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Sample records for south pacific ocean

  1. The Southern Ocean and South Pacific Region

    Kelleher, K.; Warnau, Michel; Failler, Pierre; Pecl, Gretta; Turley, Carol; Boeuf, Gilles; Laffoley, Dan; Parker, Laura; Gurney, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region has over 27% of the world’s ocean area and over 98% of the Region’s total area of 91 million km2 is ‘open ocean’. The Region contains less than 5% of...

  2. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang Zhongliang

    2007-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by γ spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137 Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m -3 over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137 Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137 Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137 Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400 ± 30 Bq m -2 to 560 ± 30 Bq m -2 during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 ± 70 Bq m -2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 ± 90 Bq m -2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137 Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137 Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9 ± 0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1 ± 0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137 Cs deposition density in 10 o latitude by 10 deg. longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137 Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137 Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137 Cs from

  3. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  4. Calcite production by coccolithophores in the south east Pacific Ocean

    L. Beaufort

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BIOSOPE cruise covered an oceanographic transect through the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG from the Marquesas archipelago to the Peru-Chile upwelling (PCU. Water samples from 6 depths in the euphotic zone were collected at 20 stations. The concentrations of suspended calcite particles, coccolithophores cells and detached coccoliths were estimated together with size and weight using an automatic polarizing microscope, a digital camera, and a collection of softwares performing morphometry and pattern recognition. Some of these softwares are new and described here for the first time. The coccolithophores standing stocks were usually low and reached maxima west of the PCU. The coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa spp. and Crenalithus spp. (Order Isochrysidales represented more than 30% of all the suspended calcite particles detected in the size range 0.1–46 μm (22% of PIC in term of calcite weight. These species grew preferentially in the Chlorophyll maximum zone. In the SPG their maximum cell concentrations were recorded between depth of 150 and 200 m, which is unusually deep for these taxa. The weight of coccoliths and coccospheres were correlated to their size. Large and heavy coccoliths and coccospheres were found in regions with relatively high fertility in the Marquises Island and in the PCU. Small and light coccoliths and coccospheres were found west of the PCU. This distribution is strongly related to ocean chemistry in particular to alkalinity and to carbonate ions concentration. The biotic (coccolithophores production influence on calcification is mainly driven at the local scale (depth whereas the abiotic (carbonate chemistry plays its most important role at the regional (horizontal level. Here 94% of the variability of coccolith and coccosphere weight can be explained by a change in 7 environmental variables.

  5. Temperature Data From AUSTRALIA STAR and Other Platforms From Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean From 19860929 to 19890106 (NODC Accession 8900196)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data from Australia Star and other ships from Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from September 29, 1986 to January 6, 1989. The data were collected by...

  6. Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America.

    Blake, James A

    2017-01-12

    The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.

  7. Detecting the progression of ocean acidification from the saturation state of CaCO3 in the subtropical South Pacific

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Ken-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Progression of ocean acidification in the subtropical South Pacific was investigated by using high-quality data from trans-Pacific zonal section at 17°S (World Ocean Circulation Experiment section P21) collected in 1994 and 2009. During this 15 year period, the CaCO3 saturation state of seawater with respect to calcite (Ωcal) and aragonite (Ωarg) in the upper water column (Pacific Ocean.

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-15 to 2008-02-23 (NODC Accession 0109903)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109903 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  9. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean.

    Resing, Joseph A; Sedwick, Peter N; German, Christopher R; Jenkins, William J; Moffett, James W; Sohst, Bettina M; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-09

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  10. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1981-11-21 to 1983-11-20 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  13. Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Fuenzalida, Rosalino; Schneider, Wolfgang; Garcés-Vargas, José; Bravo, Luis; Lange, Carina

    2009-07-01

    Recent hydrographic measurements within the eastern South Pacific (1999-2001) were combined with vertically high-resolution data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, high-resolution profiles and bottle casts from the World Ocean Database 2001, and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 in order to evaluate the vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone (oxygen minimum zone to be 9.82±3.60×10 6 km 2 and 2.18±0.66×10 6 km 3, respectively. The oxygen minimum zone is thickest (>600 m) off Peru between 5 and 13°S and to about 1000 km offshore. Its upper boundary is shallowest (zone in some places. Offshore, the thickness and meridional extent of the oxygen minimum zone decrease until it finally vanishes at 140°W between 2° and 8°S. Moving southward along the coast of South America, the zonal extension of the oxygen minimum zone gradually diminishes from 3000 km (15°S) to 1200 km (20°S) and then to 25 km (30°S); only a thin band is detected at ˜37°S off Concepción, Chile. Simultaneously, the oxygen minimum zone's maximum thickness decreases from 300 m (20°S) to less than 50 m (south of 30°S). The spatial distribution of Ekman suction velocity and oxygen minimum zone thickness correlate well, especially in the core. Off Chile, the eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water mass introduces increased vertical stability into the upper water column, complicating ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone from above. In addition, oxygen-enriched Antarctic Intermediate Water clashes with the oxygen minimum zone at around 30°S, causing a pronounced sub-surface oxygen front. The new estimates of vertical and horizontal oxygen minimum zone distribution in the eastern South Pacific complement the global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margins by Helly and Levin [2004. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins. Deep-Sea Research I 51, 1159-1168] and provide new baseline data useful for studies on the

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-01-26 to 1994-04-27 (NODC Accession 0115152)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115152 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific...

  15. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2015-12-17 to 2016-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157011)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1992-11-01 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0115024)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115024 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-02-19 to 2011-04-23 (NODC Accession 0109933)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109933 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  18. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  3. Circulation, eddies, oxygen, and nutrient changes in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Czeschel, R.; Stramma, L.; Weller, R. A.; Fischer, T.

    2015-06-01

    A large subsurface oxygen deficiency zone is located in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean (ETSP). The large-scale circulation in the eastern equatorial Pacific and off the coast of Peru in November/December 2012 shows the influence of the equatorial current system, the eastern boundary currents, and the northern reaches of the subtropical gyre. In November 2012 the equatorial undercurrent (EUC) is centered at 250 m depth, deeper than in earlier observations. In December 2012, the equatorial water is transported southeastward near the shelf in the Peru-Chile undercurrent (PCUC) with a mean transport of 1.4 Sv. In the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), the flow is overlaid with strong eddy activity on the poleward side of the OMZ. Floats with parking depth at 400 m show fast westward flow in the mid-depth equatorial channel and sluggish flow in the OMZ. Floats with oxygen sensors clearly show the passage of eddies with oxygen anomalies. The long-term float observations in the upper ocean lead to a net community production estimate at about 18° S of up to 16.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 extrapolated to an annual rate and 7.7 mmol C m-3 yr-1 for the time period below the mixed layer. Oxygen differences between repeated ship sections are influenced by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), by the phase of El Niño, by seasonal changes, and by eddies, and hence have to be interpreted with care. At and south of the Equator the decrease in oxygen in the upper ocean since 1976 is related to an increase in nitrate, phosphate, and in part silicate.

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-29 to 1997-12-25 (NODC Accession 0112363)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112363 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-12-17 to 2003-02-14 (NODC Accession 0113608)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113608 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-11-17 to 2004-12-09 (NODC Accession 0112263)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112263 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-13 to 1991-09-01 (NODC Accession 0115591)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115591 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-10-06 to 1993-04-13 (NODC Accession 0115156)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115156 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-02-16 to 2007-03-26 (NODC Accession 0112269)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112269 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  10. A Record-High Ocean Bottom Pressure in the South Pacific Observed by GRACE

    Boening, Carmen; Lee, Tong; Zlotnicki, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In late 2009 to early 2010, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite pair observed a record increase in ocean bottom pressure (OBP) over a large mid-latitude region of the South East Pacific. Its magnitude is substantially larger than other oceanic events in the Southern Hemisphere found in the entire GRACE data records (2003-2010) on multi-month time scales. The OBP data help to understand the nature of a similar signal in sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observed by altimetry: the SSH increase is mainly due to mass convergence. Analysis of the barotropic vorticity equation using scatterometer data, atmospheric reanalysis product, and GRACE and altimeter an atmospheric reanalysis product observations suggests that the observed OBP/SSH signal was primarily caused by wind stress curl associated with a strong and persistent anticyclone in late 2009 in combination with effects of planetary vorticity gradient, bottom topography, and friction

  11. Analogous nutrient limitations in unicellular diazotrophs and Prochlorococcus in the South Pacific Ocean.

    Moisander, Pia H; Zhang, Ruifeng; Boyle, Edward A; Hewson, Ian; Montoya, Joseph P; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2012-04-01

    Growth limitation of phytoplankton and unicellular nitrogen (N(2)) fixers (diazotrophs) were investigated in the oligotrophic Western South Pacific Ocean. Based on change in abundances of nifH or 23S rRNA gene copies during nutrient-enrichment experiments, the factors limiting net growth of the unicellular diazotrophs UCYN-A (Group A), Crocosphaera watsonii, γ-Proteobacterium 24774A11, and the non-diazotrophic picocyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, varied within the region. At the westernmost stations, numbers were enhanced by organic carbon added as simple sugars, a combination of iron and an organic chelator, or iron added with phosphate. At stations nearest the equator, the nutrient-limiting growth was not apparent. Maximum net growth rates for UCYN-A, C. watsonii and γ-24774A11 were 0.19, 0.61 and 0.52 d(-1), respectively, which are the first known empirical growth rates reported for the uncultivated UCYN-A and the γ-24774A11. The addition of N enhanced total phytoplankton biomass up to 5-fold, and the non-N(2)-fixing Synechococcus was among the groups that responded favorably to N addition. Nitrogen was the major nutrient-limiting phytoplankton biomass in the Western South Pacific Ocean, while availability of organic carbon or iron and organic chelator appear to limit abundances of unicellular diazotrophs. Lack of phytoplankton response to nutrient additions in the Pacific warm pool waters suggests diazotroph growth in this area is controlled by different factors than in the higher latitudes, which may partially explain previously observed variability in community composition in the region.

  12. Zooplankton biomass data from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean from 27 January 1967 to 26 November 1967 (NODC Accession 9500090)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data were collected from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected by the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) from 27...

  13. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data collected by the SCRIPPS Institute of Oceanography from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000925)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002. Data were collected...

  14. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, primary production, and meteorological data collected by bottle in the South Pacific Ocean from 1/16/1962 - 8/2/1964 (NODC Accession 0000092)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using net and bottle casts from the HUAYAIPE and ST JUDE in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  15. Prediction of the fate of radioactive material in the South Pacific Ocean using a global high-resolution ocean model

    Hazell, Douglas R.; England, Matthew H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the release of radioactive contaminants from Moruroa Atoll in a global high-resolution off-line model. The spread of tracer is studied in a series of simulations with varying release depths and time-scales, and into ocean velocity fields corresponding to long-term annual mean, seasonal, and interannually varying scenarios. In the instantaneous surface release scenarios we find that the incorporation of a seasonal cycle greatly influences tracer advection, with maximum concentrations still found within the French Polynesia region after 10 years. In contrast, the maximum trace is located in the southeast Pacific when long-term annual mean fields are used. This emphasizes the importance of the seasonal cycle in models of pollution dispersion on large scales. We further find that during an El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event reduced currents in the region of Moruroa Atoll result in increased concentrations of radioactive material in French Polynesia, as direct flushing from the source is reduced. In terms of the sensitivity to tracer release time-rates, we find that a gradual input results in maximum concentrations in the near vicinity of French Polynesia. This contrasts the instantaneous-release scenarios, which see maximum concentrations and tracer spread across much of the South Pacific Ocean. For example, in as little as seven years radioactive contamination can reach the east coast of Australia diluted by only a factor of 1000 of the initial concentration. A comparison of results is made with previous studies. Overall, we find much higher concentrations of radionuclides in the South Pacific than has previously been predicted using coarser-resolution models

  16. Biogeochemical characteristics of a long-lived anticyclonic eddy in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Cornejo D'Ottone, Marcela; Bravo, Luis; Ramos, Marcel; Pizarro, Oscar; Karstensen, Johannes; Gallegos, Mauricio; Correa-Ramirez, Marco; Silva, Nelson; Farias, Laura; Karp-Boss, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Mesoscale eddies are important, frequent, and persistent features of the circulation in the eastern South Pacific (ESP) Ocean, transporting physical, chemical and biological properties from the productive shelves to the open ocean. Some of these eddies exhibit subsurface hypoxic or suboxic conditions and may serve as important hotspots for nitrogen loss, but little is known about oxygen consumption rates and nitrogen transformation processes associated with these eddies. In the austral fall of 2011, during the Tara Oceans expedition, an intrathermocline, anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy with a suboxic ( 0.5 µM), suggesting that active denitrification occurred in this water mass. Using satellite altimetry, we were able to track the eddy back to its region of formation on the coast of central Chile (36.1° S, 74.6° W). Field studies conducted in Chilean shelf waters close to the time of eddy formation provided estimates of initial O2 and N2O concentrations of the ESSW source water in the eddy. By the time of its offshore sighting, concentrations of both O2 and N2O in the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eddy were lower than concentrations in surrounding water and "source water" on the shelf, indicating that these chemical species were consumed as the eddy moved offshore. Estimates of apparent oxygen utilization rates at the OMZ of the eddy ranged from 0.29 to 44 nmol L-1 d-1 and the rate of N2O consumption was 3.92 nmol L-1 d-1. These results show that mesoscale eddies affect open-ocean biogeochemistry in the ESP not only by transporting physical and chemical properties from the coast to the ocean interior but also during advection, local biological consumption of oxygen within an eddy further generates conditions favorable to denitrification and loss of fixed nitrogen from the system.

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108123)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108123 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-23 to 1994-10-30 (NCEI Accession 0157463)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157463 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-06 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0000193)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000193 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-31 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 0115174)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115174 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2000-12-27 to 2001-02-08 (NODC Accession 0112353)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112353 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-11-05 to 1994-11-29 (NCEI Accession 0157470)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157470 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0148773)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148773 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148774)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148774 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-31 to 2008-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0148763)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148763 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-18 (NCEI Accession 0148767)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148767 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-01 to 2006-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0144535)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144535 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0144343)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144343 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-02 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0144354)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144354 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-30 to 2008-10-28 (NCEI Accession 0144348)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144348 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-01-02 to 2007-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144528)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144528 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-07 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0144356)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144356 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-12-30 to 2012-12-24 (NCEI Accession 0144349)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144349 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-12-31 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0144532)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144532 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-01-02 to 2006-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0148764)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148764 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-12-29 to 2003-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0144351)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144351 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0144529)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144529 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2002-03-23 to 2002-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0148766)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148766 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-01-01 to 2014-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0145200)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145200 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2003-01-01 to 2003-12-29 (NCEI Accession 0148770)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148770 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-01 to 2011-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0148765)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148765 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1990-01-23 to 1990-03-08 (NODC Accession 0115021)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115021 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1990-02-22 to 1990-04-16 (NODC Accession 0000183)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000183 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South...

  5. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-11-28 to 2013-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0143950)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143950 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2007-02-04 to 2007-03-16 (NCEI Accession 0144252)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144252 includes Surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  9. Dinitrogen Fixation Within and Adjacent to Oxygen Deficient Waters of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Widner, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Bernhardt, P. W.; Chang, B. X.; Jayakumar, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work suggests that planktonic diazotrophs are geographically more widely distributed than previously thought including relatively warm (14-23oC) aphotic oxygenated pelagic waters and in aphotic waters within oxygen deficient zones. Because the volume of aphotic water in the ocean is large and may increase in the future, if dinitrogen (N2) fixation is widely occurring at sub-euphotic depths, this could result in a dramatic upward revision of global nitrogen (N) inputs via this process. N2 fixation rates were measured during a cruise in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific using stable isotope tracer techniques that account for slow gas dissolution. Results are compared with light, nutrient, and oxygen gradients (and necessarily temperature gradients). In addition, rates of N2 fixation made in vertical profiles within and above oxygen deficient waters are compared with those measured in vertical profiles adjacent to oxygen deficient waters. Results suggest that while rates of N2 fixation were measurable in deeper anoxic waters, volumetric N2 fixation rates were higher in surface waters.

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, Barometric pressure sensor and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-11 to 2005-02-24 (NODC Accession 0108153)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108153 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  11. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 1988-05-04 to 1990-12-18 (NODC Accession 9100058)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South...

  12. Temperature profile data from XBT and BT casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1987-04-02 to 1987-11-24 (NODC Accession 8800007)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-06 to 2005-02-19 (NCEI Accession 0144243)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144243 includes Surface underway data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-09 to 2005-02-19 (NODC Accession 0108095)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108095 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South)...

  15. ENSO regimes and the late 1970's climate shift: The role of synoptic weather and South Pacific ocean spiciness

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Oke, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    South Pacific subtropical density compensated temperature and salinity (spiciness) anomalies are known to be associated with decadal equatorial variability, however, the mechanisms by which such disturbances are generated, advect and the degree to which they modulate the equatorial thermocline remains controversial. During the late 1970's a climate regime transition preceded a period of strong and sustained El Nino events. Using an ocean general circulation model forced by the constituent mechanical and thermodynamic components of the reanalysed atmosphere we show that the late 1970's transition coincided with the arrival of a large-scale, subsurface cold and fresh water anomaly in the central tropical Pacific. An ocean reanalysis for the period 1990–2007 that assimilates subsurface Argo, XBT and CTD data, reveals that disturbances occur due to the subduction of negative surface salinity anomalies from near 30° S, 100° W which are advected along the σ=25–26 kgm −3 isopycnal surfaces. These anomalies take, on average, seven years to reach the central equatorial Pacific where they may substantially perturb the thermocline before the remnants ultimately ventilate in the region of the western Pacific warm pool. Positive (warm–salty) disturbances, known to occur due to late winter diapycnal mixing and isopycnal outcropping, arise due to both subduction of subtropical mode waters and subsurface injection. On reaching the equatorial band (10° S–0° S) these disturbances tend to deepen the thermocline reducing the model's ENSO. In contrast the emergence of negative (cold–fresh) disturbances at the equator are associated with a shoaling of the thermocline and El Nino events. Process studies are used to show that the generation and advection of anomalous density compensated thermocline disturbances critically depend on stochastic forcing of the intrinsic ocean by weather. We further show that in the absence of the inter-annual component of the atmosphere

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from CONTSHIP WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-09-22 to 2007-11-10 (NODC Accession 0080968)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080968 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CONTSHIP WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and Calcium collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-04-01 to 1982-06-30 (NODC Accession 0000180)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0000180 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-10-01 to 2002-11-27 (NODC Accession 0115283)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115283 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-08-07 to 1993-10-05 (NODC Accession 0112229)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112229 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-04-13 to 1993-06-11 (NODC Accession 0112228)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112228 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-01-07 to 2002-02-16 (NODC Accession 0112354)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112354 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-08-08 to 1994-10-06 (NODC Accession 0112339)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112339 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1999-11-21 to 1999-12-27 (NODC Accession 0112351)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112351 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-04-13 to 1994-06-11 (NODC Accession 0112230)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112230 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the JOHN V. VICKERS in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-08-16 to 1992-10-21 (NODC Accession 0115003)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115003 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JOHN V. VICKERS in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0157449)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157449 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-08-07 to 1992-10-05 (NODC Accession 0112227)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112227 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-06-06 to 2007-07-24 (NODC Accession 0112295)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112295 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2008-06-17 to 2008-08-03 (NODC Accession 0112336)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112336 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-09-12 to 1997-11-07 (NODC Accession 0115286)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115286 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1998-09-16 to 1998-11-13 (NODC Accession 0115280)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115280 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-23 to 1994-10-29 (NODC Accession 0111870)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0111870 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2000-09-20 to 2000-11-04 (NODC Accession 0115288)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115288 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-01-18 to 2007-03-12 (NODC Accession 0112294)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112294 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-05-15 to 2011-08-26 (NODC Accession 0115178)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115178 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  16. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_TAO165E0N in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-02-23 to 2013-02-03 (NODC Accession 0113238)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113238 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_TAO165E0N in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  18. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean.

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N; Boyle, Edward A; Jenkins, William J

    2014-11-25

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on recent abyssal dFe enrichments near hydrothermal vents, however, the leaky vent hypothesis [Toner BM, et al. (2012) Oceanography 25(1):209-212] argues that some hydrothermal Fe persists in the dissolved phase and contributes a significant flux of dFe to the global ocean. We show here the first, to our knowledge, dFe (Pacific Ocean, where dFe of 1.0-1.5 nmol/kg near 2,000 m depth (0.4-0.9 nmol/kg above typical deep-sea dFe concentrations) was determined to be hydrothermally derived based on its correlation with primordial (3)He and dissolved Mn (dFe:(3)He of 0.9-2.7 × 10(6)). Given the known sites of hydrothermal venting in these regions, this dFe must have been transported thousands of kilometers away from its vent site to reach our sampling stations. Additionally, changes in the size partitioning of the hydrothermal dFe between soluble (Pacific Rise only leaks 0.02-1% of total Fe vented into the abyssal Pacific, this dFe persists thousands of kilometers away from the vent source with sufficient magnitude that hydrothermal vents can have far-field effects on global dFe distributions and inventories (≥3% of global aerosol dFe input).

  19. Studies on the concentrations of 55Fe in South Pacific Ocean water and marine organisms and in the Columbia River. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    Jennings, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of processes controlling the distribution of 55 Fe in the Columbia River ecosystem and in the Pacific Ocean. Iron-55 was found to be a unique tracer for particulate setting in the ocean. Data are included on the content of 55 Fe in Columbia River sediments and in samples of seawater and marine organisms collected at various depths from locations in the South Pacific Ocean. The highest concentrations were found in crustaceans and fishes from the mesopelogic and epipelozic zones. A biological model of 55 Fe distribution in fish was developed based on measurements of 55 Fe and 65 Zn in carp caught in the Columbia River

  20. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD, BT, and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South Atlantic Ocean from 1973-01-13 to 1983-03-14 (NODC Accession 8300091)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD, BT, and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and...

  1. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platform from 16 February 1991 to 98 December 1991 (NODC Accession 9200156)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from 16...

  2. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1987-04-07 to 1987-09-30 (NODC Accession 8700382)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07...

  3. Current meter and other data from current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North and South Pacific Ocean from 1984-06-28 to 1984-07-01 (NODC Accession 8500226)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from June 28, 1984 to July 1, 1984....

  4. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platform from 1990-02-23 to 1990-12-06 (NODC Accession 9200013)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from 23...

  5. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from DALE and other platforms using BT and XBT casts in the North / South Pacific Ocean from 09 November 1979 to 25 November 1985 (NODC Accession 8900063)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the DALE and other platforms in the North / South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 2013-10-25 to 2013-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0163186)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163186 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 2013-10-25 to...

  7. Temperature profile and other data from CTD casts in the South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1982-11-21 to 1983-07-24 (NODC Accession 8400113)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the South Pacific Ocean from 21 November 1982 to 24 July 1983. Data...

  8. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in South Pacific Ocean from BOTANY BAY and other platforms from 24 January 1991 to 20 November 1991 (NODC Accession 9400208)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from BOTANY BAY and other platforms in South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24 January...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-01-30 to 2006-03-14 (NODC Accession 0115593)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115593 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-01-30 to 2006-03-14...

  10. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data for the High Resolution XBT Network for PX37, PX10, and PX44 were collected by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography from March 2001 to June 2009 (NODC Accession 0056790)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from March 2001 to June 2009. Data were collected and...

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from USCGC POLAR SEA in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-02-04 to 1994-02-10 (NODC Accession 0116062)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0116062 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from USCGC POLAR SEA in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from unknown platforms in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-12-28 to 2014-02-21 (NCEI Accession 0160574)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160574 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from unknown platforms in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-10-16 to 2006-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157276)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157276 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean,...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-12-13 to 1995-02-01 (NODC Accession 0115020)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115020 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-10-16 to 2012-03-06 (NCEI Accession 0157351)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157351 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, Southern...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 1996-01-05 to 1996-03-10 (NODC Accession 0115155)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115155 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1993-04-04 to 1993-05-09 (NODC Accession 0115004)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115004 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean,...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SHIRASE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 1992-12-03 to 1993-03-19 (NODC Accession 0113597)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113597 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SHIRASE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 2015-01-05 to 2015-12-23 (NCEI Accession 0157326)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157326 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from TANGAROA in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1999-02-02 to 1999-02-28 (NCEI Accession 0155958)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155958 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from TANGAROA in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean,...

  1. 100% of the World Ocean Floor Mapped by 2030 - Contribution of the South and West Pacific Regional Data Assembly and Coordination Centre to the Seabed 2030 Initiative

    Lamarche, G.; Neil, H.; Stagpoole, V. M.; Greenland, A.; Mackay, K.; Black, J.; Griffin, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Seabed 2030 SaWPac Centre (South and West Pacific Ocean Regional Data Assembly and Coordination Centre) has been formed to generate new high resolution ocean floor maps of the western and southern Pacific Ocean. The centre is part of the joint Nippon Foundation and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) initiative to produce a definitive map of the World Ocean floor by 2030, empowering the world to make policy decisions, use the ocean sustainability and undertake scientific research based on detailed bathymetric information of the Earth's seabed. The SaWPac Centre is based at NIWA Wellington (New Zealand) and includes a collaborative partnership with GNS Science and Land Information New Zealand. It is responsible for the region from South America to Australia, north of latitude 50°S to 10° north of the Equator and the western part of the Northern Pacific Ocean to Russia. The region includes the world's deepest trenches and also covers some of the remotest oceans where bathymetric data form existing ship tracks is spaced up to 100 km apart. The challenge for the SaWPac Centre is to collate and combine all the available bathymetric data from the numerous nations that have surveyed in the region. The centre will also promote efforts to collect new data and contribute to map products generated by the Seabed 2030 global mapping project.

  2. Egg capsules of the dusky catshark Bythaelurus canescens (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Concha, F; Bustamante, C; Oddone, M C; Hernández, S; Lamilla, J

    2010-09-01

    The external morphology of the egg capsule of Bythaelurus canescens and its fixation to the substratum are described. Bythaelurus canescens egg capsules are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened, pale yellow in colour when fresh and covered by 12-15 longitudinal ridges. The anterior border of the capsule is straight, whereas the posterior border is semicircular. Two horns bearing long, coiled tendrils arise from the anterior and posterior ends of the capsule. The presence of longitudinal ridges and long coiled tendrils at both anterior and posterior ends of the capsule readily distinguish these egg capsules from those of other chondrichthyans occurring in the south-east Pacific Ocean. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Calcite production by Coccolithophores in the South East Pacific Ocean: from desert to jungle

    Beaufort, L.; Couapel, M.; Buchet, N.; Claustre, H.

    2007-09-01

    BIOSOPE cruise achieved an oceanographic transect from the Marquise Islands to the Peru-Chili upwelling (PCU) via the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG). Water samples from 6 depths in the euphotic zone were collected at 20 stations. The concentrations of suspended calcite particles, coccolithophores cells and detached coccoliths were estimated together with size and weight using an automatic polarizing microscope, a digital camera, and a collection of softwares performing morphometry and pattern recognition. Some of these softwares are new and described here for the first time. The coccolithophores standing stocks are usually low and reach maxima west of the PCU. The coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa spp. and Crenalithus spp. (Order Isochrysidales) represent 50% of all the suspended calcite particles detected in the size range 0.1-46 μm (21% of PIC in term of the calcite weight). The latter species are found to grow preferentially in the Chlorophyll maximum zone. In the SPG their maximum concentrations was found to occur between 150 and 200 m, which is very deep for these taxa. The weight and size of coccoliths and coccospheres are correlated. Large and heavy coccoliths and coccospheres are found in the regions with relative higher fertility in the Marquises Island and in the PCU. Small and light coccoliths and coccospheres are found west of the PCU. This distribution may correspond to that of the concentration of calcium and carbonate ions.

