district in Kenya, situated in the Northwest of the country. It features a semi-nomadic population of 850,000. Around 60% of population lives below the poverty threshold. The ratio of doctors is 1:75,000 inhabitants. Five ophthalmologists took part in the last deployment in November. Local staff had previously selected the patients from the rural areas, as well as in Lodwar, the capital of the district. Of the 371 patients who attended the clinic, 128 required surgery. To describe the pediatric population attended to in the last «Turkana Eye Project» Camp. Description of the ophthalmic pathologies of the children seen in the clinic in this surgical camp, and the diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the limitations of the environment. Of the 371 patients, 54 were younger than 15 years old (14.5%). Four children had surgery (3.25% of the 128 patients). In 2 more cases surgery was the indicated but not performed. Therefore, of the total of 54 cases, 6 could be considered as surgical (11.1%), and 17 suffered ophthalmic problems other than refraction defects, or mild ocular surface pathologies: traumatic cataracts, neuropathies, impetigo, exophthalmos, retinal dystrophies, dermoid cysts, or nyctalopia. The etiology was traumatic in four of the 17 children (23.5%). Surgical camps are increasing in the developing countries. They are usually focused on particular pathologies, such as cataracts or trachoma. Our case series shows the importance of pediatric teams and the need to be prepared to face complex pediatric pathologies. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. New radiocarbon dates for terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene settlements in West Turkana, northern Kenya

    Beyin, Amanuel; Prendergast, Mary E.; Grillo, Katherine M.; Wang, Hong

    2017-07-01

    The Turkana Basin in northern Kenya is located in an environmentally sensitive region along the eastern African Rift system. Lake Turkana's sensitivity to fluctuations in precipitation makes this an ideal place to study prehistoric human adaptations during key climatic transitions. Here we present eleven radiocarbon dates from two recently excavated sites in West Turkana, Kokito 01 and Kokito 02. The sites span the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, a time of fluctuating lake levels and novel cultural responses within the region. Several scenarios are laid out for the interpretation of site chronologies, and these are discussed with reference to the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene chronological record for the region. Given the paucity of well-dated sites from this timespan in the Turkana Basin, the new radiocarbon dates are an important step toward establishing human settlement history and associated cultural developments in the region.

  7. Plio-Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy of the Turkana basin, Kenya

    Lepre, C. J.; Quinn, R.; Feibel, C. S.; Brown, F. H.; Kent, D. V.

    2012-12-01

    Archaeological and fossil sites from the Turkana basin provide a unique record of important human evolutionary junctures, which have been linked to terrestrial environmental change as a consequence of late Cenozoic climate phenomenon. However, because of low geochronological resolution, spatial discontinuities, and the episodic nature of sedimentation in the half-graben basins of the East African Rift System, it has been difficult to directly connect the terrestrial sites with marine archives of Pliocene and Pleistocene climate. For the purpose of addressing these issues, a magnetic polarity stratigraphy and a corresponding geochronology are presented for 12 sampling sites spanning about 400 m of continental sediments that crop out in eastern (Areas 118 and 130 of the Karari ridge, Areas 102 and 104 of the Koobi Fora ridge, Areas 107 and 123 of Bara Hasuma) and western (Kokiselei, Naiyena Engol, Kalochoro, Lomekwi, South Turkwel, and Kanapoi) parts of the Turkana basin. Characteristic magnetizations isolated through thermal demagnetization experiments on mudstone specimens pass reversal tests and are indistinguishable in mean direction regardless if samples were collected from ancient fluvial floodplain or lacustrine strata of correlative stratigraphic intervals. The sequence of the composite paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy consists of 15 magnetozones that vary from less than a meter to tens of meters thick and can be unambiguously correlated within limits of the previously established tephrochronology to the Gilbert through Matuyama portion of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale dated to about 4.0-1.5 Ma. Sedimentation rates through lacustrine intervals (e.g., 22-29 cm/kyr) are comparable with high-fidelity marine cores. This factor coupled with copious amounts of magnetic mineral detritus from basin-bounding rift volcanics probably contributes to a high natural remanent magnetization of the sediments and the recording of temporally brief magnetozones (e

  8. New Australopithecus boisei calvaria from East Lake Turkana, Kenya.

    Brown, B; Walker, A; Ward, C V; Leakey, R E

    1993-06-01

    The calvaria of an adult Australopithecus boisei from Area 104, Koobi Fora, Lake Turkana, is described. The specimen, KNM-ER 23000, comes from sediments dated to about 1.9 Ma. It consists of the frontal, both parietals, both temporals, most of the occipital as well as two small pieces of sphenoid, and a mandibular tooth root. The specimen is presumed to be an adult male, based on its size and the great development of features associated with the masticatory apparatus. KNM-ER 23000 is close in general size and shape to KNM-ER 406, KNM-ER 13750, and Olduvai Hominid 5 and it has a mixture of features seen in these three roughly contemporaneous crania. The frontal, especially the tori, resembles that of OH 5; the parietals are most like those of KNM-ER 13750; the occipital is like those of the two other Turkana specimens, and the temporals have a mixture of features from all of these, This specimen adds to our knowledge of variability in A. boisei.

  9. Paleochemistry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana, Kenya. [Alkalinity

    Cerling, T.

    1979-01-01

    The paleochemisry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana can be estimated by using the chemistry of lakes from the Eastern Rift of Africa as an analogue. Most modern East Africa lakes occupy closed basins; their chemistries follow an evaporation trend defined by the precipitation of certain mineral phases with increasing alkalinity. Estimates of paleoalkalinity can be used to closely estimate the chemical composition of ancient lakes. Three methods are used to estimate paleoalkalinity. Diatoms, molluscs, and fish have certain metabolic requirements that are dependent on pH, alkalinity, or calcium levels; thus fauna and flora can be used as paleoalkalinity indicators. Exchangeable cations on clay minerals can also be used because the relative concentrations of sodium and calcium in lake waters are related to alkalinity. Absence or presence of certain minerals also can serve as a paleoalkalinity indicator. Although the latter two techniques give estimates of paleoalkalinity that are averaged over several hundred or thousand years, their estimates agree with the instantaneous estimates based on biologic considerations. This study shows that the earliest lake phase was very fresh and contained until the end of the Kubi Algi Formation. The Lower Member of the Koobi Fora Formation is shown to have been a fresh- to brackish-water lake. From the beginning of Upper Member time (about 1.8 MY ago) to the present, the lake occupying the Turkana Depression has varied from a brackish lake that overflowed to a closed basin lake that fell below overflow level and whose alkalinity rose to about 200 meq/l.

  10. Magnetostratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Hillhouse, J. W.; Cerling, T. E.; Brown, F. H.

    1986-10-01

    The Koobi Fora Formation, a Pliocene and Pleistocene sequence of sedimentary deposits northeast of Lake Turkana, has yielded numerous fossils and stone artifacts of early hominids. Stratigraphic correlation of the hominid-bearing deposits throughout the Turkana region was established primarily by the chemistry and isotopic ages of volcanic tuffs and complemented by magnetostratigraphic studies. We have reinterpreted previously published magnetostratigraphy from the upper part of the Koobi Fora Formation because the original stratigraphy and dating of tuffs have been revised. In our reinterpretation we include previously unpublished data from the uppermost part of the formation. The upper magnetozones correlate with parts of the Brunhes Normal-Polarity Chron and Matuyama Reversed-Polarity Chron (about 0.6-0.85 Ma) and are separated from the magnetozones of the upper part of the Matuyama (2.0-1.25 Ma) by a disconformity. The Olduvai Normal-Polarity Subchron is represented within the Matuyama, but the lower part of the Matuyama (2.4-2.0 Ma) is missing due to an erosional disconformity. We have also determined magnetozones in the lower part of the Koobi Fora Formation, which had not been sampled for paleomagnetism during the earlier studies. Our time calibration of the magnetozones is made possible by isotopic dating of several tuffs and by chemical correlation of Koobi Fora tuffs with dated tuffs in the Shungura Formation of southern Ethiopia. The tephra correlations are corroborated by the excellent concordance between the magnetostratigraphies of the Koobi Fora and Shungura formations. The lower part of the Koobi Fora spans the interval from about 4 Ma to 2.4 Ma, within the Gilbert Reversed-Polarity and Gauss Normal-Polarity chrons. Rock magnetic studies indicate that detrital magnetite carries most of the stable remanence, although hematite contributes to the remanence as indicated by thermal demagnetization. The hematite, which presumably formed by

  11. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa

    Campbell, L.M.; Osano, O.; Hecky, R.E.; Dixon, D.G

    2003-09-01

    Mercury concentrations in Kenyan fish vary with tropic position but, in general, do not pose an unacceptable risk to human consumers of wildlife. -Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g{sup -1} wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g{sup -1}. The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g{sup -1}. In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g{sup -1}), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g{sup -1}, THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g{sup -1} for at-risk groups.

  12. Pliocene bats (Chiroptera) from Kanapoi, Turkana Basin, Kenya.

    Gunnell, Gregg F; Manthi, Fredrick K

    2018-04-05

    Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Positive effects of refugee presence on host community nutritional status in Turkana County, Kenya.

    Gengo, Rieti G; Oka, Rahul C; Vemuru, Varalakshmi; Golitko, Mark; Gettler, Lee T

    2018-01-01

    Refugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region. Participants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community. We evaluated nutritional status using summed skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI). Structured interviews provided contextual data. Age-controlled multiple regression models reveal two distinct skinfold thickness profiles for both sexes: comparatively elevated values in Kakuma and Lorugum, and significantly lower values in Lorengo and Lokichoggio. BMI did not vary significantly by location. Despite better nutritional status, a large proportion of Kakuma residents still report worries about basic needs, including hunger, health, and economic security. Kakuma Refugee Camp is associated with better host community energetic status indicators, compared to other relevant, regional sites varying in development and resources. Based on global nutritional standards, observed differences likely represent meaningful disparities in overall health. We suggest that access to cereals via refugee trade networks and employment might mediate this relationship. However, perceptions of refugees as illegitimate interlopers maintain a high psychological burden. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A leaf wax biomarker record of early Pleistocene hydroclimate from West Turkana, Kenya

    Lupien, R. L.; Russell, J. M.; Feibel, C.; Beck, C.; Castañeda, I.; Deino, A.; Cohen, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Climate is thought to play a critical role in human evolution; however, this hypothesis is difficult to test due to a lack of long, high-quality paleoclimate records from key hominin fossil locales. To address this issue, we analyzed organic geochemical indicators of climate in a drill core from West Turkana, Kenya that spans ∼1.9-1.4 Ma, an interval that includes several important hominin evolutionary transitions. We analyzed the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrestrial plant waxes (δDwax) to reconstruct orbital-timescale changes in regional hydrology and their relationship with global climate forcings and the hominin fossil record. Our data indicate little change in the long-term mean hydroclimate during this interval, in contrast to inferred changes in the level of Lake Turkana, suggesting that lake level may be responding dominantly to deltaic progradation or tectonically-driven changes in basin configuration as opposed to hydroclimate. Time-series spectral analyses of the isotopic data reveal strong precession-band (21 kyr) periodicity, indicating that regional hydroclimate was strongly affected by changes in insolation. We observe an interval of particularly high-amplitude hydrologic variation at ∼1.7 Ma, which occurs during a time of high orbital eccentricity hence large changes in processionally-driven insolation amplitude. This interval overlaps with multiple hominin species turnovers, the appearance of new stone tool technology, and hominin dispersal out of Africa, supporting the notion that climate variability played an important role in hominin evolution.

  15. The Response of Eastern African Terrestrial Environments to the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition: Paleosol Isotopic Evidence from the Turkana Basin, Kenya

    Quinn, R.; Lepre, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Heightened aridity and C4 grass expansion are recorded in Africa during the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition (MPCT, 1.3-0.7 Ma), potentially as consequences of decreasing atmospheric CO2. Whether all of Africa responded to the MPCT in the same manner is unclear. Recent studies of a Malawi Basin lake core and paleosols show abundant C3 flora across the MPCT. African climate change is often suggested as a primary cause of hominin speciation, extinction, and technological innovations. Competing environmental-based evolutionary hypotheses propose increased aridity, humidity pulses, and climatic variability as influences of water availability and vegetation structure in Plio-Pleistocene hominin habitats. The Turkana Basin in northern Kenya preserves a rich fossil record of hominins from 4.3-0.7 Ma and offers high-resolution age control via paleomagnetic stratigraphy, isotopic geochronology, and tephrostratigraphy. Turkana's large paleosol isotopic database demonstrates a gradual increase in C4 grass abundance and aridity from 4-1 Ma. Faunal evidence for increasing abundances of C4 grazers corroborates the spread of C4 grasslands from 2-1 Ma. However, there is a dearth of terrestrial environmental records after 1.5 Ma and through the MPCT at Turkana, during which time eastern Africa witnessed the extinction of Paranthropus and the disperal of genus Homo. Here we report a stable isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) record of paleosol carbonates from the Turkana Basin from 1.4 to 0.7 Ma. Based on our findings and comparisons with comparable datasets from other hominin locales, we suggest that eastern African environments responded to the MPCT in a phased shift from south to north, possibly as a consequence of the compression of the ITCZ during glacial maxima and/or to changes to the Indian Ocean Dipole.

  16. Mapping Prosopis spp. within the Tarach water basin, Turkana, Kenya using Sentinel-2 imagery

    Ng, Wai-Tim; Immitzer, Markus; Floriansitz, Matthias; Vuolo, Francesco; Luminari, Luigi; Adede, Chrisgone; Wahome, Raphael; Atzberger, Clement

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis spp. are a fast growing invasive tree originating from the American dry zones, introduced to Kenya in the 1970s for the restoration of degraded pastoral lands after prolonged droughts and overgrazing. Its deep rooting system is capable of tapping into the ground water table reducing its dependency on rain water and increasing its drought tolerance. It is believed that the Prosopis invasion was eased by a hybridization process, described as the Prosopis Juliflora - Prosopis Pallida complex, suggesting that introduced Prosopis spp. evolved into a hybrid, specifically adapted to the environmental conditions, rendering it a superior and aggressive competitor to endemic species. In many dry lands in Kenya Prosopis has expanded rapidly and has become challenging to control. On the other hand, in some cases, an economic use seems possible. In both cases, detailed and accurate maps are necessary to support stakeholders and design management strategies. The aim of this study is to map the distribution of Prosopis spp. in a selected area in north-west Turkana (Kenya), covering a section of the Tarach water basin. The study is funded by the European Union through the National Drought Management Authority (NDMA) in Kenya, and the main purpose is to assess the potential production of Prosopis pods, which can be used to manufacture emergency livestock feeds to support animals during drought events. The classification was performed using novel Sentinel-2 data through a non-parametric Random Forest classifier. A selection of reference sites was visited in the field and used to train the classifier. Very high classification accuracies were obtained.

  17. Littoral sedimentation of rift lakes: an illustrated overview from the modern to Pliocene Lake Turkana (East African Rift System, Kenya)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Nutz, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Existing depositional models for rift lakes can be summarized as clastics transported by axial and lateral rivers, then distributed by fan-deltas and/or deltas into a standing water body which is dominated by settling of fine particles, and experiencing occasional coarser underflows. Even if known from paleolakes and modern lakes, reworking of clastics by alongshore drift, waves and storms are rarely considered in depositional models. However, if we consider the lake Turkana Basin (East African Rift System, Kenya) it is obvious that this vision is incomplete. Three representative time slices are considered here: the modern Lake Turkana, the Megalake Turkana which developed thanks to the African Humid Period (Holocene), and the Plio-Pleistocene highstand episodes of paleolake Turkana (Nachukui, Shungura and Koobi Fora Formations, Omo Group). First, remarkable clastic morphosedimentary structures such as beach ridges, spits, washover fans, lagoons, or wave-dominated deltas are very well developed along the shoreline of modern lake Turkana, suggesting strong hydrodynamics responsible for a major reworking of the fluvial-derived clastics all along the littoral zone (longshore and cross-shore transport) of the lake. Similarly, past hydrodynamics are recorded from prominent raised beach ridges and spits, well-preserved all around the lake, above its present water-level (~360 m asl) and up to ~455 m. These large-scale clastic morphosedimentary structures also record the maximum extent of Megalake Turkana during the African Humid Period, as well as its subsequent regression forced by the end of the Holocene climatic optimum. Several hundreds of meters of fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine deposits spanning the Pliocene-Pleistocene are exposed in the Turkana basin thanks to tectonic faulting. These deposits are world famous for their paleontological and archeological content that documents the very early story of Mankind. They also preserve several paleolake highstand episodes with

  18. A new species of Hemidactylus from Lake Turkana, Northern Kenya (Squamata: Gekkonidae

    Roberto Sindaco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Hemidactylus is described on the basis of two specimens (an adult male and an adult female collected in 2005 in rocky and sandy habitat of the semiarid climatic region on the eastern shore of Lake Turkana (Kenya. It is a medium-sized Hemidactylus (SVL from 40 to 50 mm distinguished from all other species by a unique combination of characters. The back is covered by large, trihedral, strongly keeled tubercles, intermixed with a few small, irregular shaped granules, forming 14 quite regular transverse rows from axilla to groin; nostrils contact the rostral, first supralabial, 1 enlarged internasal and 2-3 postnasals; the dorsal half of the rostral scale is divided longitudinally; there are 6 lamellae under the first toe and 10 under the 4th toe; male with 8 precloacal pores; female without pores. The dorsal colour pattern is very distinctive, consisting of four transverse bands, bordered with dark margins. The types are housed in the Herpetological Collections of the Museo di Storia Naturale of the University of Pavia and in the National Museums of Kenya (Nairobi.

  19. Multiscalar approach to archaeological site formation at GaJj17, East Turkana, Kenya

    Murray, B. M.; Ranhorn, K. L.; Colarossi, D.; Mavuso, S. S.; Dogandžić, T.; Ziegler, M. J.; Warren, S. L.; Braun, D. R.; Harris, J. W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Kenya's East Turkana region hosts a rich Plio­Pleistocene record of fossils, archaeological artifacts, and sedimentary features whose chronostratigraphic histories are often obscured by landscape changes from erosional events and tectonic activity. The Middle Stone Age (MSA) record of the Koobi Fora Formation (KF Fm.) has particularly been subjected to this complex depositional history, making it a sparse unit and, consequently, widely understudied. Stratigraphically located in between the maximum capping unconformity of the KF Fm.'s Chari tuff ( 1.39 Ma) and that of the Galana Boi Fm. ( 10 ka), the unit provides a unique window into understanding the Late Pleistocene of the region. The MSA surface scatters at archaeological site GaJj17 prompted further study into the site's age and depositional chronology. The GaJj17 ridge is locally distinguished by its cap of Late Pleistocene sands overlying strata containing tuffs likely of the Upper Burgi (2.0­-1.87 Ma) or KBS (1.87­-1.56 Ma) members. To investigate whether GaJj17's preservation is due to tectonic deformation, a broader scale examination of the structural geology was conducted through surveys and aerial imagery. Regions of deformation were identified and mapped to establish the geological history of the locality. Resultant observations and elevation data offer insight into regional faults at the root of prolonged structural alterations which have facilitated the unique preservation of MSA materials. Through a multiscalar approach it is possible to understand both the formation of GaJj17 and the underlying processes behind preservation and destruction in the changing landscape of the Turkana basin, enabling future identification of archaeological sites through proxies of elevation, regional stratigraphy, and fault mapping. This research was supported by IRES grants 1358178 and 1358200 from the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  20. Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya.

    Spoor, F; Leakey, M G; Gathogo, P N; Brown, F H; Antón, S C; McDougall, I; Kiarie, C; Manthi, F K; Leakey, L N

    2007-08-09

    Sites in eastern Africa have shed light on the emergence and early evolution of the genus Homo. The best known early hominin species, H. habilis and H. erectus, have often been interpreted as time-successive segments of a single anagenetic evolutionary lineage. The case for this was strengthened by the discovery of small early Pleistocene hominin crania from Dmanisi in Georgia that apparently provide evidence of morphological continuity between the two taxa. Here we describe two new cranial fossils from the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana in Kenya, that have bearing on the relationship between species of early Homo. A partial maxilla assigned to H. habilis reliably demonstrates that this species survived until later than previously recognized, making an anagenetic relationship with H. erectus unlikely. The discovery of a particularly small calvaria of H. erectus indicates that this taxon overlapped in size with H. habilis, and may have shown marked sexual dimorphism. The new fossils confirm the distinctiveness of H. habilis and H. erectus, independently of overall cranial size, and suggest that these two early taxa were living broadly sympatrically in the same lake basin for almost half a million years.

  1. Childhood disability in Turkana, Kenya: Understanding how carers cope in a complex humanitarian setting

    Maria Zuurmond

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.

  2. Leaf wax biomarker reconstruction of Early Pleistocene hydrological variation during hominin evolution in West Turkana, Kenya

    Lupien, R.; Russell, J. M.; Cohen, A. S.; Feibel, C. S.; Beck, C.; Castañeda, I. S.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is thought to play a critical role in human evolution; however, this hypothesis is difficult to test due to a lack of long, high-quality paleoclimate records from key hominin fossil locales. To address this issue, we examine Plio-Pleistocene lake sediment drill cores from East Africa that were recovered by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, an international effort to study the environment in which our hominin ancestors evolved and dispersed. With new data we test various evolutionary hypotheses, such as the "variability selection" hypothesis, which posits that high-frequency environmental variations selected for generalist traits that allowed hominins to expand into variable environments. We analyzed organic geochemical signals of climate in lake cores from West Turkana, Kenya, which span 1.87-1.38 Ma and contain the first fossils from Homo erectus. In particular, we present a compound-specific hydrogen isotopic analysis of terrestrial plant waxes (δDwax) that records regional hydrology. The amount effect dominates water isotope fractionation in the tropics; therefore, these data are interpreted to reflect mean annual rainfall, which affects vegetation structure and thus, hominin habitats. The canonical view of East Africa is that climate became drier and increasingly felt high-latitude glacial-interglacial cycles during the Plio-Pleistocene. However, the drying trend seen in some records is not evident in Turkana δDwax, signifying instead a climate with a steady mean state. Spectral and moving variance analyses indicate paleohydrological variations related to both high-latitude glaciation (41 ky cycle) and local insolation-forced monsoons (21 ky cycle). An interval of particularly high-amplitude rainfall variation occurs at 1.7 Ma, which coincides with the intensification of the Walker Circulation. These results identify high- and low-latitude controls on East African paleohydrology during Homo erectus evolution. In particular, the

  3. Modeling the Hydrological Regime of Turkana Lake (Kenya, Ethiopia) by Combining Spatially Distributed Hydrological Modeling and Remote Sensing Datasets

    Anghileri, D.; Kaelin, A.; Peleg, N.; Fatichi, S.; Molnar, P.; Roques, C.; Longuevergne, L.; Burlando, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological modeling in poorly gauged basins can benefit from the use of remote sensing datasets although there are challenges associated with the mismatch in spatial and temporal scales between catchment scale hydrological models and remote sensing products. We model the hydrological processes and long-term water budget of the Lake Turkana catchment, a transboundary basin between Kenya and Ethiopia, by integrating several remote sensing products into a spatially distributed and physically explicit model, Topkapi-ETH. Lake Turkana is the world largest desert lake draining a catchment of 145'500 km2. It has three main contributing rivers: the Omo river, which contributes most of the annual lake inflow, the Turkwel river, and the Kerio rivers, which contribute the remaining part. The lake levels have shown great variations in the last decades due to long-term climate fluctuations and the regulation of three reservoirs, Gibe I, II, and III, which significantly alter the hydrological seasonality. Another large reservoir is planned and may be built in the next decade, generating concerns about the fate of Lake Turkana in the long run because of this additional anthropogenic pressure and increasing evaporation driven by climate change. We consider different remote sensing datasets, i.e., TRMM-V7 for precipitation, MERRA-2 for temperature, as inputs to the spatially distributed hydrological model. We validate the simulation results with other remote sensing datasets, i.e., GRACE for total water storage anomalies, GLDAS-NOAH for soil moisture, ERA-Interim/Land for surface runoff, and TOPEX/Poseidon for satellite altimetry data. Results highlight how different remote sensing products can be integrated into a hydrological modeling framework accounting for their relative uncertainties. We also carried out simulations with the artificial reservoirs planned in the north part of the catchment and without any reservoirs, to assess their impacts on the catchment hydrological

  4. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Kuper, Hannah; Nyapera, Velma; Evans, Jennifer; Munyendo, David; Zuurmond, Maria; Frison, Severine; Mwenda, Victoria; Otieno, David; Kisia, James

    2015-01-01

    Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNICEF-Washington Group) and assessed by a paediatrician to confirm whether they had a disability and the type. Two controls without disabilities were selected per case: A sibling control (sibling nearest in age) and a neighbourhood control (nearest neighbour within one year of age). The caregiver completed a questionnaire on behalf of the child (e.g. information on feeding, poverty, illness, education), and anthropometric measures were taken. We undertook multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses to estimate the relationship between disability and malnutrition. The study included 311 cases with disabilities, 196 sibling controls and 300 neighbour controls. Children with disabilities were more likely to report a range of feeding difficulties. They were 1.6-2.9 times more likely to have malnutrition in comparison to neighbour controls or family controls, including general malnutrition (low weight for age), stunting (low height for age), low body mass index (BMI) or low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) for age. Children with disabilities were almost twice as likely to have wasting (low weight for height) in comparison to neighbour controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), but this difference was not apparent compared with siblings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.7). Children with disabilities also faced other exclusions. For instance those aged 5+ were much more likely not to attend school than neighbour controls (OR = 8.5, 95% CI 4.3-16.9). Children with disabilities were particularly vulnerable to

  5. Malnutrition and Childhood Disability in Turkana, Kenya: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Hannah Kuper

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities may be particularly vulnerable to malnutrition, as a result of exclusions and feeding difficulties. However, there is limited evidence currently available on this subject.A population-based case-control study was conducted in Turkana County, Kenya, between July and August 2013. Key informants in the community identified children aged 6 months to 10 years who they believed may have a disability. These children were screened by a questionnaire (UNICEF-Washington Group and assessed by a paediatrician to confirm whether they had a disability and the type. Two controls without disabilities were selected per case: A sibling control (sibling nearest in age and a neighbourhood control (nearest neighbour within one year of age. The caregiver completed a questionnaire on behalf of the child (e.g. information on feeding, poverty, illness, education, and anthropometric measures were taken. We undertook multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses to estimate the relationship between disability and malnutrition.The study included 311 cases with disabilities, 196 sibling controls and 300 neighbour controls. Children with disabilities were more likely to report a range of feeding difficulties. They were 1.6-2.9 times more likely to have malnutrition in comparison to neighbour controls or family controls, including general malnutrition (low weight for age, stunting (low height for age, low body mass index (BMI or low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC for age. Children with disabilities were almost twice as likely to have wasting (low weight for height in comparison to neighbour controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, but this difference was not apparent compared with siblings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.7. Children with disabilities also faced other exclusions. For instance those aged 5+ were much more likely not to attend school than neighbour controls (OR = 8.5, 95% CI 4.3-16.9.Children with disabilities were particularly

  6. A note on the Mandible of Aceratherium Acutirostratum (Deraniyagala) from Moruaret hill, Turkana district, Kenya

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1968-01-01

    The genus and species Turkanatherium acutirostratus was proposed by Deraniyagala (1951) for a skull, without the mandible, collected by Dr. H. B. S. Cooke, a member of the Wendell-Phillips Expedition to Africa in 1948, at Moruaret Hill (or Moruorot) near Losodok (or Lothidok) in the Turkana

  7. The Lake Turkana wind farm project

    Burlando, M.; Durante, F. [DEWI GmbH, Genoa (Italy); Claveri, L. [DEWI GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The Lake Turkana wind farm is one of the largest wind farm projects to be realised in the African Continent, and the first of its kind in Kenya. After its full commissioning in 2012, the wind farm will be generating 300 MW of clean power almost steadily thanks to the very peculiar characteristics of the wind climate of north-western Kenya. Until now, only northern African countries such as Morocco and Egypt had used wind power for commercial purposes on the continent. Projects are now beginning to bloom south of the Sahara as governments realise that harnessing the vast wind potential can efficiently meet the growing demand of electric power. With the Lake Turkana wind farm project and other minor projects, Kenya is trying to lead the way. The project consists of building 365 wind turbines Vestas V52 of hub height 45 m and nominal power 850 kW, corresponding to about 30% of Kenya's current installed power. The project includes also reinforcing 200 km of roads and bridges to transport the wind turbines from the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa to the northwestern Kenya, and adding more than 400 km of transmission lines and several substations to connect the wind farm and supply power to the national electric grid. (orig.)

  8. K-Ar age estimate for the KBS Tuff, East Turkana, Kenya

    McDougall, I.; Maier, R.; Sutherland-Hawkes, P.; Gleadow, A.J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Stone tools and numerous vertebrate fossils including hominids, have been found in close stratigraphic proximity to the KBS Tuff, whose age has been the subject of much debate. Concordant K-Ar ages, averaging 1.89 +- 0.01 Myr, are reported on anorthoclase phenocrysts from 13 pumice clasts collected from within the KBS Tuff or its correlatives. It is believed that this age is the best estimate currently available for the time of formation of this important marker horizon within the East Turkana Basin. (author)

  9. Pliocene and pleistocene hominid-bearing sites from west of lake turkana, kenya.

    Harris, J M; Brown, F H; Leakey, M G; Walker, A C; Leakey, R E

    1988-01-01

    Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil localities near the western shoreline of Lake Turkana, ranging in age between 1 million and 3.5 million years in age, have produced important new hominid specimens including most of a Homo erectus skeleton and a relatively complete early robust australopithecine cranium. The lacustrine, fluviatile, and terrestrial strata are designated the Nachukui Formation, which is subdivided into eight members. The distribution of sedimentary facies within the Nachukui Formation suggests that, as today, the Labur and Murua Rith ranges formed the western margin of the basin and were drained by eastward-flowing rivers that fed into the forerunner of the present lake or a major river system. There is also stratigraphic evidence for tectonic movement during the deposition of these sediments. Twenty-three of the tuffs observed in the succession occur also in the Koobi Fora Formation east of the lake and in the Shungura Formation of the lower Omo Valley and permit precise correlation among these three localities. Fortyseven fossiliferous sites from West Turkana have yielded more than 1000 specimens of 93 mammalian species. The mammalian fossils represent nine sequential assemblages that augment information about faunal and environmental change from elsewhere in the basin.

  10. Orbitally-driven evolution of Lake Turkana (Turkana Depression, Kenya, EARS) between 1.95 and 1.72 Ma: A sequence stratigraphy perspective

    Nutz, Alexis; Schuster, Mathieu; Boës, Xavier; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Lakes act as major archives for continental paleoenvironments, particularly when the evolution of lake levels over time serves as a guide for understanding regional paleohydrology and paleoclimate. In this paper, two sections from the Nachukui Formation (Turkana Depression, East African Rift System) provide a complete record of lake level variability and then paleohydrology for Lake Turkana between 1.95 and 1.72 Ma. This period corresponds to a key time during which important human evolutionary and technological innovations have occurred in East Africa and in the Turkana area. Based on sedimentary facies and sequence analyses on coastal deposits, one long-term regressive-transgressive cycle is identified between 1.95 and 1.72 Ma. Superimposed on this trend, five higher-frequency cycles of lake level change are identified between 1.87 and 1.76 Ma. Origins of these periodicities are attributed to orbital forcings. The extents of bathymetry change and shoreline migration during these periods are explored, suggesting that the period between 1.87 and 1.76 Ma was relatively dry and that climate experienced a relatively low variability. This finding differs strongly from most of the previous paleoenvironmental investigations in the region that argue high climate variability during a relatively wet period. This work emphasizes the importance of using sequence stratigraphy for analyzing lacustrine deposits.

  11. Paleoecological insights from fossil freshwater mollusks of the Kanapoi Formation (Omo-Turkana Basin, Kenya).

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert

    2017-09-13

    The Early Pliocene Kanapoi Formation of the Omo-Turkana Basin consists of two fluvial/deltaic sedimentary sequences with an intermediate lacustrine sequence that was deposited in Paleolake Lonyumun, the earliest large lake in the basin. Overall, the geology and vertebrate paleontology of the Kanapoi Formation are well studied, but its freshwater mollusks, despite being a major component of the benthic ecosystem, have not been subjected to in-depth study. Here I present the first treatment of these mollusks, which have been retrieved mainly from the lacustrine but also from the upper fluvial sediments, with a focus on paleoecological implications. Overall, the freshwater mollusk fauna is reasonably diverse and contains the gastropods Bellamya (Viviparidae), Melanoides (Thiaridae), Cleopatra (Paludomidae) and Gabbiella (Bithyniidae), as well as the unionoid bivalves Coelatura, Pseudobovaria (Unionidae), Aspatharia, Iridina (Iridinidae) and Etheria (Etheriidae). Material is typically recrystallized and lithified and its taphonomy suggests deposition in a system with intermediate energy, such as a beach, with post-depositional deformation and abrasion. The mollusk assemblage is indicative of perennial, fresh and well-oxygenated waters in the Kanapoi region. It suggests that Paleolake Lonyumun had largely open shores with limited vegetation and that swampy or ephemeral backwaters were rare. Overall, these findings support earlier paleoecological interpretations based on the fish assemblage of Paleolake Lonyumun at Kanapoi. Moreover, mollusk assemblages from this lake are very similar across the Omo-Turkana Basin (Nachukui, Usno, Mursi and Koobi Fora Formations) suggesting that the lacustrine paleoecological conditions found in the Kanapoi Formation existed throughout the basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A ~600 kyr duration Early Pleistocene record from the West Turkana (Kenya) HSPDP drill site: elemental XRF variability to reconstruct climate change in Turkana Boy's backyard

    Stockhecke, M.; Beck, C. C.; Brown, E. T.; Cohen, A.; Deino, A. L.; Feibel, C. S.; Sier, M.