  4. Difference in the influence of Indo-Pacific Ocean heat content on South Asian Summer Monsoon intensity before and after 1976/1977

    Dong, Yujie; Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-05-01

    Monthly ocean temperature from ORAS4 datasets and atmospheric data from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I/II were used to analyze the relationship between the intensity of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and upper ocean heat content (HC) in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. The monsoon was differentiated into a Southwest Asian Summer Monsoon (SWASM) (2.5°-20°N, 35°-70°E) and Southeast Asian Summer Monsoon (SEASM) (2.5°-20°N, 70°-110°E). Results show that before the 1976/77 climate shift, the SWASM was strongly related to HC in the southern Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean. The southern Indian Ocean affected SWASM by altering the pressure gradient between southern Africa and the northern Indian Ocean and by enhancing the Somali cross-equatorial flow. The tropical Pacific impacted the SWASM through the remote forcing of ENSO. After the 1976/77 shift, there was a close relationship between equatorial central Pacific HC and the SEASM. However, before that shift, their relationship was weak.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  6. N2 fixation as a dominant new N source in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean (OUTPACE cruise)

    Caffin, Mathieu; Moutin, Thierry; Foster, Rachel Ann; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Michelangelo Doglioli, Andrea; Berthelot, Hugo; Guieu, Cécile; Grosso, Olivier; Helias-Nunige, Sandra; Leblond, Nathalie; Gimenez, Audrey; Petrenko, Anne Alexandra; de Verneil, Alain; Bonnet, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    We performed nitrogen (N) budgets in the photic layer of three contrasting stations representing different trophic conditions in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) Ocean during austral summer conditions (February-March 2015). Using a Lagrangian strategy, we sampled the same water mass for the entire duration of each long-duration (5 days) station, allowing us to consider only vertical exchanges for the budgets. We quantified all major vertical N fluxes both entering (N2 fixation, nitrate turbulent diffusion, atmospheric deposition) and leaving the photic layer (particulate N export). The three stations were characterized by a strong nitracline and contrasted deep chlorophyll maximum depths, which were lower in the oligotrophic Melanesian archipelago (MA, stations LD A and LD B) than in the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG, station LD C). N2 fixation rates were extremely high at both LD A (593 ± 51 µmol N m-2 d-1) and LD B (706 ± 302 µmol N m-2 d-1), and the diazotroph community was dominated by Trichodesmium. N2 fixation rates were lower (59 ± 16 µmol N m-2 d-1) at LD C, and the diazotroph community was dominated by unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacteria (UCYN). At all stations, N2 fixation was the major source of new N (> 90 %) before atmospheric deposition and upward nitrate fluxes induced by turbulence. N2 fixation contributed circa 13-18 % of primary production in the MA region and 3 % in the SPG water and sustained nearly all new primary production at all stations. The e ratio (e ratio = particulate carbon export / primary production) was maximum at LD A (9.7 %) and was higher than the e ratio in most studied oligotrophic regions (leading to N accumulation in the upper layer appears as a characteristic of the WTSP during the summer season.

  7. Picoplankton diversity in the South-East Pacific Ocean from cultures

    F. Le Gall

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off the Marquesas Islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we undertook a vigorous effort to isolate novel photosynthetic picoplanktonic eukaryotes. Two strategies were attempted on board: enrichment of filtered samples with culture medium and sorting of specific populations by flow cytometry based on size and chlorophyll fluorescence. Over 1900 pre-cultures were started and then further purified by flow cytometry, serial dilution or pipette isolation to yield a total of 212 strains. These strains were characterized morphologically and for more than 50% of them, genetically, through partial sequencing of the 18 S rRNA gene.

    Among the characterized strains, the largest number belongs to stramenopiles (Heterokontophyta with a record of 38 strains belonging to the species Pelagomonas calceolata (Pelagophyceae. Strains from the recently described genera Bolidomonas and Florenciella have been re-isolated for the first time since their description. Two other abundant groups are the Chlorophyta, especially Prasinophyceae, and the Haptophyta, especially the genera Phaeocystis and Emiliania. A limited number of heterotrophic flagellates have also been isolated, all of them belonging to groups containing known species. Finally, over a dozen of unicellular cyanobacterial Synechococcus strains have been obtained, some forming unusual short chains.

    Overall our strategy was quite successful since it allowed us to isolate a large number of picoplankton strains. Still it failed in two respects. First, apparently very few novel taxa have been obtained. One set of strains is related to Prasinoderma coloniale (Prasinococcales

  8. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  9. The Influence of Basaltic Islands on the Oceanic REE Distribution: A Case Study From the Tropical South Pacific

    Mario Molina-Kescher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Earth Elements (REEs have been widely used to investigate marine biogeochemical processes as well as the sources and mixing of water masses. However, there are still important uncertainties about the global aqueous REE cycle with respect to the contributions of highly reactive basaltic minerals originating from volcanic islands and the role of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD. Here we present dissolved REE concentrations obtained from waters at the island-ocean interface (including SGD, river, lagoon and coastal waters from the island of Tahiti and from three detailed open ocean profiles on the Manihiki Plateau (including neodymium (Nd isotope compositions, which are located in ocean currents downstream of Tahiti. Tahitian fresh waters have highly variable REE concentrations that likely result from variable water–rock interaction and removal by secondary minerals. In contrast to studies on other islands, the SGD samples do not exhibit elevated REE concentrations but have distinctive REE distributions and Y/Ho ratios. The basaltic Tahitian rocks impart a REE pattern to the waters characterized by a middle REE enrichment, with a peak at europium similar to groundwaters and coastal waters of other volcanic islands in the Pacific. However, the basaltic island REE characteristics (with the exception of elevated Y/Ho ratios are lost during transport to the Manihiki Plateau within surface waters that also exhibit highly radiogenic Nd isotope signatures. Our new data demonstrate that REE concentrations are enriched in Tahitian coastal water, but without multidimensional sampling, basaltic island Nd flux estimates range over orders of magnitude from relatively small to globally significant. Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW loses its characteristic Nd isotopic signature (−6 to −9 around the Manihiki Plateau as a consequence of mixing with South Equatorial Pacific Intermediate Water (SEqPIW, which shows more positive values (−1 to

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1996-10-21 to 1996-11-23 (NCEI Accession 0157233)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157233 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1997-02-02 to 1997-02-17 (NCEI Accession 0157416)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157416 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, PAR Sensor and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1997-11-25 to 1997-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0157301)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157301 includes Surface underway, biological, chemical, optical and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean and...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 1995-03-17 to 1995-04-27 (NCEI Accession 0157358)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157358 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 1997-01-12 to 1998-01-09 (NCEI Accession 0157323)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157323 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2002-01-18 to 2003-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0157376)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157376 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South...

  16. Physical, Chemical, and Biological CTD and Bottle data from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in Eastern Tropical South Pacific Ocean near Peru/Chile from 2013-06-24 to 2013-07-22 (NCEI Accession 0128141)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise NBP 1305 to the eastern tropical south pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using automated Multi-parameter Inorganic Carbon Analyzer (MICA) for autonomous measurement of pH, carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-02-13 to 2006-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0157411)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157411 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  18. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-08-09

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  19. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  20. Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Y. Huot

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The particulate scattering, bp, and backscattering, bbp, coefficients are determined by the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the scattering of light within the water column. For the remote observation of ocean color, bbp along with the total absorption coefficient govern the amount and spectral qualities of light leaving the sea surface. However, for the construction and validation of ocean color models measurements of bbp are still lacking, especially at low chlorophyll a concentrations ([Chl]. Here, we examine the relationships between spectral bbp and bp vs. [Chl] along an 8000 km transect crossing the Case 1 waters of the eastern South Pacific Gyre. In these waters, over the entire range of [Chl] encountered (~0.02–2 mg m3, both bbp and bp can be related to [Chl] by power functions (i.e. bp or bbp=α[Chl]β. Regression analyses are carried out to provide the parameters α and β for several wavelengths throughout the visible for both bbp and bp. When applied to the data, these functions retrieve the same fraction of variability in bbp and bp (coefficients of determination between 0.82 and 0.88. The bbp coefficient fall within the bounds of previous measurements at intermediate and high [Chl] recently published. Its dependence on [Chl] below ~0.1 mg m−3 is described for the first time with in situ data. The backscattering ratio (i.e. bbp/bp with values near 0.01 for all stations appears to be spectrally neutral and not significantly dependent on [Chl]. These results should foster the

  1. Aphotic N2 fixation along an oligotrophic to ultraoligotrophic transect in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Benavides, Mar; Shoemaker, Katyanne M.; Moisander, Pia H.; Niggemann, Jutta; Dittmar, Thorsten; Duhamel, Solange; Grosso, Olivier; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Hélias-Nunige, Sandra; Fumenia, Alain; Bonnet, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    The western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) Ocean has been recognized as a global hot spot of dinitrogen (N2) fixation. Here, as in other marine environments across the oceans, N2 fixation studies have focused on the sunlit layer. However, studies have confirmed the importance of aphotic N2 fixation activity, although until now only one had been performed in the WTSP. In order to increase our knowledge of aphotic N2 fixation in the WTSP, we measured N2 fixation rates and identified diazotrophic phylotypes in the mesopelagic layer along a transect spanning from New Caledonia to French Polynesia. Because non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs presumably need external dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources for their nutrition, we also identified DOM compounds using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) with the aim of searching for relationships between the composition of DOM and non-cyanobacterial N2 fixation in the aphotic ocean. N2 fixation rates were low (average 0.63 ± 0.07 nmol N L-1 d-1) but consistently detected across all depths and stations, representing ˜ 6-88 % of photic N2 fixation. N2 fixation rates were not significantly correlated with DOM compounds. The analysis of nifH gene amplicons revealed a wide diversity of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs, mostly matching clusters 1 and 3. Interestingly, a distinct phylotype from the major nifH subcluster 1G dominated at 650 dbar, coinciding with the oxygenated Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW). This consistent pattern suggests that the distribution of aphotic diazotroph communities is to some extent controlled by water mass structure. While the data available are still too scarce to elucidate the distribution and controls of mesopelagic non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs in the WTSP, their prevalence in the mesopelagic layer and the consistent detection of active N2 fixation activity at all depths sampled during our study suggest that aphotic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to fixed

  2. Aphotic N2 fixation along an oligotrophic to ultraoligotrophic transect in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean

    M. Benavides

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The western tropical South Pacific (WTSP Ocean has been recognized as a global hot spot of dinitrogen (N2 fixation. Here, as in other marine environments across the oceans, N2 fixation studies have focused on the sunlit layer. However, studies have confirmed the importance of aphotic N2 fixation activity, although until now only one had been performed in the WTSP. In order to increase our knowledge of aphotic N2 fixation in the WTSP, we measured N2 fixation rates and identified diazotrophic phylotypes in the mesopelagic layer along a transect spanning from New Caledonia to French Polynesia. Because non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs presumably need external dissolved organic matter (DOM sources for their nutrition, we also identified DOM compounds using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS with the aim of searching for relationships between the composition of DOM and non-cyanobacterial N2 fixation in the aphotic ocean. N2 fixation rates were low (average 0.63 ± 0.07 nmol N L−1 d−1 but consistently detected across all depths and stations, representing ∼ 6–88 % of photic N2 fixation. N2 fixation rates were not significantly correlated with DOM compounds. The analysis of nifH gene amplicons revealed a wide diversity of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs, mostly matching clusters 1 and 3. Interestingly, a distinct phylotype from the major nifH subcluster 1G dominated at 650 dbar, coinciding with the oxygenated Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW. This consistent pattern suggests that the distribution of aphotic diazotroph communities is to some extent controlled by water mass structure. While the data available are still too scarce to elucidate the distribution and controls of mesopelagic non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs in the WTSP, their prevalence in the mesopelagic layer and the consistent detection of active N2 fixation activity at all depths sampled during our study suggest that aphotic N2

  3. Evaluating the effect of oceanic striations on biogeochemistry in the eastern South Pacific

    Auger, P. A.; Belmadani, A.; Donoso, D.; Hormazabal, S.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, quasi-zonal mesoscale jet-like features or striations have been ubiquitously detected in the time-mean circulation of the world ocean using satellite altimetry and in situ data. Most likely the result of some organization of the mesoscale eddy field such as preferred eddy tracks, these striations may be able to advect and mix physical properties. Yet, their impact on biogeochemistry has not been assessed yet. Off central Chile, the interaction between striations and sharp background gradients of biogeochemical properties may spatially structure biogeochemistry, with potential implications for marine ecosystems. For instance, striations may affect the mean horizontal distribution of surface phytoplankton biomass in the coastal transition zone (CTZ), or the structure and variability of the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ). Here, we evaluate the expression of striations in satellite records of ocean color and in a set of numerically simulated biogeochemical tracers off central Chile (chlorophyll, carbon, primary production, oxygen, nutrients), averaged over the surface productive layer, the OMZ at intermediate depths or the water column. A multi-decadal hindcast simulation of the physical-biogeochemical dynamics was run over the period 1984-2013 using the ROMS-PISCES (for Regional Oceanic Modeling System - Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies) platform at an eddy-resolving resolution. Satellite data and model outputs are spatially high-pass filtered to remove the large-scale signal and evaluate the match between striations and biogeochemical tracer anomalies in the model and observations. The effect of striations on the mean shape of the zonal gradient of phytoplankton biomass in the CTZ between eutrophic coastal waters and oligotrophic offshore waters is then deduced. The fraction of tracer anomalies due to striations is quantified, and the structuring roles of stationary and transient striations are respectively explored by matching

  4. Organochlorine pollutants in small cetaceans from the Pacific and south Atlantic Oceans, November 1968-June 1976

    O' Shea, T.J.; Brownell, R.L. Jr.; Clark, D.R. Jr.; Walker, W.A.; Gay, M.L.; Lamont, T.G.

    1980-09-01

    Organochlorine residues were analyzed in blubber, brain, or muscle tissues of 69 individuals representing 10 species of small cetaceans. Collections were made from November 1968 through June 1976 at localities in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and along the coasts of California, Hawaii, Japan, and Uruguay, Relations of residue concentrations between tissues are described for DDE and PCBs in two dolphin species. sigma DDT and PCB residues in blubber of most of the 19 individuals of the five southern California species sampled exceed concentrations that are associated with reproductive impairment in pinnipeds, although the nature of such associations is not well defined. The sigma DDT residue of 2,695 ppm in blubber of one California coastal Tursiops truncatus is one of the highest concentrations reported in tissues of members of any population of wild mammals. Except for one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) from Maui, Hawaii, all individuals from all localities surveyed were contaminated with organochlorine compounds. Seventeen different organochlorines were detected; greatest diversity occurred near Japan and California. This is the first report of several of these compounds in tissues of any species of marine mammals. The o,p'-isomers and metabolites of DDT were detected unusually frequently. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in blubber of cetaceans from waters off countries where use of this pesticide has been relatively recent and ongoing were at least an order of magnitude higher than in cetaceans from United States waters.

  5. Plastid 16S rRNA gene diversity among eukaryotic picophytoplankton sorted by flow cytometry from the South Pacific Ocean.

    Xiao Li Shi

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes was investigated in the South East Pacific Ocean. Genetic libraries of the plastid 16S rRNA gene were constructed on picoeukaryote populations sorted by flow cytometry, using two different primer sets, OXY107F/OXY1313R commonly used to amplify oxygenic organisms, and PLA491F/OXY1313R, biased towards plastids of marine algae. Surprisingly, the two sets revealed quite different photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity patterns, which were moreover different from what we previously reported using the 18S rRNA nuclear gene as a marker. The first 16S primer set revealed many sequences related to Pelagophyceae and Dictyochophyceae, the second 16S primer set was heavily biased toward Prymnesiophyceae, while 18S sequences were dominated by Prasinophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Haptophyta. Primer mismatches with major algal lineages is probably one reason behind this discrepancy. However, other reasons, such as DNA accessibility or gene copy numbers, may be also critical. Based on plastid 16S rRNA gene sequences, the structure of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes varied along the BIOSOPE transect vertically and horizontally. In oligotrophic regions, Pelagophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prymnesiophyceae dominated. Pelagophyceae were prevalent at the DCM depth and Chrysophyceae at the surface. In mesotrophic regions Pelagophyceae were still important but Chlorophyta contribution increased. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new clade of Prasinophyceae (clade 16S-IX, which seems to be restricted to hyper-oligotrophic stations. Our data suggest that a single gene marker, even as widely used as 18S rRNA, provides a biased view of eukaryotic communities and that the use of several markers is necessary to obtain a complete image.

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2008-10-21 to 2011-03-05 (NODC Accession 0117499)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117499 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2011-10-22 to 2011-12-11 (NODC Accession 0115180)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115180 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from L'ASTROLABE in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  8. Nutrient availability and the ultimate control of the biological carbon pump in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Moutin, Thierry; Wagener, Thibaut; Caffin, Mathieu; Fumenia, Alain; Gimenez, Audrey; Baklouti, Melika; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Leblanc, Karine; Lefevre, Dominique; Helias Nunige, Sandra; Leblond, Nathalie; Grosso, Olivier; de Verneil, Alain

    2018-05-01

    Surface waters (0-200 m) of the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) were sampled along a longitudinal 4000 km transect (OUTPACE cruise, DOI: 10.17600/15000900) during the austral summer (stratified) period (18 February to 3 April 2015) between the Melanesian Archipelago (MA) and the western part of the SP gyre (WGY). Two distinct areas were considered for the MA, the western MA (WMA), and the eastern MA (EMA). The main carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools and fluxes provide a basis for the characterization of the expected trend from oligotrophy to ultra-oligotrophy, and the building of first-order budgets at the daily and seasonal timescales (using climatology). Sea surface chlorophyll a well reflected the expected oligotrophic gradient with higher values obtained at WMA, lower values at WGY, and intermediate values at EMA. As expected, the euphotic zone depth, the deep chlorophyll maximum, and nitracline depth deepen from west to east. Nevertheless, phosphaclines and nitraclines did not match. The decoupling between phosphacline and nitracline depths in the MA allows for excess P to be locally provided in the upper water by winter mixing. We found a significant biological soft tissue carbon pump in the MA sustained almost exclusively by dinitrogen (N2) fixation and essentially controlled by phosphate availability in this iron-rich environment. The MA appears to be a net sink for atmospheric CO2, while the WGY is in quasi-steady state. We suggest that the necessary excess P, allowing the success of nitrogen fixers and subsequent carbon production and export, is mainly brought to the upper surface by local deep winter convection at an annual timescale rather than by surface circulation. While the origin of the decoupling between phosphacline and nitracline remains uncertain, the direct link between local P upper water enrichment, N2 fixation, and organic carbon production and export, offers a possible shorter timescale than previously thought between

  9. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean

    Anderson, R.F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Hofmann, H.J.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, 231 Pa and 10 Be were measured in Holocene sediments from two cores collected off the west coast of South America, two cores from the East Pacific Rise, two from the equatorial Pacific and one from the south Pacific central gyre. Our results, together with data from 5 cores reported in the literature, show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of 10 Be from the Pacific Ocean. Deposition rates of 10 Be at three margin sites are more than an order of magnitude greater than at sites of red clay accumulation in the deep central Pacific. Deposition of 231 Pa is 4 to 5-fold greater at the margin sites. The residence time of 10 Be with respect to chemical scavenging, defined as its inventory in the water column divided by its rate of removal to the sediments, varies regionally from >1000 years at the red-clay sites in the deep central Pacific to ∝100 years at the margin sites. Different factors control boundary scavenging of Pa and Be. For example, scavenging of 231 Pa is enhanced by metal-oxide coatings of particles, whereas this seems to have little influence on the scavenging of 10 Be. (orig.)

  10. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from PROFESSOR MESYATSYEV, VOZROZHDENIYE and AKADEMIK KNIPOVICH in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1973-02-12 to 1990-04-09 (NODC Accession 9600100)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hydrochemical data in this accession was collected as part of Global Ocean Data Archeaology and Rescue (GODAR) project between February 12, 1973 and April 9,...

  11. N2 fixation as a dominant new N source in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean (OUTPACE cruise

    M. Caffin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed nitrogen (N budgets in the photic layer of three contrasting stations representing different trophic conditions in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP Ocean during austral summer conditions (February–March 2015. Using a Lagrangian strategy, we sampled the same water mass for the entire duration of each long-duration (5 days station, allowing us to consider only vertical exchanges for the budgets. We quantified all major vertical N fluxes both entering (N2 fixation, nitrate turbulent diffusion, atmospheric deposition and leaving the photic layer (particulate N export. The three stations were characterized by a strong nitracline and contrasted deep chlorophyll maximum depths, which were lower in the oligotrophic Melanesian archipelago (MA, stations LD A and LD B than in the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG, station LD C. N2 fixation rates were extremely high at both LD A (593 ± 51 µmol N m−2 d−1 and LD B (706 ± 302 µmol N m−2 d−1, and the diazotroph community was dominated by Trichodesmium. N2 fixation rates were lower (59 ± 16 µmol N m−2 d−1 at LD C, and the diazotroph community was dominated by unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacteria (UCYN. At all stations, N2 fixation was the major source of new N (> 90 % before atmospheric deposition and upward nitrate fluxes induced by turbulence. N2 fixation contributed circa 13–18 % of primary production in the MA region and 3 % in the SPG water and sustained nearly all new primary production at all stations. The e ratio (e ratio  =  particulate carbon export ∕ primary production was maximum at LD A (9.7 % and was higher than the e ratio in most studied oligotrophic regions (< 5 %, indicating a high efficiency of the WTSP to export carbon relative to primary production. The direct export of diazotrophs assessed by qPCR of the nifH gene in sediment traps represented up to

  12. Vertical variability of seawater DMS in the South Pacific Ocean and its implication for atmospheric and surface seawater DMS.

    Lee, Gangwoong; Park, Jooyoung; Jang, Yuwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Oh, Jae-Ryoung; Kim, Dongseon; Yi, Hi-Il; Kim, Tong-Yup

    2010-02-01

    Shipboard measurements of atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMS) and sea surface water DMS were performed aboard the R/V Onnuri across the South Pacific from Santiago, Chile to Fiji in February 2000. Hydrographic profiles of DMS, dissolved dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP(d)), and particulate DMSP(p) in the upper 200m were obtained at 16 stations along the track. Atmospheric and sea surface water DMS concentrations ranged from 3 to 442pptv and from 0.1 to 19.9nM, respectively; the mean values of 61pptv and 2.1nM, respectively, were comparable to those from previous studies in the South Pacific. The South Pacific Gyre was distinguished by longitudinal-vertical distributions of DMS, DMSP(d), and DMSP(p), which was thought to be associated with the characteristic modification of biological activities that occurs mainly due to significant change in water temperature. The averaged DMS maximum appeared at 40m depth, whereas DMSP(p) and DMSP(d) maxima coincided with that of dissolved oxygen content at 60-80m. The sea-to-air fluxes of DMS were estimated to be 0.4-11.3micromold(-1)m(-2) (mean=2.8micromold(-1)m(-2)). A fairly good correlation between atmospheric DMS and sea-to-air DMS flux indicated that atmospheric DMS concentration was more sensitive to change in physical parameters than its photochemical removal process or surface seawater DMS concentrations.

  13. Oceanographic profile plankton, temperature, salinity collected using bottle from various unknown small boats in the South Pacific Ocean from 1981 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0002138)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from unknown platform(s)in the Coastal S Pacific, Equatorial Pacific and other locations from...

  14. Biodiversity of nematode assemblages from deep-sea sediments of the Atacama Slope and Trench (South Pacific Ocean)

    Gambi, C.; Vanreusel, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nematode assemblages were investigated (in terms of size spectra, sex ratio, Shannon diversity, trophic structure and diversity, rarefaction statistics, maturity index, taxonomic diversity and taxonomic distinctness) at bathyal and hadal depths (from 1050 to 7800 m) in the deepest trench of the South Pacific Ocean: the Trench of Atacama. This area, characterised by very high concentrations of nutritionally-rich organic matter also at 7800-m depth, displayed characteristics typical of eutrophic systems and revealed high nematode densities (>6000 ind. 10 cm -2). Nematode assemblages from the Atacama Trench displayed a different composition than at bathyal depths. At bathyal depths 95 genera and 119 species were found (Comesomatidae, Cyatholaimidae, Microlaimidae, Desmodoridae and Xyalidae being dominant), whereas in the Atacama Trench only 29 genera and 37 species were encountered (dominated by Monhysteridae, Chromadoridae, Microlaimidae, Oxystominidae and Xyalidae). The genus Monhystera (24.4%) strongly dominated at hadal depths and Neochromadora, and Trileptium were observed only in the Atacama Trench, but not at bathyal depths. A reduction of the mean nematode size (by ca. 67%) was observed between bathyal and hadal depths. Since food availability was not a limiting factor in the Atacama Trench sediments, other causes are likely to be responsible for the reduction of nematode species richness and body size. The presence of a restricted number of families and genera in the Atacama Trench might indicate that hadal sediments limited nematode colonisation. Most of the genera reaching very high densities in Trench sediments (e.g., Monhystera) are opportunistic and were responsible for the significant decrease of the maturity index. The dominance of opportunists, which are known to be characterised by small sizes, might have contributed to the reduced nematode size at hadal depths. Shannon diversity and species richness decreased in hadal water depth and this pattern

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean, Southern Oceans and Tasman Sea from 2014-03-20 to 2014-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0157621)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157621 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, optical, physical and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific...

  16. Measurements of the total CO2 concentration and partial pressure of CO2 in seawater during WOCE expeditions in the South Pacific Ocean

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Rubin, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the first year of the grant, we participated in three WOCE expeditions (a total of 152 days at sea) in the South Pacific Ocean, and the field phase of the proposed investigation has been successfully completed. The total CO 2 concentration and pCO 2 were determined at sea in 4419 water samples collected at 422 stations. On the basis of the shipboard analyses of SIO Reference Solutions for CO, and a comparison with the results of previous expeditions, the overall precision of our total CO 2 determinations is estimated to be about ±2 uM/kg. The deep water data indicate that there is a CO 2 maximum centered about 2600 meters deep. This appears to represent a southward return flow from the North Pacific. The magnitude and distribution of the CO, maximum observed along the 135.0 degrees W meridian differ from those observed along the 150.5 degrees W meridian due to Tuamotu Archipelago, a topographic high which interferes with the southward return flow. The surface water pCO 2 data indicate that the South Pacific sub-tropical gyre water located between about 15 degrees S and 50 degrees S is a sink for atmospheric CO 2

  17. Invariance of the carbonate chemistry of the South China Sea from the glacial period to the Holocene and its implications to the Pacific Ocean carbonate system

    Luo, Yiming; Kienast, Markus; Boudreau, Bernard P.