    2015-12-01

    Outcrops in the Kenyan and Ethiopian rift valleys document repeated occurrences of freshwater lakes and wooded landscapes over the past 4 million years at locations that are currently seasonally-dry savanna. Studies of the rich fossil records, in combination with outcropping lacustrine sequences, led to major breakthroughs in our knowledge of driving factors in human evolution. However, study of continuous drill core from ancient lake basins provides a basis for to unravel East African climate dynamics in an unseen fashion. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP), and the related Olorgesailie Drilling Project, recovered ~2 km of drill core since 2012. A major project goal is characterization of East African paleoclimate in order to evaluate its impact on hominin evolution. XRF core scanning data provide a means of evaluating records of past environmental conditions continuously and at high resolution. However, the HSPDP records contain complex lithologies reflecting repeated episodes of inundation and desiccation of the lake basins. Nevertheless, careful data evaluation based on detailed lithostratigraphy, which includes smear-slide microscopic analyses and X-radiographic images, allows disentanglement of complex signals and robust identification of continuous sequences for any cyclostratigraphic and statistical analysis. At the HSPDP Turkana Basin site a 175.6 m-long core the covers the Early Pleistocene time window during which hominids first expanded out of Africa and marine records document reorganization of tropical climate and the development of the strong Walker circulation. This drill site carries particular interest as it is located in only 2.5 km from the location of one of the most complete hominin skeletons ever recovered (Turkana Boy). Here we present a methodological approach to address the highly variable lithostratigraphy of the East African records to establish comprehensive and environmentally meaningful paleoclimate timeseries

  13. Mexiconema africanum sp. n. (Nematoda: Daniconematidae) from the catfish Auchenoglanis occidentalis from Lake Turkana, Kenya

    Moravec, František; Jirků, Miloslav; Charo-Karisa, H.; Mašová, Š.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2009), s. 1047-1052 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA AV ČR KJB600960813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Mexiconema * Auchenoglanis * Kenya Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.721, year: 2009

  14. Influence of Culture and Gender on Secondary School Students' Scientific Creativity in Biology Education in Turkana County, Kenya

    Aruan, Susan A.; Okere, Mark I. O.; Wachanga, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the extent to which biology scientific creativity skills are influenced by the students' culture and gender in Turkana County. A mixed method research design was used. This involved cross sectional survey and ethnographic study. The target population comprised all form three students in sub county schools…

  15. Additional results on palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf), Kenya

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Ndombi, J.W.M.; Cox, A.; Brock, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the hominid-bearing sediments exposed east of Lake Turkana has been strengthened by new palaeomagnetic results. Ages obtained from several tuffs by the 40Ar/39Ar method suggest an approxmate match between the observed magnetozones and the geomagnetic polarity time scale; however, the palaeomagnetic results are also compatible with a younger chronology suggested by conventional K-Ar dating of the KBS Tuff. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Paleoenvironmental change as seen from a multiproxy perspective in the West Turkana Kaitio core (WTK13), Kenya

    Beck, C. C.; Feibel, C. S.; Lupien, R.; Yost, C. L.; Rucina, S.; Russell, J. M.; Deino, A. L.; Sier, M.; Cohen, A. S.; Campisano, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project's (HSPDP) primary goal is to provide high quality environmental records to test whether and how Earth system dynamics influenced the evolution of hominins in Africa. To this end, multiproxy records from individual basins are essential to understanding how paleoenvironments changed in relation to shifts in the climatic and/or tectonic regimes both locally on a basin-scale and regionally across East Africa. Because of its rich combination of paleoanthropologic and geologic data, the West Turkana Kaitio (WTK13) core is an important component of this synthesis. Using a combination of tephra chronology and paleomagnetic data, the core has been dated to 1.87-1.37 Ma. The sedimentology records deposition on a dynamic lacustrine margin becoming more influenced by channel and floodplain processes through time. Multiproxy records provide a window into paleoevironments of the Turkana Basin that operated on shorter time scales than this dominant first-order facies shift. Processional cycles (21 kyr) are picked up by indicator records where the preservation of the archive was good enough to allow for high-resolution analysis. However, interestingly, the biomarker record suggests that the hydroclimate of the Turkana Basin, while highly variable at the Milankovitch-scale, exhibits no directional trend in the mean values towards wetter or drier conditions. The combined phytolith and pollen records suggest that grasses, albeit with fluctuating abundances of C4 mesophytic and C4 xerophytic taxa, dominated the landscape throughout most of the core. This indicates that despite climatic variability, resource availability may have maintained some general consistency for hominins in the area. Ultimately, the time period spanned by the WTK13 record is significant for our understanding of hominin evolution as it covers an interval of increasing aridity on the African continent as observed in distal marine records. This synthesis

  17. The temporal and spatial distribution of upper crustal faulting and magmatism in the south Lake Turkana rift, East Africa

    Muirhead, J.; Scholz, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    During continental breakup extension is accommodated in the upper crust largely through dike intrusion and normal faulting. The Eastern branch of the East African Rift arguably represents the premier example of active continental breakup in the presence magma. Constraining how faulting is distributed in both time and space in these regions is challenging, yet can elucidate how extensional strain localizes within basins as rifting progresses to sea-floor spreading. Studies of active rifts, such as the Turkana Rift, reveal important links between faulting and active magmatic processes. We utilized over 1100 km of high-resolution Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP) 2D seismic reflection data, integrated with a suite of radiocarbon-dated sediment cores (3 in total), to constrain a 17,000 year history of fault activity in south Lake Turkana. Here, a set of N-S-striking intra-rift faults exhibit time-averaged slip-rates as high as 1.6 mm/yr, with the highest slip-rates occurring along faults within 3 km of the rift axis. Results show that strain has localized into a zone of intra-rift faults along the rift axis, forming an approximately 20 km-wide graben in central parts of the basin. Subsurface structural mapping and fault throw profile analyses reveal increasing basin subsidence and fault-related strain as this faulted graben approaches a volcanic island in the center of the basin (South Island). The long-axis of this island trends north-south, and it contains a number of elongate cones that support recent emplacement of N-S-striking dike intrusions, which parallel recently active intra-rift faults. Overall, these observations suggest strain localization into intra-rift faults in the rift center is likely a product of both volcanic loading and the mechanical and thermal effects of diking along the rift axis. These results support the establishment of magmatic segmentation in southern Lake Turkana, and highlight the importance of magmatism for focusing upper

  18. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part II

    Quinn, R. L.; Lepre, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Global climate is often elected as a catalyst for environmental change and used to characterize selective pressures acting on Plio-Pleistocene African hominins. Vrba's Habitat Theory (1992) and Pott's Variability Selection (1998) credit mammalian evolutionary pattern and process to global climate regulated by orbital forcing. Feibel (1999: 276) argues the need for a middle ground, tethering the "global-scale climatic phenomena" to "environmental change, habitat shift, and biotic evolution" and offers the basin as a scale for analysis. Feibel suggests that all basins are not created equal, and will respond to climate change with different sensitivities and thresholds. As such, interpretations of climate proxies must account for differences in basin size, climatic regime(s), topography, geology, and water availability when drawing relationships to global phenomena. Here we examine pedogenic carbonate isotopes (d13C, d18O) from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora Region to elucidate the differential influences of climate, tectonics, and deposition on ecological factors of early hominin evolution in the northeastern Turkana Basin of Kenya. One of the richest Plio-Pleistocene fossil localities in Africa, Koobi Fora has served as a setting for hominin evolution between 4.0 and 1.0 Ma. Numerous paleosols, stratigraphically controlled by tuffaceous marker beds, are preserved in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the Koobi Fora Formation. Cerling and others (1988) and Wynn (2000) conducted isotopic studies of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group deposits of the Turkana Basin. With these data Wynn (2004) demonstrates stepwise d13C shifts over the last 4.0 Ma, with marked events at 2.5 and 1.8 Ma, and interprets increased aridity on a basin scale due to comparable records on the east and west side of present Lake Turkana. In this study, we increased the sample size of the current database and conducted widespread sampling of synchronous lateral horizons in the

  19. vegetation of the koobi fora region northeast of lake turkana

    Dale, I.R. & P.J. Greenway (1961). Kenya Trees and Shrubs. ... Holocene wet-dry transition recorded in palaeo-shorelines of Lake Turkana, northern. Kenya Rift. Earth and ... Integrated Project on Arid Lands Technical Paper. Number D-3.

  20. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya.

    Braun, David R; Harris, John W K; Levin, Naomi E; McCoy, Jack T; Herries, Andy I R; Bamford, Marion K; Bishop, Laura C; Richmond, Brian G; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-06-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage.

  1. Early hominid stone tool production and technical skill 2.34 Myr ago in West Turkana, Kenya.

    Roche, H; Delagnes, A; Brugal, J P; Feibel, C; Kibunjia, M; Mourre, V; Texier, P J

    1999-05-06

    Well-documented Pliocene archaeological sites are exceptional. At present they are known only in East Africa, in the Hadar and Shungura formations of Ethiopia and in the Nachukui formation of Kenya. Intensive archeological survey and a series of test excavations conducted in the Nachukui formation since 1987 have led to the discovery of more than 25 archaeological sites whose ages range from 2.34 to 0.7 million years before present (Myr), and to the extensive excavation of two 2.34-Myr sites, Lokalalei 1 in 1991 and Lokalalei 2C in 1997. Lokalalei 2C yielded nearly 3,000 archaeological finds from a context of such good preservation that it was possible to reconstitute more than 60 sets of complementary matching stone artefacts. These refits, predating the Koobi Fora refits by 500 Kyr, are the oldest ever studied. Here we describe a technological analysis of the core reduction sequences, based on these refits, which allows unprecedented accuracy in the understanding of flake production processes. We can thus demonstrate greater cognitive capacity and motor skill than previously assumed for early hominids, and highlight the diversity of Pliocene technical behaviour.

  2. Controls of inherited lithospheric heterogeneity on rift linkage: Numerical and analog models of interaction between the Kenyan and Ethiopian rifts across the Turkana depression

    Brune, Sascha; Corti, Giacomo; Ranalli, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    Inherited rheological structures in the lithosphere are expected to have large impact on the architecture of continental rifts. The Turkana depression in the East African Rift connects the Main Ethiopian Rift to the north with the Kenya rift in the south. This region is characterized by a NW-SE trending band of thinned crust inherited from a Mesozoic rifting event, which is cutting the present-day N-S rift trend at high angle. In striking contrast to the narrow rifts in Ethiopia and Kenya, extension in the Turkana region is accommodated in subparallel deformation domains that are laterally distributed over several hundred kilometers. We present both analog experiments and numerical models that reproduce the along-axis transition from narrow rifting in Ethiopia and Kenya to a distributed deformation within the Turkana depression. Similarly to natural observations, our models show that the Ethiopian and Kenyan rifts bend away from each other within the Turkana region, thus forming a right-lateral step over and avoiding a direct link to form a continuous N-S depression. The models reveal five potential types of rift linkage across the preexisting basin: three types where rifts bend away from the inherited structure connecting via a (1) wide or (2) narrow rift or by (3) forming a rotating microplate, (4) a type where rifts bend towards it, and (5) straight rift linkage. The fact that linkage type 1 is realized in the Turkana region provides new insights on the rheological configuration of the Mesozoic rift system at the onset of the recent rift episode.

  3. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems

    Cetron Martin S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major health concern for displaced persons occupying refugee camps in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the incidence of infection and nature of transmission in these settings. Kakuma Refugee Camp, located in a dry area of north-western Kenya, has hosted ca. 60,000 to 90,000 refugees since 1992, primarily from Sudan and Somalia. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence and attack rate and sources of Anopheles vectors in Kakuma refugee camp, in 2005-2006, after a malaria epidemic was observed by staff at camp clinics. Methods Malaria prevalence and attack rate was estimated from cases of fever presenting to camp clinics and the hospital in August 2005, using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy of blood smears. Larval habitats of vectors were sampled and mapped. Houses were sampled for adult vectors using the pyrethrum knockdown spray method, and mapped. Vectors were identified to species level and their infection with Plasmodium falciparum determined. Results Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4% while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day. Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season. Conclusions Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp was due mainly

  4. A national cholera epidemic with high case fatality rates--Kenya 2009.

    Loharikar, Anagha; Briere, Elizabeth; Ope, Maurice; Langat, Daniel; Njeru, Ian; Gathigi, Lucy; Makayotto, Lyndah; Ismail, Abdirizak M; Thuranira, Martin; Abade, Ahmed; Amwayi, Samuel; Omolo, Jared; Oundo, Joe; De Cock, Kevin M; Breiman, Robert F; Ayers, Tracy; Mintz, Eric; O'Reilly, Ciara E

    2013-11-01

    Cholera remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. We characterized the 2009 cholera outbreaks in Kenya and evaluated the response. We analyzed surveillance data and estimated case fatality rates (CFRs). Households in 2 districts, East Pokot (224 cases; CFR = 11.7%) and Turkana South (1493 cases; CFR = 1.0%), were surveyed. We randomly selected 15 villages and 8 households per village in each district. Healthcare workers at 27 health facilities (HFs) were surveyed in both districts. In 2009, cholera outbreaks caused a reported 11 425 cases and 264 deaths in Kenya. Data were available from 44 districts for 6893 (60%) cases. District CFRs ranged from 0% to 14.3%. Surveyed household respondents (n = 240) were aware of cholera (97.5%) and oral rehydration solution (ORS) (87.9%). Cholera deaths were reported more frequently from East Pokot (n = 120) than Turkana South (n = 120) households (20.7% vs. 12.3%). The average travel time to a HF was 31 hours in East Pokot compared with 2 hours in Turkana South. Fewer respondents in East Pokot (9.8%) than in Turkana South (33.9%) stated that ORS was available in their village. ORS or intravenous fluid shortages occurred in 20 (76.9%) surveyed HFs. High CFRs in Kenya are related to healthcare access disparities, including availability of rehydration supplies.

  5. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part I

    Lepre, C. J.; Quinn, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    , characterized by uplift in Ethiopia and associated down-warping of the Turkana Basin in Kenya. While the formation of ephemeral-lacustrine and fluvial environments of deposition during the transgressive and highstand systems tract was due to sedimentation rates out-pacing subsidence rates that was associated with the infilling of the stable lake by deltaic environments. Infilling and depletion of accommodation space were primary steps needed to increase the sensitivity of the basin to climate change. Relatively shallow East African sedimentary basins are more sensitive to climate-related changes in evapo-transpiration than relatively deeper basins (e.g. Feibel, 1999). Transgressive and regressive lake margin facies that are associated with the transgressive systems tract suggest that the base level of the ephemeral-lacustrine system periodically oscillated during 2.0 and 1.5 Ma (Feibel, 1994b). The hominin record of Koobi Fora preserves relatively primitive forms between 4.0 and 2.5 Ma and relatively derived forms after about 2.5 Ma (cf. Walker, 2002). Australopithecines are associated with paleoenvironmental change that was forced by linear subsidence rates. The appearance of paranthropines in the region at about 2.5 Ma (cf. Wood, 1991) is associated with an episode of major faulting and paleoenvironmental change that was forced by an exponential decrease in subsidence rates. The appearance of early African Homo erectus in the Koobi Fora Region at 1.8 Ma (e.g. Wood, 1992; Collard and Wood, 1999) coincides with decreased subsidence rates but an increase in the sensitivity of paleoenvironmental organization in the region to climate change.

  6. Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya).

    Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of

  7. Philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) from fishes of Lake Turkana, Kenya, including two new species of Philometra and erection of Afrophilometra gen. sp

    Moravec, František; Charo-Karisa, H.; Jirků, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 41-54 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA AV ČR KJB600960813; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometridae * freshwater fishes * Kenya Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2009

  8. Removal of spurious normal polarity directions in the Kanapoi Formation with progressive thermal demagnetization: implications for dating Pliocene hominin fossils from the Turkana Basin of Kenya

    Lepre, C. J.; Kent, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Kanapoi Formation is a 75-m-thick sedimentary unit in northern Kenya whose fossil record documents the evolution of the genus Australopithecus and habitual bipedalism in Pliocene hominins. Published 40Ar/39Ar dates of 4.20 to 4.10 Ma for three aqueously reworked tuffs from the lower and middle stratigraphic intervals of the formation and a whole-rock K-Ar date of 3.4 ± 0.1 Ma on the Kalokwanya Basalt, which caps the succession, coupled with paleomagnetic data from an unpublished thesis have been used to constrain the age of the unit (McDougall+2012 J Geol Soc). Normal polarities at the base of the formation were correlated to normal subchron C3n.1n (Cochiti Subchron) and would extend the Kanapoi chronostratigraphy back to between 4.29 and 4.18 Ma. The credibility of the normal polarities at the base and elsewhere in the formation as records of the geomagnetic field at the time of deposition, however, is called into question by the ubiquity of the high-coercivity mineral hematite in the Kanapoi sediments and the alternating field demagnetization methods exclusively used to generate the polarity directions. We tested this proposed chronostratigraphy of the Kanapoi Fm by collecting nearly 70 independently orientated block samples from 10 outcrop localities, which sampled roughly two-thirds of the total stratigraphic thickness of the formation and covered the entire vertical extent of the supposed basal normal polarity magnetozone. For most every specimen, stepwise thermal demagnetization (TD) resolved well-defined characteristic magnetizations of uniformly reverse polarity and were carried by a high-temperature component consistent with hematite. TD of the Kalokwanya Basalt confirmed its reverse magnetic polarity, which implies emplacement most likely prior to the base of normal Chron C2An (Gauss Chron) at 3.58 Ma. Kanapoi sediments thus accumulated sometime during reverse subchron C2Ar (4.18-3.58 Ma) but over a period of much less than 600 kyr. Basal age control

  9. South Turkwel: a new pliocene hominid site in Kenya.

    Ward, C V; Leakey, M G; Brown, B; Brown, F; Harris, J; Walker, A

    1999-01-01

    New fossils discovered south of the Turkwel River in northern Kenya include an associated metacarpal, capitate, hamate, lunate, pedal phalanx, mandibular fragment, and teeth. These fossils probably date to around 3.5 m.y.a. Faunal information suggests that the environment at South Turkwel was predominantly bushland. The mandibular and dental remains are fragmentary, but the postcranial fossils are informative. Comparisons with Australopithecus, modern human, chimpanzee and gorilla hand bones suggest that the Turkwel hominid was most like Australopithecus afarensis and A. africanus. Carpometacarpal articulations are intermediate between those of modern humans and African apes, suggesting enhanced gripping capabilities compared with extant apes. The hamulus was strikingly large, similar in proportion only to Neandertals and some gorillas, suggesting the presence of powerful forearms and hands. There are no indicators of adaptations to knuckle-walking or suspensory locomotion in the hand, and the pedal phalanx suggests that this hominid was habitually bipedal. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Comparison of effects of breast-feeding practices on birth-spacing in three societies: nomadic Turkana, Gainj, and Quechua.

    Gray, S J

    1994-01-01

    Variation in the duration and pattern of breast-feeding contributes significantly to inter-population differences in fertility. In this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective studies undertaken during the 1980s, among Quechua Indians of Peru, Turkana nomads of Kenya, and Gainj of Papua New Guinea. In all three societies, lactation is prolonged well into the second year postpartum, and frequent, on-demand breast-feeding is the norm. However, the duration of lactational amenorrhoea and the length of birth intervals vary considerably. Breast-feeding patterns among Gainj and Turkana are similar, but Turkana women resume menses some 3 months earlier than do the Gainj. The average birth interval among the Gainj exceeds that of nomadic Turkana by over 15 months. Suckling activity decreases significantly with increasing age of nurslings among both Gainj and Quechua, but not among Turkana. Earlier resumption of menses among Turkana women may be linked to the unpredictable demands of the pastoral system, which increase day-to-day variation in the number of periods of on-demand breast-feeding, although not in suckling patterns. This effect is independent of the age of infants. The short birth intervals of Turkana women, relative to those of the Gainj, may be related to early supplementation of Turkana nurslings with butterfat and animals' milk, which reduces energetic demands on lactating women at risk of negative energy balance.

  11. Kenya

    Cathy Egan

    Les élections générales de 2002 au Kenya, à la suite desquelles un régime notoire pour sa corruption a été remplacé par un gouvernement de coalition désireux d'instaurer une réforme, ont été considérées comme un événement charnière dans l'histoire du pays. Le CRDI, déjà actif au Kenya depuis plus de 30 ans, ...

  12. Electoral System Reform Attempts in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe

    Elklit, Jørgen

    This paper provides a test of the generalizability of the barriers’ approach (Rahat and Hazan, 2011) to the study of electoral system reform attempts. It does so by examining a set of recent attempts of electoral system change in four Sub-Saharan countries (South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya...

  13. Predictors of Mortality in a Critical Care Unit in South Western Kenya

    Abstract. Background: Critical care in developing countries has been ... which may impact the quality of care. Hospitals also ... and referral facility located in South Western Kenya in Bomet .... p=0.01). As regards end of life care; 40.4% of those.

  14. Alternative Food in the Global South: Reflections on a Direct Marketing Initiative in Kenya

    Freidberg, Susanne; Goldstein, Lissa

    2011-01-01

    Amidst booming scholarship on alternative food networks (AFNs) in the global North, research on AFN in the global South remains scarce. Partly this is because explicitly alternative initiatives are themselves scarce, except for those focused on export markets. Yet in countries such as Kenya, urban consumers and rural smallholders have good reason…

  15. Landscape scale heterogeneity in the East Turkana ecosystem during the Okote Member (1.56-1.38 Ma).

    Patterson, D B; Braun, D R; Behrensmeyer, A K; Lehmann, S B; Merritt, S R; Reeves, J S; Wood, B A; Bobe, R

    2017-11-01

    Placing the biological adaptations of Pleistocene hominins within a well-resolved ecological framework has been a longstanding goal of paleoanthropology. This effort, however, has been challenging due to the discontinuous nature of paleoecological data spanning many important periods in hominin evolution. Sediments from the Upper Burgi (1.98-1.87 Ma), KBS (1.87-1.56 Ma) and Okote (1.56-1.38 Ma) members of the Koobi Fora Formation at East Turkana in northern Kenya document an important time interval in the evolutionary history of the hominin genera Homo and Paranthropus. Although much attention has been paid to Upper Burgi and KBS member deposits, far less is known regarding the East Turkana paleoecosystem during Okote Member times. This study pairs spatially-resolved faunal abundance data with stable isotope geochemistry from mammalian enamel to investigate landscape-scale ecosystem variability during Okote Member times. We find that during this period 1) taxa within the East Turkana large mammal community were distributed heterogeneously across space, 2) the abundance of C 3 and C 4 vegetation varied between East Turkana subregions, and 3) the Karari subregion, an area with abundant evidence of hominin stone tool manufacture, had significantly more C 3 vegetation than regions closer to the central axis of the Turkana Basin (i.e., Ileret and Koobi Fora). These findings indicate that the East Turkana paleoecosystem during the Okote Member was highly variable across space and provided a complex adaptive landscape for Pleistocene hominins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reversed fortunes in the south : a comparison of the role of FDI in industrial development in Kenya and Malaysia

    Kinuthia, Bethuel Kinyanjui

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the causes of observed reversal of fortunes between Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia in the last 50 years. Specifically, it compares Kenya and Malaysia which 50 years ago were arguably at similar levels of development. Today, Malaysia is an industrialised country while Kenya

  17. Effects of energy consumption on per worker output: A study of Kenya and South Africa

    Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Kumar, Radika

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the long-run cointegration relationship and energy elasticities for Kenya and South Africa over the periods 1978–2009 and 1971–2009, respectively, using the ARDL procedure developed by Pesaran et al. (2001) with recomputed critical bounds from Narayan (2005) and the Solow (1956) framework extended by Rao (2010). We also conduct the (Toda and Yamamoto (1995) test for Granger non-causality. The regression results show that short-run and long-run energy elasticities are 0.50 and 1.71, respectively for Kenya and 0.17 and 0.34, respectively for South Africa. The causality results indicate a unidirectional Granger causality running from capital per worker and energy per capita to output per worker for both countries. Moreover, in Kenya, we detect a strong unidirectional causality: (a) on output from joint consideration of capital stock and energy; and (b) on capital stock from joint consideration of energy and output. In South Africa, the joint causations are neutral. Hence, while energy and capital stock spurs growth in both countries, Kenya has a greater potential to harness growth and capital productivity via joint consideration of energy with capital and output, respectively. - Highlights: • The ARDL approach and Solow (1965) model extended by Rao (2010) is used, with critical bounds from Narayan (2005). • The Toda and Yamamoto (1995) procedure is used to investigate direction of causality. • Long-run energy elasticities for Kenya and South Africa are 1.71 and 0.34. • For South Africa, the elasticities are 0.17 and 0.34, respectively. • A unidirectional causality is detected from energy and capital to output

  18. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  19. Itinerary in Kenya colony and the union of South America

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1952-01-01

    In 1949 a trip was made to Kenya Colony, British East Africa, with the aim of collecting Phanerogamic plants and Ferns. The intention was to collect 12 sets of each number which I managed to do for about 70 %. Except for the first set which will be incorporated in the Rijksherbarium, the plants will

  20. Annulotrema (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of African tetras (Characiformes: Alestidae) in Lake Turkana, Kenya, with descriptions of four new species and a redescription of A. elongata Paperna and Thurston, 1969

    Kičinjaová, M. L.; Blažek, Radim; Gelnar, M.; Řehulková, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 11 (2015), s. 4107-4120 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dactylogyridae * Annulotrema alestesnursi * Annulotrema ansatum * Annulotrema besalis * Annulotrema bipatens * Annulotrema cucullatum * Annulotrema elongata * Annulotrema nili * Annulotrema pontile * Kenya * Alestidae * Alestes baremoze * Alestes dentex * Brycinus nurse * Hydrocynus forskahlii * genus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  1. Kenya.

    Obura, D O

    2001-12-01

    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5 degrees S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterized by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25 degrees C and 31 degrees C during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and

  2. Kenya

    Obura, David O. [CORDIO East Africa, Mombassa (Kenya)

    2001-07-01

    The Kenya coast is bathed by the northward-flowing warm waters of the East Africa Coastal Current, located between latitudes 1 and 5deg S. With a narrow continental shelf, the coastal marine environments are dominated by coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves, with large expanses of sandy substrates where river inputs from Kenya's two largest rivers, the Tana and Athi rivers, prevent the growth of coral reefs. The northern part of the coast is seasonally influenced by upwelling waters of the Somali Current, resulting in lower water temperatures for part of the year. The coast is made up of raised Pleistocene reefs on coastal plains and hills of sedimentary origin, which support native habitats dominated by scrub bush and remnant pockets of the forests that used to cover East Africa and the Congo basin. The marine environment is characterised by warm tropical conditions varying at the surface between 25degC and 31degC during the year, stable salinity regimes, and moderately high nutrient levels from terrestrial runoff and groundwater. The semi-diurnal tidal regime varies from 1.5 to 4 m amplitude from neap to spring tides, creating extensive intertidal platform and rocky-shore communities exposed twice-daily during low tides. Fringing reef crests dominate the whole southern coast and parts of the northern coast towards Somalia, forming a natural barrier to the wave energy from the ocean. Coral reefs form the dominant ecosystem along the majority of the Kenya coast, creating habitats for seagrasses and mangroves in the lagoons and creeks protected by the reef crests. Kenya's marine environment faces a number of threats from the growing coastal human population estimated at just under three million in 2000. Extraction of fish and other resources from the narrow continental shelf, coral reef and mangrove ecosystems increases each year with inadequate monitoring and management structures to protect the resource bases. Coastal development in urban and tourist

  3. Indigenous Knowledge Research in Kenya and South Africa: An ...

    International databases (OCLC – Online Computer Library Center, MEDLINE and AGRICOLA) and national databases – South Africa's Southern African Bibliographic Information Network (SABINET databases, i.e. Current and Completed Research: CCR, Union Catalogue of Theses and Dissertations: UTD, and Index to ...

  4. Modeling Lake Turkana Hydrology: Evaluating the potential hydrological impact of Gibe III reservoir on the Lake Turkana water levels using multi-source satellite data

    Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-12-01

    Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies >80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana, Kenya. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa (height of 241 m) with a storage capacity of 14.5 billion m3. Arguably, this is one of the most controversial hydro-power projects in the region because the nature of interactions and potential impacts of the dam regulated flows on Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in situ hydrological datasets. In this research, we used a calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account 12 years (1998-2009) of satellite rainfall, model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model was used to evaluate the impact of the Gibe III dam using three different simple but robust approaches - a historical approach; a rainfall based sampling approach; and a non-parametric bootstrap resampling approach to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. Modelling results indicate that, on average, the reservoir would take up to 8-10 months to reach minimum operation level of 201 m (initial impoundment period). During this period, the dam would regulate the lake inflows up to 50% and as a result the lake level would drop up to 2 m. However, after the initial impoundment period, due to releases from the dam, the rate of lake inflows would be around 10 m3/s less when compared to the rate without Gibe III (650 m3/s). Due to this, the lake levels will decline on average 1.5 m (3 m). Over the entire modeling period including the initial period of impoundment, the average rate of lake inflows due to Gibe III dam was estimated to be 500 m3/s. Results indicated that dam would also moderate the seasonal fluctuations in the lake. Areas along the Lake Turkana shoreline that are vulnerable to

  5. Free Primary Education Policy: Coping Strategies in Public Primary Schools in Kakamega South District, Kakamega County, Kenya

    Mulinya, Lidoro Charles; Orodho, John Aluko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the challenges of implementing free primary education and copping strategies in public primary schools in Kakamega South District, Kakamega County, Kenya. The study was premised on the demand and supply theory. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The sample comprised 23 headteachers, 92 teachers and one Ministry…

  6. Early Pleistocene aquatic resource use in the Turkana Basin.

    Archer, Will; Braun, David R; Harris, Jack W K; McCoy, Jack T; Richmond, Brian G

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for the acquisition of nutritionally dense food resources by early Pleistocene hominins has implications for both hominin biology and behavior. Aquatic fauna may have comprised a source of highly nutritious resources to hominins in the Turkana Basin at ∼1.95 Ma. Here we employ multiple datasets to examine the issue of aquatic resource use in the early Pleistocene. This study focuses on four components of aquatic faunal assemblages (1) taxonomic diversity, (2) skeletal element proportion, (3) bone fragmentation and (4) bone surface modification. These components are used to identify associations between early Pleistocene aquatic remains and hominin behavior at the site of FwJj20 in the Koobi Fora Fm. (Kenya). We focus on two dominant aquatic species: catfish and turtles. Further we suggest that data on aquatic resource availability as well as ethnographic examples of aquatic resource use complement our observations on the archaeological remains from FwJj20. Aquatic food items provided hominins with a valuable nutritional alternative to an exclusively terrestrial resource base. We argue that specific advantages afforded by an aquatic alternative to terrestrial resources include (1) a probable reduction in required investment of energy relative to economic return in the form of nutritionally dense food items, (2) a decrease in the technological costs of resource acquisition, and (3) a reduced level of inter-specific competition associated with carcass access and an associated reduction of predation risk relative to terrestrial sources of food. The combined evidence from FwJj20 suggests that aquatic resources may have played a substantial role in early Pleistocene diets and these resources may have been overlooked in previous interpretations of hominin behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined Protocol for Acute Malnutrition Study (ComPAS) in rural South Sudan and urban Kenya

    Bailey, Jeanette; Lelijveld, Natasha; Marron, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Background: Acute malnutrition is a continuum condition, but severe and moderate forms are treated separately, with different protocols and therapeutic products, managed by separate United Nations agencies. The Combined Protocol for Acute Malnutrition Study (ComPAS) aims to simplify and unify...... the treatment of uncomplicated severe and moderate acute malnutrition (SAM and MAM) for children 6-59 months into one protocol in order to improve the global coverage, quality, continuity of care and cost-effectiveness of acute malnutrition treatment in resource-constrained settings.  Methods/design: This study...... is a multi-site, cluster randomized non-inferiority trial with 12 clusters in Kenya and 12 clusters in South Sudan. Participants are 3600 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated acute malnutrition. This study will evaluate the impact of a simplified and combined protocol for the treatment of SAM and MAM...

  8. Local knowledge of the link between tuberculosis and HIV-1/AIDS among the Turkana of Lodwar township: implications for tuberculosis and HIV-1/AIDS prevention.

    Owiti, John Arianda

    2008-01-01

    This article is extracted from a doctoral thesis that was supported by a research grant from the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC)'s Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health Training Award, the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Northern Ireland's Emslie Horniman Scholarship Fund and McGill University, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research's Humanities and Social Sciences Research Award. This study used a broad theoretical framework encompassing an ecosystem approach to HIV-1/AIDS that partly investigated the nexus between local knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1/AIDS. According to the Turkana of Lodwar township, Kenya, HIV-1/AIDS and TB are largely contagious and are attributed to impersonal and natural causes. In addition, in line with biomedical knowledge, the Turkana's local knowledge emphasises a conceptual link between TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The study also demonstrates that factors of the ecosystem such as kaada, poverty, widow inheritance, migration and other socio-cultural practices play an influential role in the vulnerability of the Turkana to the contraction and transmission of both TB and HIV-1/AIDS. The article posits an integrated approach to the prevention of TB and HIV-1 and to the management of AIDS and TB.

  9. Occurrence and multivariate exploratory analysis of the natural radioactivity anomaly in the south coastal region of Kenya

    Kaniu, M. I.; Angeyo, K. H.; Darby, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    Characterized by a variety of rock formations, namely alkaline, igneous and sedimentary that contain significant deposits of monazite and pyrochlore ores, the south coastal region of Kenya may be regarded as highly heterogeneous with regard to its geochemistry, mineralogy as well as geological morphology. The region is one of the several alkaline carbonatite complexes of Kenya that are associated with high natural background radiation and therefore radioactivity anomaly. However, this high background radiation (HBR) anomaly has hardly been systematically assessed and delineated with regard to the spatial, geological, geochemical as well as anthropogenic variability and co-dependencies. We conducted wide-ranging in-situ gamma-ray spectrometric measurements in this area. The goal of the study was to assess the radiation exposure as well as determine the underlying natural radioactivity levels in the region. In this paper we report the occurrence, exploratory analysis and modeling to assess the multivariate geo-dependence and spatial variability of the radioactivity and associated radiation exposure. Unsupervised principal component analysis and ternary plots were utilized in the study. It was observed that areas which exhibit HBR anomalies are located along the south coast paved road and in the Mrima-Kiruku complex. These areas showed a trend towards enhanced levels of 232Th and 238U and low 40K. The spatial variability of the radioactivity anomaly was found to be mainly constrained by anthropogenic activities, underlying geology and geochemical processes in the terrestrial environment.

  10. Influence of culture on contraceptive utilization among HIV-positive women in Brazil, Kenya, and South Africa.

    Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Laher, Fatima; Malta, Monica S; Bastos, Francisco I; Imbuki, Kennedy; Shaffer, Douglas N; Sinei, Samuel K; Gray, Glenda E

    2011-02-01

    Contraceptive choice and discontinuation are poorly understood among HIV-positive women, and HIV disease and culture may influence decisions. We assessed factors influencing contraceptive decision-making among HIV-positive women in three countries. This qualitative assessment of 108 HIV-positive women (36/site, selected by age and parity strata) was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Kericho, Kenya; and Soweto, South Africa. Freelist interviews assessed knowledge and attitudes towards contraception and were analyzed enumerating frequency and saliency of mentions. There was intersite consensus around list items but priority and themes varied. Site-specific factors influencing contraceptive choice were male partner wishes and fertility desire (Brazil), side-effects (South Africa), and impact on health and HIV progression (Kenya). Age, parity, and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) impacted some themes. Contraceptive use among HIV-positive women is substantially influenced by culture and other factors. Counseling efforts should consider individual factors in method selection and offer method variety to accommodate changing needs.

  11. Financing Adult Education: How Adequate Are Current Sources in Facilitating Access and Participation in Centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya?

    Maina, Ndonga James; Orodho, John Aluko

    2016-01-01

    The thrust of this study was to examine the level of adequacy of current sources in facilitating access and participation in adult education centres in Murang'a South Sub-County, Murang'a County, Kenya. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. Combinations of purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 82…

  12. Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice

    Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

  13. Climate and soils of the South Kinangop Plateau of Kenya : their limitations on land use

    Nyandat, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    In the Kinangop Plateau of Kenya where small holder farmers have been settled, varied climate and soils occur and the level of land use and management is not as high as may be expected. The climate and soils were therefore studied with a view to identity the constraints they present to land use and

  14. Work experience, job-fulfillment and burnout among VMMC providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    Linnea Perry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human resource capacity is vital to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC services. VMMC providers are at risk of "burnout" from performing a single task repeatedly in a high volume work environment that produces long work hours and intense work effort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up (SYMMACS surveyed VMMC providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe in 2011 (n = 357 and 2012 (n = 591. Providers self-reported on their training, work experience, levels of job-fulfillment and work fatigue/burnout. Data analysis included a descriptive analysis of VMMC provider characteristics, and both bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with provider work fatigue/burnout. In 2012, Kenyan providers had worked in VMMC for a median of 31 months compared to South Africa (10 months, Tanzania (15 months, and Zimbabwe (11 months. More than three-quarters (78 - 99% of providers in all countries in 2012 reported that VMMC is a personally fulfilling job. However, 67% of Kenyan providers reported starting to experience work fatigue/burnout compared to South Africa (33%, Zimbabwe (17%, and Tanzania (15%. Despite the high level of work fatigue/burnout in Kenya, none of the measured factors (i.e., gender, age, full-time versus part-time status, length of service, number of operations performed, or cadre were significantly associated with work fatigue/burnout in 2011. In 2012, logistic regression found increases in age (p<.05 and number of months working in VMMC (p<.01 were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing work fatigue/burnout, while higher career total VMMCs decreased the likelihood of experiencing burnout. CONCLUSION: Given cross-country differences, further elucidation of cultural and other contextual factors that may influence provider burnout is required. Continuing to emphasize the contribution that providers make in

  15. The Prevalence of HIV by Ethnic Group Is Correlated with HSV-2 and Syphilis Prevalence in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper investigates two issues: do ethnic/racial groups with high HIV prevalences also have higher prevalences of other STIs? and is HIV prevalence by ethnic group correlated with the prevalence of circumcision, concurrency, or having more than one partner in the preceding year? Methods. We used Spearman’s correlation to estimate the association between the prevalence of HIV per ethnic/racial group and HSV-2, syphilis, symptoms of an STI, having more than one partner in the past year, concurrency, and circumcision in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results. We found that in each country HSV-2, syphilis, and symptomatic STIs were positively correlated with HIV prevalence (HSV-2: Kenya rho = 0.50, P = 0.207; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, Syphilis: Kenya rho = 0.33, P = 0.420; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, and STI symptoms: Kenya rho = 0.92, P = 0.001; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. The prevalence of circumcision was only negatively associated with HIV prevalence in Kenya. Both having more than one partner in the previous year and concurrency were positively associated with HIV prevalence in all countries (concurrency: Kenya rho = 0.79, P = 0.036; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000 and multiple partners: Kenya rho = 0.82, P = 0.023; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. Not all associations were statistically significant. Conclusion. Further attention needs to be directed to what determines higher rates of partner change and concurrency in communities with high STI prevalence.

  16. Pedogenic carbonate stable isotopic evidence for wooded habitat preference of early Pleistocene tool makers in the Turkana Basin.

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Feibel, Craig S; Wright, James D; Mortlock, Richard A; Harmand, Sonia; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Roche, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    The origin and evolution of early Pleistocene hominin lithic technologies in Africa occurred within the context of savanna grassland ecosystems. The Nachukui Formation of the Turkana Basin in northern Kenya, containing Oldowan and Acheulean tool assemblages and fossil evidence for early members of Homo and Paranthropus, provides an extensive spatial and temporal paleosol record of early Pleistocene savanna flora. Here we present new carbon isotopic (δ(13)CVPDB) values of pedogenic carbonates (68 nodules, 193 analyses) from the Nachukui Formation in order to characterize past vegetation structure and change through time. We compared three members (Kalochoro, Kaitio, and Natoo) at five locations spanning 2.4-1.4Ma and sampled in proximity to hominin archaeological and paleontological sites. Our results indicate diverse habitats showing a mosaic pattern of vegetation cover at each location yet demonstrate grassland expansion through time influenced by paleogeography. Kalochoro floodplains occurred adjacent to large river systems, and paleosols show evidence of C3 woodlands averaging 46-50% woody cover. Kaitio habitats were located along smaller rivers and lake margins. Paleosols yielded evidence for reduced portions of woody vegetation averaging 34-37% woody cover. Natoo environments had the highest percentage of grasslands averaging 21% woody cover near a diminishing Lake Turkana precursor. We also compared paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of lithic archaeological sites with paleosol δ(13)CVPDB values of all environments available to hominins at 2.4-1.4Ma in the Nachukui and Koobi Fora Formations. Grassy environments became more widespread during this interval; woody canopy cover mean percentages steadily decreased by 12%. However, significantly more wooded savanna habitats were present in the vicinity of lithic archaeological sites and did not mirror the basin-wide trend of grassland spread. Hominin lithic archaeological sites consistently demonstrated woody cover

  17. Delivery Practices and Associated Factors among Mothers Seeking Child Welfare Services in Selected Health Facilities in Nyandarua South District, Kenya

    Wanjira Carol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measure of the proportion of deliveries assisted by skilled attendants is one of the indicators of progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5, which aims at improving maternal health. This study aimed at establishing delivery practices and associated factors among mothers seeking child welfare services at selected health facilities in Nyandarua South district, Kenya to determine whether mothers were receiving appropriate delivery care. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional survey among women who had recently delivered while in the study area was carried out between August and October 2009. Binary Logistic regression was used to identify factors that predicted mothers' delivery practice. Results Among the 409 mothers who participated in the study, 1170 deliveries were reported. Of all the deliveries reported, 51.8% were attended by unskilled birth attendants. Among the deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants, 38.6% (452/1170 were by neighbors and/or relatives. Traditional Birth Attendants attended 1.5% (17/1170 of the deliveries while in 11.7% (137/1170 of the deliveries were self administered. Mothers who had unskilled birth attendance were more likely to have Conclusion Among the mothers interviewed, utilization of skilled delivery attendance services was still low with a high number of deliveries being attended by unqualified lay persons. There is need to implement cost effective and sustainable measures to improve the quality of maternal health services with an aim of promoting safe delivery and hence reducing maternal mortality.

  18. Let’s sing our heroes: A comparison of biographical series for children in Kenya and South Africa

    C.K. Muriungi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article two series of biographies written for children, and dealing with prominent personalities in Kenya and South Africa, are compared. In the line of argumentation developed the aim is to examine the main features in these biographies, and to indicate the importance of biographies in the general field of children’s literature. By examining a sample text from each series the specific ways in which the authors mould these personalities into heroes of their countries are scrutinised. Furthermore the way in which gender is represented in the two series is also examined and it is argued that both men and women form part of any country’s gallery of heroes. Underlying the main argument of the article is the contention that biographies are important in perpetuating the stories of the two countries’ heroes: also in teaching the history of each country to the young. A general motif of hard work resonates in these works, and therefore it is asserted that individuals’ biographies can be used as anecdotes to communicate with and to inspire and encourage young readers. The authors of the biographies actually intervene by presenting children with role models. Furthermore these role models are not abstract fictional characters but real human beings who made great sacrifices for their countries – people with whom children are thus able to identify.

  19. Old stones' song: use-wear experiments and analysis of the Oldowan quartz and quartzite assemblage from Kanjera South (Kenya).

    Lemorini, Cristina; Plummer, Thomas W; Braun, David R; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Ditchfield, Peter W; Bishop, Laura C; Hertel, Fritz; Oliver, James S; Marlowe, Frank W; Schoeninger, Margaret J; Potts, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of Oldowan tools by ∼2.6 million years ago (Ma) may signal a major adaptive shift in hominin evolution. While tool-dependent butchery of large mammals was important by at least 2.0 Ma, the use of artifacts for tasks other than faunal processing has been difficult to diagnose. Here we report on use-wear analysis of ∼2.0 Ma quartz and quartzite artifacts from Kanjera South, Kenya. A use-wear framework that links processing of specific materials and tool motions to their resultant use-wear patterns was developed. A blind test was then carried out to assess and improve the efficacy of this experimental use-wear framework, which was then applied to the analysis of 62 Oldowan artifacts from Kanjera South. Use-wear on a total of 23 artifact edges was attributed to the processing of specific materials. Use-wear on seven edges (30%) was attributed to animal tissue processing, corroborating zooarchaeological evidence for butchery at the site. Use-wear on 16 edges (70%) was attributed to the processing of plant tissues, including wood, grit-covered plant tissues that we interpret as underground storage organs (USOs), and stems of grass or sedges. These results expand our knowledge of the suite of behaviours carried out in the vicinity of Kanjera South to include the processing of materials that would be 'invisible' using standard archaeological methods. Wood cutting and scraping may represent the production and/or maintenance of wooden tools. Use-wear related to USO processing extends the archaeological evidence for hominin acquisition and consumption of this resource by over 1.5 Ma. Cutting of grasses, sedges or reeds may be related to a subsistence task (e.g., grass seed harvesting, cutting out papyrus culm for consumption) and/or a non-subsistence related task (e.g., production of 'twine,' simple carrying devices, or bedding). These results highlight the adaptive significance of lithic technology for hominins at Kanjera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. The sexual risk context among the FEM-PrEP study population in Bondo, Kenya and Pretoria, South Africa.

    Jennifer Headley

    Full Text Available Incidence rates in the FEM-PrEP and VOICE trials demonstrate that women from diverse sub-Saharan African communities continue to be at substantial HIV risk.To describe and compare the sexual risk context of the study population from two FEM-PrEP trial sites-Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa.At baseline we collected information about demographics, sexual behaviors, and partnership beliefs through quantitative questionnaires with all participants (Bondo, n = 720; Pretoria, n = 750. To explore the sexual risk context, we also conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with HIV-negative participants randomly selected at several time points (Bondo, n = 111; Pretoria, n = 69.Demographics, sexual behavior, and partnership beliefs varied significantly between the sites. Bondo participants were generally older, had fewer years of schooling, and were more likely to be employed and married compared to Pretoria participants. Bondo participants were more likely to report multiple partners and not knowing whether their partner had HIV than Pretoria participants. A significantly higher percentage of Bondo participants reported engaging in sex without a condom with their primary and other partners compared to Pretoria participants. We found a borderline association between participants who reported not using condoms in the 4 weeks prior to baseline and lower risk of HIV infection, and no association between having more than one sexual partner at baseline and HIV infection.Despite significantly different demographics, sexual behaviors, and partnership beliefs, many women in the FEM-PrEP trial were at risk of acquiring HIV as demonstrated by the sites' high HIV incidence. Though gender dynamics differed between the populations, they appear to play a critical role in women's sexual practices. The findings highlight different ways women from diverse contexts may be at-risk for HIV and the importance of providing HIV prevention options

  1. Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    Kaniu, Ian; Darby, Iain G.; Kalambuka Angeyo, Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusive complexes are rich in a variety of mineral deposits such as rare earth elements (REEs), including Nb, Zr and Mn. These are often associated with U and Th bearing minerals, including monazite, samarskite and pyrochlore. Mining waste resulting from mineral processing activities can be highly radioactive and therefore poses a risk to human health and environment. The Jombo complex located in Kenya's south coastal region is potentially one of the richest sources of Nb and REEs in the world. It consists of the main intrusion at Jombo hill, three associated satellite intrusions at Mrima, Kiruku and Nguluku hills, and several dykes. The complex is highly heterogeneous with regard to its geological formation as it is characterized by alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites which also influence its radio-ecological dynamics. In-situ gamma spectrometry offers a low-cost, rapid and spatially representative radioactivity estimate across a range of landscapes compared to conventional radiometric techniques. In this work, a wide ranging radiological survey was conducted in the Jombo complex as follow up on previous studies[1,2], to determine radiation exposure levels and source distributions, and perform radiological risk assessments. The in-situ measurements were carried out using a 2.0 l NaI(Tl) PGIS-2 portable detector from Pico Envirotec Inc integrated with GPS, deployed for ground (back-pack) and vehicular gamma-ray spectrometry. Preliminary results of radiological distribution and mapping will be presented. [1] Patel, J. P. (1991). Discovery and Innovation, 3(3): 31-35. [2] Kebwaro, J. M. et. al. (2011). J. Phys. Sci., 6(13): 3105-3110.

  2. Everyday resilience in district health systems: emerging insights from the front lines in Kenya and South Africa.

    Gilson, Lucy; Barasa, Edwine; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Cleary, Susan; Goudge, Jane; Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Lehmann, Uta

    2017-01-01

    Recent global crises have brought into sharp relief the absolute necessity of resilient health systems that can recognise and react to societal crises. While such crises focus the global mind, the real work lies, however, in being resilient in the face of routine, multiple challenges. But what are these challenges and what is the work of nurturing everyday resilience in health systems? This paper considers these questions, drawing on long-term, primarily qualitative research conducted in three different district health system settings in Kenya and South Africa, and adopting principles from case study research methodology and meta-synthesis in its analytic approach. The paper presents evidence of the instability and daily disruptions managed at the front lines of the district health system. These include patient complaints, unpredictable staff, compliance demands, organisational instability linked to decentralisation processes and frequently changing, and sometimes unclear, policy imperatives. The paper also identifies managerial responses to these challenges and assesses whether or not they indicate everyday resilience, using two conceptual lenses. From this analysis, we suggest that such resilience seems to arise from the leadership offered by multiple managers, through a combination of strategies that become embedded in relationships and managerial routines, drawing on wider organisational capacities and resources. While stable governance structures and adequate resources do influence everyday resilience, they are not enough to sustain it. Instead, it appears important to nurture the power of leaders across every system to reframe challenges, strengthen their routine practices in ways that encourage mindful staff engagement, and develop social networks within and outside organisations. Further research can build on these insights to deepen understanding.

  3. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  4. The last snapshot of natural pelagic fish assemblage in Lake Turkana, Kenya: A hydroacoustic study

    Muška, Milan; Vašek, Mojmír; Modrý, David; Jirků, Miloslav; Ojwang, W. O.; Malala, J. O.; Kubečka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 98-106 ISSN 0380-1330 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960813 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : African lakes * acoustics * fish distribution * endorheic basin * lates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2012

  5. The importance of choice in the rollout of ARV-based prevention to user groups in Kenya and South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Mack, Natasha; Evens, Emily M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Brelsford, Kate; Mackenzie, Caroline; Milford, Cecilia; Smit, Jennifer A; Kimani, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholders continue to discuss the appropriateness of antiretroviral-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among sub-Saharan African and other women. In particular, women need formulations they can adhere to given that effectiveness has been found to correlate with adherence. Evidence from family planning shows that contraceptive use, continuation and adherence may be increased by expanding choices. To explore the potential role of choice in women's use of HIV prevention methods, we conducted a secondary analysis of research with female sex workers (FSWs) and men and women in serodiscordant couples (SDCs) in Kenya, and adolescent and young women in South Africa. Our objective here is to present their interest in and preferences for PrEP formulations - pills, gel and injectable. In this qualitative study, in Kenya we conducted three focus groups with FSWs, and three with SDCs. In South Africa, we conducted two focus groups with adolescent girls, and two with young women. All focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated into English as needed. We structurally and thematically coded transcripts using a codebook and QSR NVivo 9.0; generated code reports; and conducted inductive thematic analysis to identify major trends and themes. All groups expressed strong interest in PrEP products. In Kenya, FSWs said the products might help them earn more money, because they would feel safer accepting more clients or having sex without condoms for a higher price. SDCs said the products might replace condoms and reanimate couples' sex lives. Most sex workers and SDCs preferred an injectable because it would last longer, required little intervention and was private. In South Africa, adolescent girls believed it would be possible to obtain the products more privately than condoms. Young women were excited about PrEP but concerned about interactions with alcohol and drug use, which often precede sex. Adolescents did not prefer a particular

  6. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    Région: China, Far East Asia, India, Kenya, North and Central America, Panama, Peru, South America, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, South Asia. Programme: Agriculture et ... Sujet: HEALTH SURVEYS, HEALTH STATISTICS, MATERNAL MORTALITY, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH. Région: Kenya ...

  7. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya

    Nielsen, Trine Kellberg

    2013-01-01

    Turkana Basin (Kenya). We identify the base of the Olduvai subchron (bC2n) plus a short isolated interval of consistently normal polarity that we interpret to be the Pre-Olduvai event. Combined with precession-forced (∼20 kyr [thousands of years]) wet–dry climate cycles resolved by Sr isotope ratios......, the magnetostratigraphic data allow us to construct an age model for the UBU deposits. We provide detailed age constraints for 15 hominin fossils from Area 131, showing that key specimens such as cranium KNM-ER 1470, partial face KNM-ER 62000 and mandibles KNM-ER 1482, KNM-ER 1801, and KNM-ER 1802 can be constrained...... the wet–dry climate cycles, supporting the hypothesis that the lacustrine Turkana Basin was a refugium during regionally dry periods. By establishing the observed first appearance datum of a marine-derived stingray in UBU deposits at 2.058 ± 0.034 Ma, we show that at this time the Turkana Basin...

  8. Kenya Veterinarian

    The Kenya Veterinarian is a journal of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy ...

  9. A literature review: the role of the private sector in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand.

    Reynolds, Jaratdao; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Pudpong, Nareerut; Watthayu, Nantiya; Dalliston, Alex; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Sawaengdee, Krisada

    2013-04-12

    The demand for nurses is growing and has not yet been met in most developing countries, including India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. Efforts to increase the capacity for production of professional nurses, equitable distribution and better retention have been given high strategic priority. This study examines the supply of, demand for, and policy environment of private nurse production in four selected countries. A scoping systematic review was undertaken to assess the evidence for the role of private sector involvement in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. An electronic database search was performed, and grey literature was also captured from the websites of Human Resources for Health (HRH)-related organizations and networks. The articles were reviewed and selected according to relevancy. The review found that despite very different ratios of nurses to population ratios and differing degrees of international migration, there was a nursing shortage in all four countries which were struggling to meet growing demand. All four countries saw the private sector play an increasing role in nurse production. Policy responses varied from modifying regulation and accreditation schemes in Thailand, to easing regulation to speed up nurse production and recruitment in India. There were concerns about the quality of nurses being produced in private institutions. Strategies must be devised to ensure that private nursing graduates serve public health needs of their populations. There must be policy coherence between producing nurses for export and ensuring sufficient supply to meet domestic needs, in particular in under-served areas. This study points to the need for further research in particular assessing the contributions made by the private sector to nurse production, and to examine the variance in quality of nurses produced.

  10. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Surgical efficiencies and quality in the performance of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC procedures in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.

    Dino Rech

    Full Text Available This analysis explores the association between elements of surgical efficiency in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC, quality of surgical technique, and the amount of time required to conduct VMMC procedures in actual field settings. Efficiency outcomes are defined in terms of the primary provider's time with the client (PPTC and total elapsed operating time (TEOT.Two serial cross-sectional surveys of VMMC sites were conducted in Kenya, Republic of South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe in 2011 and 2012. Trained clinicians observed quality of surgical technique and timed 9 steps in the VMMC procedure. Four elements of efficiency (task-shifting, task-sharing [of suturing], rotation among multiple surgical beds, and use of electrocautery and quality of surgical technique were assessed as explanatory variables. Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests were used in the bivariate analysis and linear regression models for the multivariate analyses to test the relationship between these five explanatory variables and two outcomes: PPTC and TEOT. The VMMC procedure TEOT and PPTC averaged 23-25 minutes and 6-15 minutes, respectively, across the four countries and two years. The data showed time savings from task-sharing in suturing and use of electrocautery in South Africa and Zimbabwe (where task-shifting is not authorized. After adjusting for confounders, results demonstrated that having a secondary provider complete suturing and use of electrocautery reduced PPTC. Factors related to TEOT varied by country and year, but task-sharing of suturing and/or electrocautery were significant in two countries. Quality of surgical technique was not significantly related to PPTC or TEOT, except for South Africa in 2012 where higher quality was associated with lower TEOT.SYMMACS data confirm the efficiency benefits of task-sharing of suturing and use of electrocautery for decreasing TEOT. Reduced TEOT and PPTC in high volume setting did not result in decreased

  12. Zinc isotope ratios of bones and teeth as new dietary indicators: results from a modern food web (Koobi Fora, Kenya)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Beasley, Melanie; Schoeninger, Margaret; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the possibilities of using zinc (Zn) stable isotope ratios as dietary indicators, we report here on the measurements of the ratio of stable isotopes of zinc (66Zn/64Zn, expressed here as ?66Zn) in bioapatite (bone and dental enamel) of animals from a modern food web in the Koobi Fora region of the Turkana Basin in Kenya. We demonstrate that ?66Zn values in both bone and enamel allow a clear distinction between carnivores and herbivores from this food web. Differences were ...

  13. IDRC in Kenya

    Researchers are working on a vaccine for cattle disease. For more information visit the Regional. Office for Sub-Saharan Africa website: www.idrc.ca/rossa. Subscribe to the IDRC Bulletin: www.idrc.ca/idrcbulletin/. SOMALIA. UGANDA. SUDAN. TANZANIA. Lake. Victoria. Lake. Turkana. INDIAN. OCEAN. Nairobi ✪. ○. ○. ○.

  14. Timing of volcanism and initiation of rifting in the Omo-Turkana depression, southwest Ethiopia: Evidence from paleomagnetism

    Erbello, Asfaw; Kidane, Tesfaye

    2018-03-01

    Lava flows of the Gombe Group basalt cover the base of the Omo-Turkana rift in southwestern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. Paleomagnetic study results on these basalts are integrated with previous geochronologic data to better constrain the timing of volcanism and rifting in the area. A total of 80 drilled core samples were collected from nine sites. Experimental methods of Alternating Field (AF) demagnetization, Thermal (TH) demagnetization and Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) experiments are performed to unravel components of magnetizations. Two components of Natural Remnant Magnetization (NRM) directions are identified; the first one considered as Viscous Remanent Magnetization (VRM) is removed by 5-25 mT AF or a temperature of 120 °C-250 °C, the second component isolated after these steps defined a straight-line segment directed towards the origin and is interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM). In the IRM Acquisition experiment all analyzed samples showed a sharp rise in acquisition and reached to their saturation magnetization by an applied field of 300 mT. This together with the AF demagnetization and TH demagnetization behaviors suggest pseudo single domain titanomagnetite as a dominant magnetic carrier of the remanence. From a total of nine sites, six sites are reversed polarity, two sites are normal polarity and pass the reversal test of McFadden and McElhinny (1990) while one site is of erratic behavior probably due to lightning strike. The mean direction for the reversed polarity is DS = 186.1°, IS = -1.9° (N = 2, KS = 38.8, α95 = 10.9°) and that for the normal polarity is DS = 348.4°, IS = 4.6° (N = 6, K = 378.9, α95 = 12.9°). The overall mean direction DS = 1.7°, IS = 2.6° (N = 8, KS = 34.2, α95 = 9.6°), is statistically identical to the expected mean direction Ds = 2.1°, Is = 7.8° (N = 26, α95 = 2.3) obtained from the African Apparent Polar Waner Path (APWP) curve of African plate for a mean age of 4.25 Ma

  15. A multi-source satellite data approach for modelling Lake Turkana water level: calibration and validation using satellite altimetry data

    N. M. Velpuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Turkana is one of the largest desert lakes in the world and is characterized by high degrees of inter- and intra-annual fluctuations. The hydrology and water balance of this lake have not been well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable ground truth datasets. Managing surface water resources is a great challenge in areas where in-situ data are either limited or unavailable. In this study, multi-source satellite-driven data such as satellite-based rainfall estimates, modelled runoff, evapotranspiration, and a digital elevation dataset were used to model Lake Turkana water levels from 1998 to 2009. Due to the unavailability of reliable lake level data, an approach is presented to calibrate and validate the water balance model of Lake Turkana using a composite lake level product of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and ENVISAT satellite altimetry data. Model validation results showed that the satellite-driven water balance model can satisfactorily capture the patterns and seasonal variations of the Lake Turkana water level fluctuations with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE of 0.80 during the validation period (2004–2009. Model error estimates were within 10% of the natural variability of the lake. Our analysis indicated that fluctuations in Lake Turkana water levels are mainly driven by lake inflows and over-the-lake evaporation. Over-the-lake rainfall contributes only up to 30% of lake evaporative demand. During the modelling time period, Lake Turkana showed seasonal variations of 1–2 m. The lake level fluctuated in the range up to 4 m between the years 1998–2009. This study demonstrated the usefulness of satellite altimetry data to calibrate and validate the satellite-driven hydrological model for Lake Turkana without using any in-situ data. Furthermore, for Lake Turkana, we identified and outlined opportunities and challenges of using a calibrated

  16. A multi-source satellite data approach for modelling Lake Turkana water level: Calibration and validation using satellite altimetry data

    Velpuri, N.M.; Senay, G.B.; Asante, K.O.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Turkana is one of the largest desert lakes in the world and is characterized by high degrees of interand intra-annual fluctuations. The hydrology and water balance of this lake have not been well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable ground truth datasets. Managing surface water resources is a great challenge in areas where in-situ data are either limited or unavailable. In this study, multi-source satellite-driven data such as satellite-based rainfall estimates, modelled runoff, evapotranspiration, and a digital elevation dataset were used to model Lake Turkana water levels from 1998 to 2009. Due to the unavailability of reliable lake level data, an approach is presented to calibrate and validate the water balance model of Lake Turkana using a composite lake level product of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and ENVISAT satellite altimetry data. Model validation results showed that the satellitedriven water balance model can satisfactorily capture the patterns and seasonal variations of the Lake Turkana water level fluctuations with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE) of 0.80 during the validation period (2004-2009). Model error estimates were within 10% of the natural variability of the lake. Our analysis indicated that fluctuations in Lake Turkana water levels are mainly driven by lake inflows and over-the-lake evaporation. Over-the-lake rainfall contributes only up to 30% of lake evaporative demand. During the modelling time period, Lake Turkana showed seasonal variations of 1-2m. The lake level fluctuated in the range up to 4m between the years 1998-2009. This study demonstrated the usefulness of satellite altimetry data to calibrate and validate the satellite-driven hydrological model for Lake Turkana without using any in-situ data. Furthermore, for Lake Turkana, we identified and outlined opportunities and challenges of using a calibrated satellite-driven water balance

  17. The socio-economic burden of human African trypanosomiasis and the coping strategies of households in the South Western Kenya foci.

    Salome A Bukachi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, a disease caused by protozoan parasites transmitted by tsetse flies, is an important neglected tropical disease endemic in remote regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Although the determination of the burden of HAT has been based on incidence, mortality and morbidity rates, the true burden of HAT goes beyond these metrics. This study sought to establish the socio-economic burden that households with HAT faced and the coping strategies they employed to deal with the increased burden.A mixed methods approach was used and data were obtained through: review of hospital records; structured interviews (152; key informant interviews (11; case narratives (12 and focus group discussions (15 with participants drawn from sleeping sickness patients in the south western HAT foci in Kenya. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analysed based on emerging themes.Socio-economic impacts included, disruption of daily activities, food insecurity, neglect of homestead, poor academic performance/school drop-outs and death. Delayed diagnosis of HAT caused 93% of the affected households to experience an increase in financial expenditure (ranging from US$ 60-170 in seeking treatment. Out of these, 81.5% experienced difficulties in raising money for treatment resorting to various ways of raising it. The coping strategies employed to deal with the increased financial expenditure included: sale of agricultural produce (64%; seeking assistance from family and friends (54%; sale/lease of family assets (22%; seeking credit (22% and use of personal savings (17%.Coping strategies outlined in this study impacted negatively on the affected households leading to further food insecurity and impoverishment. Calculation of the true burden of disease needs to go beyond incidence, mortality and morbidity rates to capture socio-economic variables entailed in seeking treatment and coping strategies of HAT

  18. Young Women's Ratings of Three Placebo Multipurpose Prevention Technologies for HIV and Pregnancy Prevention in a Randomized, Cross-Over Study in Kenya and South Africa.

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Roberts, Sarah T; Agot, Kawango; Weinrib, Rachel; Ahmed, Khatija; Manenzhe, Kgahlisho; Owino, Fredrick; van der Straten, Ariane

    2018-03-20

    End-user input is critical to inform development of multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products that prevent HIV and pregnancy. The TRIO Study, conducted in Kenya and South Africa, enrolled 277 HIV-negative women aged 18-30 in a randomized cross-over study to use each placebo MPT (daily oral tablets, monthly injections, and monthly vaginal ring) for one month. At the end of each month, participants rated how much they liked using the product on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = liked very much). We compared mean ratings using paired t-tests and examined sociodemographic-, attribute-, and behavior-related characteristics associated with ratings using multivariable linear regression and data from in-depth interviews. After use, mean ratings were significantly higher for injections [4.3 (SD = 1.0)] compared with tablets [3.0 (SD = 1.3)] and rings [3.3 (SD = 1.4)] (p < 0.001); mean ratings for rings were significantly higher than for tablets (p = 0.013). Mean ratings of a hypothetical active MPT increased for all products after the one-month period of use, with the greatest increase for rings, the least familiar product. In multivariable analysis, acceptability of key product attributes (e.g., product look) were associated with a significant increase of ≥ 1 point in the mean rating across all three products (p ≤ 0.001). Perceived ability to use the product without partner knowledge was associated with a higher mean rating for rings (b = 0.50; p = 0.006). The acceptability of product attributes contributed significantly to the rating of all products, highlighting the value of choice in pregnancy and HIV prevention to accommodate diverse users.

  19. Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa

    Doherty, Jane; Kirigia, Doris; Okoli, Chijioke; Chuma, Jane; Ezumah, N; Ichoku, Hyacinth; Hanson, Kara; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The global focus on promoting Universal Health Coverage has drawn attention to the need to increase public domestic funding for health care in low- and middle-income countries. Objectives: This article examines whether increased tax revenue in the three territories of Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa was accompanied by improved resource allocation to their public health sectors, and explores the reasons underlying the observed trends. Methods: Three case studies were conducted by different research teams using a common mixed methods approach. Quantitative data were extracted from official government financial reports and used to describe trends in general tax revenue, total government expenditure and government spending on the health sector and other sectors in the first decade of this century. Twenty-seven key informant interviews with officials in Ministries of Health and Finance were used to explore the contextual factors, actors and processes accounting for the observed trends. A thematic content analysis allowed this qualitative information to be compared and contrasted between territories. Findings: Increased tax revenue led to absolute increases in public health spending in all three territories, but not necessarily in real per capita terms. However, in each of the territories, the percentage of the government budget allocated to health declined for much of the period under review. Factors contributing to this trend include: inter-sectoral competition in priority setting; the extent of fiscal federalism; the Ministry of Finance’s perception of the health sector’s absorptive capacity; weak investment cases made by the Ministry of Health; and weak parliamentary and civil society involvement. Conclusion: Despite dramatic improvements in tax revenue collection, fiscal space for health in the three territories did not improve. Ministries of Health must strengthen their ability to motivate for larger allocations from

  20. Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    Yves Lafort

    Full Text Available A baseline cross-sectional survey among female sex workers (FSWs was conducted in four cities within the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve FSWs' access to HIV, and sexual and reproductive health (SRH services. The survey measured where FSWs seek HIV/SRH care and what motivates their choice.Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS, FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400, Tete, Mozambique (n = 308, Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400 and Mysore, India (n = 458 and interviewed. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests.Across cities, FSWs most commonly sought care for the majority of HIV/SRH services at public health facilities, most especially in Durban (ranging from 65% for condoms to 97% for HIV care. Services specifically targeting FSWs only had a high coverage in Mysore for STI care (89% and HIV testing (79%. Private-for-profit clinics were important providers in Mombasa (ranging from 17% for STI care and HIV testing to 43% for HIV care, but not in the other cities. The most important reason for the choice of care provider in Durban and Mombasa was proximity, in Tete 'where they always go', and in Mysore cost of care. Where available, clinics specifically targeting FSWs were more often chosen because of shorter waiting times, perceived higher quality of care, more privacy and friendlier personnel.The place where care is sought for HIV/SRH services differs substantially between cities. Targeted services have limited coverage in the African cities compared to Mysore. Convenience appears more important for choosing the place of care than aspects of quality of care. The best model to improve access, linking targeted interventions with general health services, will need to be tailored to the specific context of each city.

  1. Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa.

    Doherty, Jane; Kirigia, Doris; Okoli, Chijioke; Chuma, Jane; Ezumah, N; Ichoku, Hyacinth; Hanson, Kara; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-01

    The global focus on promoting Universal Health Coverage has drawn attention to the need to increase public domestic funding for health care in low- and middle-income countries. This article examines whether increased tax revenue in the three territories of Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa was accompanied by improved resource allocation to their public health sectors, and explores the reasons underlying the observed trends. Three case studies were conducted by different research teams using a common mixed methods approach. Quantitative data were extracted from official government financial reports and used to describe trends in general tax revenue, total government expenditure and government spending on the health sector and other sectors in the first decade of this century. Twenty-seven key informant interviews with officials in Ministries of Health and Finance were used to explore the contextual factors, actors and processes accounting for the observed trends. A thematic content analysis allowed this qualitative information to be compared and contrasted between territories. Increased tax revenue led to absolute increases in public health spending in all three territories, but not necessarily in real per capita terms. However, in each of the territories, the percentage of the government budget allocated to health declined for much of the period under review. Factors contributing to this trend include: inter-sectoral competition in priority setting; the extent of fiscal federalism; the Ministry of Finance's perception of the health sector's absorptive capacity; weak investment cases made by the Ministry of Health; and weak parliamentary and civil society involvement. Despite dramatic improvements in tax revenue collection, fiscal space for health in the three territories did not improve. Ministries of Health must strengthen their ability to motivate for larger allocations from government revenue through demonstrating improved performance and the

  2. Detection and genome analysis of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus in Kenya in 2011

    Dundon, W.G.; Kihu, S.M.; Gitao, G.C.; Bebora, L.C.; John, N.M.; Ogugi, J.O.; Loitsch, A.; Diallo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In May 2011 in Turkana County, north-western Kenya, tissue samples were collected from goats suspected of having died of peste des petits ruminant (PPR) disease, an acute viral disease of small ruminants. The samples were processed and tested by reverse transcriptase PCR for the presence of PPR viral RNA. The positive samples were sequenced and identified as belonging to peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) lineage III. Full-genome analysis of one of the positive samples revealed that the virus causing disease in Kenya in 2011 was 95.7% identical to the full genome of a virus isolated in Uganda in 2012 and that a segment of the viral fusion gene was 100% identical to that of a virus circulating in Tanzania in 2013. These data strongly indicate transboundary movement of lineage III viruses between Eastern Africa countries and have significant implications for surveillance and control of this important disease as it moves southwards in Africa. (author)

  3. Kenya | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Home · South of Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Effects of Radio on Perception of Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa. Language English. Read more about Effets des émissions radiophoniques sur la perception de la biotechnologie agricole en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Les droits des ...

  4. Echinococcus spp. in central Kenya: a different story.

    Mbaya, H; Magambo, J; Njenga, S; Zeyhle, E; Mbae, C; Mulinge, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

    2014-10-01

    Research on cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a long history in Kenya, but has mainly concentrated on two discrete areas, Turkana and Maasailand, which are known to be foci of human CE in Africa. Here, we report on a survey for CE in livestock from central to northeastern Kenya, from where no previous data are available. A total of 7,831 livestock carcasses were surveyed. CE prevalence was 1.92% in cattle (n = 4,595), 6.94% in camels (n = 216), 0.37% in goats (n = 2,955) and 4.62% in sheep (n = 65). Identification of the parasite was done using an RFLP-PCR of the mitochondrial nad1 gene, which had been validated before against the various Echinococcus taxa currently recognized as distinct species. From a total of 284 recovered cysts, 258 could be identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n = 160), E. ortleppi (n = 51) and E. canadensis (n = 47) by RFLP-PCR of nad1. In cattle, fertile cysts occurred mostly in the lungs and belonged to E. ortleppi (31 of 54), while the vast majority were sterile or calcified cysts of E. granulosus s.s.. Most fertile cysts in camels belonged to E. canadensis (33 of 37); sterile or calcified cysts were rare. Goats harboured fertile cysts of E. ortleppi (n = 3)--which is the first record in that host species--and E. canadensis (n = 1), while all cysts of E. granulosus were sterile. Only sterile cysts were found in the three examined sheep. Typically, all cysts in animals with multiple infections belonged to the same species, while mixed infections were rare. Our data indicate that the epidemiological situation in central to northeastern Kenya is clearly different from the well-studied pastoral regions of Turkana and Maasailand, and the apparently low number of human CE cases correlates with the infrequent occurrence of E. granulosus s.s.

  5. Influence of Plio-Pleistocene basin hydrology on the Turkana hominin enamel carbonate δ(18)O values.

    Quinn, Rhonda L

    2015-09-01

    Stable oxygen isotopes of hominin enamel carbonate (δ(18)OEC) provide a window into aspects of past drinking behavior and diet, body size, breastfeeding and weaning, mobility, and paleoclimate. It is tempting to compare all hominins across time and space in order to gauge species-level adaptations to changing environments and niche separation between those living sympatrically. Basinal, sub-basinal, and micro-environmental differences, however, may exert an influence on variation in enamel carbonate isotopic values that must be reconciled before hominin species across Africa can be meaningfully compared. Plio-Pleistocene Turkana hominin δ(18)OEC values show a considerable spread, potentially revealing many intrinsic and extrinsic contributing factors operating on different scales. In this study, I examine Turkana hominin δ(18)OEC values relative to identity (taxon, tooth type and number, body size of taxon), dietary (δ(13)C value, Turkana coeval and modern mammalian δ(18)OEC values), and contextual (time, depositional environment) information of each specimen and collection locality and discuss various potential influences. Turkana hominin δ(18)OEC values may primarily reflect differences in imbibed water sources (lake vs. river) as a function of evolving basin hydrology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften

    1996-08-01

    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  7. Plantation Development in the Turkana Basin: The Making of a New Desert?

    Edward G. J. Stevenson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 20th century, “desert reclamation” has been synonymous with large-scale waterworks and irrigation. These techniques have made it possible to produce abundant crops in arid or semi-arid environments. The costs have often been externalized, with increased environmental productivity in the new croplands counterbalanced by increased aridity elsewhere. In this paper I consider whose interests are served by such projects, and what kinds of social constructions of the natural and human environment make them possible. I focus on the Turkana basin, a watershed spanning the Ethiopian and Kenyan borders, where large dams and irrigation projects are currently being established with the goal of producing cash crops and hydro-electricity. In the narratives of the projects’ proponents, the schemes are represented as part of a tradition of development stretching back to the American West. In the discourse of critics, the Aral Sea of Central Asia is frequently invoked. Considering Turkana in relation to these cases sheds light on the political and ecological gambits involved in desert reclamation, and helps us to understand the costs and benefits of such projects.

  8. Micronutrient Status and Dietary Intake of Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine, Folate and Zinc in Women of Reproductive Age and Pregnant Women in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Systematic Review of Data from 2005 to 2015

    Rajwinder Harika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA (≥15–49 years and pregnant women (PW in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published between 2005 and 2015 were searched via Medline, Scopus and national public health websites. Per micronutrient, relevant data were pooled into an average prevalence of deficiency, weighted by sample size (WAVG. Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD intakes. This review included 65 surveys and studies from Ethiopia (21, Kenya (11, Nigeria (21 and South Africa (12. In WRA, WAVG prevalence of anaemia ranged from 18–51%, iron deficiency 9–18%, and iron deficiency anaemia at 10%. In PW, the prevalence was higher, and ranged from 32–62%, 19–61%, and 9–47%, respectively. In WRA, prevalence of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and folate deficiencies ranged from 4–22%, 22–55%, 34% and 46%, while in PW these ranged from 21–48%, 87%, 46–76% and 3–12% respectively. Inadequate intakes of these micronutrients are high and corresponded with the prevalence figures. Our findings indicate that nationally representative data are needed to guide the development of nutrition interventions and public health programs, such as dietary diversification, micronutrient fortification and supplementation.

  9. All projects related to Kenya | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    Topic: PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH, Natural Resources, RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, LAND USE, Food security. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Senegal, Tunisia. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 1,486,000.00.

  10. All projects related to kenya | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    Region: Kenya, Malawi, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, United Kingdom ... Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems ... opportunity to investigate questions of women's space and citizenship in the state process.

  11. All projects related to Kenya | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    2009-11-05

    Start Date: November 5, 2009. End Date: October 26, 2013. Topic: PESTICIDE RESIDUES, WATER POLLUTION, HEALTH HAZARDS, HEALTH SURVEYS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER RESOURCES, WATER MANAGEMENT. Region: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and ...

  12. All projects related to Kenya | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    2009-11-05

    Start Date: November 5, 2009. End Date: October 26, 2013. Topic: PESTICIDE RESIDUES, WATER POLLUTION, HEALTH HAZARDS, HEALTH SURVEYS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, WATER RESOURCES, WATER MANAGEMENT. Region: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and ...

  13. Sexual and reproductive health services utilization by female sex workers is context-specific: results from a cross-sectional survey in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2017-01-19

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are extremely vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. To mitigate these risks, they require access to services covering not only HIV prevention but also contraception, cervical cancer screening and sexual violence. To develop context-specific intervention packages to improve uptake, we identified gaps in service utilization in four different cities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, as part of the baseline assessment of an implementation research project. FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400), Mysore, India (n = 458) and Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and starting with 8-16 'seeds' identified by the peer educators. FSWs responded to a standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire about the use of contraceptive methods and services for cervical cancer screening, sexual violence and unwanted pregnancies. RDS-adjusted proportions and surrounding 95% confidence intervals were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests with Dunn-Šidák correction. Current use of any modern contraception ranged from 86.2% in Tete to 98.4% in Mombasa (p = 0.001), while non-barrier contraception (hormonal, IUD or sterilisation) varied from 33.4% in Durban to 85.1% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Ever having used emergency contraception ranged from 2.4% in Mysore to 38.1% in Mombasa (p < 0.001), ever having been screened for cervical cancer from 0.0% in Tete to 29.0% in Durban (p < 0.001), and having gone to a health facility for a termination of an unwanted pregnancy from 15.0% in Durban to 93.7% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Having sought medical care after forced sex varied from 34.4% in Mombasa to 51.9% in Mysore (p = 0.860). Many of the differences between cities remained statistically significant after adjusting for variations in FSWs

  14. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya.