    2018-06-01

    Substantial and correlated changes in marine carbonate (CaCO3) content of oceanic sediments commonly accompany the transitions from cold glacial periods to warm interglacial periods. The South China Sea (SCS) is said to be ocean-dominated at depth, and its CaCO3 records should reflect and preserve the effects of changes in the carbonate chemistry of the (western) Pacific Ocean. Using published and newly acquired CaCO3 data and a model for carbonate compensation dynamics, we show that a significant change with respect to carbonate saturation is unlikely to have occurred in the SCS during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Instead, the results from a carbonate deposition model argue that the saturation state of the SCS was largely invariant; a separate diagenetic model argues that changes in sediment CaCO3 content can be explained by alterations in lithogenic input. In turn, this could indicate that the carbonate ion concentration of the (western) Pacific at depths shallower than the sill to the SCS (ca. 2,400 m) has not changed appreciably between the last glacial period and the present interglacial.

  18. Response to UVB radiation and oxidative stress of marine bacteria isolated from South Pacific Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

    Matallana-Surget, S; Villette, C; Intertaglia, L; Joux, F; Bourrain, M; Lebaron, P

    2012-12-05

    Marine bacterial strains isolated from South Pacific and Mediterranean Sea were studied for their resistance to UVB radiation, their repair capacity under photoreactivating light, as well as their oxidative stress response using concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), as an oxidizer. A total of 30 marine bacteria were isolated from the hyper-oligotrophic waters of the South Pacific Gyre to the eutrophic waters of the Chilean coast during the BIOSOPE cruise (2004), and 10 strains from surface Mediterranean coastal waters. One third of bacteria presented a high resistance to UVB and almost all isolates presented an efficient post-irradiation recovery. Only few strains showed cell survival to high concentration of H(2)O(2). No correlation between the sampling sites and the bacterial UVB resistance was observed. Two marine bacteria, Erythrobacter flavus and Ruegeria mobilis, were of particular interest, presenting a good response to the three parameters (UVB and H(2)O(2) resistance/efficient repair). Unexpectedly, two resistant strains were again identified as Ruegeria species underlining that this geographically widespread genus, resist to UVB regardless the environment from which the isolates originate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards sustainable fishery management for skates in South America: The genetic population structure of Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma (Chondrichthyes, Rajiformes in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    Carolina Vargas-Caro

    Full Text Available The longnose skates (Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma are the main component of the elasmobranch fisheries in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Both species are considered to be a single stock by the fishery management in Chile however, little is known about the level of demographic connectivity within the fishery. In this study, we used a genetic variation (560 bp of the control region of the mitochondrial genome and ten microsatellite loci to explore population connectivity at five locations along the Chilean coast. Analysis of Z. chilensis populations revealed significant genetic structure among off-shore locations (San Antonio, Valdivia, two locations in the Chiloé Interior Sea (Puerto Montt and Aysén and Punta Arenas in southern Chile. For example, mtDNA haplotype diversity was similar across off-shore locations and Punta Arenas (h = 0.46-0.50, it was significantly different to those in the Chiloé Interior Sea (h = 0.08. These results raise concerns about the long-term survival of the species within the interior sea, as population resilience will rely almost exclusively on self-recruitment. In contrast, little evidence of genetic structure was found for D. trachyderma. Our results provide evidence for three management units for Z. chilensis, and we recommend that separate management arrangements are required for each of these units. However, there is no evidence to discriminate the extant population of Dipturus trachyderma as separate management units. The lack of genetic population subdivision for D. trachyderma appears to correspond with their higher dispersal ability and more offshore habitat preference.

  20. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1994-02-14 to 1994-04-05 (NODC Accession 0116067)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116067 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1994-02-14 to...

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2000-02-15 to 2000-03-24 (NODC Accession 0116066)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116066 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2000-02-15 to...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 (NODC Accession 0109920)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109920 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2009-11-21 to 2010-02-11 and...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2003-08-03 to 2003-10-16 (NODC Accession 0108122)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108122 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2003-08-03...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-10-20 to 1997-11-24 (NODC Accession 0116068)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116068 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-10-20 to...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from time series observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Polaris II in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-08-29 to 2006-10-24 (NODC Accession 0112883)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112883 includes time series data collected from Polaris II in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-08-29 to 2006-10-24. These data include Partial...

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1996-08-30 to 1996-09-24 (NODC Accession 0116063)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116063 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1996-08-30 to...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-04-04 to 1997-05-12 (NODC Accession 0116065)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116065 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-04-04 to...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the FRANKLIN in the South Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-24 to 2001-07-07 (NODC Accession 0108083)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108083 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the South Pacific Ocean from 2001-05-24 to 2001-07-07...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-25 to 1994-02-19 (NODC Accession 0115762)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115762 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-25 to...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the Coral Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-03-27 to 1994-06-25 (NODC Accession 0115761)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115761 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the Coral Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-03-27...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING STRATUS_85W_20S, in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-10-16 to 2015-04-03 (NODC Accession 0100075)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100075 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING STRATUS_85W_20S in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-01 to 1992-09-15 (NODC Accession 0115700)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115700 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-01 to 1992-09-15...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-12-02 to 1998-01-03 (NODC Accession 0116136)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116136 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ROGER REVELLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-12-02 to...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 1992-05-02 to 1992-07-30 (NODC Accession 0115018)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115018 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 1992-05-02...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the South Pacific Ocean from 1996-04-12 to 1996-06-10 (NODC Accession 0112341)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112341 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 2005-08-21 to 2005-10-06 (NODC Accession 0108071)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108071 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 2005-08-21 to 2005-10-06...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2015-12-06 to 2016-01-02 (NCEI Accession 0157474)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157474 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AKADEMIK IOFFE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-02-14 to 1992-04-06 (NODC Accession 0115013)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115013 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AKADEMIK IOFFE in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-02-14 to...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to 1991-08-25 (NODC Accession 0115171)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115171 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman Sea from 2003-08-03 to 2003-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0160573)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160573 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, South Pacific Ocean and Tasman...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11 (NCEI Accession 0144244)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144244 includes Surface underway data collected from MELVILLE in the South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-05 to 2010-02-11. These data include AIR...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-01-13 to 1997-02-11 (NODC Accession 0116069)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116069 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997-01-13 to...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30 (NODC Accession 0100218)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100218 includes Surface underway data collected from Munida in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-26 to 2006-07-30. These data include Partial...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0112347)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112347 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0113547)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113547 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  6. Spatial variability of phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Subtropical South Pacific Ocean: comparison between in situ and predicted data

    J. Ras

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the BIOSOPE cruise in 2004, the spatial distribution and structure of phytoplankton pigments was investigated along a transect crossing the ultra-oligotrophic South Pacific Subtropical Gyre (SPSG between the Marquesas Archipelago (141° W–8° S and the Chilean upwelling (73° W–34° S. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method was improved in order to be able to accurately quantify pigments over such a large range of trophic levels, and especially from strongly oligotrophic conditions. Seven diagnostic pigments were associated to three phytoplankton size classes (pico-, nano and microphytoplankton. The total chlorophyll-α concentrations [TChlα] in surface waters were the lowest measured in the centre of the gyre, reaching 0.017 mg m−3. Pigment concentrations at the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum (DCM were generally 10 fold the surface values. Results were compared to predictions from a global parameterisation based on remotely sensed surface [TChlα]. The agreement between the in situ and predicted data for such contrasting phytoplankton assemblages was generally good: throughout the oligotrophic gyre system, picophytoplankton (prochlorophytes and cyanophytes and nanophytoplankton were the dominant classes. Relative bacteriochlorophyll-α concentrations varied around 2%. The transition zone between the Marquesas and the SPSG was also well predicted by the model. However, some regional characteristics have been observed where measured and modelled data differ. Amongst these features is the extreme depth of the DCM (180 m towards the centre of the gyre, the presence of a deep nanoflagellate population beneath the DCM or the presence of a prochlorophyte-enriched population in the formation area of the high salinity South Pacific Tropical Water. A coastal site sampled in the eutrophic upwelling zone, characterised by recently upwelled water, was significantly and unusually enriched in picoeucaryotes, in

  7. Anthopleura radians, a new species of sea anemone (Cnidaria: Actiniaria: Actiniidae from northern Chile, with comments on other species of the genus from the South Pacific Ocean

    Carlos Spano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sea anemone, Anthopleura radians n. sp., is described from the intertidal zone of northern Chile and the taxonomic status of the other Anthopleura species from the South Pacific are discussed. A. radians n. sp. is characterized by a yellow-whitish and brown checkerboard-like pattern on the oral disc, adhesive verrucae along the entire column and a series of marginal projections, each bearing a brightly-colored acrorhagus on the oral surface. This is the seventh species of Anthopleura described from the South Pacific Ocean; each one distinguished by a particular combination of differences related to their coloration pattern, presence of zooxanthellae, cnidae, and mode of reproduction. Some of these species have not been reported since their original description and thus require to be taxonomically validated. A. hermaphroditica and A. aureoradiata are synonyms considering the lack of differences seen between live specimens, museum collections and published records. A. radians could also be a junior synonym of A. minima, however, no type material was found for testing this hypothesis. Furthermore, it is crucial to designate neotypes for A. inconspicua, A. rosea and A. minima since there are no name-bearing types reported for these species.

  8. Circum-Pacific accretion of oceanic terranes to continental blocks: accretion of the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite to the E Gondwana continental margin, South Island, New Zealand

    Robertson, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens, in part, grow as a result of the accretion of oceanic terranes to pre-existing continental blocks, as in the circum-Pacific and central Asian regions. However, the accretionary processes involved remain poorly understood. Here, we consider settings in which oceanic crust formed in a supra-subduction zone setting and later accreted to continental terranes (some, themselves of accretionary origin). Good examples include some Late Cretaceous ophiolites in SE Turkey, the Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, W USA and the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite of South Island, New Zealand. In the last two cases, the ophiolites are depositionally overlain by coarse clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g. Permian Upukerora Formation of South Island, NZ) that then pass upwards into very thick continental margin fore-arc basin sequences (Great Valley sequence, California; Matai sequence, South Island, NZ). Field observations, together with petrographical and geochemical studies in South Island, NZ, summarised here, provide evidence of terrane accretion processes. In a proposed tectonic model, the Early Permian Dun Mountain ophiolite was created by supra-subduction zone spreading above a W-dipping subduction zone (comparable to the present-day Izu-Bonin arc and fore arc, W Pacific). The SSZ oceanic crust in the New Zealand example is inferred to have included an intra-oceanic magmatic arc, which is no longer exposed (other than within a melange unit in Southland), but which is documented by petrographic and geochemical evidence. An additional subduction zone is likely to have dipped westwards beneath the E Gondwana margin during the Permian. As a result, relatively buoyant Early Permian supra-subduction zone oceanic crust was able to dock with the E Gondwana continental margin, terminating intra-oceanic subduction (although the exact timing is debatable). The amalgamation ('soft collision') was accompanied by crustal extension of the newly accreted oceanic slab, and

  9. A critical evaluation of the upper ocean heat budget in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data for the south central equatorial Pacific

    Liu Hailong; Liu Xiangcui [State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang Minghua [Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lin Wuyin, E-mail: lhl@lasg.iap.ac.cn [Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Coupled ocean-atmospheric models suffer from the common bias of a spurious rain belt south of the central equatorial Pacific throughout the year. Observational constraints on key processes responsible for this bias are scarce. The recently available reanalysis from a coupled model system for the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data is a potential benchmark for climate models in this region. Its suitability for model evaluation and validation, however, needs to be established. This paper examines the mixed layer heat budget and the ocean surface currents-key factors for the sea surface temperature control in the double Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in the central Pacific-from 5 deg. S to 10 deg. S and 170 deg. E to 150 deg. W. Two independent approaches are used. The first approach is through comparison of CFSR data with collocated station observations from field experiments; the second is through the residual analysis of the heat budget of the mixed layer. We show that the CFSR overestimates the net surface flux in this region by 23 W m{sup -2}. The overestimated net surface flux is mainly due to an even larger overestimation of shortwave radiation by 44 W m{sup -2}, which is compensated by a surface latent heat flux overestimated by 14 W m{sup -2}. However, the quality of surface currents and the associated oceanic heat transport in CFSR are not compromised by the surface flux biases, and they agree with the best available estimates. The uncertainties of the observational data from field experiments are also briefly discussed in the present study.

  10. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  11. Dynamics and controls of heterotrophic prokaryotic production in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean: links with diazotrophic and photosynthetic activity

    Van Wambeke, France; Gimenez, Audrey; Duhamel, Solange; Dupouy, Cécile; Lefevre, Dominique; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Moutin, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    Heterotrophic prokaryotic production (BP) was studied in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) using the leucine technique, revealing spatial and temporal variability within the region. Integrated over the euphotic zone, BP ranged from 58 to 120 mg C m-2 d-1 within the Melanesian Archipelago, and from 31 to 50 mg C m-2 d-1 within the western subtropical gyre. The collapse of a bloom was followed during 6 days in the south of Vanuatu using a Lagrangian sampling strategy. During this period, rapid evolution was observed in the three main parameters influencing the metabolic state: BP, primary production (PP) and bacterial growth efficiency. With N2 fixation being one of the most important fluxes fueling new production, we explored relationships between BP, PP and N2 fixation rates over the WTSP. The contribution of N2 fixation rates to bacterial nitrogen demand ranged from 3 to 81 %. BP variability was better explained by the variability of N2 fixation rates than by that of PP in surface waters of the Melanesian Archipelago, which were characterized by N-depleted layers and low DIP turnover times (TDIP 100 h), deeper in the Melanesian Archipelago, or within the entire euphotic zone in the subtropical gyre. The bacterial carbon demand to gross primary production ratio ranged from 0.75 to 3.1. These values are discussed in the framework of various assumptions and conversion factors used to estimate this ratio, including the methodological errors, the daily variability of BP, the bacterial growth efficiency and one bias so far not considered: the ability for Prochlorococcus to assimilate leucine in the dark.

  12. Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans

    D. Stramski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We have examined several approaches for estimating the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon, POC, from optical measurements of spectral remote-sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ, using field data collected in tropical and subtropical waters of the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans. These approaches include a direct empirical relationship between POC and the blue-to-green band ratio of reflectance, RrsB/Rrs(555, and two-step algorithms that consist of relationships linking reflectance to an inherent optical property IOP (beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient and POC to the IOP. We considered two-step empirical algorithms that exclusively include pairs of empirical relationships and two-step hybrid algorithms that consist of semianalytical models and empirical relationships. The surface POC in our data set ranges from about 10 mg m−3 within the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre to 270 mg m−3 in the Chilean upwelling area, and ancillary data suggest a considerable variation in the characteristics of particulate assemblages in the investigated waters. The POC algorithm based on the direct relationship between POC and RrsB/Rrs(555 promises reasonably good performance in the vast areas of the open ocean covering different provinces from hyperoligotrophic and oligotrophic waters within subtropical gyres to eutrophic coastal upwelling regimes characteristic of eastern ocean boundaries. The best error statistics were found for power function fits to the data of POC vs. Rrs(443/Rrs(555 and POC vs. Rrs(490/Rrs(555. For our data set that includes over 50 data pairs, these relationships are characterized by the mean normalized bias of about 2% and the normalized root mean square error of about 20%. We

  13. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  14. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from the SNP-1 in the Coastal South Pacific and South Pacific in 1976 (NODC Accession 0001483)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the SNP-1 in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24...

  15. Unprecedented evidence for high viral abundance and lytic activity in coral reef waters of the South Pacific Ocean

    Jérôme P. Payet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite nutrient-depleted conditions, coral reef waters harbor abundant and diverse microbes; as major agents of microbial mortality, viruses are likely to influence microbial processes in these ecosystems. However, little is known about marine viruses in these rapidly changing ecosystems. Here we examined spatial and short-term temporal variability in marine viral abundance and viral lytic activity across various reef habitats surrounding Moorea Island (French Polynesia in the South Pacific. Water samples were collected along 4 regional cross-reef transects and during a time-series in Opunohu Bay. Results revealed high viral abundance (range: 5.6 x 106 – 3.6 x 107 viruses ml-1 and lytic viral production (range: 1.5 x 109 – 9.2 x 1010 viruses l-1 d-1. Flow cytometry revealed that viral assemblages were composed of three subsets that each displayed distinct spatiotemporal relationships with nutrient concentrations and autotrophic and heterotrophic microbial abundances. The results highlight dynamic shifts in viral community structure and imply that each of these three subsets is ecologically important and likely to infect distinct microbial hosts in reef waters. Based on viral-reduction approach, we estimate that lytic viruses were responsible for the removal of ca. 24% to 367% of bacterial standing stock d-1 and the release of ca. 1.1 to 62 µg of organic carbon l-1 d-1 in reef waters. Overall, this work demonstrates the highly dynamic distribution of viruses and their critical roles in controlling microbial mortality and nutrient cycling in coral reef water ecosystems.

  16. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  17. The IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean expedition

    Povinec, P.P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) started in 1995 a five-year project 'Research on World-wide Marine Radioactivity', generously supported by the Government of Japan. In the framework of the project, IAEA-MEL conducted the 'IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean Expedition' to the NW Pacific Ocean from 21 October to 20 November, 1997. The objectives of the expedition were to provide new data on the current marine radioactivity in order to compare them with data sets obtained during national and international surveys at sites used for radioactive waste dumping or nuclear bomb testing in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

  18. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the TOGA Area - Pacific, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-03-19 to 1992-09-24 (NODC Accession 9700039)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical, hydrophysical, and other data were collected from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from March 19, 1992 to September 24, 1992. Data were submitted by Dr. Curt...

  19. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  20. Air-sea interaction in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Allison, L. J.; Steranka, J.; Holub, R. J.; Hansen, J.; Godshall, F. A.; Prabhakara, C.

    1972-01-01

    Charts of 3-month sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean were produced for the period 1949 to 1970. The anomalies along the United States and South American west coasts and in the eastern tropical Pacific appeared to be oscillating in phase during this period. Similarly, the satellite-derived cloudiness for each of four quadrants of the Pacific Ocean (130 deg E to 100 deg W, 30 deg N to 25 deg S) appeared to be oscillating in phase. In addition, a global tropical cloudiness oscillation from 30 deg N to 30 deg S was noted from 1965 to 1970, by using monthly satellite television nephanalyses. The SST anomalies were found to have a good degree of correlation both positive and negative with the following monthly geophysical parameters: (1) satellite-derived cloudiness, (2) strength of the North and South Pacific semipermanent anticyclones, (3) tropical Pacific island rainfall, and (4) Darwin surface pressure. Several strong direct local and crossequatorial relationships were noted. In particular, the high degree of correlation between the tropical island rainfall and the SST anomalies (r = +0.93) permitted the derivation of SST's for the tropical Pacific back to 1905. The close occurrence of cold tropical SST and North Pacific 700-mb positive height anomalies with central United States drought conditions was noted.

  1. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  2. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  3. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  4. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-12 to 1966-07-19 (NODC Accession 6600091)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected North and South Pacific...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-12-29 to 2010-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0156926)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0156926 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-12-31 to 2013-12-19 (NCEI Accession 0163187)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163187 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from TAO165E8S and TAO165E_8S in the South Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-22 to 2011-11-15 (NODC Accession 0117073)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117073 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from TAO165E8S and TAO165E_8S in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING TAO170W and TAO170W0N in the South Pacific Ocean from 2005-07-04 to 2011-02-04 (NODC Accession 0100078)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100078 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING TAO170W and TAO170W0N in the South Pacific Ocean from...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South China Sea from 2012-05-13 to 2012-08-26 (NCEI Accession 0144304)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144304 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South...

  10. Notes on some Indo-Pacific Pontoniinae III-IX descriptions of some new genera and species from the Western Indian Ocean and the South China Sea

    Bruce, A.J.

    1967-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 1 III. Anapontonia denticauda Bruce, 1966, from the western Indian Ocean . . 2 IV. Mesopontonia gorgoniophila gen. nov., sp. nov., from the South China Sea 13 V. Metapontonia fungiacola gen. nov., sp. nov., from the western Indian Ocean 23 VI. The genus

  11. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  12. Moruroa and us: Experiences of Polynesian people during the thirty years of nuclear weapons tests in the South Pacific (Ocean)

    Vries, P. de; Seur, H.

    1997-01-01

    This report is separated in nine chapters. In the chapters 2 and 3 we find the results of an inquiry got from 737 ancient workers of the sites. The chapter 4 studies the case of the Island of Mangareva in the Gambier archipelago, island situated at 500 km from Moruroa, the economical, sociological and cultural effects of nuclear weapons tests are analyzed. The chapter number 5 shows the different points of view got from institutions or government officials. In the chapter 6, the elements of public debate on the situation of the CEP ( Pacific study center) and the tests are analyzed in a chronological order on giving a particular importance to the way whom Polynesian people have been informed. The chapter 7 examines the evolution of the scientific debate related to the marine fauna poisoning, the radioactive contamination and the ciguatera. The chapter 8 is centered on the risks perception by the Polynesian society and on the different kinds of resistance at the CEP. In the last chapter, a certain number of conclusions and recommends are given. (N.C.)

  13. Field Validation of Habitat Suitability Models for Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems in the South Pacific Ocean: Implications for the use of Broad-scale Models in Fisheries Management

    Anderson, O. F.; Guinotte, J. M.; Clark, M. R.; Rowden, A. A.; Mormede, S.; Davies, A. J.; Bowden, D.

    2016-02-01

    Spatial management of vulnerable marine ecosystems requires accurate knowledge of their distribution. Predictive habitat suitability modelling, using species presence data and a suite of environmental predictor variables, has emerged as a useful tool for inferring distributions outside of known areas. However, validation of model predictions is typically performed with non-independent data. In this study, we describe the results of habitat suitability models constructed for four deep-sea reef-forming coral species across a large region of the South Pacific Ocean using MaxEnt and Boosted Regression Tree modelling approaches. In order to validate model predictions we conducted a photographic survey on a set of seamounts in an un-sampled area east of New Zealand. The likelihood of habitat suitable for reef forming corals on these seamounts was predicted to be variable, but very high in some regions, particularly where levels of aragonite saturation, dissolved oxygen, and particulate organic carbon were optimal. However, the observed frequency of coral occurrence in analyses of survey photographic data was much lower than expected, and patterns of observed versus predicted coral distribution were not highly correlated. The poor performance of these broad-scale models is attributed to lack of recorded species absences to inform the models, low precision of global bathymetry models, and lack of data on the geomorphology and substrate of the seamounts at scales appropriate to the modelled taxa. This demonstrates the need to use caution when interpreting and applying broad-scale, presence-only model results for fisheries management and conservation planning in data poor areas of the deep sea. Future improvements in the predictive performance of broad-scale models will rely on the continued advancement in modelling of environmental predictor variables, refinements in modelling approaches to deal with missing or biased inputs, and incorporation of true absence data.

  14. Artificial Radionuclides Database in the Pacific Ocean: HAM Database

    Michio Aoyama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The database “Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean and its Marginal Seas”, or HAM database, has been created. The database includes 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu concentration data from the seawater of the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas with some measurements from the sea surface to the bottom. The data in the HAM database were collected from about 90 literature citations, which include published papers; annual reports by the Hydrographic Department, Maritime Safety Agency, Japan; and unpublished data provided by individuals. The data of concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu have been accumulating since 1957–1998. The present HAM database includes 7737 records for 137Cs concentration data, 3972 records for 90Sr concentration data, and 2666 records for 239,240Pu concentration data. The spatial variation of sampling stations in the HAM database is heterogeneous, namely, more than 80% of the data for each radionuclide is from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, while a relatively small portion of data is from the South Pacific. This HAM database will allow us to use these radionuclides as significant chemical tracers for oceanographic study as well as the assessment of environmental affects of anthropogenic radionuclides for these 5 decades. Furthermore, these radionuclides can be used to verify the oceanic general circulation models in the time scale of several decades.

  15. Why the South Pacific Convergence Zone is diagonal

    Van Der Wiel, Karin; Matthews, Adrian; Joshi, Manoj; Stevens, David

    2016-01-01

    During austral summer, the majority of precipitation over the Pacific Ocean is concentrated in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The surface boundary conditions required to support the diagonally (northwest-southeast) oriented SPCZ are determined through a series of experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. Continental configuration and orography do not have a significant influence on SPCZ orientation and strength. The key necessary boundary condition is the zonally ...

  16. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected via time series monitoring from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to 2004-11-23 (NODC Accession 0100079)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100079 includes chemical, time series and underway - surface data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  17. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    1987-03-01

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17 th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 [es

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-01-06 to 2010-09-17 (NODC Accession 0115170)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115170 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the North Pacific Ocean and...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-01-17 to 2007-02-26 (NODC Accession 0112331)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112331 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-14 to 2004-02-26 (NODC Accession 0112283)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112283 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-20 to 2004-02-06 (NODC Accession 0112210)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112210 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-06-16 to 2004-08-13 (NODC Accession 0112212)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112212 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-10-10 to 2001-12-06 (NODC Accession 0115281)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115281 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-07-06 to 2010-08-22 (NODC Accession 0109921)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109921 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-02-24 to 1992-05-19 (NODC Accession 0117498)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117498 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1998-12-29 to 1999-02-01 (NODC Accession 0112349)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112349 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-07-05 to 1993-09-02 (NODC Accession 0115008)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115008 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2005-06-15 to 2005-08-12 (NODC Accession 0112215)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112215 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-01-19 to 2001-03-09 (NODC Accession 0115321)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115321 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2003-07-14 to 2003-08-01 (NODC Accession 0112282)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112282 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2005-07-08 to 2005-07-28 (NODC Accession 0112288)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112288 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2008-01-17 to 2008-02-28 (NODC Accession 0112334)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112334 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-06-25 to 2002-08-01 (NODC Accession 0112204)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112204 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2003-06-25 to 2003-08-07 (NODC Accession 0112208)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112208 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-06-30 to 2006-07-20 (NODC Accession 0112292)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112292 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-01-13 to 2006-02-22 (NODC Accession 0112290)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112290 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-07-04 to 2004-07-21 (NODC Accession 0112285)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112285 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2008-01-22 to 2008-03-04 (NODC Accession 0112297)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112297 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-01-17 to 2002-03-06 (NODC Accession 0115278)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115278 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  20. Nutrients and temperature profile data from XBT and CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), from 06 January 2000 to 08 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000858)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using XBT and CTD casts from the R/V MIRAI in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas from 06 January...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-01 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0144538)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144538 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2004-01-02 to 2004-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148768)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148768 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific...

  3. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in Indian Ocean and N / S Pacific Ocean from ICEBIRD and other platforms from 02 January 1993 to 01 January 1994 (NODC Accession 9400207)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from ICEBIRD and other platforms in Indian Ocean and North / South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  4. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  5. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  6. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the 3 Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (INFCIRC-331) adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session in Suva on 8 August 1986. The treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  7. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    1992-01-01

    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  8. Sea-to-air flux of dimethyl sulfide in the South and North Pacific Ocean as measured by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled with the gradient flux technique

    Omori, Yuko; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kohei; Iwata, Toru; Kameyama, Sohiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Gamo, Toshitaka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Furuya, Ken

    2017-07-01

    Exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) between the surface ocean and the lower atmosphere was examined by using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry coupled with the gradient flux (PTR-MS/GF) system. We deployed the PTR-MS/GF system and observed vertical gradients of atmospheric DMS just above the sea surface in the subtropical and transitional South Pacific Ocean and the subarctic North Pacific Ocean. In total, we obtained 370 in situ profiles, and of these we used 46 data sets to calculate the sea-to-air flux of DMS. The DMS flux determined was in the range from 1.9 to 31 μmol m-2 d-1 and increased with wind speed and biological activity, in reasonable accordance with previous observations in the open ocean. The gas transfer velocity of DMS derived from the PTR-MS/GF measurements was similar to either that of DMS determined by the eddy covariance technique or that of insoluble gases derived from the dual tracer experiments, depending on the observation sites located in different geographic regions. When atmospheric conditions were strongly stable during the daytime in the subtropical ocean, the PTR-MS/GF observations captured a daytime versus nighttime difference in DMS mixing ratios in the surface air overlying the ocean surface. The difference was mainly due to the sea-to-air DMS emissions and stable atmospheric conditions, thus affecting the gradient of DMS. This indicates that the DMS gradient is strongly controlled by diurnal variations in the vertical structure of the lower atmosphere above the ocean surface.