    Joordens, Josephine C A; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Feibel, Craig S; Spoor, Fred; Sier, Mark J; van der Lubbe, Jeroen H J L; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; Knul, Monika V; Davies, Gareth R; Vonhof, Hubert B

    2013-12-01

    To address questions regarding the evolutionary origin, radiation and dispersal of the genus Homo, it is crucial to be able to place the occurrence of hominin fossils in a high-resolution chronological framework. The period around 2 Ma (millions of years ago) in eastern Africa is of particular interest as it is at this time that a more substantial fossil record of the genus Homo is first found. Here we combine magnetostratigraphy and strontium (Sr) isotope stratigraphy to improve age control on hominin-bearing upper Burgi (UBU) deposits in Areas 105 and 131 on the Karari Ridge in the eastern Turkana Basin (Kenya). We identify the base of the Olduvai subchron (bC2n) plus a short isolated interval of consistently normal polarity that we interpret to be the Pre-Olduvai event. Combined with precession-forced (~20 kyr [thousands of years]) wet-dry climate cycles resolved by Sr isotope ratios, the magnetostratigraphic data allow us to construct an age model for the UBU deposits. We provide detailed age constraints for 15 hominin fossils from Area 131, showing that key specimens such as cranium KNM-ER 1470, partial face KNM-ER 62000 and mandibles KNM-ER 1482, KNM-ER 1801, and KNM-ER 1802 can be constrained between 1.945 ± 0.004 and 2.058 ± 0.034 Ma, and thus older than previously estimated. The new ages are consistent with a temporal overlap of two species of early Homo that can be distinguished by their facial morphology. Further, our results show that in this time interval, hominins occurred throughout the wet-dry climate cycles, supporting the hypothesis that the lacustrine Turkana Basin was a refugium during regionally dry periods. By establishing the observed first appearance datum of a marine-derived stingray in UBU deposits at 2.058 ± 0.034 Ma, we show that at this time the Turkana Basin was hydrographically connected to the Indian Ocean, facilitating dispersal of fauna between these areas. From a biogeographical perspective, we propose that the Indian Ocean

  15. All projects related to Kenya | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    Topic: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Region: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. Transitional Justice and the Role of Truth and ...

  16. Early Pliocene anuran fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the first fossil record for the African burrowing frog Hemisus (Neobatrachia: Hemisotidae).

    Delfino, Massimo

    2017-07-13

    Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet. because of poor preservation or non congruence with the relatively few African extant taxa whose osteology is known in detail. The Hemisus material represents the first fossil record for Hemisotidae, an endemic African family of peculiar, head-first burrowing frogs, whose sister taxon relationships indicate a divergence from brevicipitids in the Late Cretaceous or early Paleocene. The ecological requirements of extant H. marmoratus suggest that the Kanapoi area surrounding the fluvial and deltaic settings, from where the fossil remains of vertebrates were buried, was likely a grassland or relatively dry, open low tree-shrub savanna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The lithosphere of the East African Rift and Plateau (Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) : insights from Integrated 3-D density modelling

    Woldetinsae, Girma

    2005-01-01

    The area encompassing the Eastern branch of the East African Rift System (EARS: Afar-Ethiopia-Turkana) and associated plateaux is an ideal region to investigate extension and magmatism associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Ethiopia covers an important part of the EARS. It contains the major section of the ca. 5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield and the Mozambique Belt. A compilation of over 45000 onshore and offshore gravity stati...

  18. The Potential of Tohono O'odham Z16 Maize as a New Breeding Germplasm for semi-Arid Areas of South East Kenya

    Shisanya, C.A.; Hornetz, B.

    1999-01-01

    The major objective of these study was to evaluate the potential of new maize variety in semi-arid environment of Southeast Kenya, with a view to making recommendations on its suitability for incorporation into the maize breeding programme at the national Dryland Farming Research Centre (NDFRC), Katumani, Kenya. Aspects like Phenology, crop water requirements and the diurnal leaf water potential (LWP) of Tohono O'odham Z16 (TOZ16) maize (Zea mays L.) were compared to those of locally grown varieties, Makueni DLC (MDLC) and Katumani composite B, (KCB) under two water treatments: irrigated and unirrigated, to determine its suitability for the maize breeding programme. The experiment design was randomized complete block design with four replicates per treatment. under irrigation treatment, TOZ16 attained physiological maturity within 70 days compared to 95 and 110 days for MDLC and KCB, respectively. under unirrigated treatment, leaf rolling was more pronounced with TOZ16 as compared to MDLC and KBC. These has been shown to be evidence for plant adaption to water stress and results in a marked reduction in effective leaf area thus reducing radiation load. MDLC and KBC are required ca. 41% and 52% more water than TOZ16, respectively. Under irrigation treatment, TOZ16 maize attained a minimum leaf water potential (LWP) of approximately-2.38 MPa compared to -2.85 and -3.00 MPa attained by MDLC and KBC respectively. The susceptibility of these latter two maize varieties to water stress was evidence by the fact that they quickly increased their hydrature level early in the morning compared to TOZ16 which tend to maintain its lower level for relatively longer period of time. Following these study it is strongly that TOZ16 be incorporated into the maize-breeding programme at NDFRC. The study shows that TOZ16 possesses physiological characteristics that could be positively exploited by plant breeders in the search of drought adapted maize cultivars for the semi-arid areas of

  19. Zinc isotope ratios of bones and teeth as new dietary indicators: results from a modern food web (Koobi Fora, Kenya)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Beasley, Melanie; Schoeninger, Margaret; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    In order to explore the possibilities of using zinc (Zn) stable isotope ratios as dietary indicators, we report here on the measurements of the ratio of stable isotopes of zinc (66Zn/64Zn, expressed here as δ66Zn) in bioapatite (bone and dental enamel) of animals from a modern food web in the Koobi Fora region of the Turkana Basin in Kenya. We demonstrate that δ66Zn values in both bone and enamel allow a clear distinction between carnivores and herbivores from this food web. Differences were also observed between browsers and grazers as well as between carnivores that consumed bone (i.e. hyenas) compared to those that largely consume flesh (i.e. lions). We conclude that Zn isotope ratio measurements of bone and teeth are a new and promising dietary indicator.

  20. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    Région: Americas, Argentina, South America, Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Africa, Kenya, South of Sahara, Mexico, North and Central America, Southern Africa, Global. Programme: Emploi et ... Sujet: DIET, FOOD CROPS, CROP DIVERSIFICATION, MICRONUTRIENTS, BIODIVERSITY. Région: Africa, Benin, South ...

  1. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    Sujet: Biodiversity, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY. Région: Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South ... Région: Americas, Argentina, South America, Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Africa, Kenya, South of Sahara, Mexico, North and Central America, Southern Africa, Global. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement ...

  2. Archives: Kenya Veterinarian

    Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Journal Home > Archives: Kenya Veterinarian. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 21 of 21 Items. 2014. Vol 38, No ...

  3. IDRC in Kenya

    Kenya has long been the economic hub of East Africa. IDRC opened a regional office in the country's capital, Nairobi, in 1975. This office now oversees our activities in countries across sub-Saharan Africa and plays an important role in identifying strategic areas of support in Kenya. Poverty remains widespread in the.

  4. Kenya Veterinarian: Submissions

    The Kenya Veterinarian is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Kenya Veterinary Association on research and clinical practice of veterinary medicine. The main ... Three copies must be provided in English, double-spaced, Times New Roman throughout on one side A4 paper with a wide margin all round.

  5. Assessing the potential hydrological impact of the Gibe III Dam on Lake Turkana water level using multi-source satellite data

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2012-10-01

    Lake Turkana, the largest desert lake in the world, is fed by ungauged or poorly gauged river systems. To meet the demand of electricity in the East African region, Ethiopia is currently building the Gibe III hydroelectric dam on the Omo River, which supplies more than 80% of the inflows to Lake Turkana. On completion, the Gibe III dam will be the tallest dam in Africa with a height of 241 m. However, the nature of interactions and potential impacts of regulated inflows to Lake Turkana are not well understood due to its remote location and unavailability of reliable in situ datasets. In this study, we used 12 yr (1998-2009) of existing multi-source satellite and model-assimilated global weather data. We used a calibrated multi-source satellite data-driven water balance model for Lake Turkana that takes into account model routed runoff, lake/reservoir evapotranspiration, direct rain on lakes/reservoirs and releases from the dam to compute lake water levels. The model evaluates the impact of the Gibe III dam using three different approaches - a historical approach, a rainfall based approach, and a statistical approach to generate rainfall-runoff scenarios. All the approaches provided comparable and consistent results. Model results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam on Lake Turkana would vary with the magnitude and distribution of rainfall post-dam commencement. On average, the reservoir would take up to 8-10 months, after commencement, to reach a minimum operation level of 201 m depth of water. During the dam filling period, the lake level would drop up to 1-2 m (95% confidence) compared to the lake level modeled without the dam. The lake level variability caused by regulated inflows after the dam commissioning were found to be within the natural variability of the lake of 4.8 m. Moreover, modeling results indicated that the hydrological impact of the Gibe III dam would depend on the initial lake level at the time of dam commencement. Areas

  6. Ecological Change in the Turkana Basin Over the Past 4 Ma

    Cerling, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    The fossil record of C4 grasses is extremely sparse so that much speculation on their importance through time is based solely on stable carbon isotope ratios in derived materials, such as tooth enamel, soil carbonate, leaf waxes. I present stable isotope analyses of modern large mammals from different 25 sites in East and Central Africa, primarily from national parks and national reserves, that show patterns of dietary strategies in environments ranging from closed forests to open grasslands. This uses isotope values from each locality for each taxon to estimate diet, rather to assume a constant diet for a taxon across all localities. Each taxon can be represented on the dietary continuum from pure C3-browsing to pure C4-grazing. Fossil assemblages from the Turkana basin are evaluated in the same way over the past 4.2 million years. The fossil record shows patterns with no modern analogue in the national parks and reserves of East and Central Africa for significant periods of time. Significant patterns shifts occur between 2.0 and 2.5 million years ago, and also in the past million years. These dietary changes at the community level occur during the evolutionary backdrop of C4 grasses, which have gone from less than 1% Net Primary Productivity (NPP) at 10 million years ago to more than 50% NPP in the tropics today. It is likely that C4 plants have also undergone important changes in nutrient content, defense against herbivory, fire adaptation, and propagation strategies in the past 10 million years; such issues could signficantly influence dietary strategies at the community level through time.

  7. A morphometric and taxonomic assessment of a hominine femur from the lower member, Koobi Fora, Lake Turkana.

    Kennedy, G E

    1983-08-01

    Previous research by this author and others has indicated that species-level differentiation within the hominines can be detected in the femur. The femoral shaft of Homo erectus, relative to H. sapiens, demonstrates small anteroposterior diameters, a distally placed point of minimum shaft breadth, and increased cortical thickness resulting in medullary stenosis. This pattern has been identified in specimens from Choukoutien (I and IV), Olduvai (OH 28), and Lake Turkana (KNM ER 737). Findings reported here include anatomical comparisons and univariate and multivariate analyses based on external and internal shaft morphology. These results indicate that the femoral pattern characteristic of H. erectus can be identified in KNM ER 1481a recovered at Lake Turkana below the KBS tuff. Recent dating of that tuff indicates a date of ca. 1.8 mya, thereby yielding a date for KNM ER 1481a of congruent to 2.0 mya. Known H. erectus femora extend over a broad span and yet show very low variability; this pronounced stasis would strongly suggest that, at least in this portion of the postcranium, H. erectus was in a period of profound morphological stasis.

  8. Orthopaedic training in Kenya

    Background: Orthopaedic training in Kenya, like in other East, central and .... quite a number of good facilities that would train an ... provide a forum for exchange of ideas and training. (2,3) ... administrators purely interested in service provision,.

  9. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies ... experiences in trade in different regions of the world. Some studies ... To assess the relationship between domestic sugar retail prices and sugar sales in ...

  10. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    Le code barre ADN est un nouvel outil de recherche taxinomique. Date de début : 1 avril 2010. End Date: 1 octobre 2013. Sujet: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Région: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada.

  11. SANREM-CRSP Kenya Brochure

    Ongugo, Paul O.

    2007-01-01

    Brochure produced by Kenya research team to explain the SANREM project in Kenya. The brochure discusses the aim, objective, areas of coverage, current work and ways to learn more about the SANREM CRSP activities in Kenya. LTRA-1 (Decentralization Reforms and Property Rights)

  12. Paleogeographic variations of pedogenic carbonate delta13C values from Koobi Fora, Kenya: implications for floral compositions of Plio-Pleistocene hominin environments.

    Quinn, Rhonda L; Lepre, Christopher J; Wright, James D; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Plio-Pleistocene East African grassland expansion and faunal macroevolution, including that of our own lineage, are attributed to global climate change. To further understand environmental factors of early hominin evolution, we reconstruct the paleogeographic distribution of vegetation (C(3)-C(4) pathways) by stable carbon isotope (delta(13)C) analysis of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora region, northeast Lake Turkana Basin, Kenya. We analyzed 202 nodules (530 measurements) from ten paleontological/archaeological collecting areas spanning environments over a 50-km(2) area. We compared results across subregions in evolving fluviolacustrine depositional environments in the Koobi Fora Formation from 2.0-1.5 Ma, a stratigraphic interval that temporally brackets grassland ascendancy in East Africa. Significant differences in delta(13)C values between subregions are explained by paleogeographic controls on floral composition and distribution. Our results indicate grassland expansion between 2.0 and 1.75 Ma, coincident with major shifts in basin-wide sedimentation and hydrology. Hypotheses may be correct in linking Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution to environmental changes from global climate; however, based on our results, we interpret complexity from proximate forces that mitigated basin evolution. An approximately 2.5 Ma tectonic event in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya exerted strong effects on paleography in the Turkana Basin from 2.0-1.5 Ma, contributing to the shift from a closed, lacustrine basin to one dominated by open, fluvial conditions. We propose basin transformation decreased residence time for Omo River water and expanded subaerial floodplain landscapes, ultimately leading to reduced proportions of wooded floras and the establishment of habitats suitable for grassland communities.

  13. An analysis of the effects of temperatures and circulations on the strength of the low-level jet in the Turkana Channel in East Africa

    Hartman, Adam T.

    2018-05-01

    The Turkana Low-Level Jet (LLJ) was discovered in the early 1980s, yet there are still questions about the primary forcing mechanisms that drive and sustain the jet throughout the year. A few studies have addressed these questions, but most focus on numerical simulations of mechanical forcing mechanisms, such as orography, channeling flow, and monsoon background flow. No studies have shown the effects of thermal forcing from differential heating in the regions in and around the Turkana Channel. This paper uses National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data in order to analyze and find relationships between temperature gradients and the strength of the Turkana LLJ. In addition to temperature, potential temperature, divergence, wind magnitude, wind fields, and vertical motion are also examined. This analysis attempts to show that thermal forcing is one of the most important factors, if not the primary factor, in the initiation and maintenance of the jet and propose that more research and model simulations should be implemented to determine the contributions from thermal forcing.

  14. UROLITHIASIS IN NAIROBI, KENYA

    2010-10-01

    Oct 1, 2010 ... of Human Anatomy, Kenyatta University, P. O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Request ... Management: Fourty seven had laser or pneumatic lithotripsy while four had stone removal by .... for ureteroscopy in our resource poor setting and compares ... A. J., (Eds) Campbell's Urology.7th Ed Philadelphia:.

  15. The Swahilization of Kenya`s socio-political culture

    King`ei, Geoffrey Kitula

    2012-01-01

    Although it has spread mainly as a lingua franca, Kiswahili, Kenya`s national language, is increasingly becoming the language of intercultural communication. Most interestingly, Kiswahili is catching up as the medium of intra-group conversation in many rural up-country areas in Kenya. Not only do most Kenyan women wear lesos and kangas bearing Kiswahili proverbial sayings but the youth form different language communication almost invariably converse and interact through the medium of share or...

  16. Preparing for the Rollout of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP: A Vignette Survey to Identify Intended Sexual Behaviors among Women in Kenya and South Africa if Using PrEP.

    Amy Corneli

    Full Text Available Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in reducing HIV risk. One concern with introducing PrEP is whether users will engage in riskier sexual behaviors.We assessed the effect that PrEP may have on sexual risk behaviors by administering a survey to 799 women in Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Participants were asked about their sexual behavior intentions twice--once as if they were taking PrEP and once as if they were not taking PrEP--within four risk situations (vignettes. They responded using a 5-point ordinal scale. We used a series of linear mixed effects models with an unstructured residual covariance matrix to estimate the between- and within-subject differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior across the PrEP and non-PrEP contexts. We also calculated the total percentage of participants who reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP, by vignette.We found statistically significant differences in the mean likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior with the between-subject comparison (-0.17, p < 0.01 and with the within-subject comparison (-0.31, p < 0.001. Depending on the vignette, 27% to 40% of participants reported a greater likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior if taking PrEP than if not taking PrEP.Our findings indicate that modest increases in risky sexual behavior could occur with PrEP. Although responses from the majority of participants suggest they would not be more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior if they took PrEP, a substantial proportion might. Programs rolling out PrEP should be prepared to assist similar women in making informed choices about reducing their risk of HIV and about their sexual health beyond HIV prevention.

  17. Ufundishaji wa Fasihi ya Watoto katika Shule za Msingi Nchini Kenya

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  18. Air pollution in Kenya

    Karue, J.; Kinyua, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work will look into PM-10 particulate matter collected from Nairobi City, Kenya (metropolitan city) and the remote forest on Mount Kenya (Timau Hills 3,875 m) for background monitoring. Previous work was done along the roadside, where total suspended particulate matter was collected and zinc, lead, and bromine were identified as highly enriched elements. The nine elements analyzed by EDXRF were found to account for 20% of the total mass. In this work we hope to account for more mass by including AAS and ion chromatography in the analytical methods. Indoor (industrial) samples will also be collected using Personal Samplers with a PM-10 Cyclone Head. Receptor modelling will be done taking into account the indoor data. Variations of the data with seasons and changes in weather will be analyzed. The background data will be used to assess long-range transfer of particulate. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig

  19. NODC Report: Kenya

    2000-01-01

    The Kenya National Oceanographic Data Center (KeNODC) began operating in January 1997. The first set of activities included identification of staff members and setting up of office infrastructure. Amidst all this, the Center conducted the first planning mission in March 1997 to set out priorities for action. Foremost were the duty allocations among the four staff members designated by KMFRI. This has been followed by a familiarization of a number of IODE policy documents and manuals for op...

  20. Marked og produkter i Kenya

    Roos, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    Et forskningsprojekt med dansk deltagelse undersøger, hvordan masseproduktion af insekter kan etableres i Kenya og bidrage med fødevarer til mennesker og protein til husdyrfoder.......Et forskningsprojekt med dansk deltagelse undersøger, hvordan masseproduktion af insekter kan etableres i Kenya og bidrage med fødevarer til mennesker og protein til husdyrfoder....

  1. Field testing mobile digital storytelling software in rural Kenya

    Reitmaier, T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available stories stands to benefit members of rural and often impoverished African communities. Informed by ethnography and technology experiments involving storytelling, we implemented a method to involve users in a rural community in South Africa?s Eastern... storytelling, rural, HCI4D, probe, evaluation 1. INTRODUCTION Storytelling practices in rural African communities such as Adiedo, Kenya are localized by rich oral traditions [4]. In such places people like to tell stories and they do so in a variety...

  2. Pleistocene fossil woods from the Okote Member, site FwJj 14 in the Ileret region, Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya.

    Bamford, Marion K

    2017-11-01

    On the eastern side of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya are extensive Plio-Pleistocene deposits containing a rich diversity of fossil mammals, hominins and flora within the radiometrically dated tuffaceous, lacustrine and fluvial sequence. Reconstruction of this landscape and paleoenvironment are part of an ongoing multinational and multidisciplinary human evolution project in the eastern Turkana Basin. Today there is a huge lake in the Rift Valley but it has fluctuated since the early Pliocene. Silicified wood is fairly common in some areas of the Koobi Fora Formation. One such site is FwJj 14E, alongside one of the tributaries of the Ileret River. Hominin hand and arm bones have been excavated from here in the Okote Member and dated at 1.56-1.36 Ma. The fossils are associated with hominin and bovid footprints. Sixty of the over 100 wood specimens collected have been sectioned and studied. In general the woods have large vessels and an average vulnerability index of 40, which implies a mesic megathermal environment with no water stress. Taxonomically the woods belong to large African families: Caesalpiniaceae (Didelotia idae), Combretaceae (Anogeissus sp.), Putranjivaceae (Euphorbiaceae; Drypetes sp.), Lamiaceae (cf Premna sp.), Malvaceae (Heritiera sp.) and Sapindaceae (Sapindoxylon sp.). Most of these taxa do not occur in the area today because now it is much drier and the local vegetation is predominantly Acacia-Commiphora-Salvadora shrubland. The reconstruction of the paleovegetation supports the interpretation from the fauna, namely, a tall riverine forest with shady refuge trees, possibly some edible fruits, and wooded grassland and more open bushland in the vicinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Er Kenya klar til valget?

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den 17. januar begyndte nomineringen af Kenyas kommende politikere. De politikere, der efter valget skal lede Østafrikas regionale stormagt frem til 2018. Nomineringsprocessen gav flere forskellige interessante indikationer på Kenyas ”demokratiske parathed” og dermed måske også en god fornemmelse...... af, hvordan det kommende valg i marts vil forløbe. Dette brief kommer med et bud på, om Kenya kan gøre sig fri af de mørke skygger fra valget i 2007....

  4. South of Sahara | Page 49 | IDRC - International Development ...

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - Phase I. Language French. Read more about Kenya-Malawi Health Research Capacity Strengthening Initiative - Inception Phase. Language English.

  5. South of Sahara | Page 75 | IDRC - International Development ...

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Suivre et contrer la circulation de l'information erronée dans le delta du fleuve Tana, au Kenya. Language French. Read more about Mapping and Countering the Flow of Misinformation in the Tana Delta of Kenya. Language English. Read more about TanZamBo Capacity ...

  6. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 27 (2004)

    Testing for Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Milk From Consumers and Market Agents in Kenya Using Milk Ring Test and Enzyme .... Differential production of immune parameters by mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to ...

  7. Equatorial paleomagnetic time-averaged field results from 0-5 Ma lavas from Kenya and the latitudinal variation of angular dispersion

    Opdyke, Neil D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Huang, Kainian; Foster, David A.; Patel, J. P.

    2010-05-01

    Lavas of Pliocene-Pleistocene age were sampled in two regions in Kenya: Mount Kenya on the equator and the Loiyangalani region, east of Lake Turkana, at about 3°N. We sampled 100 sites distributed around the Mount Kenya Massif and to the northeast along the Nyambini Range. The equator bisects Mount Kenya, and all sites were sampled within 40' of the equator. Thirty-two sites were sampled in the Loiyangalani area, making a total of 132 sites. Many sites from the Mount Kenya study were severely affected by lightning; however, after progressive AF demagnetization 69 sites yielded directions with α95 equal to or less than 10°. Normal polarity sites dominate (N = 58 and a mean of declination (dec) = 1.2°, inclination (inc) = -0.7°, and α95 = 3.6°) with only 11 reverse polarity sites (mean of dec = 182.3°, inc = 0.6°, and α95 = 7.2°); no transitional directions were identified. Inverting the reverse sites yields a combined mean direction of dec = l.4°, inc = -0.7°, and α95 = 3.2°. This result is not significantly different from what is expected from the geocentric axial dipole for the mean locality (dec = 0° and inc = 0°); a quadrupole component was not resolved. The samples from the Loiyangalani region were not seriously affected by lightning, and all 32 sites gave satisfactory data with α95 less than 10° (17 reverse sites, dec = 183.4°, inc = 0.8°, and α95 = 6.7°; 15 normal sites, dec = 358.6°, inc = -1.1°, and α95 = 4.7°); after inverting the reverse sites the combined mean was dec = 1.1°, inc = -1.0°, and α95 = 4.1°. Altogether, we had a total of 101 successful sites. A virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) was calculated from each site mean; the VGP dispersion is low, with Sb = 10.9° for Mount Kenya and 9.8° for the Loiyangalani region. This dispersion agrees with updated Model G of McElhinny and McFadden (1997) and model TK03 of Tauxe and Kent (2004) that was tuned to the compilation of McElhinny and McFadden (1997) but disagrees with the

  8. Energy Diversity and Development in Kenya

    2013-01-01

    support for renewable energy development can be seen in Kenya’s efforts to obtain outside funding. Kenya is one of six countries selected by Climate...for Kenya (Nairobi: Repub- lic of Kenya, 2011). 17 Ministry of Energy, Feed-in Tariffs Policy on Wind, Biomass, Small-Hydro, Geothermal, Biogas and

  9. kenya : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    Sujet: DISEASE TRANSMISSION, TRAINING PROGRAMMES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, IMMUNOLOGY, HIV, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, Capacity building, Gender. Région: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Santé des mères et des enfants. Financement total : CA$ 41,236.00.

  10. Kenya : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    Date de début : 10 mars 2010. End Date: 27 mars 2014. Sujet: HORTICULTURE, FOOD STANDARDS, EXPORTS, COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS. Région: Kenya, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 306,300.00. Stimulation de débats sur la croissance économique et la ...

  11. First report of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and maize (corn) lethal necrosis in Kenya

    In September 2011, high incidence of a new maize (Zea mays L.) disease was reported at lower elevations (1900 masl) in the Longisa division of Bomet County, Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. Later the disease was noted in Bomet Central division, spreading into the neighboring Chepalungu and Narok South...

  12. New insights on water level variability for Lake Turkana for the past 15 ka and at 150 ka from relict beaches

    Forman, S. L.; Wright, D.

    2015-12-01

    Relict beaches adjacent to Lake Turkana provide a record of water level variability for the Late Quaternary. This study focused on deciphering the geomorphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy and 14C chronology of strand plain sequences in the Kalokol and Lothagam areas. Nine >30 m oscillations in water level were documented between ca. 15 and 4 ka. The earliest oscillation between ca. 14.5 and 13 ka is not well constrained with water level to at least 70 m above the present surface and subsequently fell to at least 50 m. Lake level increased to ~ 90 m between ca. 11.2 and 10.4 ka, post Younger Dryas cooling. Water level fell by >30 m by 10.2 ka, with another potential rise at ca. 8.5 ka to >70 m above current level. Lake level regressed by > 40 m at 8.2 ka coincident with cooling in the equatorial Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Two major >70 m lake level oscillations centered at 6.6 and 5.2 ka may reflect enhanced convection with warmer sea surface temperatures in the Western Indian Ocean. The end of the African Humid Period occurred from ca. 8.0 to 4.5 ka and was characterized by variable lake level (± > 40 m), rather than one monotonic fall in water level. This lake level variability reflects a complex response to variations in the extent and intensity of the East and West African Monsoons near geographic and topographic limits within the catchment of Lake Turkana. Also, for this closed lake basin excess and deficits in water input are amplified with a cascading lake effect in the East Rift Valley and through the Chew Bahir Basin. The final regression from a high stand of > 90 m began at. 5.2 ka and water level was below 20 m by 4.5 ka; and for the remainder of the Holocene. This sustained low stand is associated with weakening of the West African Monsoon, a shift of the mean position of Congo Air Boundary west of the Lake Turkana catchment and with meter-scale variability in lake level linked to Walker circulation across the Indian Ocean. A surprising observation is

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in Kenya

    Benson Kinyanjui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenya has a disproportionately high rate of road traffic accidents each year, many of them resulting in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs. A review of articles written on issues pertaining to the medical treatment of people with TBI in the past 15 years in Kenya indicates a significantly high incidence of TBIs and a high mortality rate. This article reviews the available literature as a first step in exploring the status of rehabilitation of Kenyans with cognitive impairments and other disabilities resulting from TBIs. From this preliminary review, it is apparent that despite TBI being a pervasive public health problem in Kenya, it has not received due attention in the public and private sectors as evidenced by a serious lack of post-acute rehabilitation services for people with TBIs. Implications for this lack of services are discussed and recommendations are made for potential approaches to this problem.

  14. Supporting 'Young Carers' in Kenya

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, C.; Onyango, V.

    2013-01-01

    , avoiding engagement with support strategies that could be seen as support of child labour. To challenge this view, and move from policy paralysis to action, we present a study from western Kenya that explores community perceptions of children's work and caregiving as well as opportunities for support....... The study draws on 17 community group conversations and 10 individual interviews, involving 283 members of a Luo community in the Bondo District of western Kenya. We provide a detailed account of how integral children's work is to household survival in the context of poverty, HIV and AIDS as well...

  15. Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross ...

    USER

    Changing Face of Family Planning Funding in Kenya: A Cross-. Sectional Survey of ... Keywords: Contraception, Expenditure, Budget, Decision-making. Résumé. A mesure ... increasingly receiving attention, including in. Kenya17. In Kenya ...

  16. Running Head: Education in Kenya | Emenyonu | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    Running Head: Education in Kenya. ... Modern Kenya has been steadily evolving since 1963 when the country attained independence. ... refining traditional values and incorporating them in the goals and objectives of Kenya's modern system ...

  17. The geomorphology of Southeast Kenya

    Oosterom, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    A geomorphological map of an area of 66 500 km 2 in the southeastern part of Kenya has been prepared. In the littoral zone eight major terrace levels occurring between the present shore and approximately 160 m +MSL have been described. Analysis of radiometric datings and

  18. Urban farmers in Nakuru, Kenya

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.

    2000-01-01

    The present report contains the result of a general survey, carried out in June-July 1999, on farming practices performed by the inhabitants of Nakuru town, Kenya. The two major objectives of the survey were: 1) to collect basic data on farming by the Nakuru townspeople and 2) to provide the

  19. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  20. Kenya sõdurid tungisid Somaaliasse

    2011-01-01

    Kenya sõjaväelased tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse, et tabada mässulisi, kes on viimastel nädalatel korraldanud Kenyas mitmeid inimrööve. Kenya väed tungisid Lõuna-Somaaliasse päev pärast seda, kui Nairobi kuulutas sõja Al-Qaedaga seostatud äärmusrühmitusele Shabaab

  1. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Kenya

    Ndirangu, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that relies on the use of nuclear technology in the diagnosis and treatment (therapy) of diseases. Nuclear medicine uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body, tissue or cell. This uptake is then imaged by the use of detectors mounted in gamma cameras or PET (positron emission tomography) devices.. Unlike other radiation applications for medical use, nuclear medicine uses open (unsealed) sources of radiation. In a country with an estimated population of 48 million in 2017, Kenya has only two (2) nuclear medicine facilities (units). Being a relatively new medical discipline in Kenya, several measures have been taken by the clinical nuclear medicine team to create awareness at various levels

  2. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Mutiso, Kavulani [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nairobi (Kenya); Sconfienza, Luca Maria [University of Milan, Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Milan (Italy); IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Unit of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Monu, Johnny [University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  3. Musculoskeletal imaging insight 2015: Kenya

    Stevens, Kathryn J.; Mutiso, Kavulani; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Monu, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 6 years the International Skeletal Society (ISS) outreach programs have become popular amongst the various radiology organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. So much so that that the ISS outreach is now routinely expected to participate in many of the international radiology conferences in that part of the world. The organizational planning for an outreach visit to Kenya took place over a 3-year period. Eventually a double-headed event; the seventh and eighth sub-Saharan outreach efforts were organized in Nairobi and in Mombasa, Kenya. The Nairobi outreach was an educational course on musculoskeletal imaging at the University of Nairobi and the Aga Khan University in Nairobi from 26 to 28 May 2015. The Mombasa outreach was organized in collaboration with the African Society of Radiology (ASR) at their annual meeting in Mombasa from 30 May to 2 June 2015. (orig.)

  4. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  5. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Kenya

    Ndrirangu, T.T.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that relies on the use of nuclear technology in the diagnosis and treatment (therapy) of diseases. Nuclear medicine uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body, tissue or cell. Unlike other radiation applications for medical use, nuclear medicine uses open (unsealed) sources of radiation. The tracer is introduced into the body of the patient through several routes (oral, intravenous, percutaneous, intradermally, inhalation, intracapsular etc) and s/he becomes the source of radiation. Early diagnosis of diseases coupled with associated timely therapeutic intervention will lead to better prognosis. In a country with an estimated population of 42 million in 2017, Kenya has only two (2) nuclear medicine facilities (units) that is Kenyatta National Hospital - Public facility and Aga Khan University Hospital which is a Private facility. Being a relatively new medical discipline in Kenya, several measures have been taken by the clinical nuclear medicine team to create awareness at various levels. Kenya does not manufacture radiopharmaceuticals. We therefore have to import them from abroad and this makes them quite expensive, and the process demanding. There is no local training in nuclear medicine and staff have to be sent abroad for training, making this quite expensive and cumbersome and the IAEA has been complimenting in this area. With concerted effort by all stakeholders at the individual, national and international level, it is possible for Kenya to effectively sustain clinical nuclear medicine service not only as a diagnostic tool in many disease entities, but also play an increasingly important role in therapy

  6. Becoming a teacher at teacher training colleges in Kenya

    Dahl, Kari

    Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya.......Paper presented at International Conference "Health Education and Teacher Training in Kenya" at Sarova Stanley Hotel 8. December 2010, Nairobi, Kenya....

  7. Large scale pantelleritic ash flow eruptions during the Late Miocene in central Kenya and evidence for significant environmental impact

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Gorp, van W.; MacDonald, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the area south-east of Mount Kenya, four previously unrecorded peralkaline rhyolitic (pantelleritic) ash flow tuffs have been located. These predominantly greyish welded and non-welded tuffs form up to 12 m thick units, which are sometimes characterized by a basal vitrophyre. The four flow units

  8. Development research in Kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    Kenya's 2002 general election, replacing a notoriously corrupt regime with a coalition government committed to reform, was seen as a landmark event in the country's history. IDRC, active in Kenya for some 30 years by then, reacted quickly with a package of projects expressly designed to advance and take advantage of ...

  9. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    2010-12-09

    Tree 1 PPK Peoples Party of Kenya Trumpet 1 NLP National Labour Party Bull (Ndume) 1 KADDU Kenya African Democratic Development Union Fruit Basket...15%, Asian, European, and Arab 1% Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, indigenous beliefs 10%, Muslim 10%, other 2% Languages: English

  10. Health education and teacher education in Kenya

    Dahl, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Forskningsseminar på Kenyatta University, Nairobi, key note om sundhedsundervisning og læreruddannelse i Kenya, baseret på post.doc.-forskningsprojekt 2009-2011.......Forskningsseminar på Kenyatta University, Nairobi, key note om sundhedsundervisning og læreruddannelse i Kenya, baseret på post.doc.-forskningsprojekt 2009-2011....

  11. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    Sujet: ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING, RESEARCH RESULTS, PERIODICALS. Région: South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa. Financement total : CA$ 128,000.00. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits exploitants aux marchés dynamiques. Projet. Les marchés ...

  12. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  13. Biogeography of the Shimba Hills ecosystem herpetofauna in Kenya.

    Malonza, Patrick K; Mulwa, David M; Nyamache, Joash O; Jones, Georgina

    2018-03-18

    The Shimba Hills ecosystem along the south coast of Kenya is a key East African biodiversity hotspot. Historically, it is biogeographically assignable to the East African coastal biome. We examined the current Shimba Hills herpetofauna and their zoogeographical affinities to the coastal forests and nearby Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspots. The key studied sites included the Shimba Hills National Reserve, forest reserves, Kaya forests, and adjacent private land. Data on herpetofaunal richness were obtained from recent field surveys, literature, and specimens held at the National Museums of Kenya, Herpetology Section Collection, Nairobi. The Makadara, Mwele, and Longo-Mwagandi forests within the Shimba Hills National Reserve hosted the highest number of unique and rare species. Generally, the forest reserves and Kaya forests were important refuges for forest-associated species. On private land, Mukurumudzi Dam riparian areas were the best amphibian habitat and were host to three IUCN (Red List) Endangered-EN amphibian species, namely, Boulengerula changamwensis, Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus, and Afrixalus sylvaticus, as well as one snake species Elapsoidea nigra. Using herpetofauna as zoogeographic indicators, the Shimba Hills were determined to be at a crossroads between the coastal forests (13 endemic species) and the Eastern Arc Mountains (seven endemic species). Most of the Eastern Arc Mountains endemic species were from recent records, and thus more are likely to be found in the future. This 'hybrid' species richness pattern is attributable to the hilly topography of the Shimba Hills and their proximity to the Indian Ocean. This has contributed to the Shimba Hills being the richest herpetofauna area in Kenya, with a total of 89 and 36 reptile and amphibian species, respectively. Because of its unique zoogeography, the Shimba Hills ecosystem is undoubtedly a key biodiversity area for conservation investment.

  14. south africa : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    Sujet: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Région: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Mexico, Canada. Programme: Agriculture et sécurité alimentaire. Financement total : CA$ 2,158,187.00. Vulnérabilité et adaptation face aux ...

  15. Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya

    Adhiambo, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out and improve on strategy used in the Marketing of Insurance Products in Kenya; Case of African Merchants Assurance Company Ltd (AMACO). AMACO is one of the 44 insurance firms in Kenya. Among others it is a local incorporated company, which makes a difference in that it is not one of the leading insurance firms in Kenya, which is held by such firms as British-American insurance company. The methodology used is quantitative, qualitative methods, interview ...

  16. Implementation of Participatory Forest Management in Kenya

    Thygesen, S. H.; Løber, Trine; Skensved, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of powers before and after the implementation of participatory forest management (PFM) in Kenya. The paper is a case study of the Karima forest in the Central Highlands of Kenya. The study relies primarily on 34 semi-structured interviews with key actors...... of the forest communities and weak downward accountability relations. Finally, it illustrates a planning process, which has weaknesses in participation and inclusiveness. Consequently, the paper suggests three areas for PFM policy reform in Kenya: (i) the role (powers) and function of CFAs; (ii) benefit sharing...

  17. Deployment of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility with the Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in Kenya

    Shadrack, Antoony; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear power program will inevitably generate radioactive wastes including low-and intermediate radioactive waste and spent fuel. These wastes are hazardous to human health and the environment and therefore, a reliable radioactive waste disposal facility becomes a necessity. This paper describes Kenya's basic plans for the disposal of radioactive wastes expected from the nuclear program. This plan is important as an initial implementation of a national Low to intermediate level wastes storage facility in Kenya. In Kenya, radioactive waste is generated from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry, education and research and development. Future radioactive waste is expected to arise from nuclear reactors, oil exploration, radioisotope and fuel production, and research reactors as shown in table 1. The best strategy is to store the LILW and spent fuel temporarily within reactor sites pending construction of a centralized interim storage facility or final disposal facility. The best philosophy is to introduce both repository and nuclear power programs concurrently. Research and development on volume reduction technology and conceptual design of disposal facility of LILW should be pursued. Safe management of radioactive waste is a national responsibility for sustainable generation of nuclear power. The republic of Kenya is set to become the second African nuclear power generation country after South Africa.

  18. (via/vili) in khwisero, western kenya

    2013-10-10

    Oct 10, 2013 ... KHWISERO, WESTERN KENYA: LESSON FROM THE FIELD AFFECTING POLICY AND PRACTICE. S. K. Ngichabe ... In SSA, cervical cancer affects mostly women in .... inaccessible to the lower socio-economic population.

  19. Situational Analysis of Leishmaniases Research in Kenya ...

    kemrilib

    leishmaniasis, as currently conducted in Kenya with sodium stibogluconate, is ... to intermittent drug exposure [80-83], the isolation of ... general, these vaccination protocols elicited ..... hybridization with non-radioactive probes. Parasitology ...

  20. The state of emergency care in the Republic of Kenya

    Benjamin Wachira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 580,000 km2 in size, the Republic of Kenya is as big as Botswana but only half the size of countries like South Africa, Mali, and Angola. Kenya is comprised of eight provinces: Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, and Western. The 2009 census revealed a population of over 38 million people, with a population density of approximately 66 persons per square kilometre. Majority of the population (68% lives in rural areas, as compared with the sub-Saharan African average of approximately 62%. With a gross domestic product (GDP per capita of US $1,600 in 2010, Kenya is considered a low-income country—with 50% of the population living below the poverty line. HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects the country’s mortality and morbidity. Although its prevalence is higher than the regional average at 6.3% for people ages 15–49 years, it is much lower than many other sub-Saharan African countries. In addition to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and diarrheal diseases are major killers. The burden of communicable diseases is high, with malaria as the leading cause of morbidity (30%, followed by respiratory diseases (24.5%. Malaria prevalence is 14%, and HIV prevalence is 7.4%, with a higher rate in women (8.5% compared to men (5.6%. The non-communicable disease burden is also on the rise with diabetes prevalence at 3.3%, a threefold increase over the last 10 years. Mental health issues and road traffic injuries are also on the rise. Thirteen percent of school-age children aged 13–15 years are active cigarette smokers. These put Kenya in the company of other low-income countries predicted by the World Health Organization (WHO to face the “double hump” burden of communicable and chronic disease over the next several decades.

  1. Innovation and Financial Inclusion in Kenya

    Omanga, Josphat; Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the role of financial innovation and mobile phone technologies to financial inclusion in Kenya. In order to do so, a case study on M-PESA is conducted, the leading mobile service of money transfers in Africa, which is offered by Safaricom. M-PESA services are cheap and easy...... suggests that M-PESA services can be considered a type of disruptive innovation that promotes financial inclusion and wealth growth in Kenya....

  2. A Practitioner’s Perspective on the Kenya I and Kenya II Cases before the ICC

    Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    On 10 September 2013 the International Criminal Court (ICC) began hearing a case against William Ruto, Deputy President of the Republic of Kenya, and Joshua Sang. The related case against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, was scheduled to begin in November 2013 but has since been

  3. A Public Lecture Series on Kenya Cities in the 21. Centuary Environment and Development in Kenya

    Obudho, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Issues of Development planning in Kenya have gained added importance over the last few years in view of the recent political events in the country which have indeed occupied a centre stage within the world community. Surprisingly, however, there has been little published on the problems, experiences, and approaches of spatial and urban development in Kenya from a comparative and comprehensive view. The present volume is intended to help bridge the gap by bringing together a number of original contributions on urbanization and planning Kenya covering an interdisciplinary perspective. The essential focus is on comparative historical analysis of the urbanization process in Kenya, the resulting limitations and problems of urban development, and consequent challenges and responses of development planning. The book Provides a frame work for understanding the nature of Kenya urbanism and urbanization, limitations on that urbanism and urbanization imposed by traditional notions and analytical approaches to it

  4. Healthcare priority setting in Kenya

    Bukachi, Salome A.; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Siso, Jared Maaka

    2014-01-01

    In resource-poor settings, the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) has been identified as an important advance in priority setting that helps to operationalize fair priority setting in specific contexts. The four conditions of A4R are backed by theory, not evidence, that conformance with them...... improves the priority setting decisions. This paper describes the healthcare priority setting processes in Malindi district, Kenya, prior to the implementation of A4R in 2008 and evaluates the process for its conformance with the conditions for A4R. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key...... players in the Malindi district health system and a review of key policy documents and national guidelines show that the priority setting process in the district relies heavily on guidelines from the national level, making it more of a vertical, top-down orientation. Multilateral and donor agencies...

  5. All projects related to kenya | IDRC - International Development ...

    Evaluating impacts of gender integration on agriculture and food security outcomes ... Kenya's agricultural labour force; however, gender inequalities often undermine their productivity and ... Region: Canada, Israel, Kenya, India, United States.

  6. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya

    K. N. Ogendo, Bsc, MPH, Living goods Nairobi, Kenya,Ministry of Health, Environmental Health ... led drive to set up pit latrines in rural kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable ... Development and Sustainable Development goals lay.

  7. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data

    okuku

    Keywords: Spatial data infrastructure, Kenya NSDI, development, .... calculated based on the value of the 16 indicators of SDI readiness (Table 1). .... instance, majority of the staff at Survey of Kenya; the National Mapping Agency are GIS and.

  8. Inequity in costs of seeking sexual and reproductive health services in India and Kenya.

    Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Lafort, Yves; Beksinska, Mags; Rambally, Letitia; Roy, Anuradha; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Ombidi, Wilkister; Gichangi, Peter; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2015-09-15

    This study aims to assess inequity in expenditure on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in India and Kenya. In addition, this analysis aims to measure the extent to which payments are catastrophic and to explore coping mechanisms used to finance health spending. Data for this study were collected as a part of the situational analysis for the "Diagonal Interventions to Fast Forward Enhanced Reproductive Health" (DIFFER) project, a multi-country project with fieldwork sites in three African sites; Mombasa (Kenya), Durban (South Africa) and Tete (Mozambique), and Mysore in India. Information on access to SRH services, the direct costs of seeking care and a range of socio-economic variables were obtained through structured exit interviews with female SRH service users in Mysore (India) and Mombasa (Kenya) (n = 250). The costs of seeking care were analysed by household income quintile (as a measure of socio-economic status). The Kakwani index and quintile ratios are used as measures of inequitable spending. Catastrophic spending on SRH services was calculated using the threshold of 10% of total household income. The results showed that spending on SRH services was highly regressive in both sites, with lower income households spending a higher percentage of their income on seeking care, compared to households with a higher income. Spending on SRH as a percentage of household income ranged from 0.02 to 6.2% and 0.03-7.5% in India and Kenya, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the proportion of spending on SRH services across income quintiles in both settings. In India, the poorest households spent two times, and in Kenya ten times, more on seeking care than the least poor households. The most common coping mechanisms in India and Kenya were "receiving [money] from partner or household members" (69%) and "using own savings or regular income" (44%), respectively. Highly regressive spending on SRH services highlights the heavier

  9. Kenya | Page 30 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    Accueil · Sud du Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Langue English. Read more about Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis.

  10. Solar home systems in Kenya: unlocking consumer finance

    Simm, Ian; Haq, Amir; Widge, V.

    2000-01-01

    The article reports on the International Finance Corporation's support of projects in Kenya where the funding is being used to enlarge the solar lending of a network of financial organisations which can reach a large number of rural Kenyans. The demand, advantages and potential of photovoltaics and solar systems generally in Kenya are discussed. Kenya's fragile financial institutions are mentioned

  11. Resistance of the predacious mite, euseius kenyae (acari ...

    This study was carried out to assess whether the predacious phytoseiid mite, Euseius kenyae (Swirski and Ragusa), commonly found in major coffee growing regions in Kenya has developed resistance to Chlorpyrifos. Mite populations were collected from coffee farms harbouring E. kenyae and where Chlorpyrifos or other ...

  12. A Seasonal Air Transport Climatology for Kenya

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H.; Piketh, S.; Helas, G.

    1998-01-01

    A climatology of air transport to and from Kenya has been developed using kinematic trajectory modeling. Significant months for trajectory analysis have been determined from a classification of synoptic circulation fields. Five-point back and forward trajectory clusters to and from Kenya reveal that the transport corridors to Kenya are clearly bounded and well defined. Air reaching the country originates mainly from the Saharan region and northwestern Indian Ocean of the Arabian Sea in the northern hemisphere and from the Madagascan region of the Indian Ocean in the southern hemisphere. Transport from each of these source regions show distinctive annual cycles related to the northeasterly Asian monsoon and the southeasterly trade wind maximum over Kenya in May. The Saharan transport in the lower troposphere is at a maximum when the subtropical high over northern Africa is strongly developed in the boreal winter. Air reaching Kenya between 700 and 500 hPa is mainly from Sahara and northwest India Ocean flows in the months of January and March, which gives way to southwest Indian Ocean flow in May and November. In contrast, air reaching Kenya at 400 hPa is mainly from southwest Indian Ocean in January and March, which is replaced by Saharan transport in May and November. Transport of air from Kenya is invariant, both spatially and temporally, in the tropical easterlies to the Congo Basin and Atlantic Ocean in comparison to the transport to the country. Recirculation of air has also been observed, but on a limited and often local scale and not to the extent reported in southern Africa.

  13. Debt financing structure within the state-owned corporations in Kenya

    Micah Odhiambo Nyamita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current public sector financial management reforms agenda within the state-owned corporations in Kenya aimed at integrating and aligning their performance to vision 2030, has not yet achieved the traction required. This study, therefore, examined the different types of debt financing strategies applied by the various state-owned corporations in Kenya, in comparison to those applied by state-owned corporations from developed and developing economies. The study specifically revealed that private debt financing, through bank loans and payables is commonly used amongst Kenyan state-owned corporations. While, most state-owned corporations from developed and developing economies, such as in America, Europe, Asia and South Africa, use public debt financing, through financial securities, traded in both domestic and international capital markets.

  14. Kenya

    Cathy Egan

    popular support, the new government looked well-placed to initiate thorough and last- ing reform — a ... to assemble a mix of projects suited for early action. ... approval process lacked a degree of rigour or substantive risk analysis, the diversity.

  15. Socio-ecological Niches for Minimum Tillage and Crop-residue Retention in Continuous Maize Cropping Systems in Smallholder Farms of Central Kenya

    Guto, S.N.; Pypers, P.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil fertility gradients develop on smallholder farms due to preferential allocation of inputs. A multi-location on-farm trial was conducted in Meru South, Central Kenya whose overall aim was to test minimum tillage and crop-residue retention practices in socio-ecological niches across heterogeneous

  16. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya.

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  17. Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya

    Ali, Zipporah

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable...

  18. Provision of Education to the "Hard to Reach" amidst Discontinuity in Nomadic Communities in Kenya

    Ayiro, Laban P.; Sang, James K.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores why nomadic children in the counties of Turkana and West Pokot are left behind in the primary education process despite free primary education (FPE), and considers the variables that contribute to high dropout rates, low enrollment, poor attendance, and unsatisfactory academic achievement with a view of bringing out possible…

  19. Digital Radiography in Kenya today

    Omenta, E.N.

    2006-01-01

    Its nearly one year and a half since digital imaging/radiography was introduced in Kenya mainly in Nairobi. the technology is becoming an increasingly effective and acceptable modality of producing radiographs from the traditional conventional radiography in use to date. the digital radiography offers numerous advantages that have been noted for the short period over the conventional way. For instance radiographs are produced in real time (less than 3 minutes), by so doing the technology has eliminated the wait for the processing period. the radiation exposure to the patient under the radiological examination is reduced as much as 90% from the traditional conventional film taking. The cost, labour and record-keeping necessary to maintain a chemical processor and darkroom operations are as well eliminated. The cost of purchasing and disposing of film wastes/darkroom processing chemicals, which are environmentally hazardous, also become unnecessary.digital radiography technology makes the digital images comparable to other images on the screen at that instant making both the patient and the clinician easily access images when needed. digital receptors have also replaced the cassette containing intensifying screens and film that is used in conventional radiography

  20. Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya)

    Lepre, C.J.; Quinn, R.L.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Swisher III, C.S.; Feibel, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution

  1. The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve, South Coast, Kenya | Ogoma ...

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Narratives of Tanzanian Albinos in Kenya and South-Africa

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Social and Government Studies, ... A network of syndicates hunting for albinos, .... tracing of PWA's residences and locations, through friends and later through head teachers and principals in secondary schools, key informants in shopping ...

  3. Poor Pregnancy Outcomes among Adolecents in South Nyanza ...

    In this paper, we examine factor associated with poor pregnancy outcomes among teenagers in South Nyanza region of Kenya. The analysis is based on a recent WHO funded study on Adolescent safe motherhood in the region, which involved a survey of 1247 adolescents aged 12-19 and in-depth interviews with 39 of the ...

  4. South of Sahara | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development ...

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Open Architecture, Standards and Information Systems (OASIS) for Healthcare in Africa. Language English. Read more about Gestion intégrée de l'eau, de l'assainissement et des déchets solides dans de petits centres urbains autour du lac Victoria (Kenya). Language ...

  5. South of Sahara | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development ...

    South of Sahara. Sud du Sahara. Read more about Interaction entre zones urbaines et rurales et changements climatiques (Nigeria). Language French. Read more about Compliance with Private Food Safety Standards among Smallholders in Kenya. Language English. Read more about Respect des normes de salubrité ...

  6. SUICIDE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA: CAUSES ...

    Suicide is against the law in Kenya. The existence of suicide phenomena in the society is a major issue that needs to be looked into with a lot of concern, and creating effective preventative measure is a matter of urgency. Knowledge concerning suicide is largely limited. The majority of people in the society treat suicide ...

  7. Enhancing biomass energy use in Kenya

    Banwell, P.S.; Harriss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper argues that in Kenya, environmental and economic factors will favour the continued use of biomass as a primary fuel for household an institutional cooking for the next decade or longer. The paper describes several successful projects which have improved the efficiency of urban charcoal use and of rural woodfuel use. The Kenya Ceramic Jiko, a more efficient version of the traditional charcoal stove, is a model programme sustained by free market competition, artisans participation, and widespread public acceptance. The Maendeleo stove is the best example of a successful rural woodstove project. The performance attributes of the stove, and its promotion through Kenya's largest women's organization, have resulted int he distribution of an estimated 26,000 Maendeleo stoves. Rural stove efficiency will become important as the cash-based economy expands in those areas. Agroforestry will also be critical to an enhanced use of biomass energy in Kenya. Experience to date shows that successful agroforestry programmes will have to be appropriate to local conditions and crops. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  9. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    Amitabh@1234

    Kenya is a boon for a field linguist but misinformed politicians and education policy ... to date. Language realities have been observed in this study from a temporal lens of .... The knowledge of a language of international currency is not a curse, and it is ... But the colonial mind-sets of the people worked against the growth.

  10. The Kenya Coast in national perspective

    Meilink, H.A.; Hoorweg, J.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Obudho, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter provides a concise review of the process of regional development and the concomitant growing regional inequalities in Kenya. By focusing on Coast Province, it aims to verify statements which stress that the province has gradually moved to a marginal position in Kenyan society. Examining

  11. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  12. (Boda boda) riders in Bungoma Town, Kenya

    Even stationary bikes can cause trauma to the blood supply to the penis, resulting in Erectile Dysfunction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of long term bicycle riding on erectile function among bicycle taxi (bodaboda) riders in Bungoma town. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study. Setting: Bungoma County, Kenya.

  13. Assessment of productive employment policies in Kenya

    Kamau, P.; Kinyanjui, B.; Akinyoade, A.; Mukoko, C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses productive employment policies in Kenya. The main objective being to reflect on the current state of affairs, identify constraints and gaps among these policies. The paper is mainly based on desk-top research which reviews available literature and policy papers on

  14. Congenital malformations among newborns in Kenya | Muga ...

    Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the patterns and incidence of congenital malformations at birth in newborns in Kenya and thereby analyze associated predisposing factors in their mothers. This single cross-sectional ... followed by malformations of the central nervous system (28.6%). Polydactyl was the most ...

  15. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  16. Information seeking and communication behaviour of Kenya ...

    The paper discusses the findings of a study which sought insight into engineer's information seeking and communication behaviour at Kenya Railways Corporation. The study employed a user centered approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which were system centered. It focused broadly and ...

  17. Sharing Special Education Strategies in Rural Kenya

    Shamberger, Cynthia T.

    2014-01-01

    As a former special education teacher at the elementary, middle and high school levels, many unique and complex learning situations were encountered. The author, who was a junior faculty member on her initial trip to Kenya, experienced a very challenging, yet rewarding, learning opportunity with teachers gathered in a community located in rural…

  18. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    B.W. Wachira*

    2013-12-01

    This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000–2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  19. Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya.

    Ali, Zipporah

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, cancers as a disease group rank third as a cause of death after infectious and cardiovascular diseases. It is estimated that the annual incidence of cancer is about 37,000 new cases with an annual mortality of 28,000 cases (Kenya National Cancer Control Strategy 2010). The incidence of non-communicable diseases accounts for more than 50% of total hospital admissions and over 55% of hospital deaths (Kenya National Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Non Communicable Diseases 2015-2020). The prevalence of HIV is 6.8 (KIAS 2014). Most of these patients will benefit from palliative care services, hence the need to integrate palliative care services in the public healthcare system. The process of integrating palliative care in public hospitals involved advocacy both at the national level and at the institutional level, training of healthcare professionals, and setting up services within the hospitals that we worked with. Technical support was provided to each individual institution as needed. Eleven provincial hospitals across the country have now integrated palliative care services (Palliative Care Units) and are now centres of excellence. Over 220 healthcare providers have been trained, and approximately, over 30,000 patients have benefited from these services. Oral morphine is now available in the hospital palliative care units. As a success of the pilot project, Kenya Hospices and Palliative Care Association (KEHPCA) is now working with the Ministry of Health Kenya to integrate palliative care services in 30 other county hospitals across the country, thus ensuring more availability and access to more patients. Other developing countries can learn from Kenya's successful experience.

  20. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M

    1993-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000 li...... indicates that over the past decade the surveyed area has greatly reduced neonatal and NNT mortality. Possible strategies for accelerated NNT control have been identified by the survey....

  1. Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya

    2010-07-01

    Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya Allen L. Richards, Ju Jiang, Sylvia Omulo, Ryan Dare, Khalif Abdirah~a~, P:bdile Ali, Shanaaz K...infection with obligate intracellular rickettsiae , which are transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors (e.g., lice, fleas, ticks, and mites... Rickettsiae are associated with arthropods for a least a part of their life cycle and are passed to other arthropods by transovarial transmission or

  2. Procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya.

    Kyololo, O'Brien Munyao; Stevens, Bonnie; Gastaldo, Denise; Gisore, Peter

    2014-11-01

    To determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures and procedural pain management practices in neonatal units in Kenya. Cross-sectional survey. Level I and level II neonatal units in Kenya. Ninety-five term and preterm neonates from seven neonatal units. Medical records of neonates admitted for at least 24 h were reviewed to determine the nature and frequency of painful procedures performed in the 24 h period preceding data collection (6:00 to 6:00) as well as the pain management interventions (eg, morphine, breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, containment, non-nutritive sucking) that accompanied each procedure. Neonates experienced a total of 404 painful procedures over a 24 h period (mean=4.3, SD 2.0; range 1-12); 270 tissue-damaging (mean=2.85, SD 1.1; range 1-6) and 134 non-tissue-damaging procedures (mean=1.41, SD 1.2; range 0-6). Peripheral cannula insertion (27%) and intramuscular injections (22%) were the most common painful procedures. Ventilated neonates and neonates admitted in level II neonatal units had a higher number of painful procedures than those admitted in level I units (mean 4.76 vs 2.96). Only one procedure had a pain intensity score documented; and none had been performed with any form of analgesia. Neonates in Kenya were exposed to numerous tissue-damaging and non-tissue-damaging procedures without any form of analgesia. Our findings suggest that education is needed on how to assess and manage procedural pain in neonatal units in Kenya. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. A sanitation technology demonstration centre to enhance decision making in South Africa

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available International Conference, Nakuru, Kenya, 2013 DELIVERING WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE SERVICES IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT A sanitation technology demonstration centre to enhance decision making in South Africa L.C. Duncker, South Africa... for Water Services in South Africa (SFWS) defines basic sanitation services as the provision of a basic sanitation facility, the sustainable operation of this facility and the communication of good sanitation, hygiene and related practices. However...

  4. Steps towards Nuclear Power Regulator in Kenya

    Gatebe, E.

    2017-01-01

    The first radiation protection law in Kenya was passed in 1948 and it was referred to as the''Radiological Protection Ordinance -1948''. The ordinance established the Radiological Protection Board (RPB). The current law is the Radiation Protection Act, Cap 243.that was amended in 2014. To regulate the peaceful use of atomic energy through provision of nuclear safety and security culture for the protection of persons, society and the environment against radiation. The Establishment of Nuclear Electricity Project Committee in 2010 is Predecessor of KNEB (2012). Whose mandate among others: Assist in coming up with a legalisation and regulatory framework for support of nuclear power. Human resource development for support of Nuclear Power programme. The country hosted Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) and Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) Missions in 2015 and 2016 respectively to addressed legal and regulatory framework. A Multi-agency cooperation has resulted to the Nuclear Regulatory Bill. The Government has been sponsoring 15 students annually for post graduate studies in Nuclear Science at University of Nairobi. IAEA has been a great partner in the development of Kenya's nuclear regulatory regime; It is expected that in the next two years, Kenya will have the core capacity for regulating a nuclear power program. The Bill has taken into consideration suggestions and recommendation of the INIR & IRRS Missions, and comments from the office of Legal Affairs-IAEA and local stakeholders

  5. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in Kenya

    Shadrack, Anthony Kiti

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This project is based on studies of radiation doses received by radiation workers from sample of radiation facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, using TLD badges. Radiation doses received by workers during performance of a few types of radiological exposures and application of sealed and unsealed radionuclides have been measured at a number of x ray departments (diagnostic radiology), radiotherapy and nuclear medicine and training and research. Radiation dose measurements were based on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) techniques, using the laboratory facilities of the National Radiation Protection Laboratory (NRPL) at KNH, in Nairobi, Kenya. Evaluation of doses from TLD badges exposed to X-rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Nuclear medicine recorded the highest dose as compared to Radiotherapy, Training and research and Diagnostic radiology. Age and gender have no relation with dose absorption. Yearly average dose seems to have been reducing from 2002 to 2005, representing an improvement in radiation protection. Overall, the results show that radiation workers in Kenya are working under safe environments since the doses received are within acceptable limits of radiation protection. The data presented in this research provides a database, which should serve as a useful reference for comparison with similar studies in the future. (author)

  6. Diet of Theropithecus from 4 to 1 Ma in Kenya.

    Cerling, Thure E; Chritz, Kendra L; Jablonski, Nina G; Leakey, Meave G; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2013-06-25

    Theropithecus was a common large-bodied primate that co-occurred with hominins in many Plio-Pleistocene deposits in East and South Africa. Stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel from T. brumpti (4.0-2.5 Ma) and T. oswaldi (2.0-1.0 Ma) in Kenya show that the earliest Theropithecus at 4 Ma had a diet dominated by C4 resources. Progressively, this genus increased the proportion of C4-derived resources in its diet and by 1.0 Ma, had a diet that was nearly 100% C4-derived. It is likely that this diet was comprised of grasses or sedges; stable isotopes cannot, by themselves, give an indication of the relative importance of leaves, seeds, or underground storage organs to the diet of this primate. Theropithecus throughout the 4- to 1-Ma time range has a diet that is more C4-based than contemporaneous hominins of the genera Australopithecus, Kenyanthropus, and Homo; however, Theropithecus and Paranthropus have similar proportions of C4-based resources in their respective diets.

  7. Institutional Support : Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA-Kenya ...

    IEA-Kenya is an independent organization that uses research to inform its policy advocacy work, relying on a small team of in-house staff and a large set of external ... This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will allow IEA-Kenya to strengthen its governance structure, managerial capacity, research skills and staff ...

  8. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya ...

    Objectives: Despite the availability of many species of amaranth in Kenya, there is inadequate information on their nutritional diversity and how they can be best used in mitigation of malnutrition. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the nutritional diversity of five leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya. Methodology ...

  9. Kenya | Page 57 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    The devastating drought that gripped much of East Africa in 2009 was one of the worst in living memory. But in the arid and semi-arid lands of Northern Kenya, drought is no stranger. Since 1993, Kenya has declared six national disasters because of drought. Read more about Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in ...

  10. Employment Challenges in Kenya | Omolo | African Journal of ...

    Kenya's employment challenge is manifested in terms of a 12.7 per cent open unemployment rate, 21 per cent underemployment and a working poor estimated at 46 per cent of the employed. ... To reverse the trend in slow employment growth, Kenya must focus on ensuring high and sustained economic growth. In addition ...

  11. Nutritional and health challenges of pastoralist populations in Kenya ...

    This paper examines nutritional and health challenges facing pastoralists who inhabit fragile rangelands and are one of the most nutritionally vulnerable population groups in Kenya. The review is based on a synthesis of literature on pastoralist food security, nutrition and health status and livelihoods in Kenya's rangelands.

  12. Food consumption and food prices in Kenya : a review

    Meilink, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Abr. sum.: This report reviews government policies concerning consumer food prices in Kenya. In respect of official food pricing, Kenya can be said to pursue a 'cheap food' policy. It was found that most foods falling under price control measures showed less price increases than the average rate of

  13. Characterization of Armillaria isolates from tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya

    Otieno, W.; Perez Sierra, A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Armillaria is a primary root rot pathogen of tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya. The main species presently described in this country are A. mellea and A. heimii. A survey covering fourteen districts of Kenya was carried out and forty-seven isolates of Armillaria collected. Cultural morphology,

  14. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya ...

    Background: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district ...

  15. Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Kenya Forests Act 2005

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Forest in Kenya is an important source of livelihood, environmental services, and economic growth. In November of 2005 the Government of Kenya (GOK) ratified a new Forests Act. The act contains many innovative provisions to correct previous shortcomings, including a strong emphasis on partnerships, the engagement of local communities, and promotion of private investment. The purpose of the...

  16. Kenya | Page 38 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    Accueil · Sud du Sahara. Kenya. Kenya. Read more about Effects of Radio on Perception of Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa. Langue English. Read more about Effets des émissions radiophoniques sur la perception de la biotechnologie agricole en Afrique. Langue French. Read more about Les droits des ...

  17. Human Rhinovirus B and C Genomes from Rural Coastal Kenya

    Agoti, Charles N.; Kiyuka, Patience K.; Kamau, Everlyn; Munywoki, Patrick K.; Bett, Anne; van der Hoek, Lia; Kellam, Paul; Nokes, D. James; Cotten, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Primer-independent agnostic deep sequencing was used to generate three human rhinovirus (HRV) B genomes and one HRV C genome from samples collected in a household respiratory survey in rural coastal Kenya. The study provides the first rhinovirus genomes from Kenya and will help improve the

  18. Documenting human rights violations against sex workers in Kenya.

    Lukera, MaryFrances

    2007-12-01

    The human rights of sex workers are an increasing concern for prominent women's rights organizations such as the Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA). As FIDA-Kenya's MaryFrances Lukera writes, documenting human rights abuses against sex workers is critical to responding to Kenya's HIV epidemic.

  19. the inception of a doctors union in Kenya

    raoul

    2012-01-25

    Jan 25, 2012 ... of the Kenyan health sector and improve health services in Kenya. ... that up to three quarters of doctors will have left the government payroll three .... dispensation in Kenya which brought along a strong bill of rights, giving ...

  20. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  1. Kiswahili kama Nyenzo ya Maendeleo Nchini Kenya | Mukuthuria ...

    Ukuzaji na uendelezaji wa Kiswahili kama lugha ya taifa nchini Kenya ni lengo la taifa ambalo bado halijapewa kipaumbele kinachostahili. Hata hivyo, tangu Kenya ilipojinyakulia uhuru, matumizi ya lugha hii yamepevuka kinyume na matarajio ya wengi, kiasi kwamba, kwa sasa, mchango wake katika kufanikisha ...

  2. Kenya | Page 46 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Kenya. Read more about Dynamique du marché du travail en temps de crise - le cas de l'Afrique. Language French. Read more about Labour Market Dynamics in Times of Crisis: Evidence from Africa. Language English. Read more about Participation des jeunes femmes à la vie politique au Kenya. Language French.

  3. Kenya | Page 63 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Kenya. Read more about Initiative de renforcement des capacités de recherche en santé au Kenya et au Malawi - phase de démarrage. Language French. Read more about Understanding Obstacles to Peace in the Great Lakes Region : Actors, Interests and Strategies. Language English. Read more about Comprendre les ...

  4. Situational Analysis of Leishmaniases Research in Kenya | Tinui ...

    Since 1980, the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) has spearheaded research on leishmaniases research in Kenya focusing on various aspects including characterization of Leishmania species, biology, and ecology of sand fly vectors, development of biological strategiesF for sand fly control, identification of ...

  5. Prosopis pods as human food, with special reference to Kenya ...

    The first documented introduction of Prosopis in Kenya was in 1973, since when it has spread widely, adversely affecting natural habitats, rangelands and cultivated areas. P. juliflora is the most common naturalised species in Kenya, but P. pallida also occurs. In contrast to their undesirable effects as invasive weeds, many ...

  6. ability in Large Scale Land Acquisitions in Kenya

    Corey Piccioni

    Kenya's national planning strategy, Vision 2030. Agri- culture, natural resource exploitation, and infrastruc- ... sitions due to high levels of poverty and unclear or in- secure land tenure rights in Kenya. Inadequate social ... lease to a private company over the expansive Yala. Swamp to undertake large-scale irrigation farming.

  7. Accounting Systems in Small and Micro Enterprises in Kenya ...

    For a long time in Kenya, the practices and principles of accounting have been viewed to be for use by corporate and other formally structured organizations. This paper seeks to investigate what accounting means to small and micro traders in Kenya, by reviewing the practices and principles they use in running their ...

  8. Towards a Practical Proposal for Multilingualism in Education in Kenya

    Oduor, Jane A. N.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes multilingualism in education, where indigenous languages are used alongside English as the media of instruction in schools to eventually promote their use in Kenya. It begins by stating Kenya's language policy in education. It then states the responses given by some primary and secondary school teachers who were interviewed…

  9. ÉTUDE DE CAS – Kenya : Paludisme et agriculture au Kenya ...

    11 janv. 2011 ... ... au Kenya, des chercheurs du Centre international de recherche sur la .... Les membres de l'équipe ont amorcé leur collaboration par la définition des ... Mutero est, à bon droit, chargé de la coordination de SIMA, qui loge au ...

  10. Les parlements du peuple au Kenya

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Despite the adoption of a new constitution in 2010, the post-election violence surrounding the flawed 2007 General Elections have fuelled on-going debates in Kenya about a state of political crisis and fragile democracy. Comparing two street parliaments from Eldoret and Nairobi in the context...... of electoral failure and constitutional reform, this paper investigates dynamics of political participation from below. The street parliaments form arenas for oral debates where speakers and participants collectively engage in the intentional shaping of spaces of speech. Inspired by the work of Karin Barber...

  11. Kenya – world leader in mobile payments

    Eugeniusz Gostomski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been a real revolution in the Kenyan banking associated with the development of mobile telephony and mobile payments in the reporting country. In 2007, the largest mobile operator in Kenya launched M-Pesa system which is an innovative solution that enables its users to make mobile payments. M-Pesa system has become a big success. Nowadays, the Kenya’s inhabitants have access to other basic financial services while using their mobile phones. In particular, they can make savings and access loan products.

  12. Impacts on Agriculture and forestry: The Impacts of climate change on Water resources in the Upper Tana River Basin in Kenya

    Mutua, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The drainage system in Kenya is determined and influenced by the Great Rift Valley, running approximately from north to south. From the flanks of Rift Valley, surface water flows westwards towards Lake Victoria, and eastwards to the Indian Ocean, with the Rift Valley itself having an internal drainage system. The drainage system in Kenya is divided into five basins primarily on account of the topography and drainage of the country's major perennial rivers. The national annual water volume potential is estimated at 20,000 million m 3 , consisting of surface and groundwater with a projected annual water demand of 3,874 and 5, 817 million m 3 , respectively for the years 2000 and 2010. this implies that the demand by the year 2010 will be less than 30% of the total water resources potential. The quality and quantity of the groundwater in Kenya is extremely variable in both space and time. The latter is influenced by the geological formation in which the aquifer occurs.The major problem with ground water exploration is salinity and fluoride levels. The fluoride concentration generally exceeds the WHO drinking water guides of 1.5 mg/l in many areas. This is one of the major factors limiting groundwater utilisation in Kenya for drinking. The current trend is, however, that of extensively using the ground water for irrigation/livestock and industrial purposes

  13. The Commercial Profitability of Growing Hybrid Eucalyptus Clones in The Coast Province, Kenya

    Balozi Bekuta Kirongo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current high demand for timber, fuelwood, and building poles and the realization that tree growing may pay dividends in the short and long term, many farmers are planting trees on their farms. Farmers are increasingly planting eucalyptus partly due to the fast growth rates of the hybrid clones as well as the opportunity to earn money within a short time. In this paper we report on the profitability of growing eucalyptus hybrid clones in the coastal region, Kenya. Tree growth and cost data was sourced from farmers in Malindi, Kilifi, and Msambweni. Market information was sourced from hardwares in North and South Coast while tree growth models were used to provide average tree sizes at various ages. Results showed that a farmer could make a net income of upto Kshs.500,000.00 (USD6,250 in 5 years. Farmers in the South Coast (Kwale and Msambweni spent more on transport than their counterparts in the North Coast (near Gede-KEFRI. This, added to the fact that trees in the South Coast (Msambweni grew less compared to those in North Coast meant that farmers in the south made less profits.

  14. A biomass energy flow chart for Kenya

    Senelwa, K.A.; Hall, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    Terrestrial (above ground) biomass production and its utilization in Kenya was analyzed for the 1980s. Total biomass energy production was estimated at 2574 x 10 6 GJ per year, most of which (86.7%) is produced on land classified as agricultural. Of the total production, agriculture and forrestry operations resulted in the harvesting of 1138 x 10 6 GJ (44.2% of total production), half of which (602 x 10 6 GJ) was harvested for use as fuel. Only 80 x 10 6 GJ was harvested for food and 63 x 10 6 GJ for industrial (agricultural and forestry) plus other miscellaneous purposes. About 85% of Kenya's energy is from biomass, with a per capita consumption of 18.6 GJ (0.44 toe, tonne oil equivalent) compared to less than 0.1 toe of commercial energy. Use of the biomass resource was found to be extensive involving bulk harvesting but with low utilization efficiencies; as a result the overall losses were quite high. Only 534 x 10 6 GJ (46.9% of harvested biomass) was useful energy. 480 x 10 6 GJ was left unused, as residues and dung, all which was either burnt or left to decompose in the fields. 124 x 10 6 GJ was lost during charcoal manufacture. Intensified use of the harvested biomass at higher efficiencies in order to minimize wastes would decrease the stress on the biomass resource base. (Author)

  15. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  16. Ethnopharmacological survey of Samburu district, Kenya

    Kaburia Humphrey F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical pharmacopoeia is confidently used in disease intervention and there is need for documentation and preservation of traditional medical knowledge to bolster the discovery of novel drugs. The objective of the present study was to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and their extinction threats in Samburu District, Kenya. Methods Field research was conducted in six divisions of Samburu District in Kenya. We randomly sampled 100 consented interviewees stratified by age, gender, occupation and level of education. We collected plant use data through semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus groups discussions. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were collected and deposited at University of Nairobi's botany herbarium. Results Data on plant use from the informants yielded 990 citations on 56 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 54 different animal and human diseases including; malaria, digestive disorders, respiratory syndromes and ectoparasites. Conclusion The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the study area for treatment of both human and veterinary diseases. The local population has high ethnobotanical knowledge and has adopted sound management conservation practices. The major threatening factors reported were anthropogenic and natural. Ethnomedical documentation and sustainable plant utilization can support drug discovery efforts in developing countries.

  17. Reproductive health issues in rural Western Kenya

    Ouma Peter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe reproductive health issues among pregnant women in a rural area of Kenya with a high coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and high prevalence of HIV (15%. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey among rural pregnant women in western Kenya. A medical, obstetric and reproductive history was obtained. Blood was obtained for a malaria smear and haemoglobin level, and stool was examined for geohelminths. Height and weight were measured. Results Of 673 participants, 87% were multigravidae and 50% were in their third trimester; 41% had started antenatal clinic visits at the time of interview and 69% reported ITN-use. Malaria parasitemia and anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusion In this rural area with a high HIV prevalence, the reported use of condoms before pregnancy was extremely low. Pregnancy health was not optimal with a high prevalence of malaria, geohelminth infections, anaemia and underweight. Chances of losing a child after birth were high. Multiple interventions are needed to improve reproductive health in this area.

  18. Explaining bioenergy: representations of jatropha in Kenya before and after disappointing results.

    Hunsberger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to multiply quickly throughout the global South. However, many jatropha initiatives failed to thrive and ultimately collapsed. This paper investigates how actors involved with jatropha in Kenya explained their visions of bioenergy at two points in time. In 2009, when many activities were beginning, I interviewed small-scale farmers, NGO staff, researchers, donors, government officials and members of the private sector about their expectations of jatropha as an energy crop. In late 2013, after jatropha activities in the country had dwindled, I re-interviewed many of the same individuals about their current views and their explanations of the events that had transpired since the initial fieldwork. Synthesizing these two sets of representations provides insight into how biofuel projects have been constructed, negotiated and renegotiated. Early hopes for jatropha rested on the belief that it could achieve many goals simultaneously, but when it failed to meet expectations proponents chose between two strategies: (1) 'unbundling' these goals to pursue separately the various aspirations they had initially attached to jatropha; and (2) seeking a new means of achieving the same bundle of goals. Understanding the choices made by jatropha actors in Kenya contributes to knowledge on the political ecology of biofuels and responsible innovation, and may signal patterns to come as even greater expectations are attached to multi-use feedstocks in pursuit of the bioeconomy.