  9. Temperature, salinity, and other data collected using bottle, CTD, and XBT casts in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean from 12 April 1960 to 27 October 1999 (NODC Accession 0000214)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and other data were collected using bottle, CTD, and XBT casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South Pacific Ocean from April 12,...

  10. Physical, currents, nutrients, and other data from bottle and GEK casts from the FUJI and SHIRASE in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from 06 December 1965 to 10 January 1994 (NODC Accession 0000039)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, currents, nutrients, and other data were collected from bottle and GEK casts from the FUJI and SHIRASE in the Indian Ocean and other locations from 06...

  11. Profile data collected from CTDs aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette in the South Pacific Ocean near American Samoa from 2004-03-03 to 2004-03-15 (NODC Accession 0014889)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecosystems and Oceanography Division of the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  12. Temperature, salinity, species identification, nutrient profiles and meteorological data collected by bottle, CTD, and plankton net on multiple cruises in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea from 10/15/1970 - 02/13/1987 (NODC Accession 0000088)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, species identification, and other data were collected from XIANG YANG HONG 14 and other platforms using net, bottle, and CTD casts in the Pacific Ocean...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Micro-porous membrane equilibrator and other instruments from WAKATAKA MARU in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2011-06-10 to 2011-12-06 (NCEI Accession 0157428)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157428 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from WAKATAKA MARU in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific...

  14. The Ecological Impacts of Marine Plastic Debris in the South Pacific Region

    Chowra, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The population in the Pacific Islands region is vastly dependant on their oceanic resources, for food, protection and economic income. Today the Pacific Ocean faces many threats that could risk the living hood of its population. This study aims to map the extent of plastic pollution in the South Pacific and possible measurements against it. The study will also be focused on plastic shopping bags and try to assess the most environmentally friendly option. This will be achieved by literature re...

  15. Drift pumice in the Indian and South Atlantic oceans

    Frick, C.; Kent, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-three samples of drift pumice, collected at the coasts of South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Cocos Islands, Australia, Indonesia, Brazil, Marion Island and Bouvet Island, were investigated petrographically and geochemically with a view to establishing the possible source areas. Geochemically five distinct groups could be distinguished and some could be liked to specific eruptions in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Group A pumice originated from a submarine eruption off Zavodovski Island in the South Sandwich Island Group in 1962. The pumice in Group B occurs mainly on the beaches bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and was found on the west coast of South Africa, on the sea floor south-west of South Africa, and in Brazil. The source of this group is unknown, but all the evidence indicates that it must have been from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean. The Group C pumice was found in the southern Indian Ocean, probably from the Mid-Indian Ridge. The fourth group originated from a submarine eruption along the Tonga Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Group E, which is by far the most homogeneous, includes samples from Australia, the Indian Ocean islands, East and South Africa and samples of the undisputed Krakatoan origin. Specimens from the Krakatoan eruption are still the most abundant type of drift pumice that can be found

  16. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and another platforms in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South Pacific Ocean from 1988-10-31 to 1989-07-26 (NODC Accession 8900197)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South...

  17. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1987-05-20 to 1992-04-19 (NODC Accession 9200105)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING TAO125W and MOORING_TAO125W_0 in the South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-08 to 2012-05-25 (NODC Accession 0100076)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100076 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING TAO125W and MOORING_TAO125W_0 in the South Pacific...

  19. Wind Forcing of the Pacific Ocean Using Scatterometer Wind Data

    Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research was an understanding of the wind-forced ocean circulation, particularly for the Pacific Ocean. To determine the ocean's response to the winds, we first needed to generate accurate maps of wind stress. For the ocean's response to wind stress we examined the sea surface height (SSH) both from altimeters and from numerical models for the Pacific Ocean.

  20. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2014-11-05 to 2014-11-24 (NODC Accession 0123338)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123338 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  1. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2015-02-27 to 2015-03-30 (NODC Accession 0127092)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0127092 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  2. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2017-03-26 to 2017-06-21 (NCEI Accession 0164429)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0164429 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  3. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2015-01-22 to 2015-05-04 (NCEI Accession 0127322)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0127322 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  4. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2016-02-21 to 2016-03-25 (NCEI Accession 0155172)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155172 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  5. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2014-10-06 to 2014-11-01 (NODC Accession 0123096)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123096 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  6. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2014-08-25 to 2014-09-27 (NODC Accession 0122504)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0122504 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  7. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2014-03-23 to 2014-04-08 (NODC Accession 0120490)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0120490 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  8. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2015-04-10 to 2015-06-24 (NCEI Accession 0129524)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129524 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample, profile and underway - surface observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2005-05-25 to 2005-07-02 (NODC Accession 0108081)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108081 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical, profile and underway - surface data collected from MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-01-12 to 2012-02-09 (NCEI Accession 0157014)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157014 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bismarck Sea, North Pacific...

  11. Thorium content in bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans

    Gurvich, E.G.; Lisitsyn, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of 232 Th distribution study in different substance-genetic types of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans. Th content determination has been carried out by the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Th distribution maps in the surface layer of bottom sediments of Pacific and Indian oceans are drawn. It is noted that Indian ocean sediments are much richer with Th moreover Th distribution in different types of sediments is very non-uniform. Non-uniformity of Th distribution in different types of Pacific ocean sediments is considerably less than that of Indian ocean and exceeds it only in red oozes

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-06 to 1994-11-10 (NODC Accession 0115011)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  13. Nd isotopic structure of the Pacific Ocean 70-30 Ma and numerical evidence for vigorous ocean circulation and ocean heat transport in a greenhouse world

    Thomas, Deborah J.; Korty, Robert; Huber, Matthew; Schubert, Jessica A.; Haines, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The oceanic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a crucial component of the climate system, impacting heat and nutrient transport, and global carbon cycling. Past greenhouse climate intervals present a paradox because their weak equator-to-pole temperature gradients imply a weaker MOC, yet increased poleward oceanic heat transport appears to be required to maintain these weak gradients. To investigate the mode of MOC that operated during the early Cenozoic, we compare new Nd isotope data with Nd tracer-enabled numerical ocean circulation and coupled climate model simulations. Assimilation of new Nd isotope data from South Pacific Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program Sites 323, 463, 596, 865, and 869 with previously published data confirm the hypothesized MOC characterized by vigorous sinking in the South and North Pacific 70 to 30 Ma. Compilation of all Pacific Nd isotope data indicates vigorous, distinct, and separate overturning circulations in each basin until 40 Ma. Simulations consistently reproduce South Pacific and North Pacific deep convection over a broad range of conditions, but cases using strong deep ocean vertical mixing produced the best data-model match. Strong mixing, potentially resulting from enhanced abyssal tidal dissipation, greater interaction of wind-driven internal wave activity with submarine plateaus, or higher than modern values of the geothermal heat flux enable models to achieve enhanced MOC circulation rates with resulting Nd isotope distributions consistent with the proxy data. The consequent poleward heat transport may resolve the paradox of warmer worlds with reduced temperature gradients.

  14. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  15. Oceanic control of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales

    Balaguru, Karthik; Ruby Leung, L; Yoon, Jin-ho

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is not the only oceanic parameter that can play a key role in the interannual variability of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity. Using several observational data sets and the statistical technique of multiple linear regression analysis, we show that, along with SST, the thermocline depth (TD) plays an important role in hurricane activity at interannual timescales in this basin. Based on the parameter that dominates, the ocean basin can be divided into two sub-regions. In the Southern sub-region, which includes the hurricane main development area, interannual variability of the upper-ocean heat content (OHC) is primarily controlled by TD variations. Consequently, the interannual variability in the hurricane power dissipation index (PDI), which is a measure of the intensity of hurricane activity, is driven by that of the TD. On the other hand, in the Northern sub-region, SST exerts the major control over the OHC variability and, in turn, the PDI. Our study suggests that both SST and TD have a significant influence on the Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales and that their respective roles are more clearly delineated when sub-regions along an approximate north–south demarcation are considered rather than the basin as a whole. (letter)

  16. The Effect of ENSO on Phytoplankton Composition in the Pacific Ocean

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p less than 0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Ni a events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  17. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2009-04-10 to 2009-07-03 (NCEI Accession 0144249)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144249 includes Surface underway data collected from MIRAI in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea, Solomon Sea and South Pacific Ocean...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2013-01-03 to 2013-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0157348)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157348 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2014-12-30 to 2015-12-27 (NCEI Accession 0148769)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148769 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2008-01-09 to 2008-08-06 (NCEI Accession 0157386)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157386 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-22 to 2007-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0157245)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157245 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-22 to 2011-12-11 (NCEI Accession 0157336)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157336 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-03-14 to 2012-09-02 (NCEI Accession 0157397)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157397 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-12-17 to 2006-12-15 (NCEI Accession 0157311)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157311 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1999-03-06 to 2000-02-10 (NCEI Accession 0157370)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157370 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-01-02 to 2011-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0157259)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157259 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2005-01-28 to 2005-12-12 (NCEI Accession 0157262)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157262 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  9. Profile chemical and physical data collected aboard the KILO MOANA in the South Pacific Ocean and the Coral Sea from March 15, 2007 to April 14, 2007 (NODC Accession 0059113)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains hydrographic data collected during cruise KM0703 in the tropical and subtropical Southwest Pacific. Leg 1 of the cruise began in Townsville,...

  10. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    Emily P Lane

    Full Text Available Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%, abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%, gastroenteritis (70%, hepatitis (62%, and endometritis (42%. Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung, Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin. Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%, splenic filamentous tags (45%, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%, and myocardial fibrosis (26%. No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  11. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  12. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

    2009-01-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly se...

  13. "Going with the flow" or not: evidence of positive rheotaxis in oceanic juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta in the South Pacific Ocean Using Satellite Tags and Ocean Circulation Data.

    Donald R Kobayashi

    Full Text Available The movement of juvenile loggerhead turtles (n = 42 out-fitted with satellite tags and released in oceanic waters off New Caledonia was examined and compared with ocean circulation data. Merging of the daily turtle movement data with drifter buoy movements, OSCAR (Ocean Surface Current Analyses--Real time circulation data, and three different vertical strata (0-5 m, 0-40 m, 0-100 m of HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model circulation data indicated the turtles were swimming against the prevailing current in a statistically significant pattern. This was not an artifact of prevailing directions of current and swimming, nor was it an artifact of frictional slippage. Generalized additive modeling was used to decompose the pattern of swimming into spatial and temporal components. The findings are indicative of a positive rheotaxis whereby an organism is able to detect the current flow and orient itself to swim into the current flow direction or otherwise slow down its movement. Potential mechanisms for the means and adaptive significance of rheotaxis in oceanic juvenile loggerhead turtles are discussed.

  14. Plankton, temperature and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the BONDY, BAP EXPLORADOR and other platforms in the Coastal S Pacific, South Pacific and other locations from 1961 to 1965 (NODC Accession 0001140)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, nutrients, and plankton data were collected using plankton net and bottle casts in the South Pacific Ocean from 01 August 1961 to 09 September 1965. Data...

  15. Biogeographic congruence in the south Pacific

    Seberg, Ole

    1991-01-01

    Ever since J. D. Hooker's famous 'Introductory Essay' to Flora NOVE-Zelandise, a classical problem in biogeography has been to give a casual explanation of southern hemisphere distribution patterns. An attempt is made to see whether the cladograms for the circum-Pacific areas (South America, New ...

  16. INTELSAT et al. in the South Pacific.

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses services provided to the island countries of the South Pacific Basin by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), a 110 member-country cooperative that operates a global satellite system. The services include provision of basic satellite communications facilities, technical assistance and training, and free…

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Micro-porous membrane equilibrator and other instruments from SOYO-MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Atlantic Ocean from 2012-04-10 to 2012-11-30 (NCEI Accession 0157371)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157371 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from SOYO-MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING TAO155W and MOORING_TAO155W in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-14 to 2012-06-11 (NODC Accession 0100084)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100084 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING TAO155W and MOORING_TAO155W in the North Pacific Ocean...

  19. Teleconnections of the tropical Atlantic to the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. A review of recent findings

    Wang Chunzai [NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States); Kucharski, Fred; Barimalala, Rondrotiana [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Earth System Physics, Section Trieste (Italy); Bracco, Annalisa [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia, Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Recent studies found that tropical Atlantic variability may affect the climate in both the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean basins, possibly modulating the Indian summer monsoon and Pacific ENSO events. A warm tropical Atlantic Ocean forces a Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response with a low-level anticyclone located over India that weakens the Indian monsoon circulation, and vice versa for a cold tropical Atlantic Ocean. The tropical Atlantic Ocean can also induce changes in the Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs). especially along the coast of Africa and in the western side of the Indian basin. Additionally, it can influence the tropical Pacific Ocean via an atmospheric teleconnection that is associated with the Atlantic Walker circulation. Although the Pacific El Nino does not contemporaneously correlate with the Atlantic Nino, anomalous warming or cooling of the two equatorial oceans can form an inter-basin SST gradient that induces surface zonal wind anomalies over equatorial South America and other regions in both ocean basins. The zonal wind anomalies act as a bridge linking the two ocean basins, and in turn reinforce the inter-basin SST gradient through the atmospheric Walker circulation and oceanic processes. Thus, a positive feedback seems to exist for climate variability of the tropical Pacific-Atlantic Oceans and atmospheric system, in which the inter-basin SST gradient is coupled to the overlying atmospheric wind. (orig.)

  20. A Fiji multi-coral δ18O composite approach to obtaining a more accurate reconstruction of the last two-centuries of the ocean-climate variability in the South Pacific Convergence Zone region

    Dassié, Emilie P.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Corrège, Thierry; Wu, Henry C.; Lemley, Gavin M.; Howe, Steve; Cabioch, Guy

    2014-12-01

    The limited availability of oceanographic data in the tropical Pacific Ocean prior to the satellite era makes coral-based climate reconstructions a key tool for extending the instrumental record back in time, thereby providing a much needed test for climate models and projections. We have generated a unique regional network consisting of five Porites coral δ18O time series from different locations in the Fijian archipelago. Our results indicate that using a minimum of three Porites coral δ18O records from Fiji is statistically sufficient to obtain a reliable signal for climate reconstruction, and that application of an approach used in tree ring studies is a suitable tool to determine this number. The coral δ18O composite indicates that while sea surface temperature (SST) variability is the primary driver of seasonal δ18O variability in these Fiji corals, annual average coral δ18O is more closely correlated to sea surface salinity (SSS) as previously reported. Our results highlight the importance of water mass advection in controlling Fiji coral δ18O and salinity variability at interannual and decadal time scales despite being located in the heavy rainfall region of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Fiji δ18O composite presents a secular freshening and warming trend since the 1850s coupled with changes in both interannual (IA) and decadal/interdecadal (D/I) variance. The changes in IA and D/I variance suggest a re-organization of climatic variability in the SPCZ region beginning in the late 1800s to period of a more dominant interannual variability, which could correspond to a southeast expansion of the SPCZ.

  1. Physical and biogeochemical forcing of oxygen and nitrate changes during El Niño/El Viejo and La Niña/La Vieja upper-ocean phases in the tropical eastern South Pacific along 86° W

    P. J. Llanillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporal changes in the water mass distribution and biogeochemical signals in the tropical eastern South Pacific are investigated with the help of an extended optimum multi-parameter (OMP analysis, a technique for inverse modeling of mixing and biogeochemical processes through a multidimensional least-square fit. Two ship occupations of a meridional section along 85°50' W from 14° S to 1° N are analysed during relatively warm (El Niño/El Viejo, March 1993 and cold (La Niña/La Vieja, February 2009 upper-ocean phases. The largest El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO impact was found in the water properties and water mass distribution in the upper 200 m north of 10° S. ENSO promotes the vertical motion of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ associated with the hypoxic equatorial subsurface water (ESSW. During a cold phase the core of the ESSW is found at shallower layers, replacing shallow (top 200 m subtropical surface water (STW. The heave of isopycnals due to ENSO partially explains the intrusion of oxygen-rich and nutrient-poor antarctic intermediate water (AAIW into the depth range of 150–500 m. The other cause of the AAIW increase at shallower depths is that this water mass flowed along shallower isopycnals in 2009. The shift in the vertical location of AAIW reaching the OMZ induces changes in the amount of oxygen advected and respired inside the OMZ: the larger the oxygen supply, the greater the respiration and the lower the nitrate loss through denitrification. Variations in the intensity of the zonal currents in the equatorial current system, which ventilates the OMZ from the west, are used to explain the patchy latitudinal changes of seawater properties observed along the repeated section. Significant changes reach down to 800 m, suggesting that decadal variability (Pacific decadal oscillation is also a potential driver in the observed variability.

  2. Oceanographic profile plankton, Temperature Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from various platforms in the South Pacific Ocean from 1997 to 1998 (NODC Accession 0014651)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and other measurements found in the bottle dataset taken from the SNP-1, HUAMANGA (fishing boat) and other platforms in the...

  3. Persistence of deeply sourced iron in the Pacific Ocean.

    Horner, Tristan J; Williams, Helen M; Hein, James R; Saito, Mak A; Burton, Kevin W; Halliday, Alex N; Nielsen, Sune G

    2015-02-03

    Biological carbon fixation is limited by the supply of Fe in vast regions of the global ocean. Dissolved Fe in seawater is primarily sourced from continental mineral dust, submarine hydrothermalism, and sediment dissolution along continental margins. However, the relative contributions of these three sources to the Fe budget of the open ocean remains contentious. By exploiting the Fe stable isotopic fingerprints of these sources, it is possible to trace distinct Fe pools through marine environments, and through time using sedimentary records. We present a reconstruction of deep-sea Fe isotopic compositions from a Pacific Fe-Mn crust spanning the past 76 My. We find that there have been large and systematic changes in the Fe isotopic composition of seawater over the Cenozoic that reflect the influence of several, distinct Fe sources to the central Pacific Ocean. Given that deeply sourced Fe from hydrothermalism and marginal sediment dissolution exhibit the largest Fe isotopic variations in modern oceanic settings, the record requires that these deep Fe sources have exerted a major control over the Fe inventory of the Pacific for the past 76 My. The persistence of deeply sourced Fe in the Pacific Ocean illustrates that multiple sources contribute to the total Fe budget of the ocean and highlights the importance of oceanic circulation in determining if deeply sourced Fe is ever ventilated at the surface.

  4. Physical, nutrients, and chemical data from bottle casts and other instruments in the North and South Pacific Ocean by the Naval Oceanographic Office from 26 June 1925 to 28 April 1996 (NODC Accession 9600158)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, nutrients, and chemical data were collected using bottle, CTD, XBT, XSV, AXBT, thermometer, and tide gauge casts from AIRCRAFT in the North and South...

  5. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  6. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    gradient in the upper ocean. This strengthens the geostrophically balanced westward currents in both side of the equatorial wave-guide (within 5 degree bands). Once these currents reach the western Pacific coast, they feed the Equatorial undercurrent (EUC...

  7. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    2005-01-01

    , Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. Location: 15.4 degree south latitude, 167.9 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 36.8 by 27.8 kilometers (22.9 by 17.3 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  8. Natural uranium-series radionuclide inventories in coastal and oceanic waters of the south-western Pacific - insights into trace metal flux and removal pathway analysis

    Szymczak, R.; Jeffree, R.A.; Peck, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Participate scavenging of trace metals plays a major role in determining their ecosystem flux and incident dissolved concentrations. Differences in the half-lives and biogeochemical behaviour of natural uranium series radioisotope pairs (eg. 238 U/ 234 Th, 210 Pb/ 210 Po) allow their application as oceanic process tracers. Coincidental measurements of dissolved and particulate trace element concentrations and inventories of radionuclides in the Noumea coral lagoon and adjacent offshore waters were used to quantify water column flux rates and provide insights on removal pathway analysis. Understanding prevailing pathways and respective flux rates of pollutants in specific coastal and oceanic systems will assist to establish the fate and consequence of pollutants and allow sustainable management strategies to be developed. Both natural and pollutant chemical species introduced to the marine environment may either remain benign in solution or undergo physiological uptake by biota, but most often associate with colloids and fine particles, which subsequent undergo aggregation, sedimentation and removal to the sea floor

  9. Inter and Intra Basin Scale Transport of {sup 137}Cs in the Pacific Ocean

    Aoyama, M. [Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Fukasawa, M.; Kawano, T. [Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka (Japan); Hamajima, Y. [Low-Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Nomi (Japan); Hirose, K. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku (Japan); Nakano, H. [Oceanographic Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Povinec, P. P. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, and Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Tsumune, D. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The anthropogenic radionuclides, such as ''1''3''7Cs, ''9''0Sr, and some of the transuranic nuclides, are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. {sup 137}Cs, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation on a time scale of several decades. In the Pacific Ocean, 7 cruises were conducted and the 3-D distribution of {sup 137}Cs concentration in the 2000's was observed. Two types of ocean general circulation models were also used to conduct hindcasts of the {sup 137}Cs concentration. Both results allowed the drawing of a detailed picture of the {sup 137}Cs 3-D structure. The deposition of {sup 137}Cs mainly occurred in the northern subtropical gyre of the North Pacific Ocean and was later transported into the ocean interior, and a core structure of {sup 137}Cs was found along the Central Mode Water. After crossing the Equator, {sup 137}Cs spreads to the South Pacific through the Ekman transports at the surface. (author)

  10. South African southern ocean research programme

    SASCAR

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  11. Decadal atmosphere-ocean variations in the Pacific

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Hurrell, James W.

    1994-03-01

    Considerable evidence has emerged of a substantial decade-long change in the north Pacific atmosphere and ocean lasting from about 1976 to 1988. Observed significant changes in the atmospheric circulation throughout the troposphere revealed a deeper and eastward shifted Aleutian low pressure system in the winter half year which advected warmer and moister air along the west coast of North America and into Alaska and colder air over the north Pacific. Consequently, there were increases in temperatures and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the west coast of North America and Alaska but decreases in SSTs over the central north Pacific, as well as changes in coastal rainfall and streamflow, and decreases in sea ice in the Bering Sea. Associated changes occurred in the surface wind stress, and, by inference, in the Sverdrup transport in the north Pacific Ocean. Changes in the monthly mean flow were accompanied by a southward shift in the storm tracks and associated synoptic eddy activity and in the surface ocean sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition to the changes in the physical environment, the deeper Aleutian low increased the nutrient supply as seen through increases in total chlorophyll in the water column, phytoplankton and zooplankton. These changes, along with the altered ocean currents and temperatures, changed the migration patterns and increased the stock of many fish species. A north Pacific (NP) index is defined to measure the decadal variations, and the temporal variability of the index is explored on daily, annual, interannual and decadal time scales. The dominant atmosphere-ocean relation in the north Pacific is one where atmospheric changes lead SSTs by one to two months. However, strong ties are revealed with events in the tropical Pacific, with changes in tropical Pacific SSTs leading SSTs in the north Pacific by three months. Changes in the storm tracks in the north Pacific help to reinforce and maintain the anomalous circulation in the

  12. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from XIANG YANG HONG 05 and SHI YAN 3 in the Philippine Sea, Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-11-01 to 1993-11-30 (NODC Accession 9400186)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected as part of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment. Data were collected from Ships...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING TAO140W and MOORING_TAO140W_0N in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-23 to 2013-07-02 (NODC Accession 0100077)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100077 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING TAO140W and MOORING_TAO140W_0N in the North Pacific...

  14. The air-sea exchange of mercury in the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Mason, Robert P.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Bowman, Katlin L.; Swarr, Gretchen J.; Shelley, Rachel U.

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea exchange is an important component of the global mercury (Hg) cycle as it mediates the rate of increase in ocean Hg, and therefore the rate of change in levels of methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg in seafood and the driver of human health concerns. Gas evasion of elemental Hg (Hg0) from the ocean is an important sink for ocean Hg with previous studies suggesting that evasion is not uniform across ocean basins. To understand further the factors controlling Hg0 evasion, and its relationship to atmospheric Hg deposition, we made measurements of dissolved Hg0 (DHg0) in surface waters, along with measurements of Hg in precipitation and on aerosols, and Hg0 in marine air, during two GEOTRACES cruises; GP16 in the equatorial South Pacific and GA03 in the North Atlantic. We contrast the concentrations and estimated evasion fluxes of Hg0 during these cruises, and the factors influencing this exchange. Concentrations of DHg0 and fluxes were lower during the GP16 cruise than during the GA03 cruise, and likely reflect the lower atmospheric deposition in the South Pacific. An examination of Hg/Al ratios for aerosols from the cruises suggests that they were anthropogenically-enriched relative to crustal material, although to a lesser degree for the South Pacific than the aerosols over the North Atlantic. Both regions appear to be net sources of Hg0 to the atmosphere (evasion>deposition) and the reasons for this are discussed. Overall, the studies reported here provide further clarification on the factors controlling evasion of Hg0 from the ocean surface, and the role of anthropogenic inputs in influencing ocean Hg concentrations.

  15. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  16. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from SAMUDERA and TYRO in the SW Pacific and South Pacific Ocean from 1984-08-01 to 1985-02-21 (NODC Accession 9300108)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NANSEN data collected during the cruises by the RV SAMUDERA and RV TYRO within theme 3 of the SNELLIUS II expedition, conducted by the Netherlands Institute for Sea...

  17. Anthropogenic CO2 distribution in the North Pacific ocean

    Chen, C [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1993-06-01

    This paper discusses the penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 in the North Pacific Ocean based on carbonate data in the literature. The carbonate data in the literature were used to supplement the tracer data showing oceanic mixing features for waters formed in the last 140 years. The deepest penetration over 2,000m was found in the northwest North Pacific. On the other hand, the shallowest penetration to less than 400m was found in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Consequently, it was suggested that penetration depth of anthropogenic CO2 has been controlled by such factors as deep water formation in the Northwest Pacific, upwelling in the equatorial Pacific, and vertical mixing in the western boundary areas. It was revealed that these results are in harmony well with results implied from tritium, C-14, and freons distributions. The total inventory of excess carbon in the North Pacific was 14.7[plus minus]4[times]10[sup 15]g around 1980. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Anderson, W.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Wittenberg, A.

    2009-08-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño) while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  19. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    W. Anderson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  20. The bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Schrag, Daniel P.; Cane, Mark A.; Naik, Naomi H.