  19. Key Copyright Issues in African Distance Education: A South African Case Study

    Ncube, Caroline B.

    2011-01-01

    This report draws primarily on the results of the recently concluded African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project, which investigated copyright and access to learning materials in face-to-face, distance education (DE), and dual-mode tertiary educational institutions in Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Senegal, South Africa,…

  20. ÉTUDE DE CAS – Kenya : Paludisme et agriculture au Kenya ...

    11 janv. 2011 ... Dans le miroitement du chaud soleil de midi, il reste plutôt à l'ombre d'un arbre à discuter du plus grave problème de santé qui frappe son village : le ... au Kenya, des chercheurs du Centre international de recherche sur la physiologie des insectes et l'écologie (ICIPE) et de l'Institut international de gestion ...

  1. Suggestions for the Improvement of Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Kenya

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya was started in 1990 following the 1979 Three Mile Island and the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plants accidents. The main purpose was to measure the radioactivity of foodstuffs imported from oversees and to carry out environmental radiation monitoring of soil, rock, water and air sample to check for contamination. Through environmental radiation monitoring, the Food and Environmental Monitoring Section (FEM) of the Kenya Radiation Protection Board (RPB) works to protect the public and environment from hazards associated with ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper was to highlight suggestions for the improvement of environmental radiation monitoring in Kenya with respect to protecting the public and the environment against undue radiation risk by ensuring that potential exposures are kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The suggestions for improvement will serve as a guideline for the strengthening of environmental radiation monitoring program in Kenya

  2. THE REPRISAL ATTACKS BY AL-SHABAAB AGAINST KENYA

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incursion of Kenya Defence Forces (KDF into Somalia was met by a series of threats from the Al-Shabaab that it would increase the attacks against Kenya if the troops were not withdrawn. The capture of Kismayu by KDF has weakened the nerve of Al-Shabaab but has not eliminated the imminent danger of a substantive terror attack. Since the incursion by KDF, Kenya has succumbed to a sequence of grenade and Improvised Explosive Devices attacks, roadside bombs, landmines and raids by fighters using small arms and light weapons and Rocket Propelled Grenades against Kenyans mostly in North Eastern, Coastal and Nairobi counties, marking the resurgence of terrorism in the country. We argue that Kenya is more vulnerable to Al-Shabaab terrorists attack than before the KDF incursion by citing the frequencies of reprisal attacks from October 2011 to January 2013. Hence, our troops should be withdrawn and deployed within our boundary.

  3. risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya ...

    risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya. ... A community based cross-sectional study was done in Mombasa Old Town area, whereby males ... The study unveiled that physical exercise had protective effect there by ...

  4. Computers for Schools Kenya at top of the class | IDRC ...

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... ... for Schools Kenya (CFSK) has won a coveted Africa-wide prize for its work. ... their expertise with groups looking to launch schemes elsewhere in Africa, ... can sink an ICT project, with the equipment falling into disrepair.

  5. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Lucy Kiama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  6. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Kenya

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    DISCIPLINARY ... Key Words: Foreign Direct Investments, Determinants, Inflows, Kenya. Introduction. Foreign Direct Investments .... Previous FDI inflows are also expected to influence current FDI inflows hence the need to include them in the model.

  7. Maize production in the central Kenya highlands using cattle ...

    Mo

    effective in the production of maize, compared to singular application of manures (5 t ha-1) and mineral fertilizer alone applied at rates below ...... A Handbook of Methods, 2nd. Edition. ... Manure management in the Kenya highlands: Practices.

  8. Improving Performance of Urban Areas in the Context of Kenya's ...

    IEA-Kenya intends to use an adapted version of the Municipal Performance Index that it ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  9. Detention in Kenya: risks for refugees and asylum seekers

    Lucy Kiama; Dennis Likule

    2013-01-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers detained in Kenya risk multiple convictions and protracted detention due to poor coordination between immigration officials, police and prison officers, coupled with lack of interpreters and low levels of knowledge among government officers.

  10. All projects related to kenya | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    The Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR), Kenya, is a 15-year-old ... increase work and educational achievement, and promote economic growth. ... Policy researchers have a key role to play in insuring that economic growth and ...

  11. All projects related to Kenya | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / Kenya ... Poor understanding of policy processes tends to reduce the value of research results and the ... Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display ...

  12. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... America, and the Caribbean with funds from the Government of Canada's fast-start financing. ... Water management and food security in vulnerable regions of China.

  13. All projects related to kenya | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    Una Hakika: Scaling Digital Solutions for Conflict Management in Kenya and Burma. Project. Reducing ... Total Funding: CA$ 699,474.00. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA). Project. Malawi has high ...

  14. Kenya develops tool to predict malaria | IDRC - International ...

    2010-10-13

    Oct 13, 2010 ... In collaboration with scientists from the Kenya Meteorological Department and the International Centre ... a scientific model that uses weather predictions, information about the reproductive mechanisms of ... Related articles ...

  15. Managing health risks on small dairy farms in Kenya | IDRC ...

    2016-06-20

    Jun 20, 2016 ... ... in Kenya found that eating vegetables contaminated with animal manure or human waste was more ... Research improves secure access to nutritious food ... Integrated pest management yields economic and health benefits.

  16. The challenges of human resources in mental health in Kenya

    Adele

    University of Nairobi, Kenya & Director, Africa Mental Health Foundation. (AMHF) ... The ratios decline further when psychiatrists available for clinical work in public facilities are ..... health problems at the level they are trained to handle medical.

  17. Management of Posterior Urethral Valves in Rural Kenya

    Management of Posterior Urethral Valves in Rural. Kenya .... Antwi S. Audit of Posterior Urethral Valve (PUV) in Children at ... Community Paediatrics Committee, Infectious. Diseases ... Effect of Circumcision on Risk of Urinary Tract. Infection in ...

  18. Leveraging technology to reduce health inequities in Kenya | IDRC ...

    2016-11-22

    Nov 22, 2016 ... The three-year study, titled Addressing health inequities in Kenya: Potential and ... through applied research capacity building in e-health (SEARCH) program. ... For example, MoH was involved from project formulation and ...

  19. Kenya | Page 55 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    maturing, drought-tolerant sorghum variety introduced in Kenya as a solution for farmers trying to adapt to changing climate conditions, turns out to have an unexpected drawback – wild birds are eating it just before it can be harvested.

  20. The Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria in Western Kenya

    Amon, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    ...) Plasmodium falciparum growth dynamics. The first two research topics were examined in a cohort of 248 males recruited from three highly endemic villages in western Kenya where severe malaria anemia is common...

  1. Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream ...

    Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream Flow Records. ... river gauge stations in the basin using the empirical orthogonal function analysis ... the study basin to be grouped into four homogenous hydrological zones that ...

  2. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    2015-05-21

    May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... and all counties have since committed funding toward scaling up successful technologies.

  3. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    jakakah

    2013-11-20

    Nov 20, 2013 ... ... Eastern Kenya where it is attractive to farmers because of its high economic value .... model (GLM) procedure of SAS (version 8.0; SAS Institute, Cary, ..... ammonium nitrate, and light intensity on the growth and nodulation of.

  4. Prospects for nuclear energy in Kenya under vision 2030

    Shadrack, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming energy poverty is one of Kenya's greatest challenges. Majority of Kenyans currently have no access to modern energy services and technologies. The challenge is thus to find appropriate and reliable solutions for providing energy sources for social and economic development. This study intends to focus on the development of nuclear power technology under the Kenya 2030 vision. This research project intends to investigate the advancement stages that Kenya has undertaken towards the implementation of nuclear power plants. A background review of nuclear energy in Kenya, and nuclear environments, have been reviewed and projected through the 2030 vision. The study will provide a useful starting point for policy makers interested in the state of the ecosystem

  5. Market Design for Rapid Demand Response - The Case of Kenya

    Kurt Nielsen; Tseganesh Wubale Tamirat

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been...

  6. Kenya; Ex Post Assessment of Longer-Term Program Engagement

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Ex Post Assessment (EPA) of Longer-Term Program Engagement paper for Kenya. This EPA focuses on 1993–2007, when Kenya was engaged in four successive IMF arrangements. Macroeconomic policy design was broadly appropriate, and implementation was generally sound. Growth slowed in the 1990s, but picked up after the 2002 elections, reflecting buoyant global conditions, structural reforms, and a surge of private capital inflows. Monetary policies were complic...

  7. What's up in Kenya? (Besides population).

    Yinger, N; Carty, W

    1987-11-01

    There are some indications that things are changing in Kenya, a nation with 1 of the world's fastest growing populations. Kenya's population will increase from the present 22.4 million to 44.8 million in the next 18 years if the 3.9% annual population growth rate remains constant. The government has renewed its campaign to increase awareness of the relationship between population growth and economic progress. There is not much progress to report as yet. Contraceptive prevalence is increasing slowly and now stands at 20% of eligible women. The government family planning program has been only minimally effective in recruiting or keeping family planning clients, but some smaller scale, private family planning programs demonstrate that Kenyans are receptive to family planning if they have access to appropriate and well-operated services. The key to the successful community-based program at Chogoria Hospital has been the use of the tradition of self-help. The original targets of the Family Planning Private Sector Project (FPPS), funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), have been met, and the new goals are for a total of 50 subprojects and 50,000 acceptors. The strategy of FPPS is to convince a company, plantation, para-state organization, private clinic, or school that its social and economic interests would be served by adopting a strong family planning program. The project then trains health clinic staff, and programs are designed to carry out the individual projects. Workers are educated about the economic and health benefits of smaller families and provided with appropriate information, contraceptives, and followup services. After 2 years of support, FPPS leaves the projects to the companies to operate and finance on a permanent basis. This approach works because Kenya has 1 of the largest and most socially responsible nongovernmental sectors in Africa. Project such as Chogoria and FPPS show that many Kenyans recognize the health and economic

  8. South Africa : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Kenya, Canada, South Africa, United States ... En Afrique du Sud, l'histoire marquée par les politiques d'apartheid, la pauvreté concentrée, la privation sociale et d'autres facteurs de risque en lien avec la violence dans certaines zones ont créé des conditions qui exacerbent ...

  9. Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya

    Maina, J. A. W.

    2004-01-01

    Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the

  10. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2012-01-01

    questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might...... and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome......This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...

  11. Morphostructural evidence for Recent/active extension in Central Tanzania beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift.

    Le Gall, B.; Rolet, J.; Gernigon, L.; Ebinger, C.; Gloaguen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The southern tip zone of the Kenya Rift on the eastern branch of the East African System is usually thought to occur in the so-called North Tanzanian Divergence. In this region, the narrow (50 km-wide) axial graben of southern Kenya splays southwards, via a major EW-trending volcanic lineament, into a 200 km-wide broad rifted zone with three separate arms of normal faulting and tilted fault blocks (Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani arms from W to E). Remote sensing analysis from Central Tanzania demonstrates that rift morphology exists over an area lying 400 km beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift. The most prominent rift structures are observed in the Kilombero region and consist of a 100 km-wide range of uplifted basement blocks fringed to the west by an E-facing half-graben inferred to reach depths of 6-8 km from aeromagnetic dataset. Physiographic features (fault scarps), and river drainage anomalies suggest that the present-day rift pattern in the Kilombero extensional province principally results from Recent/Neogene deformation. That assumption is also supported by the seismogenic character of a number of faults. The Kilombero half-graben is superimposed upon an earlier rift system, Karoo in age, which is totally overprinted and is only evidenced from its sedimentary infill. On the other hand, the nature and thickness of the inferred Neogene synrift section is still unknown. The Kilombero rifted zone is assumed to connect northwards into the central rift arm (Manyara) of the South Kenya Rift via a seismically active transverse fault zone that follows ductile fabrics within the Mozambican crystalline basement. The proposed rift model implies that incipient rifting propagates hroughout the cold and strong crust/lithosphere of Central Tanzania along Proterozoic (N140=B0E) basement weakness zones and earlier Karoo (NS)rift structures. A second belt of Recent-active linked fault/basins also extends further East from the Pangani rift arm to the offshore

  12. Evaluating the impact of social franchising on family planning use in Kenya

    Chakraborty, Nirali M.; Mbondo, Mwende; Wanderi, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, as in many low-income countries, the private sector is an important component of health service delivery and of providing access to preventive and curative health services. The Tunza Social Franchise Network, operated by Population Services Kenya, is Kenya?s largest network of private providers, comprising 329 clinics. Franchised clinics are only one source of family planning (FP), and this study seeks to understand whether access to a franchise increases the overall use ...

  13. Determinants of Secondary School Learners Performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan Sub County, Kenya

    Akaranga, Stephen; Simiyu, Patrick Cheben

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, Christian Religious Education is taught and examined by the Kenya National Examinations Council in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education at the end of the four years of Secondary Education cycle. The teaching of this subject in Secondary Schools ensures that learners are offered an opportunity to develop morally and spiritually…

  14. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Kenya (ver. 1.0)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    This harmonized data set has been derived from the Soil and Terrain Database for Kenya (KENSOTER), at scale 1:1M, compiled by the Kenya Soil Survey. The land surface of the Republic of Kenya - excluding lakes and towns - has been characterized using 397 unique SOTER units corresponding with 623 soil

  15. Community Environment and Education of Girls: The Case of Communities in Marsabit County, Kenya

    Muyaka, Jafred

    2018-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the role of the community in inhibiting girls' access and participation in formal education in Marsabit County-Kenya. As one of the marginalized counties in Kenya, the county had among the highest rate of illiteracy in Kenya with 68 per cent of residents with no formal education. The study involved a total of 128…

  16. Agriculture and development in Africa: the case of Kenya.

    Hyden, G

    1987-01-01

    The Government of Kenya has successfully developed macroeconomic policies that overcome constraints in the domestic and international environments and have a relatively well-functioning public sector. At present, the major challenge facing Kenya concerns the ability of the government to improve agricultural productivity given the weakness of its research services and peasant resistance to development. The response to the 1984 drought indicates that the Government of Kenya has the formal structures in place to deal with emergencies, yet the absence of reliable statistics on grain production, marketing, and on-farm storage led to serious miscalculations of the severity of the drought. Government of Kenya has been reluctant to experiment with institutional forms that reduce the opportunity for direct political control, especially over agricultural marketing. Privatization of the grain trade or the establishment of cooperatively owned local dairies has been proposed but rejected as too risky. New policies and concerted action, at both the government and community levels, tend to be in response to threat or hardship rather than a result of a dynamic strategy. Given this tendency to avoid experimentation with alternative political forms, socioeconomic development in Kenya may be limited in the years ahead.

  17. Réduction de la vulnérabilité des pasteurs du nord du Kenya | CRDI ...

    21 avr. 2011 ... Les recherches menées par l'ONG kényane Practical Action sur la vulnérabilité climatique des communautés pastorales des districts de Mandera et de Turkana, dans le nord du pays, jette de la lumière sur les conséquences biophysiques, sociales et économiques de la sécheresse dans ces régions ...

  18. Community radio and peace-building in Kenya

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    and interviews with community radio practitioners conducted between 2007 and 2013, and addresses the following questions: How do the community radio stations work during elections – times of increased tensions? How do they discourage ethnic violence in their community? How is participation used in order to bring......In December 2007, violence broke out after the disputed general election in Kenya, which resulted in the death of 1100 Kenyans and left more than 660,000 displaced. Reports criticised media, especially vernacular media, for inflating the violence by using hate speech and incitement to violence......, and suggested that Kenya would benefit from more community media to prevent history from repeating itself. This article focuses on how Koch FM and Pamoja FM, two community radio stations in Nairobi, Kenya, worked during the 2007–08 tumult and 2013 general election. The article is based on observations...

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among an urban population in Kenya.

    Kaduka, Lydia U; Kombe, Yeri; Kenya, Eucharia; Kuria, Elizabeth; Bore, John K; Bukania, Zipporah N; Mwangi, Moses

    2012-04-01

    Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiologic transition accompanied by increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) linked to urbanization and lifestyle modifications. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of CVD risk factors whose extent in Kenya remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and factors associated with its occurrence among an urban population in Kenya. This was a household cross-sectional survey comprising 539 adults (aged ≥18 years) living in Nairobi, drawn from 30 clusters across five socioeconomic classes. Measurements included waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAGs), fasting glucose, and blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 34.6% and was higher in women than in men (40.2 vs. 29%; P Kenya. The Kenyan government needs to create awareness, develop prevention strategies, and strengthen the health care system to accommodate screening and management of CVDs.

  20. Climate Change: Drought and Desertification in Kenya

    Awuor, V.O

    1997-01-01

    Drought is the failure of expected rain which leads to various effects in physical environment and human activities. Droughts are classified into three types namely; meteorological drought, agricultural and hydrological. Meteorological occurs when precipitation is below expectation, hydrological drought is experienced when water resources used for various activities reach levels when they become insufficient for those purposes. On the other hand agricultural drought occurs when when water supply for agriculture gets scarce and can defined as a moisture deficit that they cause un tolerable water stress during the growing season.In Kenya desertification is characterized by high temperatures that ranges between 14-31 degrees centigrade, with shallow soils of poor water holding capacity, the vegetation consists of variety of grasses, bushes and woodlands. Evergreen forest occurs along the major rivers such as Tana. Agricultural activities are usually concentrated in areas which are relatively wet like the highlands and flood plains with flood plains of permanent and seasonal seasonal rivers, surface storage areas and areas of seasonally -recharged shallow groundwater

  1. The Changing Concept of Adolescence in Kenya

    Pauline E. Ginsberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenya has at least 42 tribes. Each of these tribes had a unique way of marking the boundary between childhood and adulthood. It is like once pubertal signs emerged, the adolescent was said to be ready for adulthood. Traditional conceptualization of adolescence is not clearly defined, because while puberty marks the beginning of adolescence today, this was not the case in the traditional society. In the traditional society, when a girl started getting her menstrual periods, she was considered mature and arrangements for marriage were started. Modern rites of passage tend to come closer to how modern text books define adolescence. Most boys undertake circumcision after completing primary school, as they wait to join high school. Upon realizing that the hospital ceremony, unlike the traditional one, is lacking in complementary teachings, some Churches have organized teachings prior to circumcision. For girls, after circumcision for them was banned, alternative rites of passage (ARPs are being instituted, most often targeting urban girls, but these, too, raise questions: Do alternative rites of passage fulfill the same functions for modern society that traditional ceremonies once fulfilled? And, if they do so for girls, is there reason to believe that they ought to be developed for both genders? This paper examines self-reports of Kenyans spanning three generations regarding social roles and identity-seeking among those who did (primarily older men and did not (primarily younger men and women of all ages participate in traditional initiation ceremonies.

  2. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  3. Mangrove Forest Structure in Ungwana Bay, Kenya

    Bundotich, G; Karacchi, M.; Kairo, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Forest structure and natural regeneration was investigated in a 12-year-old Rhizophoria reforested stand at Gazi bay, Kenya. Within 10* 10m 2 plots, tree height and stem diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees of DBH>2.5 cm were determined. Stand volume was estimated by allometric equations derived from 50 harvested trees. The composition of juveniles was determined by within 5*5 m 2 inside the 10 * 10 plots. The stand density in Rhizophora plantation was 5,132 stems ha - 1, with a mean canopy height and stem diameter of 8.4+ 1 .1 m (range: 3.0 to 11.0 m) and 6.2+ 1 .87 cm (range: 2.5 to 12.4 cm) respectively. The stand volume was 103.80 m 3 ha-1 , stilt roots and branches combined was 43.09 m 3 ha-1 . Five species with juveniles; Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguieria gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Sonneretia alba and Xylocarpus granatum, were encountered with density of 4 886 juveniles ha-1 , with clustered distribution pattern

  4. Ecology, Impact and Potential Control of Solanum mauritianum in Kenya

    Hitimana, J; Mutiso, F.M; Kipiapi, J.L; Sang, F.K

    2007-01-01

    Solanum mauritianum is considered as an invasive plant with unknown economic value, fast growing and aggressive gap colonizer associated with forest disturbance. It belongs to the family of Solanaceae and can grow to over 20 m in height. It is native to Southern America and threatens integrity of several natural forest in Western kenya. Surveys were undertaken in 1998 and 2005/2006 at mount Elgon and Kakamega forests to evaluate the species ecology, spread and impact on other tree species. Total enumeration of seedlings, saplings and mature individuals was done over two 1-ha-blocks in each forest. The total number of 0.1 ha plots sampled was 20 per forest in relatively lightly and heavily disturbed areas. The results the species the species relative dominance in Mount Elgon increased from 1.0% in 1998 to 48.9% in 2006, out competing the regeneration of other trees. For example at Labaa, the once dominant Diospyros abyssinica with 36% relative dominance in 1998 declined to 1.9% in 2006. This threat to the health of ecosystems is not yet noticeable in Kakamega forest where the weed relative stocking was 0.2%. A strong positive correlation (n=5, r s =0.9, p=0.95) between S. mauritianum established and charcoal burning still exists in Mount Elgon. Thorough literature review and field observations confirmed about the characteristics of s. mauritanium as weed. Proliferation strategies and opportunities underlying the successive invasion by weed have been reviewed and elements of an integrated, multidisciplinary effort to control the adverse impact of the weed in forest and outside forests identified. Measures to check the invasiveness of these species include include reducing forest gaps, monitoring it's reproductive biology to eliminate mother trees before seeding, educative campaigns to prevent local communities from domesticating this species on their farms, research programme on S. mauritianum to understand causes of it's competitive advantage over others and search

  5. Elided Populations: A Baseline Survey on Human Trafficking in Kenya

    Owiso, Michael

    2017-01-01

    -regional, as well as inter-regional trafficking, is available. This study seeks to build synergy in the counter-trafficking efforts in Kenya. In so doing it aims to in the overall identify gaps in combating and responding to human trafficking and offer programmatic recommendations/suggestions particularly for IRC......Trafficking in persons is a crime. It is gaining momentum in the continent and particularly in Kenya and also attracting the attention of actors who are working to combat it. This focus shows the multiplicity of actors working together to prosecute, prevent and protect. Evidence of both intra...

  6. I Kenya bliver lærergerningen et kald

    Henriksen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Når unge i Kenya starter på læreruddannelsen, ønsker de færreste af dem at blive lærer. Men i løbet af uddannelsen bliver profession og personlig identitet vævet sammen.......Når unge i Kenya starter på læreruddannelsen, ønsker de færreste af dem at blive lærer. Men i løbet af uddannelsen bliver profession og personlig identitet vævet sammen....

  7. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Jia, Peng; Anderson, John D; Leitner, Michael; Rheingans, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals. The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing. There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of greater needs when

  8. High-Resolution Spatial Distribution and Estimation of Access to Improved Sanitation in Kenya.

    Peng Jia

    Full Text Available Access to sanitation facilities is imperative in reducing the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. A distinct disparity in sanitation exists among different wealth levels in many low-income countries, which may hinder the progress across each of the Millennium Development Goals.The surveyed households in 397 clusters from 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys were divided into five wealth quintiles based on their national asset scores. A series of spatial analysis methods including excess risk, local spatial autocorrelation, and spatial interpolation were applied to observe disparities in coverage of improved sanitation among different wealth categories. The total number of the population with improved sanitation was estimated by interpolating, time-adjusting, and multiplying the surveyed coverage rates by high-resolution population grids. A comparison was then made with the annual estimates from United Nations Population Division and World Health Organization /United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation.The Empirical Bayesian Kriging interpolation produced minimal root mean squared error for all clusters and five quintiles while predicting the raw and spatial coverage rates of improved sanitation. The coverage in southern regions was generally higher than in the north and east, and the coverage in the south decreased from Nairobi in all directions, while Nyanza and North Eastern Province had relatively poor coverage. The general clustering trend of high and low sanitation improvement among surveyed clusters was confirmed after spatial smoothing.There exists an apparent disparity in sanitation among different wealth categories across Kenya and spatially smoothed coverage rates resulted in a closer estimation of the available statistics than raw coverage rates. Future intervention activities need to be tailored for both different wealth categories and nationally where there are areas of

  9. First recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya, 1992-1993. II. Entomologic investigations.

    Reiter, P; Cordellier, R; Ouma, J O; Cropp, C B; Savage, H M; Sanders, E J; Marfin, A A; Tukei, P M; Agata, N N; Gitau, L G; Rapuoda, B A; Gubler, D J

    1998-10-01

    The first recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya occurred from mid-1992 through March 1993 in the south Kerio Valley, Rift Valley Province. We conducted entomologic studies in February-March 1993 to identify the likely vectors and determine the potential for transmission in the surrounding rural and urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected by landing capture and processed for virus isolation. Container surveys were conducted around human habitation. Transmission was mainly in woodland of varying density, at altitudes of 1,300-1,800 m. The abundance of Aedes africanus in this biotope, and two isolations of virus from pools of this species, suggest that it was the principal vector in the main period of the outbreak. A third isolate was made from a pool of Ae. keniensis, a little-known species that was collected in the same biotope. Other known yellow fever vectors that were collected in the arid parts of the valley may have been involved at an earlier stage of the epidemic. Vervet monkeys and baboons were present in the outbreak area. Peridomestic mosquito species were absent but abundant at urban sites outside the outbreak area. The entomologic and epidemiologic evidence indicate that this was a sylvatic outbreak in which human cases were directly linked to the epizootic and were independent of other human cases. The region of the Kerio Valley is probably subject to recurrent wandering epizootics of yellow fever, although previous episodes of scattered human infection have gone unrecorded. The risk that the disease could emerge as an urban problem in Kenya should not be ignored.

  10. Large-scale variation in lithospheric structure along and across the Kenya rift

    Prodehl, C.; Mechie, J.; Kaminski, W.; Fuchs, K.; Grosse, C.; Hoffmann, H.; Stangl, R.; Stellrecht, R.; Khan, M.A.; Maguire, Peter K.H.; Kirk, W.; Keller, Gordon R.; Githui, A.; Baker, M.; Mooney, W.; Criley, E.; Luetgert, J.; Jacob, B.; Thybo, H.; Demartin, M.; Scarascia, S.; Hirn, A.; Bowman, J.R.; Nyambok, I.; Gaciri, S.; Patel, J.; Dindi, E.; Griffiths, D.H.; King, R.F.; Mussett, A.E.; Braile, L.W.; Thompson, G.; Olsen, K.; Harder, S.; Vees, R.; Gajewski, D.; Schulte, A.; Obel, J.; Mwango, F.; Mukinya, J.; Riaroh, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Kenya rift is one of the classic examples of a continental rift zone: models for its evolution range from extension of the lithosphere by pure shear1, through extension by simple shear2, to diapiric upwelling of an asthenolith3. Following a pilot study in 19854, the present work involved the shooting of three seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection profiles along the axis, across the margins, and on the northeastern flank of the rift (Fig. 1). These lines were intended to reconcile the different crustal thickness estimates for the northern and southern parts of the rift4-6 and to reveal the structure across the rift, including that beneath the flanks. The data, presented here, reveal significant lateral variations in structure both along and across the rift. The crust thins along the rift axis from 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; there are abrupt changes in Mono depth and uppermost-mantle seismic velocity across the rift margins, and crustal thickening across the boundary between the Archaean craton and PanAfrican orogenic belt immediately west of the rift. These results suggest that thickened crust may have controlled the rift's location, that there is a decrease in extension from north to south, and that the upper mantle immediately beneath the rift may contain reservoirs of magma generated at greater depth.

  11. Spousal communication about HIV prevention in Kenya.

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate

    2011-11-01

    High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.

  12. Poverty reduction Approaches in Kenya: Assessing the Usefulness of the Right Based Approach in Kenya

    Wambua Leonard Munyao, Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While billions of dollars have been spent in development projects in least developed countries, poverty continues to increase. This study proposes human-rights based approach to poverty eradication. To this end, the study seeks to assess the key determinants of use of rights- based approaches to poverty reduction and it’s usefulness in Kenya with special reference to NGOs in Kibera. The study further high lights some of the basic skills of implementing the rights based approach to poverty reduction. The attempts to establish the proportion of NGOs applying rights based approach to poverty reduction in Kibera Division as well. The review of relevant literature has been undertaken and a field study done. The study is informed by a qualitative human rights framework.

  13. All projects related to kenya | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    2015-08-11

    In eastern and southern Africa, most yogurt production is carried out by industries using large-scale fermentation technologies to target urban consumers. Start Date: August 11, 2015. Topic: SMALL FARMS, MEDIUM SCALE INDUSTRY, EVALUATION METHODS, CANADA, EAST AFRICA, Gender. Region: Kenya, Tanzania ...

  14. Green Corridor East Africa. Horticultural supply chain Kenya – Europe

    Groot, J.J.; Westra, E.H.; Snels, J.C.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to gain insight into the current / existing horticultural supply chain (= flower) from Kenya to the Netherlands (Schiphol) and / or Germany (Frankfurt) with inland transport services to the country of destination (= Poland / Warsaw) with a focus on CO2-emission. And also

  15. Corruption and Entrepreneurship in Kenya | Ngunjiri | Journal of ...

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on entrepreneurship in Kenya. The findings indicate that when formal institutions are inefficient corruption which subverts these institutions is beneficial in terms of economic development. Conversely, where formal institutions are relatively efficient, corruption is detrimental.

  16. Paediatric sleeping sickness in Kenya: A case report | Matete ...

    A male child aged two years and eight months was diagnosed with the disease in western Kenya. The patient presented with severe respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegay and neurological symptoms. The disease transmission was associated with the socio-cultural habit of placing children under bushes whilst farming.

  17. Home-based HIV counselling and testing in Western Kenya ...

    Home-based HIV counselling and testing was feasible among this rural population in western Kenya, with a majority of the population accepting to get tested. These data suggest that scaling-up of HBCT is possible and may enable large numbers of individuals to know their HIV serostatus in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  19. Neonatal tetanus prevention programme in Kenya: Successes and ...

    Objective: To review the disease process, and success and controversies associated with neonatal tetanus control in Kenya. Data sources: Medline search on published articles in journals, books and national/ international agency reports. Data selection: Relevant literature from peer-reviewed scientific papers, international ...

  20. Monitoring spatial-temporal variability of aerosol over Kenya ...

    This study sought to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over Kenya based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data for the period between 2001 and 2012. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) ...

  1. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  2. Literacy and education in Kenya | Emenyonu | Lwati: A Journal of ...

    Modern Kenya has been steadily evolving since 1963 when the country attained independence. It has made remarkable progress in all spheres of national growth and development. It is, however, in the area of literacy and education that the growth is most noticeable. Contemporary educational developments have built on ...

  3. amphibian diversity in shimba hills national reserve, kenya

    L.A

    The coastal forests of Kenya are part of the Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa biodiversity ... Schiøtz. These authors were mainly interested in “tree frogs” of the families Hyperoliidae ..... confined to the dry semi-deciduous forest (bushland savanna) (Schiøtz, 1999). About 23 .... Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

  4. Women and Higher Education Leadership in Kenya: A Critical Analysis

    Odhiambo, George

    2011-01-01

    This paper undertakes a critique of the gendered nature of leadership in modern universities in Kenya. The paper argues that the inclusive nature of African feminism makes it easier for both men and women to join in this discussion since African feminism demands a more holistic perspective that does not pit men against women but encourages them to…

  5. INITIAL INJURY CARE IN NAIROBI, KENYA: A CALL FOR TRAUMA ...

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... Objective: To describe the emergency care of injuries at a main city hospital. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Data were collected between February 1st, 1999 and 30th April, 1999 from the records of the 2000 bed Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Two hundred and forty ...

  6. Response of cowpea genotypes to Alectra vogelii parasitism in Kenya

    This information showed that there is sufficient genetic variability in the cowpea genotypes studied, which can be exploited in breeding improved cowpea varieties for resistance to A. vogelii in Kenya. A great progress towards developing improved cowpea variety that meets farmer's preferences with durable resistance to A.

  7. Civil Society and the Democratisation Processes in Kenya and ...

    Civil Society and the Democratisation Processes in Kenya and Uganda: A Comparative Analysis of the Contribution of the Church and NGOs. Jamu Anthony Okuku. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2002 7(2): 81-98). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the ...

    Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the case of Koch FM radio. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... a new constitution that has expanded the democratic space and created broader awareness of ...

  9. From Dualism to Monism: The Structure of Revolution in Kenya's ...

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home ... Vol 3, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It also created a scientific revolution in Kenya's treaty practice. For the first time, ...

  10. Kenya | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Language English. Read more about From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open Government Data in Developing Countries. Language English.

  11. Governance of tourism conservation partnerships: lessons from Kenya

    Nthiga, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Governance of Tourism Conservation Partnerships: Lessons from Kenya

    Rita Wairimu Nthiga

    Since the 19th century nature conservation in Eastern Africa has evolved in different stages. Initial interventions emerged as a result of the decline and potential extinction of

  12. Situational Analysis of Tobacco Control in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de ...

    ... convened stakeholder meetings, and identified priorities. Kenya has identified enforcement of a smoke-free Nairobi as its first priority, and countering indirect advertising as its second. This project will conduct research, build capacity, create awareness, enlist stakeholder support and advance strategies in support of these ...

  13. Trails in Academic and Administrative Leadership in Kenya

    origins of Kenya Education Network, The African Institute for Capacity Development, ... Michieka's mission is to transform JKCAT into a science and technology-based public university which involves lobbying the agenda; staff recruitment ... with external funders like the Japan International Cooperation Agency; representing ...

  14. Orthopaedic training in Kenya | Mulimba | East African Orthopaedic ...

    Objective: To do a survey of the current orthopaedic specialists in Kenya's training since their first medical degrees. Determine the duration, facilities and methods of training. Methods: A number of doctors trained under different arrangements were identified, interviewed and where curriculum was available this was read.

  15. DRUG ABUSE IN KISUMU TOWN WESTERN KENYA Otieno AO ...

    drug abuse among secondary school students in nine schools in Kisumu town, ... Kenya. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, gender and peer .... A preliminary survey of drug abuse was conducted among secondary school ..... illegal and medically prescribed psychotropic drugs from adolescence to.

  16. All projects related to kenya | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    Topic: EAST AFRICA, URBAN COMMUNITIES, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT, ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. Region: Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 522,100.00. Task Shifting for Expanding Access to Quality Eye Care Services in Ethiopia. Project. Quality eye care ...

  17. Water conservation through trade: the case of Kenya

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint of Kenya from both production and consumption perspectives and estimates the country’s virtual water export and import. Kenya’s virtual water export related to trade in agricultural products was 4.1 km3/y; its virtual water import was 4.0 km3/y. The

  18. The challenges of human resources in mental health in Kenya ...

    Objective: Africa faces a skills shortage, in spite of training suitably qualified professionals. This is particularly evident in the discipline of. Psychiatry. An analysis of the distribution and availability of psychiatrists in Kenya was thus conducted and findings compared with specific other African countries (Uganda and ...

  19. Kenya | Page 45 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    When Professor Monica Ayieko fries up some termites or crickets in the laboratory at Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology in western Kenya, everyone on campus salivates because of the aromas. “Not only is the smell incredibly pleasing, but it tastes just as good!” explains the head of the food ...

  20. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  1. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...

  2. Urban Youth speech Styles in Kenya and the Netherlands

    Dorleijn, M; Mous, M.; Nortier, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we compare Urban Youth Speech Styles (UYSS’s) in Nairobi, Kenya (Kiessling and Mous 2004) and in the western parts of the Netherlands as it has been documented around the major cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Den Haag and Utrecht (Dorleijn and Nortier 2012 and references there).

  3. High case fatality cholera outbreak in Western Kenya, August 2010 ...

    Introduction: Cholera is a disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera and has been an important public health problem since its first pandemic in 1817. Kenya has had numerous outbreaks of cholera ever since it was first detected there during 1971. In August 2010 an outbreak of cholera occurred in Kuria West District ...

  4. Fluoride adsorption onto an acid treated lateritic mineral from Kenya ...

    1) from Kenya was studied by batch experiments. The effect of acid-treatment of adsorbent and change in temperature, mass of LM-1, pH and selected competing ions was evaluated. The adsorption process was strongly influenced by ...

  5. Spaces of insecurity : human agency in violent conflicts in Kenya

    Witsenburg, K.; Zaal, A.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    There are regions in the world where socio-economic deprivation, ecological marginality, political exclusion, poverty and violence all seem to converge. The cases presented in this book describe various violent conflicts in rural Kenya and aim to understand spatial insecurity while searching for

  6. Consumer awareness and attitudes toward GM foods in Kenya ...

    A survey of 604 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, in November and December 2003, at three points of sale (supermarkets, kiosks, and posho mills) to determine consumer awareness and attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods. Above a third (38%) of the respondents were aware of GM crops, mostly ...

  7. The challenge of mother tongue education in Kenya | Kobia | Lwati ...

    The importance of mother tongue in the cognitive, linguistic, personal and educational development of children cannot be overemphasised. It is out of this recognition that the UNESCO declared 2006 the Year of African Languages. In spite of this, the language policy in Kenya continues to be tilted in favour of English and to ...

  8. Kenya | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Read more about Toward a Regional Research Agenda on Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and Access to Medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Language English. Read more about Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis. Language French. Read more about ...

  9. Democratic School Leadership Reforms in Kenya: Cultural and Historical Challenges

    Jwan, Julius; Anderson, Lesley; Bennett, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    In this article we discuss students', teachers' and school principals' perceptions of democratic school leadership reforms in Kenya. The article is based on a study that was conducted in two phases. In phase one (conducted between September and December 2007), interviews were undertaken with 12 school principals in which understandings of…

  10. Dairy development and nutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya

    Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy

  11. A multivariate analysis of water quality in lake Naivasha, Kenya

    Ndungu, J.N.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Fulanda, B.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality information in aquatic ecosystems is crucial in setting up guidelines for resource management. This study explores the water quality status and pollution sources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Analysis of water quality parameters at seven sampling sites was carried out from water samples

  12. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  13. Blood donor haematology parameters in two regions of Kenya ...

    Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion ...

  14. Farming systems and food security in Kwale District, Kenya

    Oosten, van C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines agricultural production and off-farm employment among the rural population in Kwale District Kenya. Research was carried out in two villages, located in different agro-ecological zones: Kibandaongo, in the low-potential livestock-millet zone, inhabited by the Duruma; and Bongwe,

  15. Hernia Surgery in Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya: Our 6 ...

    The average length of hospital stay was 3 days. Of the inguinal ... on hernia disease with reference to prevalence, pattern and management at a provincial general hospital in Kenya. Methods. After obtaining permission from the hospital administration, we .... financial constraint on hospitals, length of hospital stay and enable ...

  16. Community Norms About Youth Condom Use in Western Kenya: Is ...

    Most HIV prevention strategies for African youth have been ineffective in changing key behaviors like condom use, partly because community antagonism and structural barriers have rarely been addressed. Through qualitative research in rural Western Kenya, we sought to describe the attitudes of different segments of ...

  17. Food consumption and nutrition in the Kenya Coast

    Klaver, W.; Mwadime, R.K.N.

    1998-01-01

    For a sizeable portion of Kenya's coastal population food security is not assured. Furthermore, the current food pattern, which relies heavily on maize and cassava, is lacking in dietary quality and variety. This results in nutritional problems among the population which are partly hidden, but which

  18. Quality Assurance of University Education in Alberta and Kenya ...

    Since the introduction of degree granting institutions, Alberta and Kenya have persistently made efforts to manage and improve the quality of university education. While contexts, stakeholders, and quality assurance regimes have changed over time, debate on academic quality in both jurisdictions has continued bringing to ...

  19. Risk factors for hypertension among urban males in Mombasa Kenya

    and cerebro-vascular disease are increasing so rapidly that they will rank first and fifth respectively as causes of global health burden by the year. 2020. MeThODOLOGY. A community based cross-sectional study was done among 187 adult male residents of. Mombasa in Kenya. The methods involved survey on awareness ...

  20. Improving Performance of Urban Areas in the Context of Kenya's ...

    In 2010, Kenya reformed its constitution and introduced greater decentralization of powers to lower levels of government. ... Le CRDI et le Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, ont conclu un accord en vue d'un nouvel investissement de 25 millions de dollars canadiens à l'occasion du lancement de la.

  1. All projects related to Kenya | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    Youth engagement in addressing violent extremism and gender violence through early ... Tropical diseases in humans and livestock can cause death and remain a huge ... Region: Canada, Israel, Kenya, India, United States ... and Uganda experience disadvantages and gender inequalities in labour and production.

  2. Assessment of performance of smallholder dairy farms in Kenya: an ...

    SARAH

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 85:7891– 7899. ISSN 1997– ... agriculture and was the first to measure ... form is imposed on the function (production or ... Technical Efficiency Estimation: In this paper, the ... prices by the price of concentrate feed and ..... Kenya's milk remains uncompetitive in the market, ...

  3. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.

  4. Children's literature in Kenya: a mirror of Kenyan culture? | Gromov ...

    The article is based on the assumption that the present state of writing for children in Kenya could in fact be reflecting the current condition of the entire Kenyan culture, particularly the culture of letters in the country. Using as a reference point the well-known book on Kenyan children's literature written in 1980s by. Asenath ...

  5. Right to Inclusive Education for Students with Disabilities in Kenya

    Elder, Brent C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the current inclusive education system in Kenya, and how those practices relate to Article 24 of the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Local laws and international instruments are presented to shed light on the extent to which students with disabilities have a right to inclusive…

  6. The Gendered Workplace in Kenya: A Comparative Analysis of ...

    Workplace conditions for male and female agricultural technicians in public and parastatal sector work settings in Kenya are analyzed to test the hypothesis that, relative to the public sector, the potential for differential treatment based on gender is likely to be higher in the parastatal sector. Compared to those in the public ...

  7. Characteristics of HIV-infected children seen in Western Kenya ...

    Subjects: HIV-infected children below age of 15 years seen in a network of 18 clinics in Western Kenya. Interventions: Paediatric HIV diagnosis and care including treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and provision of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). Main outcome measures: Diagnosis, clinical ...

  8. Entomophagy among the Luo of Kenya: a potential mineral source?

    Christensen, Dirk L; Orech, Francis O; Mungai, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    Primary objective To determine the iron, zinc, and calcium content in different insects commonly eaten among the Luo of Kenya. Research design A cross-sectional design was chosen for the study in order to determine the insects eaten and their mineral content during a specific season...

  9. Elephants or Onions? Paying for Nature in Amboseli, Kenya

    Bulte, E.H.; Boone, R.; Stringer, R.; Thornton, P.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional grazing grounds near Amboseli National Park (Kenya) are being rapidly converted to cropland ¿ a process that closes important wildlife corridors. We use a spatially explicit simulation model that integrates ecosystem dynamics and pastoral decision-making to explore the scope for

  10. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya ...

    Background: Road traffic injuries involving motorcycles are increasing especially in rural Kenya resulting in both human and economic loss. This study was done to identify the risk factors and the host characteristics associated with motorcycle injury victims in rural setting so as to institute appropriate interventions for ...

  11. Kenya-Malawi Health Research Capacity Strengthening Initiative ...

    This grant will support the creation of two task forces in Kenya and Malawi, respectively, to articulate nationally owned and strategies for an effective health research system in each country. The idea is to enhance the capacity of health research institutions to generate new scientific knowledge, and health policymaking ...

  12. Scaling digital learning in Kenya | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    The current project applies interactive multimedia software coupled with extensive professional development for teachers to enhance teaching and to improve the learning of children in Kenya. Prior projects explored the feasibility and measured the effectiveness of using ABRACADABRA (ABRA) early literacy software with ...

  13. Internal displacement in Kenya: the quest for durable solutions

    Lucy Kiama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Internal displacement in Kenya has been a challenge since the colonial era but only recently has a legal framework been developed to address IDP protection issues. The process of developing this framework offers some useful lessons for stakeholders in similar situations.

  14. Perceptions and Reflections of Music Teacher Education in Kenya

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on enquiry aimed to discover Kenyan music teachers' perceptions and expectations of their role; their view of the training they received; head teachers' perceptions and expectations of the role of the music teacher; and the expectations of both music teachers and head teachers of a music teacher education programme in Kenya.…

  15. Traditional medicines among the Embu and Mbeere people of Kenya

    Ethnobotanical information and traditional medicines were investigated and documented in Embu and Mbeere districts, Eastern Province of Kenya. Oral interviews were obtained from over 100 herbalists, both men and women aged between 40 and 80 years. All the herbalists interviewed were Christians and had little ...

  16. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya | Kaluli ...

    Potable water for irrigation and industrial use is generally unavailable, and this calls for alternative water sources. Despite use of wastewater being illegal in Kenya, it is used to irrigate over 720 ha in Nairobi. In order to justify the formulation of a national policy to support wastewater reuse, secondary data which included the ...

  17. The Challenges of Urban Management in Kenya | Akatch ...

    In Kenya the issue of regional and municipal management has been a thorny issue since independence. Soon after independence in 1963, the KANU Government bowing to pressures from KADU introduced Majimbo constitution that emphasised region-led administrative management as opposed to the unitary system of ...

  18. The Free Education Policy in Kenya: A Critique

    Limukii, Kaberia E.; Mualuko, Ndiku J.

    2012-01-01

    Educational reforms are crucial in a country if the reforms benefit the intended target group. One of the educational reforms in Kenya was the introduction of Free Primary Education. This was informed by the need to improve access and equity in provision of education. Informed by the need to eradicate ignorance, poverty and disease, the…

  19. Mungiki, Vernacular Organization and Political Society in Kenya

    Frederiksen, Bodil Folke

    2010-01-01

    of Mungiki have been recruited by political leaders and functioned as violent militia; concurrently, it seeks representation in formal and parliamentary politics. The organization is distinct from ‘respectable’ segments of Kenya's civil society who participate in NGO activities and mainstream churches...

  20. Horticultural marketing channels in Kenya : structure and development

    Dijkstra, T.

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the structure and development of horticultural marketing channels in Kenya. It is based primarily on a farm survey among some 500 farmers in Nyandarua, Kisii and Taita Taveta Districts and a trade survey of about 750 horticultural traders in 18 different market places.

  1. The Role of Economic Aspiration in Elections in Kenya | Oculi ...

    Both forms of social engineering gave prominence to tribalism as an organising tool. The power behind the success of these exercises was economic anxieties rooted in land, widespread unemployment and elite struggles for control of political influence. This perspective allows us to propose that stability in Kenya in the ...

  2. Didactic Competencies among Teaching Staff of Universities in Kenya

    Karimi, Florah Katanu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the levels and types of didactic competencies that exist among teaching staff in universities in Kenya, giving recognition to curriculum development, pedagogical attributes and quality assurance competencies. The study was carried out in two phases among two samples of the teaching staff population. The first…

  3. Les agriculteurs tracent une nouvelle voie au Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    20 janv. 2014 ... L'équipe est soutenue par le Fonds canadien de recherche sur la sécurité alimentaire internationale (FCRSAI), initiative concertée du CRDI et d'Affaires étrangères, Commerce et Développement Canada. Le FCRSAI supervise 21 projets ... Kenya food security agriculture. Des organismes oeuvrant au ...

  4. Status of E-Learning in Public Universities in Kenya

    Makokha, George L.; Mutisya, Dorothy N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the status of e-learning in public universities in Kenya. Data were collected using questionnaires administered to both students and lecturers randomly sampled from seven public universities. Questionnaire responses were triangulated with interviews from key informants and focus group discussions (FGDs).…

  5. E-Learning Readiness in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Ouma, Gordon O.; Awuor, Fredrick M.; Kyambo, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    As e-learning becomes useful to learning institutions worldwide, an assessment of e-learning readiness is essential for the successful implementation of e-learning as a platform for learning. Success in e-learning can be achieved by understanding the level of readiness of e-learning environments. To facilitate schools in Kenya to implement…

  6. Capacity Building of a District Education System: Insights from Kenya

    Datta, Dipankar; Phillip, Serene; Verma, Prashant Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Both (a) in-school factors such as over-focus on academic performance, absence of uniform, and corporal punishment, and (b) out-of school factors such as caring for ailing parents, child labor, etc., hinder participation of orphan and vulnerable children (PVC) in Free Primary Education (FOE) system in Nyasa Province, Kenya. In this context Concern…

  7. School Leadership Challenges along Kenya's Borabu-Sotik Border

    Abaya, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multi-case study carried out in southwestern Kenya along the border areas of Nyanza and Rift Valley province. The purpose of the research was to examine the challenges public secondary school principals faced in their leadership roles and suggest efforts they might adopt to minimize the effects of these…

  8. Kenya | Page 47 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Language English. Read more about From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open Government Data in Developing Countries. Language English.

  9. Kenya | Page 47 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    Read more about Determination of Mucosal Secretory Factors that Influence Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya. Langue English. Read more about From Data to Development: Exploring the Emerging Impact of Open Government Data in Developing Countries. Langue English. Read more ...

  10. Furniture Industry in Kenya : Situational Analysis and Strategy

    Creapo Oy; World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Government of Kenya recognizes that the performance of the furniture sector is crucial both to employment and growth in the country. The Ministry of Industrialization and Enterprise Development (MOIED) therefore requested an analysis of both the furniture and timber sectors, in order to understand their current state of development, their main constraints, and the interventions necessa...

  11. Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya | IDRC ...

    Switching to Sudan grass for livestock fodder will increase food security in Kenya Farmers learned new techniques for producing livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... The company provided drip kits to 300 farmers in Tana River for chilli production (through loans of US$74 per kit).

  12. Kenya | Page 44 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban; more than half of Nairobi's residents live in informal settlements (slums) plagued by cramped living conditions ... Organization (WHO) projects that NCDs such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease will be the most common cause of death in Africa.

  13. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data

    okuku

    Keywords: Spatial data infrastructure, Kenya NSDI, development, assessment, ... of a nation can be used for; network survey of coordinates, waterways, ... to European community (INSPIRE) at the European national, regional and .... Digitisation efforts were spearheaded by the joint cooperation of JICA (Japan international.

  14. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    Key words: Pearl oysters, seed collection, macrofauna, bivalves, settlement, monsoon seasons,. Kenya .... have shown that pearl oyster settlement is higher within calm ...... collectors in the Timor Sea, Northern Australia. J. Shellfish ... systems. Aquaculture, 189: 375-388. Urban, H.J. (2000b): Culture potential of the pearl.

  15. Serving remote users in selected public university libraries in Kenya ...

    The provision of information services to support teaching, learning and research has long been a major objective of libraries in higher education. The students being served by these libraries, specifically in Kenya, may consist of on-campus and remote user groups. This study set out to explore the library section heads' ...

  16. Computers for Schools Kenya se classe au premier rang | CRDI ...

    Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.

  17. Women Aspiring to Administrative Positions in Kenya Municipal Primary Schools

    Combat, Victor F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Even though female teachers in Kenya municipal primary schools are majority and highly qualified, they fill fewer administrative positions than men. This study assesses the extent of women's participation in leadership positions, society's perception of female leaders, selection criteria of educational administrators, and barriers that affect or…

  18. Rainfall Erosivity Factor for Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya | Kariaga ...

    Runoff plots were established on bare soil classified as Dystric Nitosols (Typic Rhodudults) at Moi University Main Campus, on Uasin Gishu Plateau, Kenya. The objective of the study was to determine the best erosivity factor for the area. This was found to be EI30, defined as the product of the rainstorm's kinetic energy and ...

  19. Towards a flexible plant breeders’ rights system in Kenya

    Munyi, Peter Gitahi

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the relationship between plant breeders’ rights on the one hand and access to seeds and planting material on the other for smallholder farmers in Kenya. The objective of the thesis is to enquire whether the legal spaces that exist within plant breeders’ rights

  20. Higher Education as an Instrument of Economic Growth in Kenya

    Nyangau, Josiah Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to identify the main challenges facing Kenya's public higher education system and to propose plausible and, concrete steps policy makers and educational leaders can take to address those challenges to ensure the country's higher education system prepares the human capital, which is necessary for the construction…

  1. Country Immunization Information System Assessments - Kenya, 2015 and Ghana, 2016.

    Scott, Colleen; Clarke, Kristie E N; Grevendonk, Jan; Dolan, Samantha B; Ahmed, Hussein Osman; Kamau, Peter; Ademba, Peter Aswani; Osadebe, Lynda; Bonsu, George; Opare, Joseph; Diamenu, Stanley; Amenuvegbe, Gregory; Quaye, Pamela; Osei-Sarpong, Fred; Abotsi, Francis; Ankrah, Joseph Dwomor; MacNeil, Adam

    2017-11-10

    The collection, analysis, and use of data to measure and improve immunization program performance are priorities for the World Health Organization (WHO), global partners, and national immunization programs (NIPs). High quality data are essential for evidence-based decision-making to support successful NIPs. Consistent recording and reporting practices, optimal access to and use of health information systems, and rigorous interpretation and use of data for decision-making are characteristics of high-quality immunization information systems. In 2015 and 2016, immunization information system assessments (IISAs) were conducted in Kenya and Ghana using a new WHO and CDC assessment methodology designed to identify root causes of immunization data quality problems and facilitate development of plans for improvement. Data quality challenges common to both countries included low confidence in facility-level target population data (Kenya = 50%, Ghana = 53%) and poor data concordance between child registers and facility tally sheets (Kenya = 0%, Ghana = 3%). In Kenya, systemic challenges included limited supportive supervision and lack of resources to access electronic reporting systems; in Ghana, challenges included a poorly defined subdistrict administrative level. Data quality improvement plans (DQIPs) based on assessment findings are being implemented in both countries. IISAs can help countries identify and address root causes of poor immunization data to provide a stronger evidence base for future investments in immunization programs.

  2. Multilingualism, Language Policy and Creative Writing in Kenya

    Mbithi, Esther K

    2014-01-01

    Language use and creative writing go hand in hand. In the process of exploring language, we also engage in the study of literature. An engagement with literature is, indeed, a continuing process of improving our capacity to use language and refining our sensibility to good language use. In Kenya, there are clearly discernible patterns of creative…

  3. Delivery of Open, Distance, and E-Learning in Kenya

    Nyerere, Jackline Anyona; Gravenir, Frederick Q.; Mse, Godfrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The increased demand and need for continuous learning have led to the introduction of open, distance, and e-learning (ODeL) in Kenya. Provision of this mode of education has, however, been faced with various challenges, among them infrastructural ones. This study was a survey conducted in two public universities offering major components of ODeL,…

  4. The "Invisible" Drama/Theatre in Education Curriculum in Kenya

    Joseph, Christopher Odhiambo

    2016-01-01

    This vignette presents the state of theatre in Education Kenya. The paper argues that though there are several theatre in education like practices, these have not been entrenched in the school curriculum. Theatre in Education finds expression and manifestations outside the mainstream school curriculum for instance in schools and colleges drama…

  5. Comrades' Power: Student Representation and Activism in Universities in Kenya

    Macharia, Mwangi J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, student politics and governance of universities in Kenya and in other African countries have undergone a tremendous transformation. The unprecedented expansion and massification of public universities, the introduction of "Module 2" programmes, the admission of private, "parallel" and…

  6. The ethnification of electoral conflicts in Kenya: Options for positive ...

    these leaders turned elections into structures for rewarding loyalists and punishing ... 'transition election', realised the democratic intentions of regime change and assured the .... In addition, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Kenya .... ceremonies involve making sacrifices to the ancestors aimed at protecting.

  7. Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    3 juin 2016 ... Farmers have also formed 18 marketing groups (716 men and 1,007 women) to negotiate better prices. For example, farmers obtained up to 75% more than the average price for bulk poultry purchases. Read the story of change: Resilient poultry management for women in Kenya (PDF, 423 KB).

  8. High case fatality cholera outbreak in Western Kenya, August 2010

    abp

    Abstract. Introduction: Cholera is a disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera and has been an important public health problem since its first pandemic in 1817. Kenya has had numerous outbreaks of cholera ever since it was first detected there during 1971. In August 2010 an outbreak of cholera occurred in Kuria ...

  9. Sugarcane in vitro culture technology: Opportunities for Kenya's ...

    sunny t

    exchange annually and contributes to tax revenues to the ... Kenya‟s sugar production (MT) and consumption 1991-2011 (Source: World Bank estimates based on Kenya Sugar ..... selective agent (e.g. incorporation of a fungal culture filtrate) ...

  10. Tackling community undernutrition at Lake Bogoria, Kenya: The ...

    Undernutrition remains a major public health concern for many developing nations, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, undernutrition affects a substantial portion of the Kenyan population, especially children and those living in rural areas. Local and sustainable means of addressing undernutrition is still lacking in ...

  11. Kenya | Page 91 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    The second half of the book describes the specific programs that were visited in Malawi, ... on the theory and practice of participatory evaluation around the world. ... El Salvador, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, and St Vincent, the ... In some countries, the crisis is contributing to political instability and civil war.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  13. South Korea

    Hayes, P.

    1990-01-01

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  14. South-South Migration and Remittances

    Ratha, Dilip; Shaw, William

    2007-01-01

    South-South Migration and Remittances reports on preliminary results from an ongoing effort to improve data on bilateral migration stocks. It sets out some working hypotheses on the determinants and socioeconomic implications of South-South migration. Contrary to popular perception that migration is mostly a South-North phenomenon, South-South migration is large. Available data from nation...

  15. Mammography practices for radiation protection in Kenya

    Shadrack, Anthony K.

    2008-01-01

    All mammography units in the country, totaling fourteen in number at the time, were evaluated on the basis of performance and practice to come up with useful data for summing up the mammography practice in Kenya. The study was carried out by performing hands-on quality control tests on the units using internationally established protocols. Image quality and dose measurement data were generated in all the centers and clearly indicated that the practice of mammography, more so on optimization viewpoint is so much varied. A standard method was used to obtain these data by use of mammography accreditation phantom. Data from actual patients was also collected in three major centers in Nairobi. On the criteria used for evaluating phantom image quality, ten out of fourteen units did satisfy the set criterion. The average glandular dose was 2.79 mGy per cranio caudal (cc) view of the phantom and 3.27 mGy per cc view for the sampled patients. The internationally recommended dose level for such a view is 3.0 mGy. One worrying observation made was that most units failed on one of the easiest test of mammographic unit assembly. Of most concern was the lack of technique charts for the practice detailing the imaging parameters being employed for the procedure. Most centers do not take the servicing of equipment seriously and others merely ignore even the crucial issues of equipment performance like the automatic exposure control and viewing conditions of the reporting areas.The results of this study calls for the setting up of a programme of optimization of radiological protection in mammography using the experience of other countries that have put in place quality assurance programs, setting and adoption of Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) as part of Quality Assurance (QA). This practice needs an effective quality control program which should start with the selection of appropriate equipment for mammography and the use of qualified personnel including the radiologist, radiographer

  16. Media Concentration and the Coverage of the 2013 General Election in Kenya: Democracy at the Crossroads

    Francis Simiyu Tome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the relationship between journalistic freedom and media concentration in Kenya through the lens of the propaganda model (Baker, 2007. The research is based on two features of the 2013 General Election in Kenya: (1 a survey of the publics’ confidence in the conduct of journalists during the 2013 General election in Kenya and (2 a survey of journalists` perceptions of influence of media ownership on journalistic independence in Kenya. This research concludes that an increase in media concentration in Kenya has led to the shrinking of the democratic space. 71 percent of the surveyed Journalists believe media diversity in Kenya is at risk whilst 69 percent believe that viewpoint discrimination is occasioned by unhealthy Media Ownership trends in Kenya. The research also indicates that the perceived climate of distrust dogging the mainstream media in Kenya has seen the public turn to citizen journalism as an alternative source of information. This survey raises further questions about future implications for journalistic independence given the dominance of media concentration in Kenya.

  17. The Impact of Out-Migration on the Nursing Workforce in Kenya

    Gross, Jessica M; Rogers, Martha F; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Oywer, Elizabeth; Wambua, David; Kamenju, Andrew; Arudo, John; Riley, Patricia L; Higgins, Melinda; Rakuom, Chris; Kiriinya, Rose; Waudo, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of out-migration on Kenya's nursing workforce. Study Setting This study analyzed deidentified nursing data from the Kenya Health Workforce Informatics System, collected by the Nursing Council of Kenya and the Department of Nursing in the Ministry of Medical Services. Study Design We analyzed trends in Kenya's nursing workforce from 1999 to 2007, including supply, deployment, and intent to out-migrate, measured by requests for verification of credentials from destination countries. Principle Findings From 1999 to 2007, 6 percent of Kenya's nursing workforce of 41,367 nurses applied to out-migrate. Eighty-five percent of applicants were registered or B.Sc.N. prepared nurses, 49 percent applied within 10 years of their initial registration as a nurse, and 82 percent of first-time applications were for the United States or United Kingdom. For every 4.5 nurses that Kenya adds to its nursing workforce through training, 1 nurse from the workforce applies to out-migrate, potentially reducing by 22 percent Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training. Conclusions Nurse out-migration depletes Kenya's nursing workforce of its most highly educated nurses, reduces the percentage of younger nurses in an aging nursing stock, decreases Kenya's ability to increase its nursing workforce through training, and represents a substantial economic loss to the country. PMID:21413982

  18. South Africa

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  19. South Africa

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  20. Hydrochemistry of the Lake Magadi basin, Kenya

    Jones, B.F.; Eugster, H.P.; Rettig, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    New and more complete compositional data are presented for a large number of water samples from the Lake Magadi area, Kenya. These water samples range from dilute inflow (300 g/kg dissolved solids). Five distinct hydrologic stages can be recognized in the evolution of the water compositions: dilute streamflow, dilute ground water, saline ground water (or hot spring reservoir), saturated brines, and residual brines. Based on the assumption that chloride is conserved in the waters during evaporative concentration, these stages are related to each other by the concentration factors of about 1:28:870:7600:16,800. Dilute streamflow is represented by perennial streams entering the Rift Valley from the west. All but one (Ewaso Ngiro) of these streams disappear in the alluvium and do not reach the valley floor. Dilute ground water was collected from shallow pits and wells dug into lake sediments and alluvial channels. Saline ground water is roughly equivalent to the hot springs reservoir postulated by Eugster (1970) and is represented by the hottest of the major springs. Saturated brines represent surficial lake brines just at the point of saturation with respect to trona (Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O), while residual brines are essentially interstitial to the evaporite deposit and have been subjected to a complex history of precipitation and re-solution. The new data confirm the basic hydrologic model presented by Eugster (1970) which has now been refined, particularly with respect to the early stages of evaporative concentration. Budget calculations show that only bromide is conserved as completely as chloride. Sodium follows chloride closely until trona precipitation, whereas silica and sulfate are largely lost during the very first concentration' step (dilute streamflow-dilute ground water). A large fraction of potassium and all calcium plus magnesium are removed during the first two concentration steps (dilute streamflow-dilute ground water-saline ground water). Carbonate and

  1. Radiation Protection of the Young Patient: Kenya perspective

    Wambani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human body anatomy and health issues are universal. Radionuclide and ionizing radiation are used in a variety of techniques in research, primary and secondary healthcare. One out of every five patients attending a hospital in Kenya benefits from some type of nuclear procedure. In 2013 over 3.5 million Kenyans benefited from nuclear applications in medicine. The radiographer patient workload is 189,300 examinations while that of each radiologist approximately 325,000 per year. There is need for catalyzed effort in the transition to the state-of-the-art nuclear techniques/equipment to Kenya and development of quality assurance program in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Develop the manpower/human resource and Policies that lower expenses and increase availability of nuclear techniques in medicine

  2. Electrification for “Under Grid” households in Rural Kenya

    Kenneth Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, 600 million people live without electricity. Despite ambitions of governments and donors to invest in rural electrification, decisions about how to extend electricity access are being made in the absence of rigorous evidence. In this paper, we present high-resolution spatial data on electrification rates in rural Kenya in order to quantify and visualize energy poverty in a novel way. Using our dataset of 20,000 geo-tagged structures in Western Kenya, we provide descriptive evidence that electrification rates remain very low despite significant investments in nearby grid infrastructure. This pattern holds across time and for both poor and relatively well-off households and businesses. We argue that if governments wish to leverage existing infrastructure and economies of scale, subsidies and new approaches to financing connections are necessary.

  3. Domestic connectivity: media, gender and the domestic sphere in Kenya

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media i...... their traditional gender roles.......This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media...... into their daily lives and routines and that increased media access has opened up the home, turned the domestic space from a secluded place to a connected space, where women can get input from, connect and interact with the world beyond their immediate surrounding, while remaining at home concurrently fulfilling...

  4. Entomophagy among the Luo of Kenya: a potential mineral source?

    Christensen, Dirk L; Orech, Francis O; Mungai, Michael N; Larsen, Torben; Friis, Henrik; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Primary objective To determine the iron, zinc, and calcium content in different insects commonly eaten among the Luo of Kenya. Research design A cross-sectional design was chosen for the study in order to determine the insects eaten and their mineral content during a specific season.Methods and procedures Five different insect species were identified and collected with the help of local informants in the Nyang'oma sublocation of the Bondo district in western Kenya, and were analysed for iron, zinc and calcium contents. Main outcomes and results The iron content ranged from 18 to 1562 mg/100 g dry matter, the zinc content from 8 to 25 mg/100 g, and the calcium content from 33 to 341 mg/100 g in five different insects, onyoso mammon (ant), oyala (termite), ogawo (termite), agaor (termite), onjiri mammon (cricket). Conclusions Insect eating could prove to be a valuable measure to combat, especially, iron and zinc deficiency in developing countries.

  5. Young mothers, first time parenthood and exclusive breastfeeding in Kenya.

    Naanyu, Violet

    2008-12-01

    Breastfeeding behaviour is explored in Kenya using data collected in the town of Eldoret, Kenya. This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below 20 years of age as compared to older cohorts. Additionally, focus is laid on the effect of first time motherhood and breastfeeding difficulties on exclusive breastfeeding. Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the mean duration for exclusive breastfeeding in this sample is 2.4 months. Higher durations of exclusive breastfeeding are associated with increasing age and first time motherhood. Predictably, breastfeeding difficulties bear a negative association with exclusive breastfeeding. While HIV is transmissible through breastfeeding, breast milk remains a vital source of nourishment for infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. More research on mothering should examine the changing socio-economic milieu and its influence on women's infant feeding decisions

  6. Kenya | Page 84 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    La collecte de données dans les bidonvilles de Nairobi, au Kenya, peut être une opération dangereuse. Les recenseurs qui recueillent de l'information sur les ménages à l'aide du système de surveillance démographique (SSD) de l'African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC) risquent régulièrement de se ...

  7. Inventory of Used, Disused, Waste and Disposed Sources in Kenya

    Kiti, S; Keter, J [Radiation Protection Board (RPBI), Kisumu (Kenya); Kinyua, R [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Thika (Kenya)

    2010-09-15

    Kenya is committed to the peaceful applications of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and training and research in order to achieve socioeconomic development. There are 4 nuclear medicine centers, 3 industrial radiotherapy facilities, 2 gamma irradiator facilities, one linear accelerator, 2 high dose radiation (HDR) Brachytherapy units, 5 industrial radiography units and many training and research facilities in the country that posses radioactive sources. The Kenya Radiation Protection Board is a Regulatory body established under Cap 243 of the Laws of Kenya cited as the Radiation Protection Act which provides for the protection of the public and radiation workers from dangers arising from materials capable of producing ionizing radiation. The mission of the Board is to accelerate, regulate and expand the contribution of nuclear and irradiation technology to the Kenyan economy through promotion of nuclear and radiation safety culture. The use of radioactive material requires an adequate established inventory. The objective of this project is to establish and maintain a national inventory of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources in Kenya. A national inventory was done by sending a questionnaire and personal communication as well thorough countrywide inspection surveys by Radiation Protection Officers from the regulatory body where lead pot containers were carried in case of disposal of a disused source or spent source. Advanced survey meters and automes radiation meters were used for radiation safety work, alarm meters were used to detect the threshold and source identifiers were used to identify unknown sources and their activities. A total of 130 radioactive sources (34 used, 20 disused, 39 waste and 37 disposed) including their JPEG images were identified and a national inventory established. Co-60 recorded the highest activity of 11,000 Ci followed by Cs-137 with 400 Ci and Ir-192 with 40 Ci. An updated inventory for the

  8. Rift Valley fever outbreak--Kenya, November 2006-January 2007.

    2007-02-02

    In mid-December 2006, several unexplained fatalities associated with fever and generalized bleeding were reported to the Kenya Ministry of Health (KMOH) from Garissa District in North Eastern Province (NEP). By December 20, a total of 11 deaths had been reported. Of serum samples collected from the first 19 patients, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus RNA or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against RVF virus were found in samples from 10 patients; all serum specimens were negative for yellow fever, Ebola, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and dengue viruses. The outbreak was confirmed by isolation of RVF virus from six of the specimens. Humans can be infected with RVF virus from bites of mosquitoes or other arthropod vectors that have fed on animals infected with RVF virus, or through contact with viremic animals, particularly livestock. Reports of livestock deaths and unexplained animal abortions in NEP provided further evidence of an RVF outbreak. On December 20, an investigation was launched by KMOH, the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), the Walter Reed Project of the U.S. Army Medical Research Unit, CDC-Kenya's Global Disease Detection Center, and other partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). This report describes the findings from that initial investigation and the control measures taken in response to the RVF outbreak, which spread to multiple additional provinces and districts, resulting in 404 cases with 118 deaths as of January 25, 2007.

  9. Catastrophic health expenditure and its determinants in Kenya slum communities.

    Buigut, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Amendah, Djesika D

    2015-05-14

    In Kenya, where 60 to 80% of the urban residents live in informal settlements (frequently referred to as slums), out-of-pocket (OOP) payments account for more than a third of national health expenditures. However, little is known on the extent to which these OOP payments are associated with personal or household financial catastrophe in the slums. This paper seeks to examine the incidence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure among urban slum communities in Kenya. We use a unique dataset on informal settlement residents in Kenya and various approaches that relate households OOP payments for healthcare to total expenditures adjusted for subsistence, or income. We classified households whose OOP was in excess of a predefined threshold as facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE), and identified the determinants of CHE using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The results indicate that the proportion of households facing CHE varies widely between 1.52% and 28.38% depending on the method and the threshold used. A core set of variables were found to be key determinants of CHE. The number of working adults in a household and membership in a social safety net appear to reduce the risk of catastrophic expenditure. Conversely, seeking care in a public or private hospital increases the risk of CHE. This study suggests that a substantial proportion of residents of informal settlements in Kenya face CHE and would likely forgo health care they need but cannot afford. Mechanisms that pool risk and cost (insurance) are needed to protect slum residents from CHE and improve equity in health care access and payment.

  10. Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability – Nigeria and Kenya

    Lucian J. Pitt

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for ...

  11. Kenya Women in Physics: Societal, Cultural, and Professional Challenges

    Baki, Paul; Wabwile, Ruth L.; Nyamwandha, Cecilia A.; Odongo, Diana A.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the challenges Kenyan women physicists face in their educational and career engagements as a result of social-cultural stigma, cultural prejudices, and balancing family and work demands. We also discuss steps being taken in Kenya to address gender inequality in almost all spheres of public and private workplaces and the benefits to a prosperous developing nation of educating the girl child.

  12. Determinants of value added tax revenue in Kenya

    WAWIRE, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Past studies that have been undertaken on the responsiveness of Value Added Tax revenues to changes in GDP in Kenya have found a positive relationship. However, the studies omit key determinants of tax revenues, such as the nature of the tax system, institutional, demographic and structural features of the economy. Due to this omission, the estimated income elasticities are unreliable for planning purposes, a situation that might be responsible for the recurring budget deficits. The...

  13. Analyse situationnelle de la lutte antitabac au Kenya | CRDI - Centre ...

    Le Kenya est l'un des 12 pays d'Afrique subsaharienne participant à l'initiative Analyses situationnelles de la lutte antitabac en Afrique (ASTA) financée par le CRDI et la Fondation Bill et Melinda Gates. L'objectif de cette initiative est de favoriser la compréhension des possibilités et des obstacles liés à la lutte antitabac et ...

  14. Ideation and intention to use contraceptives in Kenya and Nigeria

    Stella Babalola; Neetu John; Bolanle Ajao; Ilene Speizer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive use remains low to moderate in most African countries. Ideation, or the ideas and views that people hold, has been advanced as a possible explanation for differences in contraceptive use within and across countries. Objective: In this paper, we sought to identify the relevant dimensions of ideation and assess how these dimensions relate to contraceptive use intentions in two illustrative countries, Kenya and Nigeria. Methods: Using factor analysis, we first ide...

  15. Et tilfaelde af tungiasis efter rejse i Kenya

    Rathe, Mathias; Rafn, Aase Cederlund; Poulsen, Thorkil

    2009-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by infestation by the female sand flea, Tunga penetrans. Prevalence in endemic areas may reach 83%, while it is rare in non-endemic areas. However, an increase in international travel to and from the affected regions may lead to a rise in the numb...... of cases in non-endemic countries. We present a Danish case of tungiasis contracted during a trip to Kenya....

  16. Old and new ways: family planning in Kenya.

    Antarsh, L

    1989-04-01

    Kenya has the highest fertility rate in the world. The average woman has 8 children. Further, urban areas attract people from rural areas leaving fewer people to farm the finite land or raise cattle. Therefore a reduced need for children to partake in agricultural activities exists. Nevertheless many barriers to family planning continue in Kenya. Family planning services are scarce especially in rural areas. Husbands must agree to their wives undergoing voluntary sterilization by going to the clinic to sign a consent form. Children are highly valued. Succession of the generations is important. The higher a woman's fertility the more valuable she is to husband. The continuance of legal polygamy fosters competition among a man's wives to have many sons with the 1 having the most being his most prized wife. In spite of these obstacles, the president of Kenya promotes family planning through his speeches and requires the Ministry of Health (MOH) to provide family planning services at all government hospitals. Moreover, church hospitals also provide family planning services. Additionally, articles that cover teenage pregnancy and family planning programs appear in daily newspapers. The MOH and the National Council on Population and Development are organizing a network of government and nongovernment organizations that provide family planning services to the public. A sample of these organizations include the Family Planning Association of Kenya, an influential women's organization (Mandeleo ya Wanawake), and several church organizations. The Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception's regional office has promoted minilaparotomies under local anesthesia since 1986. They are now used in maternal and child health programs in government hospitals, mission hospitals, and in several family planning clinics.

  17. Outbreaks of Rickettsia felis in Kenya and Senegal, 2010

    2010-06-09

    This podcast describes the outbreak of Rickettsia felis in Kenya between August 2006 and June 2008, and in rural Senegal from November 2008 through July 2009. CDC infectious disease pathologist Dr. Chris Paddock discusses what researchers learned about this flea-borne disease and how to prevent infection.  Created: 6/9/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/24/2010.

  18. Corporate Governance Practices in Developing Countries: The Case for Kenya

    Benjamin Mwanzia Mulili; Dr. Peter Wong

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of corporate governance from a historical perspective. The paper explores how the agency theory and stewardship theory affect corporate governance practices. The focus of the paper is on public universities in Kenya. An extensive review of literature indicates that the ideals of good corporate governance have been adopted by developing countries since the 1980s. Developing countries differ from developed countries in a wide variety of ways. Therefore, there is ...

  19. Et tilfaelde af tungiasis efter rejse i Kenya

    Rathe, Mathias; Rafn, Aase; Poulsen, Thorkil

    2009-01-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic skin disease caused by infestation by the female sand flea, Tunga penetrans. Prevalence in endemic areas may reach 83%, while it is rare in non-endemic areas. However, an increase in international travel to and from the affected regions may lead to a rise in the numb...... of cases in non-endemic countries. We present a Danish case of tungiasis contracted during a trip to Kenya. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Mar-2...