    2000-04-01

    A modeling study of the bomb 14C transient is presented for the Pacific Ocean. A primitive equation ocean circulation model has been configured for a high-resolution domain that accounts for the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Four separate runs were performed: (1) seasonal forcing with 20 Sv of ITF transport, (2) seasonal forcing with 10 Sv of ITF transport, (3) seasonal forcing with no ITF transport, and (4) interannual forcing with 15 Sv of ITF transport. This study has two main objectives. First, it is intended to describe the time evolution of the bomb 14C transient. This serves as a tool with which one can identify the physical processes controlling the evolving bomb 14C distribution in the Pacific thermocline and thus provides an interpretive framework for the database of Δ14C measurements in the Pacific. Second, transient tracers are applied to the physical oceanographic problem of intergyre exchange. This is of importance in furthering our understanding of the potential role of the upper Pacific Ocean in climate variability. We use bomb 14C as a dye tracer of intergyre exchange between the subtropical gyres and the equatorial upwelling regions of the equatorial Pacific. Observations show that while the atmospheric Δ14C signal peaked in the early to mid-1960s, the Δ14C levels in the surface water waters of the subtropical gyres peaked near 1970, and the Δ14C of surface waters in the equatorial Pacific continued to rise through the 1980s. It is shown that the model exhibits skill in representing the large-scale observed features observed for the bomb 14C transient in the Pacific Ocean. The model successfully captures the basin-scale inventories of bomb 14C in the tropics as well as in the extratropics of the North Pacific. For the equatorial Pacific this is attributed to the model's high meridional resolution. The discrepancies in the three-dimensional distribution of bomb 14C between the model and data are discussed within the context of the dynamical

  1. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  2. Predicting bycatch hotspots for endangered leatherback turtles on longlines in the Pacific Ocean.

    Roe, John H; Morreale, Stephen J; Paladino, Frank V; Shillinger, George L; Benson, Scott R; Eckert, Scott A; Bailey, Helen; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrián; Bograd, Steven J; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Dutton, Peter H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Block, Barbara A; Spotila, James R

    2014-02-22

    Fisheries bycatch is a critical source of mortality for rapidly declining populations of leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea. We integrated use-intensity distributions for 135 satellite-tracked adult turtles with longline fishing effort to estimate predicted bycatch risk over space and time in the Pacific Ocean. Areas of predicted bycatch risk did not overlap for eastern and western Pacific nesting populations, warranting their consideration as distinct management units with respect to fisheries bycatch. For western Pacific nesting populations, we identified several areas of high risk in the north and central Pacific, but greatest risk was adjacent to primary nesting beaches in tropical seas of Indo-Pacific islands, largely confined to several exclusive economic zones under the jurisdiction of national authorities. For eastern Pacific nesting populations, we identified moderate risk associated with migrations to nesting beaches, but the greatest risk was in the South Pacific Gyre, a broad pelagic zone outside national waters where management is currently lacking and may prove difficult to implement. Efforts should focus on these predicted hotspots to develop more targeted management approaches to alleviate leatherback bycatch.

  3. Bathymetric Atlas of the North Pacific Ocean.

    1978-01-01

    U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey provided nearshore from Novel Oceenoglphic Office neutical chert of various detils around islands and reefs. Nautical...Easter Islands , 1961. Middle America Trench: Topography and struc- Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 110, p. 1-44. ture, Geol. Sec. Amer. Bull., v. 72, p...of volcanic ash layers and turbidito% ini 1956. Clipperton fracture zone in the northeastern equa- the north Pacific, Gal. Soc. Amer. Bull., v. 80, p

  4. ''Numerical simulation of passive tracer dispersion in the pacific ocean from Mururoa atoll (French Polynesia)''

    Rancher, J.; Lazar, A.; Maes, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    In order to evaluate, on a Tropical South Pacific scale over 10 years, the consequences of an hypothetic radionuclide releases to the ocean from French Nuclear test sites, a series of numerical simulations was carried out. Tracer advection and diffusion terms were computed by a dispersion model without taking into account radioactive decay and biological interactions. Ocean dynamics and turbulent mixing coefficients were derived from a Ocean General circulation Model using annual average climatological fields. A punctual release with unit activity concentration throughout the depth showed the existence of two major directions of propagation from Mururoa atoll: one toward the Eastern Pacific when releases originated from 100-150 meters or less, and the other Westward if release depth is greater. The maximum concentrations which may possibly reach the continental South Pacific coastline originated from released points located in the 350 meters depth zone. Another experiment showed that an punctual release yields higher concentrations than the continuous release of an equivalent quantity over 10 years; two punctual releases were carried out at the characteristic depth of 5 m and 364 m: maximum concentrations decrease by factors of 10 000 and 1000 over ten years. A comparison is made with the surface release study of Ribbe and Tomczak (1990), despite a significant discrepancy in propagation direction, the order of magnitude for concentrations is comparable. (author)

  5. Low dissolved Fe and the absence of diatom blooms in remote Pacific waters of the Southern Ocean

    de Baar, Hein J.W.; de Jong, Jeroen T.M.; Nolting, Rob F.; Timmermans, Klaas R.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Bathmann, U.; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel; Sildam, Jüri

    The remote waters of the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean are the furthest away from any upstream and upwind continental Fe sources. This prime area for expecting Fe limitation of the plankton ecosystem was studied (March-April 1995) along a north-south transect at similar to 89 degrees W. At

  6. Breakup of last glacial deep stratification in the South Pacific

    Basak, Chandranath; Fröllje, Henning; Lamy, Frank; Gersonde, Rainer; Benz, Verena; Anderson, Robert F.; Molina-Kescher, Mario; Pahnke, Katharina

    2018-02-01

    Stratification of the deep Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum is thought to have facilitated carbon storage and subsequent release during the deglaciation as stratification broke down, contributing to atmospheric CO2 rise. Here, we present neodymium isotope evidence from deep to abyssal waters in the South Pacific that confirms stratification of the deepwater column during the Last Glacial Maximum. The results indicate a glacial northward expansion of Ross Sea Bottom Water and a Southern Hemisphere climate trigger for the deglacial breakup of deep stratification. It highlights the important role of abyssal waters in sustaining a deep glacial carbon reservoir and Southern Hemisphere climate change as a prerequisite for the destabilization of the water column and hence the deglacial release of sequestered CO2 through upwelling.

  7. Oceanic Channel of the IOD-ENSO teleconnection over the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Hui; Xu, Tengfei; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    The lag correlations of observations and model simulated data that participate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5) are used to study the precursory teleconnection between the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the Pacific ENSO one year later through the Indonesian seas. The results suggest that Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) play an important role in the IOD-ENSO teleconnection. Numerical simulations using a hierarchy of ocean models and climate coupled models have shown that the interannual sea level depressions in the southeastern Indian Ocean during IOD force enhanced ITF to transport warm water of the Pacific warm pool to the Indian Ocean, producing cold subsurface temperature anomalies, which propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific and induce significant coupled ocean-atmosphere evolution. The teleconnection is found to have decadal variability. Similar decadal variability has also been identified in the historical simulations of the CMIP5 models. The dynamics of the inter-basin teleconnection during the positive phases of the decadal variability are diagnosed to be the interannual variations of the ITF associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). During the negative phases, the thermocline in the eastern equatorial Pacific is anomalously deeper so that the sea surface temperature anomalies in the cold tongue are not sensitive to the thermocline depth changes. The IOD-ENSO teleconnection is found not affected significantly by the anthropogenic forcing.

  8. How ocean color can steer Pacific tropical cyclones

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Emanuel, Kerry; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Anderson, Whit G.; Hallberg, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Because ocean color alters the absorption of sunlight, it can produce changes in sea surface temperatures with further impacts on atmospheric circulation. These changes can project onto fields previously recognized to alter the distribution of tropical cyclones. If the North Pacific subtropical gyre contained no absorbing and scattering materials, the result would be to reduce subtropical cyclone activity in the subtropical Northwest Pacific by 2/3, while concentrating cyclone tracks along the equator. Predicting tropical cyclone activity using coupled models may thus require consideration of the details of how heat moves into the upper thermocline as well as biogeochemical cycling.

  9. Geographical Distribution and Sources of Nutrients in Atmospheric Aerosol Over the Pacific Ocean

    Uematsu, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific Ocean, the world's largest (occupying about 30% of the Earth's total surface area) has several distinguishing biogeochemical features. In the western Pacific, dust particles originating from arid and semi-arid regions in Asia and Australia are transported to the north and south, respectively. Biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia are exported to the tropical Pacific, and anthropogenic substances flowing out of Asia and Eurasia spread both regionally and globally. Over high primary productive areas such as the subarctic North Pacific, the equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean, biogenic gasses are released to the atmosphere and transported to other areas. These processes may affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and the radiative balance of downwind regions. The deposition of atmospheric aerosols containing iron and other essential nutrients is important for biogeochemical cycles in the oceans because this source of nutrients helps sustain primary production and affects food-web structure; these effects in turn influence the chemical properties of marine atmosphere. From an atmospheric chemistry standpoint, sea-salt aerosols produced by strong winds and marine biogenic gases emitted from highly productive waters affect the physicochemical characteristics of marine aerosols. As phytoplankton populations are patchy and atmospheric processes sporadic, the interactions between atmospheric chemical constituents and marine biota vary for different regions as well as seasonally and over longer timescales. To address these and other emerging issues, and more generally to better understand the important biogeochemical processes and interactions occurring over the open oceans, more long-term recurrent research cruises with standardized atmospheric shipboard measurements will be needed in the future.

  10. Rare earth elements in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Baar, H.J.W. de; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.; Bruland, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The first profiles of Pr, Tb, Ho, Tm and Lu in the Pacific Ocean, as well as profiles of La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb are reported. Concentrations of REE (except Ce) in the deep water are two to three times higher than those observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean. Surface water concentrations are typically lower than in the Atlantic Ocean, especially for the heavier elements Ho,Tm,Yb and Lu. Cerium is strongly depleted in the Pacific water column, but less so in the oxygen minimum zone. The distribution of the REE group is consistent with two simultaneous processes: (1) cycling similar to that of opal and calcium carbonate, and (2) adsorptive scavenging by settling particles and possibly by uptake at ocean boundaries. However, the first process can probably not be sustained by the low REE contents of shells, unless additional adsorption on surfaces is invoked. The second process, adsorptive scavenging, largely controls the oceanic distribution and typical seawater pattern of the rare earths. (author)

  11. PIXE analysis of marine environmental samples from the Pacific Ocean

    Miyake, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Shitashima, Kiminori; Tsubota, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol samples from the western North Pacific Ocean are collected during a cruise of R/V Hakuhomaru from Japan to Hawaii and they are analyzed by PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Concentrations of radon daughters are measured with CR-39 track detectors mounted on the impactor to estimate the transport time of air mass from the Asian Continent. Distributions of particulate element concentrations clearly demonstrate the influence of the westerlies. Strong correlations are observed between fine sulphur concentrations and those of heavy metals such as Fe and Zn. Vertical profiles of heavy metal elements contained in marine particulates are also investigated at a trench in the Pacific Ocean and basins in the Japan Sea. Particulate element concentrations determined by PIXE agree well with those determined by chemical analysis of filtered/total water. Remarkable changes in depth profiles of particulate manganese are observed at the trench, which suggest horizontal transport of marine particulates from the trench wall. (N.K.)

  12. Indicators of Marine Pollution in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Brown, Tanya M; Takada, Hideshige

    2017-08-01

    The complex nature of ocean pollution underscores the utility in identifying and characterizing a limited number of "indicators" that enables scientists and managers to track trends over space and time. This paper introduces a special issue on indicators of marine pollution in the North Pacific Ocean and builds on a scientific session that was held at the North Pacific Marine Science Organization. The special issue highlights studies using a variety of indicators to provide insight into the identification of legacy and emerging contaminants, the ranking of priority pollutants from various sources, and the effects of contaminants on ecosystem health in the North Pacific Ocean. Examples include the use of mussels to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of a number of contaminants following the 2011 tsunami in Japan, the use of molecular marker (linear alkylbenzenes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) profiles to identify pollution sources, and the use of plastic resin pellets to illustrate spatial trends of petroleum pollution around the world. Stable isotopes were used to strengthen the utility of the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as an indicator of marine pollution. Examples also demonstrate the development and application of biomarker approaches, including gene transcripts, oxidative stress, estradiol, hatchability, and respiration and swimming behavior abnormalities, as a function of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, sulfur-diesel, Pinghu crude oil, galaxolide and antifouling biocides. We provide a brief review of indicators of marine pollution, identify research gaps, and summarize key findings from the articles published within the issue. This special issue represents the first compilation of research pertaining to marine pollution indicators in the North Pacific Ocean and provides guidance to inform mitigation and monitoring efforts of contaminants in the region.

  13. Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data from sediment sampler-grab, bottle, and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific Ocean, Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and Southern Oceans as part of the Long Term Monitoring East-West Flower Garden Banks project from 08 January 1995 to 08 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0001155)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological, physical, nutrients, sediment, and other data were collected using sediment sampler-grab, bottle and CTD casts in the Arabian Sea, North/South Pacific...

  14. Decadal changes in the aragonite and calcite saturation state of the Pacific Ocean

    Feely, Richard A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Byrne, Robert H.; Millero, Frank J.; Dickson, Andrew G.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Murata, Akihiko; Miller, Lisa A.; Greeley, Dana

    2012-09-01

    Based on measurements from the WOCE/JGOFS global CO2 survey, the CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program and the Canadian Line P survey, we have observed an average decrease of 0.34% yr-1 in the saturation state of surface seawater in the Pacific Ocean with respect to aragonite and calcite. The upward migrations of the aragonite and calcite saturation horizons, averaging about 1 to 2 m yr-1, are the direct result of the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans and regional changes in circulation and biogeochemical processes. The shoaling of the saturation horizon is regionally variable, with more rapid shoaling in the South Pacific where there is a larger uptake of anthropogenic CO2. In some locations, particularly in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and in the California Current, the decadal changes in circulation can be the dominant factor in controlling the migration of the saturation horizon. If CO2 emissions continue as projected over the rest of this century, the resulting changes in the marine carbonate system would mean that many coral reef systems in the Pacific would no longer be able to sustain a sufficiently high rate of calcification to maintain the viability of these ecosystems as a whole, and these changes perhaps could seriously impact the thousands of marine species that depend on them for survival.

  15. Microbial diversity and stratification of South Pacific abyssal marine sediments.

    Durbin, Alan M; Teske, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Abyssal marine sediments cover a large proportion of the ocean floor, but linkages between their microbial community structure and redox stratification have remained poorly constrained. This study compares the downcore gradients in microbial community composition to porewater oxygen and nitrate concentration profiles in an abyssal marine sediment column in the South Pacific Ocean. Archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries showed a stratified archaeal community that changed from Marine Group I Archaea in the aerobic and nitrate-reducing upper sediment column towards deeply branching, uncultured crenarchaeotal and euryarchaeotal lineages in nitrate-depleted, anaerobic sediment horizons. Bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed a similar shift on the phylum and subphylum level within the bacteria, from a complex community of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes in oxic surface sediments towards uncultured Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes in the anaerobic sediment column. The distinct stratification of largely uncultured bacterial and archaeal groups within the oxic and nitrate-reducing marine sediment column provides initial constraints for their microbial habitat preferences. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Studies on the concentrations of iron-55 in South Pacific Ocean water and marine organisms and in the Columbia River. Progress report, 1 April 1975--31 March 1976

    Jennings, C.D.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the distribution of iron-55 in the marine environment. Direct measurements of iron-55 in seawater and in zooplankton showed that marine organisms concentrate iron-55 in preference to stable iron. Measurements of iron-55 in Pacific sediments gave us an indication of the amount of iron-55 getting through the water column. Measurements in organisms from different depths in the ocean and the measurements in sediments give us a clearer picture of the rate of vertical transport in the ocean. It is also quite clear that the iron-55 in sediments in the equatorial Pacific are concentrated in a very thin surface layer because samples more than a centimeter below the surface were below detectable limits, whereas most surface samples had detectable amounts of iron-55. A series of treatments of Columbia River sediments with hydrochloric acid of strengths 0.1 M, 0.25 M, 1.4 M, 6 M and boiling 6 M respectively, showed that decreasing specific activity results in each subsequent treatment, indicating that the iron-55 can be leached more easily than stable iron. This observation provides some clues to what may be happening to particles in seawater. Organisms may remove from particles the more easily removable iron-55 of higher specific activity, leaving behind particles with a lower specific activity

  17. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  18. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

    Engin Meriç

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  19. Microbial Life of North Pacific Oceanic Crust

    Schumann, G.; Koos, R.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Drilling into 45-Ma oceanic basaltic crust in a deepwater environment during ODP Leg 200 provided a promising opportunity to explore the abundance, diversity and activity of micro-organisms. The combined use of culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses and enrichment culture techniques is an advantageous approach in investigating subsurface microbial ecosystems. Enrichment culture methods allow the evaluation of potential activities and functions. Microbiological investigations revealed few aerobic cultivable, in part hitherto unknown, micro-organisms in deep submarine sediments and basaltic lava flows. 16S rDNA sequencing of isolates from sediment revealed the next relatives to be members of the genera Halomonas, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Within the Pseudomonadaceae the closest relative is Acinetobacter sp., which was isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The next phylogenetical relatives within the Halomonadaceae are bacteria typically isolated from Soda lakes, which are considered as model of early life conditions. Interestingly, not only sediment bacteria could be obtained in pure culture. Aerobic strains could also be successfully isolated from the massive tholeiitic basalt layer at a depth of 76.16 mbsf (46 m below the sediment/basement contact). These particular isolates are gram-positive with low G+C content of DNA, phylogenetically affiliated to the phylum Firmicutes. The closest neighbors are e.g. a marine Bacillus isolated from the Gulf of Mexico and a low G+C gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the microbial flora in the deepest sea mud of the Mariana Trench, isolated from a depth of 10,897 m. Based on the similarity values, the isolates represent hitherto undescribed species of the deep

  20. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  1. Distribution of Tritium and {sup 137}CS in South Indian Ocean Waters - Implications of Water Transport Processes

    Povinec, P. P.; Jeskovsky, M.; Sykora, I. [Comenius University, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Aoyama, M. [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Gastaud, J.; Levy, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories (Monaco); Hamajima, Y. [Kanazawa University, Low-Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Nomi (Japan); Hirose, K. [Sophia University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The World Ocean, and specifically the Indian Ocean, plays a significant role in the better understanding of the climate. The distribution of global fallout {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 129}I and {sup 137}Cs in the seawater of the Indian Ocean, after their main injection from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests during the 1960s, have been investigated. Results obtained in the framework of the SHOTS (Southern Hemisphere Ocean Tracer Studies) project are evaluated and compared with previously published data. The enhanced {sup 3}H and {sup 137}Cs levels observed in the south Indian ocean indicate transport of water masses labelled with these radionuclides from the central Pacific Ocean via the Indonesian Seas to the Indian Ocean. The observed surface gradients and presence of several water masses in the south Indian ocean makes this ocean one of the most dynamic parts of the World ocean. (author)

  2. Range extension and morphological characterization of rhodolith-forming species (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from shallow water in the Mexican South Pacific

    Peralta-García, Edith Concepción; Rosas-Alquicira, Edgar Francisco

    2014-12-01

    Living rhodolith beds are widely distributed along the Eastern Pacific ocean. Despite their widespread distribution, little is known about the rhodolith-forming species from shallow water in the Mexican South Pacific. Many taxonomic and morphological studies about rhodoliths have been carried out in the Gulf of California, where the forming species belong to the Hapalidiaceae and Corallinaceae families. This paper is the first report on the occurrence of the rhodolith-forming Hapalidiaceae species Lithothamnion muelleri and Phymatolithon repandum at three sites in the Mexican South Pacific. The branch density, maximum length and sphericity were measured for each determined species. Rhodoliths were distributed between 4 and 6 m depth, but differences in the branch density between species and sites were not found. Finally, the present record of L. muelleri fills the gap in the species distribution along the Eastern Pacific ocean, while the record of P. repandum is the first of the species in the region.

  3. Phylogeography and pigment type diversity of Synechococcus cyanobacteria in surface waters of the northwestern pacific ocean.

    Xia, Xiaomin; Partensky, Frédéric; Garczarek, Laurence; Suzuki, Koji; Guo, Cui; Yan Cheung, Shun; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-01-01

    The widespread unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus are major contributors to global marine primary production. Here, we report their abundance, phylogenetic diversity (as assessed using the RNA polymerase gamma subunit gene rpoC1) and pigment diversity (as indirectly assessed using the laterally transferred cpeBA genes, encoding phycoerythrin-I) in surface waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, sampled over nine distinct cruises (2008-2015). Abundance of Synechococcus was low in the subarctic ocean and South China Sea, intermediate in the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, and the highest in the Japan and East China seas. Clades I and II were by far the most abundant Synechococcus lineages, the former dominating in temperate cold waters and the latter in (sub)tropical waters. Clades III and VI were also fairly abundant in warm waters, but with a narrower distribution than clade II. One type of chromatic acclimater (3dA) largely dominated the Synechococcus communities in the subarctic ocean, while another (3dB) and/or cells with a fixed high phycourobilin to phycoerythrobilin ratio (pigment type 3c) predominated at mid and low latitudes. Altogether, our results suggest that the variety of pigment content found in most Synechococcus clades considerably extends the niches that they can colonize and therefore the whole genus habitat. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Smith, Kenneth L; Ruhl, Henry A; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L; Sherman, Alana D

    2013-12-03

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (~4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections.

  5. Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American Fires Pollute the South Pacific

    Guo, Z.; Chatfield, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.

  6. Oceanic upwelling and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific

    Fiedler, P.C.; Philbrick, V.; Chavez, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    An oceanographic survey of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean in August-November 1990 found a productive, nutrient-rich, moderately high-chlorophyll surface layer in two oceanic upwelling regions: the equatorial divergence, especially east of the Galapagos, and the countercurrent divergence out to 105 degree W, > 1,000 km west of the Costa Rica Dome. Although NO 3 is not depleted in upwelling regions, relationships among nutrient concentrations and temperature in 1986-1988 data from the same area show that NO 3 is the first macronutrient to be depleted in adjacent, less-productive regions. A three-dimensional, two-layer box model of NO 3 flux within and into the euphotic zone gives estimated rates of new production that are ∼29% of measured rates of 14 C phytoplankton production. Persistence of excess NO 3 in the euphotic zone exceeds 1 yr under high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll conditions off the equator where weak upwelling, or downwelling, occurs. These results indicate substantial control or limitation of NO 3 utilization and productivity in nutrient-rich oceanic regions of the eastern tropical Pacific

  7. Vicariance biogeography of the open-ocean Pacific

    White, Brian N.

    The first cladogram to treat oceanic water masses as distinct geographic units presents a ‘hydrotectonic’ history of Pacific surface water masses. It is used to test the idea that the oceanographic subdivision of the surface waters of the Pacific Basin into separate water masses shaped pelagic biogeographic patterns in much the same way that the tectonic fragmentation of Pangea influenced biogeographic patterns on land. The historical water-mass relationships depicted by the surface water-mass cladogram resemble modern pelagic biogeographic regions. The prediction that the cladistic phylogenies of monophyletic groups having allopatric taxa in three or more surface water masses will be consistent with the topology of the surface water-mass cladogram is met by the pelagic fish genera Stomias and Evermanella.

  8. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  9. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC, the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO. This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2. Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels" can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  10. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Sheng, Jinyu; Ohashi, Kyoko; Béguer-Pon, Mélanie; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO). This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2). Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels") can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  11. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF SEA-SURFACE-TEMPERATURE PATTERNS FOR THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN.

    SEA WATER, *SURFACE TEMPERATURE, *OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, PACIFIC OCEAN, REGRESSION ANALYSIS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, UNDERWATER EQUIPMENT, DETECTION, UNDERWATER COMMUNICATIONS, DISTRIBUTION, THERMAL PROPERTIES, COMPUTERS.

  12. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  13. Oceanic migration behaviour of tropical Pacific eels from Vanuatu

    Schabetsberger, R; Økland, F; Aarestrup, K

    2013-01-01

    Information on oceanic migrations and spawning areas of tropical Pacific freshwater eels (genus Anguilla) is very limited. Lake Letas and its single outflowing river, Mbe Solomul on Gaua Island, Vanuatu, were surveyed for large migrating individuals. Twenty-four Anguilla marmorata (87 to 142 cm),...... impact of the lunar cycle on the upper limit of migration depths was found in A. marmorata (full moon: 230 m, new moon: 170 m). These behaviours may be explained as a trade-off between predator avoidance and the necessity to maintain a sufficiently high metabolism for migration....

  14. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  15. Temperature profile data from BATHYTHERMOGRAPH (XBT) in the Pacific Ocean: 19860927 to 19870201 (NODC Accession 8700086)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the MONTE SARMIENTO and PACPRINCESS in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 27 September 1986 to...

  16. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  17. Ocean climate coupling in the tropical Pacific Ocean over the past fifty years: implications and feedbacks

    Wang, Xiujun; Murtugudde, Ragu; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The tropical Pacific plays an important role in climate because of its significant air-sea exchanges of heat, freshwater, and carbon dioxide (C02), and because of its direct linkage to climate variability. There are two dominant modes of climate variability in the Tropics: the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). There has been strong evidence of ENSO and PDO impacts on tropical Pacific physics and biogeochemistry, including heat content, ocean circulation (McPhaden and Zhang 2002), and carbon fluxes (Feely ef al. 2006; Wang ef al. 2006). In this study, we apply a basin-scale ocean circulation-ecosystem-carbon model (Wang ef al. 2006) to study the responses of the tropical Pacific ecosystem, biogeochemistry and carbon cycle to climate forcing over the past 50 years. The model produces strong spatial and temporal variability in surface nutrient concentration, phytoplankton biomass, carbon uptake, and sea-to-air C02 flux, which are largely associated with the ENSO phenomenon. In particular, the size of the tropical Pacific C02 source is large during the ENSO cold phase but small during the ENSO warm phase. There are significant decadal variations in tropical Pacific carbon fluxes, reflecting physical and biogeochemical changes associated with the 1977 and 1997/98 PDO shifts. The 1977 regime shift caused 1 0 C warming in sea surface temperature and -50% reduction in surface iron concentration in the Niho3.4 area, leading to decreased biological activity. While there is a large decrease in phytoplankton growth and biomass, reduction in carbon uptake is smaller than expected, due to phytoplankton photoadaption, which increases the carbon to chlorophyll ratio in the upper euphotic zone and enhances sub-surface production. Photoadaption also results in clearer water near the surface, leading to less heating near the ocean surface and allowing more solar radiation to penetrate the subsurface. Our studies

  18. Physical and meteorological data from the seventy moorings of the Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean (TAO) Project in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1979-2002 (NODC Accession 0000727)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and meteorological data were collected in the Tropical Pacific Ocean from 29 January 1979 to 03 November 2001. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  19. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.

    1985-01-01

    We report here measurements of bomb-test 90 Sr activity in the CaCO 3 skeletons of banded head forming corals collected from nine locations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Density variations in skeletal carbonate demarcate annual growth bands and allow one to section individual years. Measurements of 90 Sr activity in the annual bands reconstruct the activity of the water in which the coral grew. Our oldest records date to the early years of the nuclear era and record not only fallout deposition from the major U.S. and Soviet tests of 1958-1962, but also the huge, and largely unappreciated, localized inputs from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls during 1952-1958. In the 1960's the 90 Sr activity in Indian Ocean surface water was twice as high as activity levels in the South Pacific at comparable latitudes. We suggest that substantial amounts of northern hemisphere fallout moved west and south into the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesian archipelago. Equatorial Pacific 90 Sr levels have remained relatively constant from the mid 1960's through the end of 1970's in spite of 90 Sr decay, reflecting a large-scale transfer of water between the temperate and tropical North Pacific. Activity levels at Fanning Is. (4 0 N, 160 0 W) appear to vary in conjunction with the 3-4 year El Nino cycle. (orig.)

  20. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2010-04-15 to 2013-09-13 (NODC Accession 0117056)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117056 includes Surface underway data collected from Ryofu Maru in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South...

  2. Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    Eriksen, Marcus; Maximenko, Nikolai; Thiel, Martin; Cummins, Anna; Lattin, Gwen; Wilson, Stiv; Hafner, Jan; Zellers, Ann; Rifman, Samuel

    2013-03-15

    Plastic marine pollution in the open ocean of the southern hemisphere is largely undocumented. Here, we report the result of a (4489 km) 2424 nautical mile transect through the South Pacific subtropical gyre, carried out in March-April 2011. Neuston samples were collected at 48 sites, averaging 50 nautical miles apart, using a manta trawl lined with a 333 μm mesh. The transect bisected a predicted accumulation zone associated with the convergence of surface currents, driven by local winds. The results show an increase in surface abundance of plastic pollution as we neared the center and decrease as we moved away, verifying the presence of a garbage patch. The average abundance and mass was 26,898 particles km(-2) and 70.96 g km(-2), respectively. 88.8% of the plastic pollution was found in the middle third of the samples with the highest value of 396,342 particles km(-2) occurring near the center of the predicted accumulation zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-26 (NODC Accession 8500007)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 26, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  4. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1986-05-28 to 1987-05-11 (NODC Accession 8900168)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from 28 May 1986 to 01 May 1983. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  5. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-01 (NODC Accession 8700077)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  6. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1990-04-30 to 1991-05-15 (NODC Accession 9400005)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from April 30, 1990 to May 15, 1991. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  7. Characteristics of regional aerosols: Southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean

    Prabhakar, Gouri

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the quality of our life in many direct and indirect ways. Inhalation of aerosols can have harmful effects on human health. Aerosols also have climatic impacts by absorbing or scattering solar radiation, or more indirectly through their interactions with clouds. Despite a better understanding of several relevant aerosol properties and processes in the past years, they remain the largest uncertainty in the estimate of global radiative forcing. The uncertainties arise because although aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere they are highly variable in space, time and their physicochemical properties. This makes in-situ measurements of aerosols vital in our effort towards reducing uncertainties in the estimate of global radiative forcing due to aerosols. This study is an effort to characterize atmospheric aerosols at a regional scale, in southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean, based on ground and airborne observations of aerosols. Metals and metalloids in particles with aerodynamic diameter (Dp) smaller than 2.5 μm are found to be ubiquitous in southern Arizona. The major sources of the elements considered in the study are identified to be crustal dust, smelting/mining activities and fuel combustion. The spatial and temporal variability in the mass concentrations of these elements depend both on the source strength and meteorological conditions. Aircraft measurements of aerosol and cloud properties collected during various field campaigns over the eastern Pacific Ocean are used to study the sources of nitrate in stratocumulus cloud water and the relevant processes. The major sources of nitrate in cloud water in the region are emissions from ships and wildfires. Different pathways for nitrate to enter cloud water and the role of meteorology in these processes are examined. Observations of microphysical properties of ambient aerosols in ship plumes are examined. The study shows that there is an enhancement in the number

  8. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA

    Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathy A.; Hammond, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals. PMID:19523293

  9. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1440 - Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands; missile testing area. 334.1440 Section 334.1440 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1440 Pacific Ocean at Kwajalein...

  11. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu South Shore

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 2-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the south shore of the island of Oahu at approximately 200-m resolution....

  12. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The Impacts of Daily Surface Forcing in the Upper Ocean over Tropical Pacific: A Numerical Study

    Sui, C.-H.; Rienecker, Michele M.; Li, Xiaofan; Lau, William K.-M.; Laszlo, Istvan; Pinker, Rachel T.

    2001-01-01

    Tropical Pacific Ocean is an important region that affects global climate. How the ocean responds to the atmospheric surface forcing (surface radiative, heat and momentum fluxes) is a major topic in oceanographic research community. The ocean becomes warm when more heat flux puts into the ocean. The monthly mean forcing has been used in the past years since daily forcing was unavailable due to the lack of observations. The daily forcing is now available from the satellite measurements. This study investigates the response of the upper ocean over tropical Pacific to the daily atmospheric surface forcing. The ocean surface heat budgets are calculated to determine the important processes for the oceanic response. The differences of oceanic responses between the eastern and western Pacific are intensively discussed.

  14. New constraints on the sources and behavior of neodymium and hafnium in seawater from Pacific Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    van de Flierdt, T.; Frank, M.; Lee, D.-C.; Halliday, A.N.; Reynolds, B.C.; Hein, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of dissolved Hf in the marine environment is not well understood due to the lack of direct seawater measurements of Hf isotopes and the limited number of Hf isotope time-series obtained from ferromanganese crusts. In order to place better constraints on input sources and develop further applications, a combined Nd-Hf isotope time-series study of five Pacific ferromanganese crusts was carried out. The samples cover the past 38 Myr and their locations range from sites at the margin of the ocean to remote areas, sites from previously unstudied North and South Pacific areas, and water depths corresponding to deep and bottom waters. For most of the samples a broad coupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is observed. In the Equatorial Pacific ENd and EHf both decrease with water depth. Similarly, ENd and EHf both increase from the South to the North Pacific. These data indicate that the Hf isotopic composition is, in general terms, a suitable tracer for ocean circulation, since inflow and progressive admixture of bottom water is clearly identifiable. The time-series data indicate that inputs and outputs have been balanced throughout much of the late Cenozoic. A simple box model can constrain the relative importance of potential input sources to the North Pacific. Assuming steady state, the model implies significant contributions of radiogenic Nd and Hf from young circum-Pacific arcs and a subordinate role of dust inputs from the Asian continent for the dissolved Nd and Hf budget of the North Pacific. Some changes in ocean circulation that are clearly recognizable in Nd isotopes do not appear to be reflected by Hf isotopic compositions. At two locations within the Pacific Ocean a decoupling of Nd and Hf isotopes is found, indicating limited potential for Hf isotopes as a stand-alone oceanographic tracer and providing evidence of additional local processes that govern the Hf isotopic composition of deep water masses. In the case of the Southwest Pacific there is

  15. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    Jesse M Wilson

    Full Text Available Community respiration (CR of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3 d(-1±8.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3 d(-1±7.32 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 10°N and 10°S and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3 d(-1±45.6 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3 d(-1±13.9 mmol m(-3 d(-1 between 156°E and the Australian coast. We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  16. North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming

    Praetorius, Summer K; Mix, Alan C.; Davies, Maureen H.; Wolhowe, Matthew D; Addison, Jason A.; Prahl, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    Marine sediments from the North Pacific document two episodes of expansion and strengthening of the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) accompanied by seafloor hypoxia during the last deglacial transition1, 2, 3, 4. The mechanisms driving this hypoxia remain under debate1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. We present a new high-resolution alkenone palaeotemperature reconstruction from the Gulf of Alaska that reveals two abrupt warming events of 4–5 degrees Celsius at the onset of the Bølling and Holocene intervals that coincide with sudden shifts to hypoxia at intermediate depths. The presence of diatomaceous laminations and hypoxia-tolerant benthic foraminiferal species, peaks in redox-sensitive trace metals12, 13, and enhanced 15N/14N ratio of organic matter13, collectively suggest association with high export production. A decrease in 18O/16O values of benthic foraminifera accompanying the most severe deoxygenation event indicates subsurface warming of up to about 2 degrees Celsius. We infer that abrupt warming triggered expansion of the North Pacific OMZ through reduced oxygen solubility and increased marine productivity via physiological effects; following initiation of hypoxia, remobilization of iron from hypoxic sediments could have provided a positive feedback on ocean deoxygenation through increased nutrient utilization and carbon export. Such a biogeochemical amplification process implies high sensitivity of OMZ expansion to warming.

  17. Introduction to "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012"

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Borrero, Jose C.; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-12-01

    With this volume of the Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) topical issue "Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean: 2011-2012", we are pleased to present 21 new papers discussing tsunami events occurring in this two-year span. Owing to the profound impact resulting from the unique crossover of a natural and nuclear disaster, research into the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami continues; here we present 12 papers related to this event. Three papers report on detailed field survey results and updated analyses of the wave dynamics based on these surveys. Two papers explore the effects of the Tohoku tsunami on the coast of Russia. Three papers discuss the tsunami source mechanism, and four papers deal with tsunami hydrodynamics in the far field or over the wider Pacific basin. In addition, a series of five papers presents studies of four new tsunami and earthquake events occurring over this time period. This includes tsunamis in El Salvador, the Philippines, Japan and the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, we present four new papers on tsunami science, including discussions on tsunami event duration, tsunami wave amplitude, tsunami energy and tsunami recurrence.

  18. Mesoscale cyclogenesis over the western north Pacific Ocean during TPARC

    Christopher A. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of mesoscale marine cyclogenesis over the subtropics of the Western Pacific Ocean are investigated. Each case occurred during the THORPEX Pacific Asia Regional Campaign and Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS-08 field phases in 2008. Each cyclone developed from remnants of disturbances that earlier showed potential for tropical cyclogenesis within the tropics. Two of the cyclones produced gale-force surface winds, and one, designated as a tropical cyclone, resulted in a significant coastal storm over eastern Japan. Development was initiated by a burst of organized mesoscale convection that consolidated and intensified the surface cyclonic circulation over a period of 12–24 h. Upper-tropospheric potential vorticity anomalies modulated the vertical wind shear that, in turn, influenced the periods of cyclone intensification and weakening. Weak baroclinicity associated with vertical shear was also deemed important in organizing mesoscale ascent and the convection outbreaks. The remnant tropical disturbances contributed exceptional water vapour content to higher latitudes that led to strong diabatic heating, and the tropical remnants contributed vorticity that was the seed of the development in the subtropics. Predictability of these events more than three days in advance appears to be minimal.

  19. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part II: Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity, non linearities, incident wave period and realistic eastern coastline geometry on energy fluxes are investigated using a shallow water model with a spatial resolution of 1/4 degree in both meridional and zonal directions. Equatorial and mid-latitude responses are considered. It is found that (1 the influence of the coastline geometry and the incident wave period is more important for the westward energy flux than for the poleward flux, and (2 the effect of the inclination of the eastern ocean boundary on the poleward energy flux, for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, decline as the period of the incident wave increases. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that the poleward energy fluxes from meridional boundaries give plausible results for motions of seasonal and annual periods. For comparatively shorter periods, a realistic coastline geometry has to be included for more accurate results. It is recommended that any numerical model involving the reflection of baroclinic Rossby waves (of intraseasonal, seasonal or annual periods on the eastern Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, should consider the effect of the coastline geometry in order to improve the accuracy of the results.Key words. Oceanography: general (climate and interannual variability; equatorial oceanography. Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents.

  20. Atmospheric correction using near-infrared bands for satellite ocean color data processing in the turbid western Pacific region.

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide

    2012-01-16

    A regional near-infrared (NIR) ocean normalized water-leaving radiance (nL(w)(λ)) model is proposed for atmospheric correction for ocean color data processing in the western Pacific region, including the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. Our motivation for this work is to derive ocean color products in the highly turbid western Pacific region using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard South Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). GOCI has eight spectral bands from 412 to 865 nm but does not have shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands that are needed for satellite ocean color remote sensing in the turbid ocean region. Based on a regional empirical relationship between the NIR nL(w)(λ) and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (K(d)(490)), which is derived from the long-term measurements with the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, an iterative scheme with the NIR-based atmospheric correction algorithm has been developed. Results from MODIS-Aqua measurements show that ocean color products in the region derived from the new proposed NIR-corrected atmospheric correction algorithm match well with those from the SWIR atmospheric correction algorithm. Thus, the proposed new atmospheric correction method provides an alternative for ocean color data processing for GOCI (and other ocean color satellite sensors without SWIR bands) in the turbid ocean regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea, although the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach is still much preferred. The proposed atmospheric correction methodology can also be applied to other turbid coastal regions.

  1. Antitropical distribution and evolution in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean

    Briggs, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Antitropical distributions of continental shelf, Indo-West Pacific species are probably not due to transgression of the tropics during the glacial periods, isothermic submergence, island integration, rising Neogene temperatures, or the Mesozoic dispersal of fragments from a Pacific continental mass. Characteristics of common antitropical patterns, plus information from systematic works on a variety on a variety of animal and plant groups, indicate that the long discarded "relict theory" of Theel (1885) appears to best fit the evidence, for it provides a mechanism whereby antitropical distribution may be brought about. The relict theory is compatible with the concept that the East Indies part of the Indo-West Pacific has been functioning as a center of evolutionary origin. It suggests that antitropical and associated disjunct patterns are produced as an older species, that has spread out to occupy a broad range, loses ground and gradually becomes supplanted by a younger species that had subsequently evolved in the East Indies. As this process goes on, the older species becomes restricted to a few isolated localities on the fringe of its original range. These isolates are often found to the north and south of the equatorial region but may include relict populations at the western edge of the Indian Ocean.

  2. Rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopes in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Jeandel, C.; Delattre, H.; Grenier, M.; Pradoux, C.; Lacan, F.

    2013-02-01

    vertical profiles of rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions have been measured in the remote southeast Pacific Ocean. The three stations represent contrasting environments: the oligotrophic center of the gyre (station GYR), the "transition zone" east of the South Tropical Front (station EGY), and the Peru-Chile upwelling marked by a pronounced oxygen minimum (station UPX). Rare earth concentrations display nutrient like vertical profiles except at UPX where surface waters are enriched. At this station Nd isotopic compositions are clearly more radiogenic than in the open ocean, suggesting that boundary exchange process is releasing lithogenic rare earth element from the volcanic Andes. Unexpected radiogenic values (ɛNd reaching -3.7) are also observed at 2000 m at station GYR in the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water that commonly have ɛNd values around -6. Exchange processes related to hydrothermal activity are suspected to produce this increase in ɛNd in the vicinity of the East Pacific Rise. These results provide some guidance for higher resolution studies planned in this region by the international GEOTRACES program.

  3. Transport process of Pu isotope in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean

    Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036-8564, Aomori (Japan); Zheng, Jian [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Significant quantities of Pu isotopes have been released into the marine environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Most radionuclides globally dispersed in atmospheric nuclear weapons testing were released into the environment during the 1950's and 1960's. In the western North Pacific Ocean, the principal source can be further distinguished as two distinct sources of Pu: close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands and global stratospheric fallout. Since the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is characteristic for the Pu emission source, information on Pu isotopic signature is very useful to better understand the transport process in the oceans and to identify the sources of Pu. The mean atom ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu from the global stratospheric fallout is 0.180 ±0.014 based on soil sample data, whereas that from close-in tropospheric fallout from the PPG is 0.33 - 0.36. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater samples collected in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean will provide important and useful data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The objectives of this study were to measure the {sup 239+240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in seawater from the Sea of Okhotsk, Japan Sea, South China Sea and Sulu Sea and to discuss the transport process of Pu. Large-volume seawater samples (250 L each) were collected from the surface to the bottom in marginal seas of the western North Pacific Ocean with acoustically triggered quadruple PVC sampling bottles during the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise. The {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios were measured with a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS, which was equipped with a guard electrode to eliminate secondary discharge in the plasma and to enhance overall sensitivity. In

  4. The Last Frontier: Catch Records of White Sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Christiansen, Heather M.; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F.; Wintner, Sabine P.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Hussey, Nigel E.

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126–602 cm total length (TL) and 16–2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  5. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Heather M Christiansen

    Full Text Available White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8, Republic of Korea (22, Japan (129, China (32, Taiwan (45, Philippines (1 and Vietnam (3. Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam. Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113. Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases to near term (140 cm TL embryos. On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10 and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  6. Widespread Anthropogenic Nitrogen in Northwestern Pacific Ocean Sediment.

    Kim, Haryun; Lee, Kitack; Lim, Dhong-Il; Nam, Seung-Il; Kim, Tae-Wook; Yang, Jin-Yu T; Ko, Young Ho; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Eunil

    2017-06-06

    Sediment samples from the East China and Yellow seas collected adjacent to continental China were found to have lower δ 15 N values (expressed as δ 15 N = [ 15 N: 14 N sample / 15 N: 14 N air - 1] × 1000‰; the sediment 15 N: 14 N ratio relative to the air nitrogen 15 N: 14 N ratio). In contrast, the Arctic sediments from the Chukchi Sea, the sampling region furthest from China, showed higher δ 15 N values (2-3‰ higher than those representing the East China and the Yellow sea sediments). Across the sites sampled, the levels of sediment δ 15 N increased with increasing distance from China, which is broadly consistent with the decreasing influence of anthropogenic nitrogen (N ANTH ) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer use. We concluded that, of several processes, the input of N ANTH appears to be emerging as a new driver of change in the sediment δ 15 N value in marginal seas adjacent to China. The present results indicate that the effect of N ANTH has extended beyond the ocean water column into the deep sedimentary environment, presumably via biological assimilation of N ANTH followed by deposition. Further, the findings indicate that N ANTH is taking over from the conventional paradigm of nitrate flux from nitrate-rich deep water as the primary driver of biological export production in this region of the Pacific Ocean.

  7. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  8. Madden-Julian Oscillation: Western Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Fuchs, Z.; Raymond, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    The MJO has been and still remains a "holy grail" of today's atmospheric science research. Why does the MJO propagate eastward? What makes it unstable? What is the scaling for the MJO, i.e. why does it prefer long wavelengths or planetary wavenumbers 1-3? The MJO has the strongest signal in the Indian ocean and in the West Pacific, but the average vertical structure is very different in each of those basins. We look at the reanalysis/analysis FNL, ERAI vertical structure of temperature and moisture as well as the surface zonal winds for two ocean basins. We also look at data from DYNAMO and TOGA_COARE in great detail (saturation fraction, temperature, entropy, surface zonal winds, gross moist stability, etc). The findings from observations and field projects for the two ocean basins are then compared to a linear WISHE model on an equatorial beta plane. Though linear WISHE has long been discounted as a plausible model for the MJO, the version we have developed explains many of the observed features of this phenomenon, in particular, the preference for large zonal scale, the eastward propagation, the westward group velocity, and the thermodynamic structure. There is no need to postulate large-scale negative gross moist stability, as destabilization occurs via WISHE at long wavelengths only. This differs from early WISHE models because we take a moisture adjustment time scale of order one day in comparison to the much shorter time scales assumed in earlier models. Linear modeling cannot capture all of the features of the MJO, so we are in the process of adding nonlinearity.

  9. Mechanism of climate change over South America during the LGM in coupled Ocean- Atmosphere model simulations

    Khodri, M.

    2006-12-01

    On a regional perspective the database of proxy information for South America during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) shows large and regionally extensive changes of the mean climate and vegetation types over the Amazon basin. In some instances these changes were associated with decrease in the mean precipitation amount (and most probably in moist deep convection) over the Amazonian and South East Brazil monsoon regions and wetter mean conditions in present day drought-prone regions such as Northeast of Brazil (Nordeste). These changes have been interpreted as local responses to shift in the mean position and intensity of the Atlantic ITCZ due to glacial extratropical forcings or to changes in the South American Monsoons. However there are still two issues is the path to further understand the mechanism of climate change over South America during the LGM. The first is incomplete knowledge in both the modeling and observational communities of how the moist deep convection over the Amazonian region respond to glacial boundary condition and how this changes might interact with the meridional shift of rainfall over Nordeste and Atlantic Ocean. The second is our understanding of how ocean-atmosphere changes that do occur in the tropical Pacific region influence the climate of the remainder of the planet and on a regional way over South America. Using PMIP-2 coupled Ocean-Atmosphere simulations for LGM and comparison to paleodata we show that hydrological cycle changes over the Amazon basin might be independent of their Atlantic Ocean counterpart, while teleconnections with Pacific Ocean might have played a significant role in the observed changes over tropical South America.

  10. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  11. Measurements within the Pacific-Indian oceans throughflow region

    Fieux, M.; Andrié, C.; Delecluse, P.; Ilahude, A. G.; Kartavtseff, A.; Mantisi, F.; Molcard, R.; Swallow, J. C.

    1994-07-01

    Two hydrographic (θ, S, O 2) and trichlorofluoromethane (F-11) sections were carried out between the Australian continental shelf and Indonesia, in August 1989, on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne. The sections lie in the easternmost part of the Indian Ocean where the throughflow between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean emerges. They allow us to describe the features of the water-property and circulation fields of the throughflow at its entrance in the Indian Ocean. Between the Australian continental shelf and Bali, the Subtropical and Central waters are separated from the waters of the Indonesian seas by a sharp hydrological front, located around 13°30 S, below the thermocline down to 700 m. Near the coast of Bali, upwelling occurs in the near-surface layer under the effect of the southeast monsoon; at depth, between 300 m to more than 800 m, a water mass of northern Indian Ocean origin was present. From the characteristics of the bottom water found in the Lombok basin, the maximum depth of the Java ridge which separates the Lombok basin from the Northwest Australian basin lies around 3650 m. Off Sumba, Savu, Roti and Timor channels a core of low salinity and high oxygen content near-surface water was found in the axis of each channel, which suggests strong currents from the interior Indonesian seas towards the Indian Ocean. The entrance of the deep water flowing in the opposite direction, from the Indian Ocean to the Timor basin, was marked below 1400 m to the sill depth, through an increase of salinity and oxygen content. The flow reversal, observed briefly by a Pegasus direct current profiler in the Timor strait, was located at 1200 m depth. During the southeast monsoon, the net (geostrophic + Ekman) transport calculated on the section Australia-Bali give an estimate of the throughflow between 0 and 500 m of 22 ± 4 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 towards the Indian Ocean, with a concentration of the transport in the upper layers (19 × 10 6 m 3 s -1 in 0-200 m) and

  12. Ocean Color and the Equatorial Annual Cycle in the Pacific

    Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and other scatterers in ocean surface waters affect the flux divergence of solar radiation and thus the vertical distribution of radiant heating of the ocean. While this may directly alter the local mixed-layer depth and temperature (Martin 1985; Strutton & Chavez 2004), non-local changes are propagated through advection (Manizza et al. 2005; Murtugudde et al. 2002; Nakamoto et al. 2001; Sweeny et al. 2005). In and coupled feedbacks (Lengaigne et al. 2007; Marzeion & Timmermann 2005). Anderson et al. (2007), Anderson et al. (2009) and Gnanadesikan & Anderson (2009) have performed a series of experiments with a fully coupled climate model which parameterizes the e-folding depth of solar irradiance in terms of surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The results have so far been discussed with respect to the climatic mean state and ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific. We extend the discussion here to the Pacific equatorial annual cycle. The focus of the coupled experiments has been the sensitivity of the coupled system to regional differences in chlorophyll concentration. While runs have been completed with realistic SeaWiFS-derived monthly composite chlorophyll ('green') and with a globally chlorophyll-free ocean ('blue'), the concentrations in two additional runs have been selectively set to zero in specific regions: the oligotrophic subtropical gyres ('gyre') in one case and the mesotrophic gyre margins ('margin') in the other. The annual cycle of ocean temperatures exhibits distinctly reduced amplitudes in the 'blue' and 'margin' experiments, and a slight reduction in 'gyre' (while ENSO variability almost vanishes in 'blue' and 'gyre', but amplifies in 'margin' - thus the frequently quoted inverse correlation between ENSO and annual amplitudes holds only for the 'green' / 'margin' comparison). It is well-known that on annual time scales, the anomalous divergence of surface currents and vertical

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2008-02-02 to 2008-11-16 (NODC Accession 0081043)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081043 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA in the Hawaiian Islands Humpback...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-05-31 to 1991-07-11 (NODC Accession 0115000)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115000 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary,...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-02-13 to 2006-03-30 (NODC Accession 0108062)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108062 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North...

  16. 137Cs, 239+24Pu and 24Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng Jian; Wang Zhongliang

    2006-01-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The 137 Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The 137 Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m -3 in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m -3 in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of 137 Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of 137 Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of 137 Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr -1 in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr -1 in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr -1 in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. 239+24 Pu activities and 24 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199 ± 0.026 to 0.248 ± 0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher 24 Pu / 239 Pu atom ratios

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 2002-03-07 to 2012-11-24 (NODC Accession 0083196)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083196 includes chemical, physical and underway - surface data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the Caribbean Sea, North Pacific Ocean, South...

  18. Tropical Pacific Climate, Carbon, and Ocean Biogeochemical Response to the Central American Seaway in a GFDL Earth System Model

    Sentman, L. T.; Dunne, J. P.; Stouffer, R. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Broccoli, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    To explore the tropical Pacific climate, carbon, and ocean biogeochemical response to the shoaling and closure of the Central American Seaway during the Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma), we performed a suite of sensitivity experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model, GFDL-ESM2G, varying only the seaway widths and sill depths. These novel ESM simulations include near-final closure of the seaway with a very narrow, 1º grid cell wide opening. Net mass transport through the seaway into the Caribbean is 20.5-23.1 Sv with a deep seaway, but only 14.1 Sv for the wide/shallow seaway because of the inter-basin bi-directional horizontal mass transport. Seaway transport originates from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in the Pacific and rejoins it in the South Atlantic, reducing the Indonesian Throughflow and transporting heat and salt southward into the South Atlantic, in contrast to present-day and previous seaway simulations. Tropical Pacific mean climate and interannual variability is sensitive to the seaway shoaling, with the largest response to the wider/deeper seaway. In the tropical Pacific, the top 300-m warms 0.4-0.8°C, the equatorial east-west sea surface temperature gradient increases, the north-south sea surface temperature asymmetry at 110°W decreases, thermocline deepens 5-11 m, and the east-west thermocline gradient increases. In the Niño-3 region, ENSO amplitude increases, skewed toward more cold (La Niña) events, El Niño and La Niña develops earlier ( 3 months), the annual cycle weakens and the semi-annual and interannual cycles strengthen from increased symmetry of the north-south sea surface temperature gradient, and atmospheric global teleconnections strengthen with the seaway. The increase in global ocean overturning with the seaway results in a younger average ocean ideal age, reduced dissolved inorganic carbon inventory and marine net primary productivity, and altered inter-basin patterns of surface sediment carbonate

  19. 10Be/230Th ratios as proxy for particle flux in the equatorial Pacific ocean

    Anderson, R.F.; Fleisher, M.Q.; Kubik, P.W.; Suter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Particulate 10 Be/ 230 Th ratios collected by sediment traps in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean exhibit a positive correlation with particle flux, but little or no correlation with particle composition. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs

  20. Pacific Ocean buoy temperature date - TAO/TRITON database & National Buoy Data Center database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pacific Ocean buoy temperature data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Carbone, F., M. Landis, C.N. Gencarelli, A. Naccarato, F. Sprovieri,...

  1. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Analysis of Shadow Zone Arrivals and Acoustic Propagation in Numerical Ocean Models

    Dushaw, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ... depth of the receiver lies well below the depths of the predicted cusps. Several models for the temperature and salinity in the North Pacific Ocean were obtained and processed to enable simulations of acoustic propagation for comparison to the observations...

  2. Temperature and salinity profiles from CTD casts from NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON and other PLATFORMS from the North/South Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, and other sea areas in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) from 1991-11-01 to 1991-11-30 (NODC Accession 9100243)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and other data were collected from NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON and other PLATFORMS in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Data were...