  20. Integrating Social Accountability in Healthcare Delivery : Lessons Drawn from Kenya

    Wangũi Machira, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The Constitution of Kenya provides that most functions of the state are decentralized in a devolution process. The devolved health system is four tiered: community health services, primary care services, county referral services, and national referral services. However, even though roles and responsibilities are elaborately outlined, in practice the transition from national to county governments has been marred by inconsistency, poor understanding of the system, management challenges, and lac...

  1. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  2. Organizational Cultural Factors Hindering Women Ascending to Top Management Positions in Public Universities in Kenya: A Case of Moi University

    Makori, Rebecca S.; Onyango, Maria; Attyang, Judith Miguda; Bantu, Edward; Onderi, Peter Omae

    2016-01-01

    It is observed that the major setback to economic development in Kenya is stagnation in industrial development. To overcome these, Kenya plans to be a middle level income nation by the year 2030. These plans are to be realized through "Vision 2030." To achieve these goals, Kenya requires gender mainstreamed team of highly skilled workers…

  3. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  4. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane [School of Economics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2009-05-15

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  5. A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015.

    Ndhine, Edwardina Otieno; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Olsen, Katja N; Rugutt, Moses; Wanjohi, Cathryn W; Mwanda, Walter; Kinyagia, Benson Mburu; Steenhard, Nina R; Hansen, John-Erik Stig

    2016-01-01

    A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

  6. Kenya National Presentation on Nuclear Power Infrastructure Evaluation

    Kinyanjui, B

    2010-01-01

    Kenya will factored 1200MW of nuclear energy in the period 2022-2023 of the national Least Cost Power Development Plan and 4200MW by 2030. A national nuclear power programme is now at inception. The National Economic and Social Council endorsed adoption of the nuclear programme in April 2010. Electricity demand is expected to rise from the current 1200 MW to over 15000 MW by 2030. The achievement of the Vision 2030 requires affordable and stable electricity tariffs. Formation of a Nuclear Power Committee to study and initially promote the development of the nuclear power program will be established e.g. Nuclear Power Committee - Kenyan version of Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization formed. The Nuclear Power Committee is expected to precede formation of the NEPIO. There was proposal to review of current laws –e.g. Energy Act, Radiation Protection Act, Environmental Management and Control Act, Penal Code, etc. Potential sites proposed along the Indian Ocean Coastal areas, near Lake Victoria and the central region near the main national hydropower plants, based on power grid layout and water bodies. Kenya is in Phase 1 of milestones- Consideration before a decision is taken to start a NPP. Capacity Building towards Development of a Nuclear Power Programme (NPP) in Kenya is underway. To implement the national least cost power development plan so as to increase the capacity from current 1,300MW to 18,000MW by 2030 to support achievement of the ‘Vision 2030’

  7. Breeding drought tolerant wheat for the marginal areas of Kenya

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the National Plant Breeding Research Center (NPBRC - Njoro) has been involved in developing wheat varieties for the marginal areas of Kenya with the aim of introducing wheat in the non- traditional region of the country. During this period four varieties tolerant to drought have been released. These include varieties such as Duma, Ngamia, Chozi and the newly released Njoro BW1. At the moment the released varieties are of low yielding and so there is need to develop higher yielding varieties if we are to produce at an economic level. This study was aimed at developing and evaluating some of the germplasm, which have been developed or introduced over the years over their suitability for production in the marginal areas of of Kenya. Over 600 introductions were screened in the screening nursery in Njoro while segregating populations in F2-F8 were selected and advanced to the next generation. A National Dryland Wheat Performance Trial (NDL WPT) was conducted for 10 introduced lines, 3 mutants, 1 Kenya seed line and Duma and Chozi as check varieties. KM14 has been released as a marginal area variety for its high protein content. Line R965 showed higher performance in both yield and hectolitre weight and will be entered for the second NDLWPT in 2002 and may be released as variety later. (author)

  8. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  9. Recentralization within decentralization: County hospital autonomy under devolution in Kenya

    Manyara, Anthony M.; Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2013, Kenya transitioned into a devolved system of government with a central government and 47 semi-autonomous county governments. In this paper, we report early experiences of devolution in the Kenyan health sector, with a focus on public county hospitals. Specifically, we examine changes in hospital autonomy as a result of devolution, and how these have affected hospital functioning. Methods We used a qualitative case study approach to examine the level of autonomy that hospitals had over key management functions and how this had affected hospital functioning in three county hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data by in-depth interviews of county health managers and hospital managers in the case study hospitals (n = 21). We adopted the framework proposed by Chawla et al (1995) to examine the autonomy that hospitals had over five management domains (strategic management, finance, procurement, human resource, and administration), and how these influenced hospital functioning. Findings Devolution had resulted in a substantial reduction in the autonomy of county hospitals over the five key functions examined. This resulted in weakened hospital management and leadership, reduced community participation in hospital affairs, compromised quality of services, reduced motivation among hospital staff, non-alignment of county and hospital priorities, staff insubordination, and compromised quality of care. Conclusion Increasing the autonomy of county hospitals in Kenya will improve their functioning. County governments should develop legislation that give hospitals greater control over resources and key management functions. PMID:28771558

  10. Stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation (Pliocene and Pleistocene) in the Loiyangalani region of northern Kenya

    Gathogo, Patrick N.; Brown, Francis H.; McDougall, Ian

    2008-08-01

    Tuffaceous marker beds in the Loiyangalani region were previously identified as correlative with similar beds in the Shungura and Koobi Fora Formations of southwestern Ethiopia and northwestern Kenya. Associated sedimentary strata correlate with the Koobi Fora Formation, and include intercalated basalt flows. In the Loiyangalani region the Koobi Fora Formation has a composite thickness of at least 257 m, and records one time interval for which no strata are known in the Koobi Fora region. Four members of the Koobi Fora Formation (Lonyumun, Tulu Bor, Burgi, and KBS) are recognized in the region, and a composite member (Moiti-Lokochot) proposed because the Lokochot Tuff, the formal boundary between the Moiti and Lokochot Members has not been identified. This extends the known geographic area of the Koobi Fora Formation 100 km southward. These strata, together with others, were previously termed 'Loiyangalani formation (or Formation)'. Deposition in the Loiyangalani region began at about the same time as in the Koobi Fora and Nachukui Formations. Newly named basalts are Kankam (3.2-3.3 Ma), Lenderit (2.02 to 2.18 ± 0.02 Ma), and Balo (1.79 ± 0.02 Ma). We also report K/Ar ages on basalts from Mt. Kulal (2.04 ± 0.02 to 2.40 ± 0.03 Ma) east of the region and from Serima Gorge (0.77 ± 0.01 Ma) south of the study area.

  11. Seroprevalence of yellow fever virus in selected health facilities in Western Kenya from 2010 to 2012.

    Kwallah, Allan ole; Inoue, Shingo; Thairu-Muigai, Anne Wangari; Kuttoh, Nancy; Morita, Kouichi; Mwau, Matilu

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF), which is caused by a mosquito-borne virus, is an important viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in equatorial Africa and South America. Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of YFV in selected health facilities in Western Kenya during the period 2010-2012. A total of 469 serum samples from febrile patients were tested for YFV antibodies using in-house IgM-capture ELISA, in-house indirect IgG ELISA, and 50% focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT50). The present study did not identify any IgM ELISA-positive cases, indicating absence of recent YFV infection in the area. Twenty-eight samples (6%) tested positive for YFV IgG, because of either YFV vaccination or past exposure to various flaviviruses including YFV. Five cases were confirmed by FRNT50; of these, 4 were either vaccination or natural infection during the YF outbreak in 1992-1993 or another period and 1 case was confirmed as a West Nile virus infection. Domestication and routine performance of arboviral differential diagnosis will help to address the phenomenon of pyrexia of unknown origin, contribute to arboviral research in developing countries, and enhance regular surveillance.

  12. Evaluating waterpoint sustainability and access implications of revenue collection approaches in rural Kenya

    Foster, T.; Hope, R.

    2017-02-01

    Water policies in many sub-Saharan African countries stipulate that rural communities are responsible for self-financing their waterpoint's operation and maintenance. In the absence of policy consensus or evidence on optimal payment models, rural communities adopt a diversity of approaches to revenue collection. This study empirically assesses waterpoint sustainability and access outcomes associated with different revenue collection approaches on the south coast of Kenya. The analysis draws on a unique data set comprising financial records spanning 27 years and 100 communities, operational performance indicators for 200 waterpoints, and water source choices for more than 2000 households. Results suggest communities collecting pay-as-you-fetch fees on a volumetric basis generate higher levels of revenue and experience better operational performance than communities charging flat fees. In both cases, financial flows mirror seasonal rainfall peaks and troughs. These outcomes are tempered by evidence that households are more likely to opt for an unimproved drinking water source when a pay-as-you-fetch system is in place. The findings illuminate a possible tension between financial sustainability and universal access. If the Sustainable Development Goal of "safe water for all" is to become a reality, policymakers and practitioners will need to address this issue and ensure rural water services are both sustainable and inclusive.

  13. IMPACT OF AGROFORESTRY PARKLAND SYSTEM ON MAIZE PRODUCTIVITY BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN EASTERN HIGHLANDS OF KENYA

    Elton Ndlovu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried on farms at Kyeni South in Eastern highlands of Kenya. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the effects of identified common tree species on growth and yield of maize on farms. The selected tree species found to be prevalently growing on farms were Croton macrostachyus Hochst. Ex Delile, Cordia africana Lam. and Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. Growth in basal diameter, height, leaf chlorophyll content and final grain yield was assessed on maize plants selected from the plots under the trees and control plots (away from trees. The maize plants in G. robusta plots had significantly lower mean basal diameter of 1.67 cm at 6 weeks after crop emergence (WACE and 1.96 cm at 9 WACE. No significant differences were observed in plant height in plots under different tree species. Significant suppression of chlorophyll development in maize (indicated by SPAD readings was observed in all the plots under the identified tree species at 6 WACE (P < 0.01. G. robusta plots had significantly lower grain yield of 1.57 t ha-1 compared to the control plots that had the highest mean yield of 2.21 t ha-1. Proper crown management is necessary in agroforestry systems.

  14. Monument of nature? An ethnography of the world heritage of Mt. Kenya

    Akker, van den M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the World Heritage status of Mt. Kenya, an alpine area in Central Kenya. The mountain joined the World Heritage List in 1997 and in 2013 the original designation expanded to cover a larger area. Both events were formulated exclusively in natural scientific language. This

  15. Physiologic specialization of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Kenya in 2011

    A total of 12 collections of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici were obtained from Kenya during 2011. Collections were made around Mount Kenya and in wheat growing areas southwest towards Nakuru in the Rift Valley. Four collections were made from the international stem rust screening nursery in Njoro....

  16. Occurrence, diversity and pattern of damage of Oplostomus species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), honey bee pests in Kenya

    Several arthropod pests including the hive beetles Aethina tumida and Oplostomus haroldi and the ectoparasite Varroa destructor have recently been identified as associated with honey bee colonies in Kenya. Here, we report the first documentation of O. fuligineus in Kenya, a related scarab of O. haro...

  17. Educational Marginalization: Examining Challenges and Possibilities for Improving Educational Outcomes in Northeastern Kenya

    Okilwa, Nathern S. A.

    2015-01-01

    As a developing country in sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya has fared comparatively well in educating its young people. The new constitution of Kenya and various acts of parliament identify education as a fundamental human right and mandates the government to provide basic education for all. Consistent with the government's "Vision 2030," most…

  18. The Pedagogical Readiness of Instructors towards Achieving Integration of ICT's in TVET Institutions in Kenya

    Maina, Tirus Muya; Ogalo, James; Mwai, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    This paper points to the necessity to conduct research on the pedagogical readiness of instructors towards achieving integration of ICT's in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions in Kenya. Research on the integration of ICTs in teaching and learning in TVET institution in Kenya have been done to improve the learning…

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    2010-01-01

    ... phytosanitary certificate of inspection issued by the national plant protection organization of Kenya bearing... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319.56-45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  20. Public by Day, Private by Night: Examining the Private Lives of Kenya's Public Universities

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the emergence of the public university in Kenya as a key provider of private higher education, characterised mainly by the phenomenon of the "private public university student." It probes the broader socio-economic reforms circumscribing the privatisation of Kenya's public universities and the local and global…

  1. A field key to upload Kenya grasses | Agnew | Journal of East ...

    The species of Gramineae (Poaceae) that have been recorded in a delimited area of central and western Kenya are listed and keys are provided for their identification. The area is bounded by the 1000 m contour except in the southern Rift Valley where the Kenya/Tanzania boundary encorporates lower altitudes. For every ...

  2. Influence of Examinations Oriented Approaches on Quality Education in Primary Schools in Kenya

    Mackatiani, Caleb Imbova

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of the influence of examinations oriented approaches on quality education in primary schools in Kenya. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of examination oriented teaching approaches on learning achievement among primary school pupils in Kakamega County, Kenya. It explored the assumptions…

  3. Language in education and the role of applied linguistics in Kenya ...

    Language in education and the role of applied linguistics in Kenya. ... Several problems that Africa and Kenya in particular, faces are closely tied to the language of education. What is the nature of ... Although no solutions are suggested to these problems, a list of questions is formulated for the applied linguist to research on.

  4. Determinants of urban job attainment in Kenya across time : Education and quality of jobs by gender

    W.R. Wamuthenya (Wambui Rose)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractKenya has experienced a sharp decline in formal sector employment and a corresponding increase in informal sector employment. This paper examines the role played by various factors in influencing the sorting of individuals into different sectors of employment in urban Kenya. It examines

  5. A Review of the Marine Fish Resources Research in Kenya and ...

    A Review of the Marine Fish Resources Research in Kenya and influence on Management. ... Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... This is a fisheries research and management review paper, and analyzes the research work on fish resources and its usefulness to management of fish resources in Kenya.

  6. Farm household allocative efficiency : a multi-dimensional perspective on labour use in Western Kenya

    Kamau, M.

    2007-01-01

    The economy in western Kenya, like most of the other regions in Kenya is agriculture based with smallholder farm households forming the bulk of the population. While all smallholder households engage in agricultural production to meet their food and cash needs, income earned outside the farm forms a

  7. Evolution of family medicine in Kenya (1990s to date): a case study

    PM Chege

    1999-08-26

    Aug 26, 1999 ... aDepartment of Family Medicine, Moi University College of Health, Eldoret, Kenya. bDepartment ... The challenges include the lack of Kenyan teachers of the programme and the introduction ... in the establishment of FM departments in medical schools in .... Kenya Commission for Higher Education (CHE).

  8. Inventory of greenhouse gas(GH G) emission and sinks in Kenya

    Mbuthi, P.N.; King'uyu, S.M.; Moenga, O.O.

    1998-01-01

    The Government of Kenya carried out studies on impacts of climate change in 1995, within the framework of Kenya Country Study on Climate Change Project. An inventory of greenhouse gas emission from various activities such as energy, industry, agriculture, urban waste, landuse and forestry was compiled. Each of the five sectoral chapters includes methods used in analysis, data sources, results and recommendations

  9. Digitized Ethnic Hate Speech: Understanding Effects of Digital Media Hate Speech on Citizen Journalism in Kenya

    Kimotho, Stephen Gichuhi; Nyaga, Rahab Njeri

    2016-01-01

    Ethnicity in Kenya permeates all spheres of life. However, it is in politics that ethnicity is most visible. Election time in Kenya often leads to ethnic competition and hatred, often expressed through various media. Ethnic hate speech characterized the 2007 general elections in party rallies and through text messages, emails, posters and…

  10. HIV mortality in urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya 2003-2010: a period effect analysis

    Oti, Samuel Oji; Mutua, Michael; Mgomella, George S.; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    It has been almost a decade since HIV was declared a national disaster in Kenya. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision has been a mainstay of HIV treatment efforts globally. In Kenya, the government started ART provision in 2003 with significantly scale-up after 2006. This study aims to demonstrate

  11. Genotypic variability in sesame mutant lines in Kenya | Ong'injo ...

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L) is one of the major oil crops with potential for production by small- scale holders in the marginal agro-ecological zones of Kenya. Variability studies on yield and yield components of sesame mutant lines now in M7generation was carried out in two locations for two seasons in Kenya.

  12. Infection of cattle in Kenya with Brucella abortus biovar 3 and Brucella melitensis biovar 1 genotypes

    Muendo, Esther N.; Mbatha, Peter M.; Macharia, Joseph; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Janszen, Paul V.; Pastoor, Rob; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from bovine milk samples from a herd in central Kenya, and Brucella abortus biovar 3 was isolated from aborted fetus materials and vaginal discharge fluids from cattle in central and eastern provinces of Kenya. All infections including those with B.

  13. Poverty dynamics, income inequality and vulnerability to shocks in rural Kenya

    Radeny, M.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent poverty remains a huge challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, official statistics indicate that the incidence of rural poverty was 49% in 2005/2006. This study uses different approaches and data sources to explore temporal and spatial dimensions of rural welfare in Kenya. The

  14. The Prevailing Nursing Culture in Private Hospitals in Kenya and its ...

    high income countries but little is known on Africa countries and Kenya in particular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the organizational culture prevalent in private hospitals in Kenya and describe factors that are hitherto unknown on nurses' turnover. The results have the potential to both enhance the work.

  15. Factors Affecting Subsidized Free Day Secondary Education in Enhancing Learners Retention in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    James, Asena Muganda; Simiyu, Aggrey Mukasa; Riechi, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Learners are the key stakeholders of a school for it to be registered by the Department of Education. However the retention of these learners in Kenya's Secondary Level Education is a great challenge in Kenya. Every secondary school dropout signifies unfulfilled objective, goal and aim for the individual as well as the community at large. The…

  16. The Contribution of the Secondary School Curriculum to Peace in Kenya

    Chiriswa, Andika Patrick; Thinguri, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Kenya Government recognizes the role of peace in socio economic development as emphasized in the national anthem while the national goals of education endeavour to promote national unity, sustainable development, peace, respect for diversity, and international consciousness among others. The Kenya vision 2030 underscores the need for peace and…

  17. New records of Lichen-forming Fungi from Kenya | Kirika | Journal of ...

    Diversity of tropical lichen-forming fungi, especially crustose lichens is currently poorly known. Since lichens are important bioindicators of air pollution, forest health, and climate change, we addressed the lichen diversity in Kenya. Our study focused on the diversity of lichen-forming fungi in the Mount Kenya montane forests ...

  18. An Exploration of Life Skills Programme on Pre-School Children in Embu West, Kenya

    Gatumu, Jane Ciumwari; Kathuri, Wilfred Njeru

    2018-01-01

    The Life Skills Programme, which is one of the newest programmes in the Kenya Preschool educational system was explored to establish the impact it had on the lives of preschool children in Embu West, Kenya. A primary school that is perceived as having well-disciplined children was purposively selected. The sample consisted of 39 students, 43…

  19. Getting "Entangled": A Focus on the Hotel and Hospitality Curriculum Implementation in Public Universities in Kenya

    Mukolwe, Eunice; Cheloti, Isabela Mapelu

    2016-01-01

    Universities play a critical role in achieving Kenya Vision 2030 and the sustainable development goals. The demand for university education in Kenya has significantly increased and continues to swell. Many secondary school graduates and the working class look for opportunities to pursue university education, yet the process of curriculum…

  20. Influenza-associated disease burden in Kenya: a systematic review of literature.

    Emukule, G.O.; Paget, J.; Velden, K. van der; Mott, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Kenya data on the burden of influenza disease are needed to inform influenza control policies. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of published data describing the influenza disease burden in Kenya using surveillance data collected until December 2013. We included studies with

  1. Prediction of Prosopis species invasion in Kenya using geographical information system techniques

    Muturi, G.M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Kimani, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Tree species from Prosopis genus were widely planted for rehabilitation of degraded drylands of Kenya. However, they have invaded riverine ecosystems where they cause negative socio-economic and ecological impacts. GIS was used to estimate the reverine area threatened by Prosopis invasion in Kenya.

  2. Gender Factor in Decision Making: Challenges Facing Women Leadership Development in Primary Schools' Management in Kenya

    Choge, Jepkemboi Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The degree of attention given to women leadership in Education in Kenya has increased considerably in the recent years especially after the government introduced the affirmative action for both girls and women in education and employment in support of Millennium Development Goals, World Conventions, the Kenya Vision 2030 blue print for economic…

  3. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  4. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  5. The value chain for seed and ware potatoes in Kenya: Opportunities for development

    Janssens, S.R.M.; Wiersema, S.G.; Goos, H.J.Th.; wiersma, W.

    2013-01-01

    In Kenya potato is an important food crop, second after maize. Potatoes are grown on 128,000 ha per year with average yields of about 8 tonnes per ha. The yield is far below its po-tential and should be improved to enhance food security. Of all potato growers in Kenya, 98% are characterised as

  6. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  7. Rainfed Rice Production and there Germplasm Development in Kenya

    Onyango, J.C.; Onyango, M.O.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) has been grown in Kenya for several centuries and during this time has been locally selected by farmers for adaptation in the dry climate of Kenya highlands and coastal region. this history of selection by farmers has led to the concentration of genetic information for performance under drought conditions in locally-adapted rice types. Since water availability affects many processes in plants, drought tolerance is a complex character and due to the complex nature of the drought tolerance limited progress has been made in breeding for drought tolerance using simple screening methods. To produce drought tolerant cultivars, characters can used as parents in a breeding program, this is a two step process. Obviously, the root system is central to drought tolerance. The root system must be able to remove water efficiently from soils with low moisture and withstand the dynamics of soil during drought conditions will prevent stomata closure and maximise photosynthesis which is essential for high crop production. Over 365 cultivars of rainfed rice have been identified in Kenya and can be used in the two step process as source material for identifying characters related to drought tolerance and as parental lines. To advance the first step, research was conducted to identify drought tolerance characters in rainfed cultivars from Kenya. The study had a total of 580 mm of rainfall which was below the mean precipitation requirement of 750 mm. The drought sensitive variety IR20 was compared with drought tolerant IR52 and five KR (Kenya Rice) KR21, KR22, KR35,KR108 and KR135 cultivars. Plant biomass, plant height, leaf area, leaf length, protein: chlorophyll content ratio and grain yield were affected by limiting water availability and differences between cultivars were noted. The protein to chlorophyll ratio in leaves in the KR. cultivars increase from 18.4 to 28.0 as water deficient increases from -0.8 mpa to -1.4 Mpa allowing these cultivars to maintain

  8. The cost of health professionals' brain drain in Kenya

    Gbary Akpa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past attempts to estimate the cost of migration were limited to education costs only and did not include the lost returns from investment. The objectives of this study were: (i to estimate the financial cost of emigration of Kenyan doctors to the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA; (ii to estimate the financial cost of emigration of nurses to seven OECD countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Portugal, UK, USA; and (iii to describe other losses from brain drain. Methods The costs of primary, secondary, medical and nursing schools were estimated in 2005. The cost information used in this study was obtained from one non-profit primary and secondary school and one public university in Kenya. The cost estimates represent unsubsidized cost. The loss incurred by Kenya through emigration was obtained by compounding the cost of educating a medical doctor and a nurse over the period between the average age of emigration (30 years and the age of retirement (62 years in recipient countries. Results The total cost of educating a single medical doctor from primary school to university is US$ 65,997; and for every doctor who emigrates, a country loses about US$ 517,931 worth of returns from investment. The total cost of educating one nurse from primary school to college of health sciences is US$ 43,180; and for every nurse that emigrates, a country loses about US$ 338,868 worth of returns from investment. Conclusion Developed countries continue to deprive Kenya of millions of dollars worth of investments embodied in her human resources for health. If the current trend of poaching of scarce human resources for health (and other professionals from Kenya is not curtailed, the chances of achieving the Millennium Development Goals would remain bleak. Such continued plunder of investments embodied in human resources contributes to further underdevelopment of Kenya and to keeping a majority of her people in the vicious

  9. Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. The objective of this study was to examine the determinants associated with health insurance ownership among women in Kenya. Methods Data came from the 2008–09 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey. The sample comprised 8,435 women aged 15–49 years. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with health insurance ownership. Results Being employed in the formal sector, being married, exposure to the mass media, having secondary education or higher, residing in households in the middle or rich wealth index categories and residing in a female-headed household were associated with having health insurance. However, region of residence was associated with a lower likelihood of having insurance coverage. Women residing in Central (OR = 0.4; p insured compared to their counterparts in Nairobi province. Conclusions As the Kenyan government transforms the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to implement a program that will increase equity and access to health care services among the poor and vulnerable groups. PMID:24678655

  10. South Africa

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  11. Dystocia in a Rothschild Giraffe at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife, Nairobi, Kenya

    B Rono

    Full Text Available A 15-year old female Rothschild Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi weighing approximately 800kg, at the African Fund for Endangered Wildlife (AFEW, Giraffe Center, Langata, Nairobi, Kenya was presented with dystocia in June 2010. This giraffe named Laura, had a protracted labor and was regularly monitored by sanctuary education staff. Dystocia was relieved on the 3rd day at this wildlife sanctuary. The giraffe was chemically immobilized by using 7mg of Etorphine Hcl (0.98% (M99® (Norvatis South Africa (Pty Limited and 50mg of Azaperone(10% (Kyron Laboratories (Pty Limited, South Africa in a Dan-Inject dart (Dan-inject APS, Sellerup Skowej, Denmark. On obstetrical examination of the giraffe, a fetal malposition type of dystocia had occurred. The fetus was positioned at posterior presentation extended posture with tail butting on the maternal pelvis, which is abnormal in giraffes. The fetus was manually extracted by using both alternate and simultaneous limb traction. The dam survived the procedure and later was reported to be in a good reproductive condition but the male fetus was a stillbirth. The fetus had died due to stress of prolonged labour. Relief of dystocia in giraffes is a difficult obstetrical procedure because obstetrical examination and relief requires chemical immobilization plus physical restrain with ropes by trained staff. Anesthesia or immobilization of giraffes remains a challenge because of the giraffe's unique anatomy and physiology. Giraffes are large animals which limits physical control and manipulation at critical times during induction and recovery of anesthesia. Giraffe's long neck if not pinned to the ground will act as a lever causing fatal injuries to self and support staff. Giraffes develop elevated systolic blood pressure; have a small respiratory tidal volume with a large dead space and relatively small cardiac output during anesthesia, which compromises safe levels of anesthesia. [Vet. World 2011; 4

  12. South Africa

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  13. Vector competence of populations of Aedes aegypti from three distinct cities in Kenya for chikungunya virus.

    Sheila B Agha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone, Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak to transmit CHIKV.Aedes aegypti mosquito populations were exposed to different doses of CHIKV (105.6-7.5 plaque-forming units[PFU]/ml in an infectious blood meal. Transmission was ascertained by collecting and testing saliva samples from individual mosquitoes at 5, 7, 9, and 14 days post exposure. Infection and dissemination were estimated by testing body and legs, respectively, for individual mosquitoes at selected days post exposure. Tissue culture assays were used to determine the presence of infectious viral particles in the body, leg, and saliva samples. The number of days post exposure had no effect on infection, dissemination, or transmission rates, but these rates increased with an increase in exposure dose in all three populations. Although the rates were highest in Ae. aegypti from Mombasa at titers ≥106.9 PFU/ml, the differences observed were not statistically significant (χ2 ≤ 1.04, DF = 1, P ≥ 0.31. Overall, about 71% of the infected mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection, of which 21% successfully transmitted the virus into a capillary tube, giving an estimated transmission rate of about 10% for mosquitoes that ingested ≥106.9 PFU/ml of CHIKV. All three populations of Ae. aegypti were infectious as early as 5-7 days post exposure. On average, viral dissemination only occurred when body titers were ≥104 PFU/ml in all populations.Populations of Ae. aegypti from

  14. Vector competence of populations of Aedes aegypti from three distinct cities in Kenya for chikungunya virus.

    Agha, Sheila B; Chepkorir, Edith; Mulwa, Francis; Tigoi, Caroline; Arum, Samwel; Guarido, Milehna M; Ambala, Peris; Chelangat, Betty; Lutomiah, Joel; Tchouassi, David P; Turell, Michael J; Sang, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations were exposed to different doses of CHIKV (105.6-7.5 plaque-forming units[PFU]/ml) in an infectious blood meal. Transmission was ascertained by collecting and testing saliva samples from individual mosquitoes at 5, 7, 9, and 14 days post exposure. Infection and dissemination were estimated by testing body and legs, respectively, for individual mosquitoes at selected days post exposure. Tissue culture assays were used to determine the presence of infectious viral particles in the body, leg, and saliva samples. The number of days post exposure had no effect on infection, dissemination, or transmission rates, but these rates increased with an increase in exposure dose in all three populations. Although the rates were highest in Ae. aegypti from Mombasa at titers ≥106.9 PFU/ml, the differences observed were not statistically significant (χ2 ≤ 1.04, DF = 1, P ≥ 0.31). Overall, about 71% of the infected mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection, of which 21% successfully transmitted the virus into a capillary tube, giving an estimated transmission rate of about 10% for mosquitoes that ingested ≥106.9 PFU/ml of CHIKV. All three populations of Ae. aegypti were infectious as early as 5-7 days post exposure. On average, viral dissemination only occurred when body titers were ≥104 PFU/ml in all populations. Populations of Ae. aegypti from Mombasa, Nairobi

  15. Geological and edaphic constraints on early hominin landscape exploitation in the Kenya Rift

    Kuebler, S.; King, G. C. P.; Rucina, S.

    2017-12-01

    Our study in the Kenya Rift shows that soil edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of early hominin sites. Based on studying the relationship between the geology, tectonics and soil development we identified 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We created palaeoenvironmental reconstructions for interpreting human land use and exploitation of large mammals in the Kenya Rift for the relevant time frame of 1 Ma BP. At Olorgesailie the hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. Lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by volcanic flows and alluvial fans from Mt. Olorgesailie and was released by fault motion leading to deep river incision and exposure of the site. To the west and the north steep fault scarps bound the playa forming a natural barrier for animals. Field observations and information from local shepherds suggest that the abundant trachytes at the valley floor produce poor soils whereas the soils developed on lacustrine and alluvial sediments close to the hominin site provide much more attractive grazing sites for present-day animals. This is supported by our soil analysis. With a lake in the past the Olorgesailie site represents an key example of how early hominins may have used the landscape for their strategic advantage. At Kariandusi site we investigated the tectonic and volcanic history of the region, and the system of lakes that have undergone periodic expansion and contraction during the Pleistocene in response to climatic and tectonic controls. We used this information to reconstruct topographic features as they would have existed at different periods of the past and their likely influence on patterns of large-mammal movements, and linked this with information from soil

  16. Compositional variation through time and space in Quaternary magmas of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, Kenya

    Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, located in southern Kenya >100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley, has produced mafic, monogenetic eruptions throughout the Quaternary. The volcanic field is considered to be an off-rift manifestation of the East African Rift System, and is known for the significant compositional variability of its eruptive products, which range from nephelinites to basanites, alkali basalts, hawaiites, and orthopyroxene-normative subalkaline basalts [1]. Notably, erupted compositions vary systematically in time and space: Pleistocene volcanism, occurring in the northern Chyulu Hills, was characterized by highly silica-undersaturated magmas, whereas Holocene volcanism, restricted to the southern Chyulu Hills, is less silica-understaturated, consistent with a progressive decrease in depth and increase in degree of melting with time, from north to south [1]. Pronounced negative K anomalies, and enriched trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope signatures have been attributed to a metasomatized, amphibole-bearing, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source [2]. Seismic evidence for a partially molten zone in the SCLM beneath this region [3] may be consistent with such an interpretation. We have analyzed Chyulu Hills samples for Os, Hf and high precision Pb isotopes to further evaluate the magma sources and petrogenetic processes leading to systematic compositional variation in time and space. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and strong negative correlations of 206Pb/204Pb and highly incompatible trace element ratios with SiO2 are consistent with the progression from a deeper, HIMU-type source to a shallower, EM-type source. Os isotope systematics, however, suggest a more complex relationship; although all samples are more radiogenic than primitive mantle, the least radiogenic values (similar to primitive OIB) are found in magmas with intermediate SiO2, and those with lower or higher SiO2 are more radiogenic. This may be explained by interaction

  17. Developing Inset Resistant Maize Varieties for Food Security in Kenya

    Mugo, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project aims at increasing maize production and food security through development and deployment of stem borer resistant maize germplasm developed using conventional and through biotechnology methods such as Bt maize. Bt maize offers farmers an effective and practical option for controlling stem borers. It was recognized that the development and routine use of Bt maize will require addressing relevant bio-safety, environmental, and community concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns. Suitable Bt gene have been acquired or synthesized and back-crossed into elite maize germplasm at CIMMYT-Mexico, and the effective Cry-proteins against the major maize stem borers in Kenya were identified to better target pests. Stem borer resistant maize germplasm is being developed through conventional breeding, using locally adapted and exotic germplasm. for safe and effective deployment of Bt maize,studies on its impacts on target and non-target arthropods as well as studies on the effects of Bt maize on key non-target arthropods as well as studies on gene flow are underway. Insect resistance management strategies are being developed through quantifying the effectiveness, ???. Socioeconomic impact studies are revealing factors in the society that may influence the adoption of Bt maize in Kenya. Also, baseline data, essential for the monitoring and evaluation of the Bt maize technology in Kenya, has been established. Technology transfer and capacity building, creating awareness and communications have received attention in the project. This paper describes the major research activities as they relate to development of the stem bore resistant maize germplasm

  18. An ethnographic exploration of drug markets in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Ohaga, Spala; Agot, Kawango; Dimova, Margarita; Guise, Andy; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D

    2016-04-01

    Illegal drug markets are shaped by multiple forces, including local actors and broader economic, political, social, and criminal justice systems that intertwine to impact health and social wellbeing. Ethnographic analyses that interrogate multiple dimensions of drug markets may offer both applied and theoretical insights into drug use, particularly in developing nations where new markets and local patterns of use traditionally have not been well understood. This paper explores the emergent drug market in Kisumu, western Kenya, where our research team recently documented evidence of injection drug use. Our exploratory study of injection drug use was conducted in Kisumu from 2013 to 2014. We draw on 151 surveys, 29 in-depth interviews, and 8 months of ethnographic fieldwork to describe the drug market from the perspective of injectors, focusing on their perceptions of the market and reports of drug use therein. Injectors described a dynamic market in which the availability of drugs and proliferation of injection drug use have taken on growing importance in Kisumu. In addition to reports of white and brown forms of heroin and concerns about drug adulteration in the market, we unexpectedly documented widespread perceptions of cocaine availability and injection in Kisumu. Examining price data and socio-pharmacological experiences of cocaine injection left us with unconfirmed evidence of its existence, but opened further possibilities about how the chaos of new drug markets and diffusion of injection-related beliefs and practices may lend insight into the sociopolitical context of western Kenya. We suggest a need for expanded drug surveillance, education and programming responsive to local conditions, and further ethnographic inquiry into the social meanings of emergent drug markets in Kenya and across sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding road safety in Kenya: views of matatu drivers.

    Raynor, Nicolas J; Mirzoev, Tolib

    2014-09-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths and 20-50 million injuries worldwide. Road safety is a challenge in Kenya with causes being multi-factorial. Matatus (minibuses) are involved in a large proportion of accidents. A literature review was completed to identify key issues and refine the scope of the study. The fieldwork included 20 semi-structured interviews with matatu drivers. All participants were male, with driving experience of 1-20 years. Thematic framework was used for analysis. Some unstructured observations on different road users and their behaviours were also recorded. Literature showed that the causes of RTAs in Kenya are multi-factorial, but that human factors play a large part. There is also an evidence gap concerning matatu drivers, who are key stakeholders in road safety. Fieldwork showed that the matatu industry creates financial pressures on drivers and an excessive level of competition, leading to dangerous driving. Corruption of traffic police appears to be a major barrier to improving road safety, as road safety legislation is not enforced, and bribery has become the cultural norm. The general public, including passengers and private vehicles owners, also cause problems by failing to understand their role in road safety and placing the blame on others. The key policy implication for improving road safety in Kenya is seeking measures to ensure responsibility by all road users through awareness raising in the short-term and reforming the matatu industry and addressing the root causes of corruption in the longer term. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Knowledge of mange among Masai pastoralists in Kenya.

    Francis Gakuya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pastoralists in low-income countries usually live in close proximity to their animals and thus represent an important repository of information about livestock disease. Since wild and domestic animals often mix freely whilst grazing, pastoralists are also able to observe first-hand the diseases that are present in wildlife and as such are key informants in disease outbreaks in sylvatic animals. We report here the findings of the first study of the knowledge and role of Masai pastoralists in mange in wildlife and livestock in Masai Mara, Kenya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper we describe the knowledge of mange accrued by 56 Masai pastoralists in Kenya and how they respond to it in both wildlife and livestock. In total, 52 (93% pastoralists had a clear idea of the clinical appearance of mange, 13 (23% understood its aetiology and 37 (66% knew that mites were the causal agent. Thirty-nine (69% believed that mange cross-infection between domestic and wild animals occurs, while 48 (85% had observed mange in domestic animals including sheep (77%, goats (57%, dogs (24% and cattle (14%. The pastoralists had also observed wild animals infected with mange, above all lions (19%, gazelles (14%, cheetahs (12% and wildebeests (2%. In 68% of cases Masai pastoralists treat mange infection or apply control measures, most commonly via the topical use of acaricides (29% and/or the reporting of the outbreak to the veterinary authorities (21%. In the period 2007-2011, Kenya Wildlife Service received 24 warnings of 59 wild animals with mange-like lesions from the Masai Mara pastoralist community. The reported species were cheetah, lion, wild dog, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest. CONCLUSION: Masai pastoralists have good knowledge of mange epidemiology and treatment. Their observations and the treatments they apply are valuable in the control of this disease in both wild and domestic animals.