  3. Spatial variation of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean during the summer of 2014

    Yang, Guang; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Yanqing; Wang, Xiaocheng; Dai, Luping; Tao, Zhencheng; Ji, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the zooplankton community in the western tropical Pacific Ocean is poor compared to that of the communities in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. The zooplankton composition, abundance, biomass and community structure in the western Pacific Ocean were studied based on data collected during a synoptic cruise (August-September 2014). Four zooplankton communities were determined via cluster analysis, and these four clusters were mainly spatially related to four different currents: the Luzon Current (LC), Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC), North Equatorial Current (NEC) and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC). The estimated mean abundance and biomass of the zooplankton for the whole surveyed area were 146.7±178.1 ind/m3 and 36.9±40.3 mg/m3, respectively. The zooplankton abundance was dominated by small copepods, such as Clausocalanus furcatus, C. pergens, Oncaea mediterranea and Oithona plumifera. The zooplankton abundance and biomass values were lowest in the STCC region and highest in the NECC region. BEST analysis based on surface environmental factors showed that chlorophyll a (chl a), pH, temperature and salinity were the environmental variables that best explained the distribution pattern of the zooplankton community (pw=0.372). The zooplankton abundance was higher south of the salinity front at 16°N, in accordance with the relatively higher nutrient and chl a levels. Maximum zooplankton biomass was found in regions on the periphery of the cyclonic Mindanao Eddy (ME) and anticyclonic Halmahera Eddy (HE).

  4. A simple mixing explanation for late Pleistocene changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradient

    L. E. Lisiecki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The fact that the deep-ocean benthic δ13C minimum shifted from the North Pacific to the South Atlantic during the Last Glacial Maximum is often interpretted as evidence of a change in deep water circulation, such as the development of deep water ventilation in the North Pacific or a decrease in Southern Ocean overturning. This study re-evaluates the implications of changes in benthic δ13C gradients by comparing Pacific Deep Water (PDW δ13C measurements with the values expected for the null hypothesis that PDW ventilation sources remained unchanged throughout the Late Pleistocene. The δ13C compositions of PDW, Northern Component Water (NCW and Southern Component Water (SCW are estimated from regional benthic δ13C stacks of 3–6 sites. Changes in PDW δ13C and PDW-SCW δ13C gradients over the past 800 kyr are found to be well described by a constant mixture of 60% NCW and 40% SCW plus a constant Pacific remineralization offset of −0.5‰. Thus, a change in PDW ventilation cannot be inferred solely on the basis of changes in the Pacific-South Atlantic benthic δ13C gradient.

  5. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    Ahti, Pauliina A.

    2016-02-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  6. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    Ahti, Pauliina A.; Coleman, Richard R.; DiBattista, Joseph; Berumen, Michael L.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  7. Mesoscale Eddies in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Three-Dimensional Eddy Structures and Heat/Salt Transports

    Dong, Di; Brandt, Peter; Chang, Ping; Schütte, Florian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Jinhui; Zeng, Jisheng

    2017-12-01

    The region encompassing the Kuroshio Extension (KE) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean (25°N-45°N and 130°E-180°E) is one of the most eddy-energetic regions of the global ocean. The three-dimensional structures and transports of mesoscale eddies in this region are comprehensively investigated by combined use of satellite data and Argo profiles. With the allocation of Argo profiles inside detected eddies, the spatial variations of structures of eddy temperature and salinity anomalies are analyzed. The results show that eddies predominantly have subsurface (near-surface) intensified temperature and salinity anomalies south (north) of the KE jet, which is related to different background stratifications between these regions. A new method based on eddy trajectories and the inferred three-dimensional eddy structures is proposed to estimate heat and salt transports by eddy movements in a Lagrangian framework. Spatial distributions of eddy transports are presented over the vicinity of the KE for the first time. The magnitude of eddy-induced meridional heat (freshwater volume) transport is on the order of 0.01 PW (103 m3/s). The eddy heat transport divergence results in an oceanic heat loss south and heat gain north of the KE, thereby reinforcing and counteracting the oceanic heat loss from air-sea fluxes south and north of the KE jet, respectively. It also suggests a poleward heat transport across the KE jet due to eddy propagation.

  8. Isolation by distance and vicariance drive genetic structure of a coral reef fish in the Pacific Ocean.

    Planes, S; Fauvelot, C

    2002-02-01

    We studied the genetic diversity of a coral reef fish species to investigate the origin of the differentiation. A total of 727 Acanthurus triostegus collected from 15 locations throughout the Pacific were analyzed for 20 polymorphic loci. The genetic structure showed limited internal disequilibrium within each population; 3.7% of the loci showed significant Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, mostly associated with Adh*, and we subsequently removed this locus from further analysis of geographic pattern. The genetic structure of A. triostegus throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean revealed a strong geographic pattern. Overall, there was significant population differentiation (multilocus F(ST) = 0.199), which was geographically structured according to bootstraps of neighbor-joining analysis on Nei's unbiased genetic distances and AMOVA analysis. The genetic structure revealed five geographic groups in the Pacific Ocean: western Pacific (Guam, Philippines, Palau, and Great Barrier Reef); central Pacific (Solomons, New Caledonia, and Fiji); and three groups made up of the eastern populations, namely Hawaiian Archipelago (north), Marquesas (equatorial), and southern French Polynesia (south) that incorporates Clipperton Island located in the northeastern Pacific. In addition, heterozygosity values were found to be geographically structured with higher values grouped within Polynesian and Clipperton populations, which exhibited lower population size. Finally, the genetic differentiation (F(ST)) was significantly correlated with geographic distance when populations from the Hawaiian and Marquesas archipelagos were separated from all the other locations. These results show that patterns of differentiation vary within the same species according to the spatial scale, with one group probably issued from vicariance, whereas the other followed a pattern of isolation by distance. The geographic pattern for A. triostegus emphasizes the diversity of the evolutionary processes that lead

  9. Diet Composition and Trophic Ecology of Northeast Pacific Ocean Sharks.

    Bizzarro, Joseph J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Smith, Wade D; Cortés, Enric

    Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids. Several large, pelagic apex predator species occur in the ENP, but the largest species (i.e., Basking Shark, Whale Shark) consume zooplankton or small nekton. Size-based dietary variability is substantial for many species, and segregation of juvenile and adult foraging habitats also is common (e.g., Horn Shark, Shortfin Mako). Temporal dietary differences are most pronounced for temperate, nearshore species with wide size ranges, and least pronounced for smaller species in extreme latitudes and deep-water regions. Sympatric sharks often occupy various trophic positions, with resource overlap differing by space and time and some sharks serving as prey to other species. Most coastal species remain in the same general region over time and feed opportunistically on variable prey inputs (e.g., season migrations, spawning, or recruitment events), whereas pelagic, oceanic species actively seek hot spots of prey abundance that are spatiotemporally variable. The influence of sharks on ecosystem structure and regulation has been downplayed compared to that of large teleosts species with higher per capita consumption rates (e.g., tunas, billfishes). However, sharks also exert indirect influences on prey populations by causing behavioural changes that may result in restricted ranges and reduced fitness. Except for food web modelling

  10. Tracing the Ventilation Pathways of the Deep North Pacific Ocean Using Lagrangian Particles and Eulerian Tracers

    Syed, H.A.M.S.; Primeau, F.W.; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Heemink, A.W.

    2017-01-01

    Lagrangian forward and backward models are introduced into a coarse-grid ocean global circulation model to trace the ventilation routes of the deep North Pacific Ocean. The random walk aspect in the Lagrangian model is dictated by a rotated isopycnal diffusivity tensor in the circulation model,

  11. Absolute migration of Pacific basin mid-ocean ridges since 85 Ma ...

    Mid-ocean ridges are major physiographic features that dominate the world seafloor. Their absolute motion and tectonics are recorded in magnetic lineations they created. The absolute migration of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific basin since 85 Ma and their tectonic implications was investigated in this work and the results ...

  12. Sensitivity of equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean watermasses to the position of the Indonesian Throughflow

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Latif, Mojib; Legutke, Stephanie

    2000-09-01

    The sensitivity of the thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean pycnoclines to a model's representation of the Indonesian Straits connecting the two basins is investigated. Two integrations are performed using the global HOPE ocean model. The initial conditions and surface forcing for both cases are identical; the only difference between the runs is that one has an opening for the Indonesian Straits which spans the equator on the Pacific side, and the other has an opening which lies fully north of the equator. The resulting sensitivity throughout much of the upper ocean is greater than 0.5°C for both the equatorial Indian and Pacific. A realistic simulation of net Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) transport (measured in Sverdrups) is not sufficient for an adequate simulation of equatorial watermasses. The ITF must also contain a realistic admixture of northern and southern Pacific source water.

  13. Deglacial Millennial-scale Calcium Carbonate Spikes in the North Pacific Ocean

    Chikamoto, M. O.; Timmermann, A.; Harada, N.; Okazaki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous paleoproxy records from the subarctic Pacific Ocean show two very pronounced deglacial peaks in calcium carbonate content for the Heinrich 1/ Bolling-Allerod (H1-BA) transition (at 14 ka) and for the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition (at 11 ka). Focusing on the H1-BA transition, some model simulations capture the North Pacific shift from ventilated to stratified conditions and from cooling to warming conditions via oceanic and atmospheric connections between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. To test the impact of these physical scenarios (variations in ocean stratification and temperature during the H1-BA transition) on calcite production or preservation, we conduct a series of idealized experiments using the Earth System Model Intermediate Complexity LOVECLIM. The variations in North Pacific Ocean stratification by anomalous freshwater forcing show low calcite productivity in associated with the subsurface nutrient decline. On the other hand, the rapid H1-BA warming of the North Pacific Ocean induced by anomalous heat forcing in turn increases calcite productivity due to the temperature-dependent growth rate of phytoplankton. These results suggest the possibility that the millennial-scale calcium carbonate peaks are the result of surface biogeochemical responses to the climate transition, not by the deep circulation response.

  14. Oligocene-Miocene magnetic stratigraphy carried by biogenic magnetite at sites U1334 and U1335 (equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Ohneiser, C.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kesler, M. S.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractSediments from the equatorial Pacific Ocean, at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program sites U1334 and U1335, record reliable magnetic polarity stratigraphies back to ~26.5 Ma (late Oligocene) at sedimentation rates usually in the 5-20 m/Myr range. Putative polarity subchrons that do not appear in current polarity timescales occur within Chrons C5ACr, C5ADn, and C5Bn.1r at Site U1335; and within Chrons C6AAr.2r, C6Br, C7Ar, and C8n.1n at Site U1334. Subchron C5Dr.1n (~17.5 Ma) is recorded at both sites, supporting its apparent recording in the South Atlantic Ocean, and has an estimated duration of ~40 kyr. The Oligocene-Miocene calcareous oozes have magnetizations carried by submicron magnetite, as indicated by thermal demagnetization of magnetic remanences, the anhysteretic remanence to susceptibility ratio, and magnetic hysteresis parameters. Transmission electron microscopy of magnetic separates indicates the presence of low-titanium iron oxide (magnetite) grains with size (50-100 nm) and shape similar to modern and fossil bacterial magnetite, supporting other evidence that biogenic submicron magnetite is the principal remanence carrier in these sediments. In the equatorial Pacific Ocean, low organic-carbon burial arrests microbial pore-water sulfate reduction, thereby aiding preservation of bacterial magnetite.

  15. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Cerovecki, Ivana [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; McClean, Julie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Koracin, Darko [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States). Division of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  16. Thermoluminescence dating in the South-West Pacific region

    Prescott, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The archaeometry laboratory of the University of Adelaide has undertaken a variety of dating projects for archaeologists in the region. For example, a survey of Pacific Island pottery has shown that themoluminescence dating is likely to be severely limited in usefulness on islands remote from the continental shelf i.e., the andesitic island arcs and oceanic islands. On the mainland of Australia, we have dated prehistoric campsites using ovenstones from fireplaces and have compared C-14 ages with themoluminescent ages. Where there is a close stratigraphic association of the C-14 and TL materials, there is good agreement between the two methods. (author)

  17. Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific Ocean

    F. Van Wambeke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of potential factors limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the South Eastern Pacific Gyre. The effects of glucose, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate additions on heterotrophic bacterial production (using leucine technique were studied in parallel in unfiltered seawater samples incubated under natural daily irradiance. The enrichments realized on the subsurface showed three types of responses. From 141° W (Marquesas plateau to approx 125° W, bacteria were not bottom-up controlled, as confirmed by the huge potential of growth in non-enriched seawater (median of enhancement factor×39 in 24 h. Within the Gyre (125° W–95° W, nitrogen alone stimulated leucine incorporation rates (median×4.2, but rapidly labile carbon (glucose became a second limiting factor (median×37 when the two elements were added. Finally from the border of the gyre to the Chilean upwelling (95° W–73° W, labile carbon was the only factor stimulating heterotrophic bacterial production. Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities and the direct versus indirect effect of iron and macronutrients on bacterial production were also investigated in four selected sites: two sites on the vicinity of the Marquesas plateau, the centre of the gyre and the Eastern border of the gyre. Both phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were limited by availability of nitrogen within the gyre, but not by iron. Iron limited phytoplankton at Marquesas plateau and at the eastern border of the gyre. However 48 h enrichment experiments were not sufficient to show any clear limitation of heterotrophic bacteria within Marquesas plateau and showed a limitation of these organisms by labile carbon in the eastern border of the Gyre.

  18. CCSM3 simulation of pacific multi-decadal climate variability: the role of subpolar North Pacific Ocean

    Zhong, Y; Liu, Z

    2008-01-01

    Previous analyses of the CCSM3 standard integration have revealed pronounced multidecadal variability in the Pacific climate system. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the physical mechanism underlying the Pacific multidecadal variability (PMV) using specifically designed sensitivity experiments. A novel mechanism is advanced, characterized by a crucial role of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. The multidecadal signal in ocean temperature and salinity fields is found to originate from the subsurface of the subpolar North Pacific, as result of the wave adjustment to the preceding basin-scale wind curl forcing. The multidecadal signal then ascends to the surface and is amplified through local temperature/salinity convective feedback. Along the southward Oyashio current, the anomaly travels to the Kuroshio Extension (KOE) region and is further intensified through a similar convective feedback in addition to the wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature feedback. The temperature anomaly in the KOE is able to feed back to the large-scale atmospheric circulation, inducing wind curl anomaly over the subpolar region, which in turn generates anomalous oceanic circulation and causes temperature/salinty variability in the subpolar subsurface. Thereby, a closed loop of PMV is established, in the form of a subpolar delayed oscillator

  19. Two decades of Pacific anthropogenic carbon storage and ocean acidification along Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program sections P16 and P02

    Carter, B. R.; Feely, R. A.; Mecking, S.; Cross, J. N.; Macdonald, A. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Talley, L. D.; Sabine, C. L.; Millero, F. J.; Swift, J. H.; Dickson, A. G.; Rodgers, K. B.

    2017-02-01

    A modified version of the extended multiple linear regression (eMLR) method is used to estimate anthropogenic carbon concentration (Canth) changes along the Pacific P02 and P16 hydrographic sections over the past two decades. P02 is a zonal section crossing the North Pacific at 30°N, and P16 is a meridional section crossing the North and South Pacific at 150°W. The eMLR modifications allow the uncertainties associated with choices of regression parameters to be both resolved and reduced. Canth is found to have increased throughout the water column from the surface to 1000 m depth along both lines in both decades. Mean column Canth inventory increased consistently during the earlier (1990s-2000s) and recent (2000s-2010s) decades along P02, at rates of 0.53 ± 0.11 and 0.46 ± 0.11 mol C m-2 a-1, respectively. By contrast, Canth storage accelerated from 0.29 ± 0.10 to 0.45 ± 0.11 mol C m-2 a-1 along P16. Shifts in water mass distributions are ruled out as a potential cause of this increase, which is instead attributed to recent increases in the ventilation of the South Pacific Subtropical Cell. Decadal changes along P16 are extrapolated across the gyre to estimate a Pacific Basin average storage between 60°S and 60°N of 6.1 ± 1.5 PgC decade-1 in the earlier decade and 8.8 ± 2.2 PgC decade-1 in the recent decade. This storage estimate is large despite the shallow Pacific Canth penetration due to the large volume of the Pacific Ocean. By 2014, Canth storage had changed Pacific surface seawater pH by -0.08 to -0.14 and aragonite saturation state by -0.57 to -0.82.

  20. Benthic data for corals, macroalgae, invertebrates, and non-living bottom types from Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, South Pacific Ocean, 2007-04-02 to 2008-12-31 (NODC Accession 0068364)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic transects were repeated at 12 sites around Tutuila at various depths on the reef slopes and flats. Benthic coverage categories include coral species,...

  1. Oceanographic data collected during EX1704 (American Samoa and Cook Islands (Telepresence Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2017-04-04 to 2017-04-21 (NCEI Accession 0163356)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in Apia, Western Samoa and Pago Pago, American Samoa. Operations for this cruise focused within the waters of...

  2. Oceanographic data collected during EX1701 (Kingman/Palmyra, Jarvis (Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the South Pacific Ocean from 2017-01-18 to 2017-02-10 (NCEI Accession 0162263)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in Pago Pago, American Samoa. Operations focused within several marine protected areas and included the use of the...

  3. Library holdings for New Zealand American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005 on the RV Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa in the South Pacific Ocean between April 3, 2005 and May 10, 2005

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  4. Vertical current data collected using current meter from KNORR and other platforms in North/South Pacific and Atlantic Ocean from 05 May 1974 to 27 April 1982 (NODC Accession 8600269)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Vertical current profiler data collected from various ships off of the "White Horse" instrument. Data were submitted by Dr. James Luyten of Woods Hole Oceanographic...

  5. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were submitted...

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBT from the KANA KEOKI from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1979-02-06 to 1980-06-14 (NODC Accession 8100518)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KANA KEOKI in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1979 to June 14, 1980....

  7. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 22 February to 1975-05-27 (NODC Accession 7800703)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MOANA WAVE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1975 to May 27, 1975. Data were...

  8. Robustness of observation-based decadal sea level variability in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

    Nidheesh, A. G.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Meyssignac, B.; Hamlington, B.; de Boyer Montegut, C.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the consistency of Indo-Pacific decadal sea level variability in 10 gridded, observation-based sea level products for the 1960-2010 period. Decadal sea level variations are robust in the Pacific, with more than 50% of variance explained by decadal modulation of two flavors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (classical ENSO and Modoki). Amplitude of decadal sea level variability is weaker in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific. All data sets indicate a transmission of decadal sea level signals from the western Pacific to the northwest Australian coast through the Indonesian throughflow. The southern tropical Indian Ocean sea level variability is associated with decadal modulations of ENSO in reconstructions but not in reanalyses or in situ data set. The Pacific-independent Indian Ocean decadal sea level variability is not robust but tends to be maximum in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. The inconsistency of Indian Ocean decadal variability across the sea level products calls for caution in making definitive conclusions on decadal sea level variability in this basin.

  9. Ocean passenger vessels : migrating south for the winter

    2010-01-01

    In response to consumer demand, the passenger vessels that operate from seaports along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts alternate between north and south. Passenger vessels that sail out of ports such as New York, Baltimore and Seattle in the s...

  10. Mapping Economic Development: The South Seas Government and Sugar Production in Japan’s South Pacific Mandate, 1919–1941

    Ti Ngo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Japan acquired the Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Island chains as a League of Nations mandate following World War I. Why did the local administration (the South Seas Government or Nanyōchō heavily subsidize the establishment of a sugar industry? While the South Seas Government did not explicitly state why it chose to support the sugar industry despite the wealth of oceanic resources surrounding the islands, imperial maps of the South Pacific produced by the Japanese navy and the South Seas Government provide a window into how both parties envisioned and planned for the economic future of the mandate. These maps included information regarding the available natural resources, land, and culture level of the Micronesian population. The author argues that in depicting the islands as spaces where a “primitive” nonagricultural population failed to take advantage of the islands’ resources, mapmakers and officials planned for the mass migration of Japanese labor to the mandate in order to support a newly established sugar industry.

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-02-25 to 1966-03-03 (NODC Accession 6600527)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North and South...

  12. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  13. AIR PRESSURE and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From North Pacific Ocean from 19920701 to 19921231 (NODC Accession 9300026)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains bathythermograph physical profile data in the TESAC format collected in North Pacific Ocean. TESAC format parameters include country code,...

  14. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  15. Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigment in a mixed layer isopycnal ocean general circulation model

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Ishizaka, J.; Muneyama, K.; Frouin, R.

    The influence of phytoplankton on the upper ocean dynamics and thermodynamics in the equatorial Pacific is investigated using an isopycnal ocean general circulation model (OPYC) coupled with a mixed layer model and remotely sensed chlorophyll...

  16. Oxygenated volatile organic carbon in the western Pacific convective center: ocean cycling, air-sea gas exchange and atmospheric transport

    Schlundt, Cathleen; Tegtmeier, Susann; Lennartz, Sinikka T.; Bracher, Astrid; Cheah, Wee; Krüger, Kirstin; Quack, Birgit; Marandino, Christa A.

    2017-09-01

    A suite of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs - acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal and butanone) were measured concurrently in the surface water and atmosphere of the South China Sea and Sulu Sea in November 2011. A strong correlation was observed between all OVOC concentrations in the surface seawater along the entire cruise track, except for acetaldehyde, suggesting similar sources and sinks in the surface ocean. Additionally, several phytoplankton groups, such as haptophytes or pelagophytes, were also correlated to all OVOCs, indicating that phytoplankton may be an important source of marine OVOCs in the South China and Sulu seas. Humic- and protein-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) components seemed to be additional precursors for butanone and acetaldehyde. The measurement-inferred OVOC fluxes generally showed an uptake of atmospheric OVOCs by the ocean for all gases, except for butanal. A few important exceptions were found along the Borneo coast, where OVOC fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere were inferred. The atmospheric OVOC mixing ratios over the northern coast of Borneo were relatively high compared with literature values, suggesting that this coastal region is a local hotspot for atmospheric OVOCs. The calculated amount of OVOCs entrained into the ocean seemed to be an important source of OVOCs to the surface ocean. When the fluxes were out of the ocean, marine OVOCs were found to be enough to control the locally measured OVOC distribution in the atmosphere. Based on our model calculations, at least 0.4 ppb of marine-derived acetone and butanone can reach the upper troposphere, where they may have an important influence on hydrogen oxide radical formation over the western Pacific Ocean.

  17. Widespread functional anoxia in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern South Pacific

    Thamdrup, Bo; Dalsgaard, Tage; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) as found in the Eastern Pacific and Indian Ocean are biogeochemical hot spots with a disproportionately large role in the marine nitrogen cycle, and they are important components of the highly productive ecosystems in which they occur. Although the oxygen-depleted waters have been known for a century, oxygen levels inside them are not well constrained and the regulation of their anaerobic processes by oxygen is poorly understood. We deployed highly sensitive STOX oxygen sensors with a detection limit of 10 nmol kg-1 in combination with conventional hydrographic oxygen sensors along a cruise track transecting the Eastern South Pacific OMZ from South to North along the coast of Chile and Peru. Oxygen was below the detection limit throughout the ˜200 m thick OMZ core in most casts with STOX sensors. The only exception was an offshore location off Peru where oxygen was 10-50 nmol kg-1 in the core, likely as the result of a transient intrusion. Oxygen was also not detected in the OMZ core in further casts with conventional sensors, which had a detection limit of 90 nmol kg-1 after STOX-based zero calibration. Our measurements tighten the constraints on typical oxygen concentrations in the inner part of the OMZ by at least an order of magnitude relative to previous reports. Nitrite only accumulated when oxygen was depleted below 50 nmol kg-1, which indicates that nitrogen cycling is much more sensitive to oxygen than previously estimated. We argue that extreme oxygen depletion to low nanomalar or even picomolar concentrations is a normal condition in the South Pacific OMZ, and suggest that the OMZ core is in fact functionally anoxic over wide regions for extended periods. Our results further indicate that oxygen dynamics in the low nanomolar range play an important role in OMZ biogeochemistry.

  18. Are Sea Surface Temperature satellite measurements reliable proxies of lagoon temperature in the South Pacific?

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Menkes, Christophe; Le Gendre, Romain; Passfield, Teuru; Andréfouët, Serge

    2017-12-01

    In remote coral reef environments, lagoon and reef in situ measurements of temperature are scarce. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measured by satellite has been frequently used as a proxy of the lagoon temperature experienced by coral reef organisms (TL) especially during coral bleaching events. However, the link between SST and TL is poorly characterized. First, we compared the correlation between various SST series and TL from 2012 to 2016 in three atolls and one island in the Central South Pacific Ocean. Simple linear correlation between SST and TL ranged between 0.44 and 0.97 depending on lagoons, localities of sensors, and type of SST data. High-resolution-satellite-measurements of SST inside the lagoons did not outperform oceanic SST series, suggesting that SST products are not adapted for small lagoons. Second, we modelled the difference between oceanic SST and TL as a function of the drivers of lagoon water renewal and mixing, namely waves, tide, wind, and season. The multivariate models reduced significantly the bias between oceanic SST and TL. In atoll lagoons, and probably in other hydrodynamically semi-open systems, a correction taking into account these factors is necessary when SST are used to characterize organisms' thermal stress thresholds.

  19. Biogeochemical linkage between atmosphere and ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: Results from the EqPOS research cruise

    Furutani, H.; Inai, Y.; Aoki, S.; Honda, H.; Omori, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Iwata, T.; Ueda, S.; Miura, K.; Uematsu, M.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean is a unique oceanic region from several biogeochemical points of view. It is a remote open ocean with relatively high marine biological activity, which would result in limited influence of human activity but enhanced effect of marine natural processes on atmospheric composition. It is also characterized as high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) ocean, in which availability of trace metals such as iron and zinc limits marine primary production and thus atmospheric deposition of these trace elements to the ocean surface is expected to play an important role in regulating marine primary production and defining unique microbial community. High sea surface temperature in the region generates strong vertical air convection which efficiently brings tropospheric atmospheric composition into stratosphere. In this unique eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, EqPOS (Equatorial Pacific Ocean and Stratospheric/Tropospheric Atmospheric Study) research cruise was organized as a part of SOLAS Japan activity to understand biogeochemical ocean-atmospheric interaction in the region. Coordinated atmospheric, oceanic, and marine biological observations including sampling/characterization of thin air-sea interfacial layer (sea surface microlayer: SML) and launching large stratospheric air sampling balloons were carried out on-board R/V Hakuho Maru starting from 29 January for 39 days. Biogeochemically important trace/long-lived gases such as CO2, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and some volatile organic carbons (VOCs) both in the atmosphere and seawater were continuously monitored and their air-sea fluxes were also observed using gradient and eddy-covariance techniques. Atmospheric gas measurement of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO, H2, Ar and isotopic composition of selected gases were further extended to stratospheric air by balloon-born sampling in addition to a vertical profiling of O3, CO2, and H2O with sounding sondes. Physical and chemical properties of marine

  20. Multiple nutrient stresses at intersecting Pacific Ocean biomes detected by protein biomarkers.

    Saito, Mak A; McIlvin, Matthew R; Moran, Dawn M; Goepfert, Tyler J; DiTullio, Giacomo R; Post, Anton F; Lamborg, Carl H

    2014-09-05

    Marine primary productivity is strongly influenced by the scarcity of required nutrients, yet our understanding of these nutrient limitations is informed by experimental observations with sparse geographical coverage and methodological limitations. We developed a quantitative proteomic method to directly assess nutrient stress in high-light ecotypes of the abundant cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus across a meridional transect in the central Pacific Ocean. Multiple peptide biomarkers detected widespread and overlapping regions of nutritional stress for nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre and iron in the equatorial Pacific. Quantitative protein analyses demonstrated simultaneous stress for these nutrients at biome interfaces. This application of proteomic biomarkers to diagnose ocean metabolism demonstrated Prochlorococcus actively and simultaneously deploying multiple biochemical strategies for low-nutrient conditions in the oceans. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low latitude regimes especially east of the dateline where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high nutrient low chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited in part by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Paci...

  2. Long-term variabilities of meridional geostrophic volumn transport in North Pacific Ocean

    Zhou, H.; Yuan, D.; Dewar, W. K.

    2016-02-01

    The meridional geostrophic volumn transport (MGVT) by the ocean plays a very important role in the climatic water mass and heat balance because of its large heat capacity which enables the oceans to store the large amount of radiation received in the summer and to release it in winter. Better understanding of the role of the oceans in climate variability is essential to assess the likely range of future climate fluctuations. In the last century the North Pacific Ocean experienced considerable climate variability, especially on decadal time scale. Some studies have shown that the North Pacific Ocean is the origin of North Pacific multidecadal variability (Latif and Barnett, 1994; Barnett et al., 1999). These fluctuations were associated with large anomalies in sea level, temperature, storminess and rainfall, the heat transport and other extremes are changing as well. If the MGVT of the ocean is well-determined, it can be used as a test of the validity of numerical, global climate models. In this paper, we investigate the long-term variability of the MGVT in North Pacific ocean based on 55 years long global ocean heat and salt content data (Levitus et al., 2012). Very clear inter-decadal variations can be seen in tropical , subtropical and subpolar regions of North Pacific Ocean. There are very consistent variations between the MGVT anomalies and the inter-decadal pacific oscillation (IPO) index in the tropical gyre with cold phase of IPO corresponding to negative MGVT anomalies and warm phase corresponding to positive MGVT anomalies. The subtropical gyre shows more complex variations, and the subpolar gyre shows a negative MGVT anomaly before late 1970's and a positive anomaly after that time. The geostrophic velocities of North Pacific Ocean show significantly different anomalies during the two IPO cold phases of 1955-1976 and 1999 to present, which suggests a different mechanism of the two cold phases. The long term variations of Sverdrup transport compares well

  3. Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific.

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Ryo; Mizumoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Yohei; Nah, Kyeongah

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of summertime north Indian Ocean SST on tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific

    Zheng, Jiayu; Wu, Qiaoyan; Guo, Yipeng; Zhao, Sen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of interannual variability of boreal summertime (June-September) north Indian Ocean (NIO) sea surface temperature (SST) on the distribution of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) using observational datasets. In the boreal summers with warm (cold) SST in the NIO, fewer (more) than normal TCs form over the entire WNP, with fewer (more) TCs forming north of 10°N and more (fewer) TCs forming south of 10°N. The warm (cold) SST in the NIO induces anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity north of 10°N and cyclonic (anticyclonic) vorticity south of 10°N, which contributes to the meridional seesaw-like distribution of WNP TC genesis. This study provides a new perspective to understand TC activities over the WNP and may help seasonal TC prediction.

  5. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-12-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  6. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin.

    Holmes, Bonnie J; Williams, Samuel M; Otway, Nicholas M; Nielsen, Einar E; Maher, Safia L; Bennett, Mike B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2017-07-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark ( Galeocerdo cuvier ) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring ( F ST  > 0.14, p  Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need for cross-jurisdictional efforts to manage the sustainable exploitation of large migratory sharks like G. cuvier .

  7. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin

    Holmes, Bonnie J.; Williams, Samuel M.; Otway, Nicholas M.

    2017-01-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p....001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other...... Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need...

  8. Geochemical investigations of sea water and manganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean

    Roncal, R.Z.

    1976-01-01

    Surface water, deep water, and pore water samples from the central Pacific Ocean were investigated for their Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu contents. The data were interpreted with the aid of thermodynamic calculations in order to gain new knowledge on the heavy water compounds possibly contained in the water. The relationships between the elements Co, Ni, and Cu and the Mn and Fe phases were determined with the aid of chemical and mineralogical investigations of typical Mu and Fe hydroxides and manganese nodules from the same region of the Pacific Ocean. (orig.) [de

  9. SEDIMENT PROPERTIES and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM and Other Platforms From North Pacific Ocean from 19881030 to 19911024 (NODC Accession 9300040)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains data collected in North Pacific Ocean from Hawaiian Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project for years 1, 2 and 3 as part of Joint Global Ocean Flux...

  10. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1420 Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam...

  12. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... regulations. (1) No vessels may anchor, moor, or navigate in anchorages A, B, C, or D except: (i) Vessels...

  13. Estimate of radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific Ocean

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs (radiocaesium) were released to the North Pacific Ocean by direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. After the FNPP1 accident, measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs were conducted by many researches. However, those results are only snapshots in order to interpret the distribution and transport of the released radiocaesium on a basin scale. It is recognized that estimation of the total amount of released 134Cs and 137Cs is necessary to assess the radioecological impacts of their release on the environment. It was reported that the inventory of 134Cs or 137Cs on the North Pacific Ocean after the FNPP1 accident was 15.2-18.3 PBq based on the observations (Aoyama et al., 2016a), 15.3±1.6 PBq by OI analysis (Inomata et al., 2016), 16.1±1.64 PBq by global ocean model (Tsubono et al., 2016). These suggest that more than 75 % of the atmospheric-released radiocaesium (15.2-20.4 PBq; Aoyama et al., 2016a) were deposited on the North Pacific Ocean. The radiocaesium from the atmospheric fallout and direct discharge were expected to mixing as well as diluting near the coastal region and transported eastward across the North Pacific Ocean in the surface layer. Furthermore, radicaesium were rapidly mixed and penetrated into the subsurface water in the North Pacific Ocean in winter. It was revealed that these radiocaesium existed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b; Kaeriyama et al., 2016) and Central Mode Water (CMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b), suggesting that mode water formation and subduction are efficient pathway for the transport of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium into the ocean interior within 1-year timescale. Kaeriyama et al. (2016) estimated the total amount of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium in the STMW was 4.2 ± 1.1 PBq in October-November 2012. However, there is no estimation of the amount of radiocaesium in the CMW. Therefore, it is impossible to discuss

  14. A Southern Ocean trigger for Northwest Pacific ventilation during the Holocene?

    Rella, S. F.; Uchida, M.

    2014-02-01

    Holocene ocean circulation is poorly understood due to sparsity of dateable marine archives with submillennial-scale resolution. Here we present a record of mid-depth water radiocarbon contents in the Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean over the last 12.000 years, which shows remarkable millennial-scale variations relative to changes in atmospheric radiocarbon inventory. Apparent decoupling of these variations from regional ventilation and mixing processes leads us to the suggestion that the mid-depth NW Pacific may have responded to changes in Southern Ocean overturning forced by latitudinal displacements of the southern westerly winds. By inference, a tendency of in-phase related North Atlantic and Southern Ocean overturning would argue against the development of a steady bipolar seesaw regime during the Holocene.

  15. Impact of effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific subtropical cell: a CGCM study

    Yamanaka, G.; Tsujino, H.; Ishizaki, H.; Nakano, H.; Hirabara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The choice of ocean radiant scheme is important for modeling the upper ocean. According to the ocean-only simulation (Yamanaka et al., 2012), introduction of the chlorophyll-a dependent ocean radiant scheme results in the decreased mixed layer depth (MLD), the enhanced subtropical cell (STC), and the cooling of the eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST). They also found that the enhanced STC results from the velocity profile change associated with the decreased Ekman boundary layer. However, the impact is not well understood when the air-sea feedback process is at work. This study examines the impact of the effective ocean optical properties on the Pacific mean fields, especially focusing on the STC, using a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). The CGCM we employed is the Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model (MRI-ESM1). The atmospheric model is TL159L48, and the ocean model has a horizontal resolution of 1 x 0.5 deg. with 51 levels in vertical. Experimental design basically follows the CMIP5 protocol. Two experiments (CTL and SLR runs) are performed to investigate the impact of the effective ocean optical properties. In the CTL run, a conventional ocean radiant heating scheme (Paul and Simpson, 1977) is used, whereas a new ocean radiant heating scheme is used in the SLR run, where the satellite-derived chlorophyll-a distribution is taken into consideration based on Morel and Antoine (1994) as well as the effect of the varying solar angle (Ishizaki and Yamanaka, 2010). Each experiment is integrated during the period from 1985 to 2005. It is found that introduction of the new ocean radiant scheme (SLR run) changes the long-term mean wind pattern in the Pacific: easterly winds are strengthened in the equatorial Pacific, but weakened in the off-equatorial region. In the tropical Pacific, the enhanced equatorial upwelling cools the equatorial SST and the MLD becomes shallower. This is similar to the ocean-only simulation, but is more

  16. Seasonal abundance of the dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, in Hawaii and the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Syd Kraul

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This report looks at possible explanations for the seasonal abundance of the dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, in Hawaii. In Hawaii and many parts of the Pacific Ocean, the abundance of C. hippurus (called mahimahi in Hawaii varies seasonally in a pattern that is fairly consistent from year to year. Size frequency analysis shows that this pattern of seasonal landings matches the pattern of cohort abundance in certain years. The strongest cohorts are spawned in July, often stay in our fishing zone for at least 5 months, and may comprise the predominant portion of the catch through October. Even though mahimahi spawn copiously all year in captivity, the data here suggest that wild mahimahi either spawn less frequently, or their larvae survive better at certain times of the year. Thus, seasonal abundance of mahimahi in Hawaii might be a function of cohort survival. The abundance pattern also fits the pattern of change in seasonal surface temperatures, and it is quite possible that mahimahi migrate north and south to stay in the sea surface thermocline associated with the 23°C isotherm. Natural growth rates were derived from our size frequency analyses, and the rates matched growth rates reported in a previous study of otolith ring deposition. A significant increase in longline fishing in 1989 increased total landings but did not reduce the catch quantity or sales price for charter boat mahimahi.

  17. Diversity and population structure of Marine Group A bacteria in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean

    Allers, Elke; Wright, Jody J; Konwar, Kishori M; Howes, Charles G; Beneze, Erica; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Marine Group A (MGA) is a candidate phylum of Bacteria that is ubiquitous and abundant in the ocean. Despite being prevalent, the structural and functional properties of MGA populations remain poorly constrained. Here, we quantified MGA diversity and population structure in relation to nutrients and O2 concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean using a combination of catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and ...

  18. WAVE DIRECTION and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM From North Pacific Ocean and Others from 19810817 to 19940323 (NODC Accession 9400105)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains Wave Energy (wave height and wave period) Data from Hawaiian coast collected over 13 years in North Pacific Ocean, NE Pacific (limit-180)....

  19. Characterization of the variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone using satellite and reanalysis wind products

    Kidwell, Autumn; Lee, Tong; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-hai

    2016-04-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the largest rain band worldwide during austral summer, is important to atmospheric circulation (including cyclone genesis) and ocean circulation. Previous studies of the SPCZ have focused on parameters such as outgoing longwave radiation or precipitation. However, wind convergence is fundamental causing the variations of these parameters. In this study, the SPCZ variability is examined using ocean surface wind products derived from NASA's QuickSCAT (1999-2009) and ESA's ASCAT (2007 onward) satellite scatterometers and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis (1981 onward). From these products, indices were developed to characterize the SPCZ strength, area, and centroid location. Excellent agreement is found in terms of the temporal variations of the indices derived from the satellites and reanalysis wind products, despite some small differences in the time-mean SPCZ strength. The SPCZ strength, area, and centroid latitude have a dominant seasonal cycle. In contrast, the SPCZ centroid longitude is dominated by intraseasonal variability due to the influence by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The SPCZ indices are all correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation indices. Interannual and intraseasonal variations of SPCZ strength during strong El Niño are approximately twice as large as the respective seasonal variations. SPCZ strength depends more on the intensity of El Niño rather than the central- vs. eastern-Pacific type. The longer ERA-Interim product is also used to examine decadal variations of the SPCZ indices. The change from positive to negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation phase around 1999 resulted in a westward shift of the SPCZ centroid longitude, much smaller interannual swing in centroid latitude, and a decrease in SPCZ area. This study improves the understanding of the variations of the SPCZ on multiple time scales and reveals the variations of SPCZ strength not reported previously. The diagnostics analyses can be

  20. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux (JGOFS), the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900212)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999. Data...

  1. Anomalous South Pacific lithosphere dynamics derived from new total sediment thickness estimates off the West Antarctic margin

    Wobbe, Florian; Lindeque, Ansa; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Paleotopographic models of the West Antarctic margin, which are essential for robust simulations of paleoclimate scenarios, lack information on sediment thickness and geodynamic conditions, resulting in large uncertainties. A new total sediment thickness grid spanning the Ross Sea-Amundsen Sea-Bellingshausen Sea basins is presented and is based on all the available seismic reflection, borehole, and gravity modeling data offshore West Antarctica. This grid was combined with NGDC's global 5 arc minute grid of ocean sediment thickness (Whittaker et al., 2013) and extends the NGDC grid further to the south. Sediment thickness along the West Antarctic margin tends to be 3-4 km larger than previously assumed. The sediment volume in the Bellingshausen, Amundsen, and Ross Sea basins amounts to 3.61, 3.58, and 2.78 million km3, respectively. The residual basement topography of the South Pacific has been revised and the new data show an asymmetric trend over the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Values are anomalously high south of the spreading ridge and in the Ross Sea area, where the topography seems to be affected by persistent mantle processes. In contrast, the basement topography offshore Marie Byrd Land cannot be attributed to dynamic topography, but rather to crustal thickening due to intraplate volcanism. Present-day dynamic topography models disagree with the presented revised basement topography of the South Pacific, rendering paleotopographic reconstructions with such a limited dataset still fairly uncertain.

  2. Green sturgeon distribution in the Pacific Ocean estimated from modeled oceanographic features and migration behavior.

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Wells, Brian K; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41-51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36-37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information.

  3. IODP Expedition 329: Life and Habitability Beneath the Seafloor of the South Pacific Gyre

    Carlos Alvarez Zarikian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 329 made major strides toward fulfilling its objectives. Shipboard studies documented (1 fundamental aspects of habitability and life in this very low activity subseafloor sedimentary ecosystem and (2 first-order patterns of habitability within the igneous basement. A broad range of postexpedition studies will complete the expedition objectives.Throughout the South Pacific Gyre (SPG; Sites U1365–U1370, dissolved oxygen and nitrate are present throughout the entire sediment sequence, and sedimentary microbial cell counts are lower than at all previously drilled IODP/Ocean Drilling Program (ODP/Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP sites. In contrast, at Site U1371 in the upwelling zone just south of the gyre, detectable oxygen and nitrate are limited to the top and bottom of the sediment column, manganesereduction is a prominent electron-accepting process, and cell concentrations are higher than at the same depths in the SPG sites throughout the sediment column.Geographic variation in subseafloor profiles of dissolved and solid-phase chemicals are consistent with the magnitude of organic-fueled subseafloor respiration declining from outside the gyre to the gyre center.Chemical profiles in the sedimentary pore water and secondary mineral distributions in the basaltic basement indicate that basement alteration continues on the timescale of formation fluid replacement, even at the sites with the oldest basement (84–120 Ma at Sites U1365 and U1366.

  4. 85 million years of pelagic ecosystem evolution: Pacific Ocean deep-sea ichthyolith records reveal fish community dynamics and a long-term decline in sharks

    Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.; Cuevas, J. M.; Graves, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and productivity of open ocean consumers has undergone major changes over the past 85 million years. Here, we present the first long-term detailed records of pelagic fish and sharks utilizing the record of ichthyoliths (teeth and dermal scales) from the deep Pacific Ocean. While the North and South Pacific Oceans show similar patterns throughout the 85 million year history, the North Pacific ichthyolith accumulation is significantly higher than the South Pacific, suggesting that the basin has been a more productive region for tens of millions of years. Fish and sharks were not abundant in the Pacific gyres until ~75 million years ago (Ma) suggesting that neither group was quantitatively important in oligotrophic pelagic food webs prior to the latest Cretaceous. Relative to ray-finned fish, sharks were common in the ancient ocean. Most ichthyolith assemblages have >50% shark dermal scales (denticles), but denticle abundance has been declining in both absolute and relative abundance since the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction. The accumulation rate of ichthyoliths of both sharks and ray-finned fish was highest in the Early Eocene, during the peak of the Cenozoic 'greenhouse' climate where production of shark dermal denticles and fish teeth increased almost five times over Paleocene production rates. Ichthyolith fluxes fell with cooler climates in the later Eocene and Oligocene, but fish production is almost always higher than in the Cretaceous and Paleocene reflecting the expanded ecological roles and importance of pelagic fish in marine ecosystems. Shark denticle production fell to less than half that of the Cretaceous by 20 Ma when it dropped abruptly to near-zero levels. Currently denticles make up sharks appear to be falling as major pelagic consumers over the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, and particularly over the past 20 Ma, perhaps reflecting demographic changes in shark and fish communities, or the rise of resource competition from

  5. Role of sea surface wind stress forcing on transport between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Zhao, Q.

    Using an Indian-Pacific Ocean Circulation Model (IPOM) a simulation study on the Transports of between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean such as Indonesian Through flow (ITF) has been done. IPOM covered the area 25°E-70°W, 35°S-60°N. There are 31 levels in the vertical with 22 levels upper 400m in it. The horizontal resolution is 1/3° lat x 1.5° lon between 10°S and 10°N. The coastline and ocean topography of IPOM is prepared from Scripps topography data on 1x1°grid. Forcing IPOM with monthly observational wind stress in 1990-1999 the interannual variation of sea temperature has been reproduced well, not only on El Nino in the Pacific but also on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Therefore, the oceanic circulations in the tropical ocean are reasonable. The analyses of the oceanic circulations from the simulations suggest that the transport southward through Makassar Strait is the primary route of thermocline water masses from the North Pacific to the Indonesian sea. The transport westward through Bali-Western Australian Transect (BWAT, at 117.5E) can be thought as the final output of ITF through the archipelago to Indian Ocean. The transport westward through BWAT is in 8-12S above 150m, its core centered near surface 10S, which looks like a jet. The westward velocity is more than 50 cm/s. The transport shows significant seasonal and interannual variations. The maximum is in Jul-Oct, minimum in Jan-Mar. These results are consistent with some observation basically. The correlation analyses indict that the variations of transport westward is related with the southeasterly anomaly in the east tropical Indian ocean. The transport variation lags wind anomaly about 3 months. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.6. The transport is strong during IOD, for example in 1994 and 1997. The variations are also related with the northwesterly anomaly in the center equatorial Pacific and the easterly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The transport is strong in most ENSO

  6. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    2013-06-04

    ... States, Vanuatu, and Venezuela. Bolivia and the Cook Islands are cooperating non-members. International... Pacific bluefin mortality. In addition, the Department of the Interior, Office of Environmental Policy and...

  7. Moruroa and us: Experiences of Polynesian people during the thirty years of nuclear weapons tests in the South Pacific (Ocean); Moruroa et nous. Experiences des polynesiens au cours des 30 annees d`essais nucleaires dans le pacifique sud

    Vries, P. de; Seur, H

    1997-12-31

    This report is separated in nine chapters. In the chapters 2 and 3 we find the results of an inquiry got from 737 ancient workers of the sites. The chapter 4 studies the case of the Island of Mangareva in the Gambier archipelago, island situated at 500 km from Moruroa, the economical, sociological and cultural effects of nuclear weapons tests are analyzed. The chapter number 5 shows the different points of view got from institutions or government officials. In the chapter 6, the elements of public debate on the situation of the CEP ( Pacific study center) and the tests are analyzed in a chronological order on giving a particular importance to the way whom Polynesian people have been informed. The chapter 7 examines the evolution of the scientific debate related to the marine fauna poisoning, the radioactive contamination and the ciguatera. The chapter 8 is centered on the risks perception by the Polynesian society and on the different kinds of resistance at the CEP. In the last chapter, a certain number of conclusions and recommends are given. (N.C.)

  8. Zoogeography of Elasmobranchs in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

    Andrés Felipe Navia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to investigate zoogeographical patterns of the marine elasmobranch species of Colombia, species richness of the Pacific and Caribbean and their subareas (Coastal Pacific, Oceanic Pacific, Coastal Caribbean, Oceanic Caribbean was analyzed. The areas shared 10 families, 10 genera and 16 species of sharks, and eight families, three genera and four species of batoids. Carcharhinidae had the highest contribution to shark richness, whereas Rajidae and Urotrygonidae had the greatest contribution to batoid richness in the Caribbean and Pacific, respectively. Most elasmobranchs were associated with benthic and coastal habitats. The similarity analysis allowed the identification of five groups of families, which characterize the elasmobranch richness in both areas. Beta diversity indicated that most species turnover occurred between the Coastal Pacific and the two Caribbean subareas. The difference in species richness and composition between areas may be due to vicariant events such as the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. It is unlikely that the Colombian elasmobranch diversity originated from a single colonization event. Local diversification/speciation, dispersal from the non-tropical regions of the Americas, a Pacific dispersion and an Atlantic dispersion are origin possibilities without any of them excluding the others.

  9. COPROPHANAEUS MORENOI ARNAUD, 1982 (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE: SCARABAEINAE) IN THE GORGONA NATIONAL NATURAL PARK (COLOMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN)

    Cultid Medina, Carlos A; Giraldo López, Alan

    2012-01-01

    A new record of the dung beetle Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), for the Gorgona Natural National Park (Gorgona NNP, Colombia) in the Colombian Pacific Ocean is presented. Se presenta un nuevo registro del escarabajo estercolero Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud, 1982 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), para el Parque Natural Nacional Gorgona, en el océano Pacifico colombiano.

  10. Surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Indian rainfall

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    The time variation of the monthly mean surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean during 1982-1987 has been studied in relation to summer monsoon rainfall over India The ENSO events of 1982 and 1987 were related to a significant reduction...

  11. Fe (III) speciation in the high nutrient, low chlorophyll Pacific region of the Southern Ocean

    Nolting, R.F.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Swagerman, M.J.W.; Timmermans, K.R.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1998-01-01

    Fe speciation was measured with competitive ligand equilibration adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry in the Pacific part of the Southern Ocean between 58° and 68°30′S along the 90°W meridian. The conditional stability constant (K′ with respect to [Fe3+]) was between 10^20.6 and 10^21.6 when

  12. Iron stress in the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean : evidence from enrichment bioassays

    Timmermans, Klaas; van Leeuwe, M.A.; de Jong, J.T.M.; Nolting, R.F.; Witte, H.J; van Ooyen, J; Swagerman, M.J W; Kloosterhuis, H; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of iron on phytoplankton physiology in a scarcely investigated part of the Pacific region of the Southern Ocean was studied during an expedition aboard RV 'Polarstern'. Physiological effects of iron enrichments were studied during short-term bottle experiments (72 h) in high-nutrient,

  13. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  14. An Ocean Biology-induced Negative Feedback on ENSO in the Tropical Pacific Climate System

    Zhang, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Biological conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean (e.g., phytoplankton biomass) are strongly regulated by physical changes associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The existence and variation of phytoplankton biomass, in turn, act to modulate the vertical penetration of the incoming sunlight in the upper ocean, presenting an ocean biology-induced heating (OBH) effect on the climate system. Previously, a penetration depth of solar radiation in the upper ocean (Hp) is defined to describe the related bio-climate connections. Parameterized in terms of its relationship with the sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific, an empirical model for interannual Hp variability has been derived from remotely sensed ocean color data, which is incorporated into a hybrid coupled model (HCM) to represent OBH effects. In this paper, various HCM experiments are performed to demonstrate the bio-feedback onto ENSO, including a climatological Hp run (in which Hp is prescribed as seasonally varying only), interannual Hp runs (with different intensities of interannually varying OBH effects), and a run in which the sign of the OBH effect is artificially reversed. Significant modulating impacts on interannual variability are found in the HCM, characterized by a negative feedback between ocean biology and the climate system in the tropical Pacific: the stronger the OBH feedback, the weaker the interannual variability. Processes involved in the feedback are analyzed; it is illustrated that the SST is modulated indirectly by ocean dynamical processes induced by OBH. The significance and implication of the OBH effects are discussed for their roles in ENSO variability and model biases in the tropical Pacific.

  15. Mechanisms of P* reduction in the eastern tropical South Pacific

    Meyer, Judith; Löscher, Carolin R.; Lavik, Gaute

    2017-01-01

    Water masses influenced by oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) feature low inorganic nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratios. The surplus of P over N is thought to favor non-Redfield primary production by bloom-forming phytoplankton species. Additionally, excess phosphate (P*) is thought to provide a niche...... Redfield proportions throughout the sampling area, the stoichiometry of particulate organic nitrogen to phosphorus (PON:POP) generally exceeded ratios of 16:1. Despite PON:POP ≥ 16, high P*-values in the surface layer (0-50 m) above the shelf rapidly decreased as water masses were advected offshore...... for nitrogen fixing organisms. In order to assess the effect of low inorganic nutrient ratios on the stoichiometry and composition of primary producers, biogeochemical measurements were carried out in 2012 during a research cruise in the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP). Based on pigment analyses...

  16. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.

    Coleman, Richard R; Eble, Jeffrey A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Rocha, Luiz A; Randall, John E; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occurs on reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d=0.006-0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographic barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST=0.066-0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7-0.9Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition. We recommend P.d. diacanthus and P.d. flavescens for the Pacific and Indian Ocean/Red Sea forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  18. Climate variability and predictability associated with the Indo-Pacific Oceanic Channel Dynamics in the CCSM4 Coupled System Model

    Yuan, Dongliang; Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfei

    2017-01-01

    An experiment using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4), a participant of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase-5 (CMIP5), is analyzed to assess the skills of this model in simulating and predicting the climate variabilities associated with the oceanic channel dynamics across the Indo-Pacific Oceans. The results of these analyses suggest that the model is able to reproduce the observed lag correlation between the oceanic anomalies in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean and those in the cold tongue in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean at a time lag of 1 year. This success may be largely attributed to the successful simulation of the interannual variations of the Indonesian Throughflow, which carries the anomalies of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) into the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to produce subsurface temperature anomalies, which in turn propagate to the eastern equatorial Pacific to generate ENSO. This connection is termed the "oceanic channel dynamics" and is shown to be consistent with the observational analyses. However, the model simulates a weaker connection between the IOD and the interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow transport than found in the observations. In addition, the model overestimates the westerly wind anomalies in the western-central equatorial Pacific in the year following the IOD, which forces unrealistic upwelling Rossby waves in the western equatorial Pacific and downwelling Kelvin waves in the east. This assessment suggests that the CCSM4 coupled climate system has underestimated the oceanic channel dynamics and overestimated the atmospheric bridge processes.

  19. Deep circulation in the Indian and Pacific Oceans and its implication for the dumping of low-level radioactive waste

    Harries, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    The complexity of ocean transport processes has meant that the limits for the dumping of low-activity radioactive wastes have had to be based on very simplified models of the oceans. This report discusses the models used to determine dumping limits and contrasts them with the known ocean circulation patterns. The deep circulations of the Indian and Pacific Oceans are reviewed to provide a basis for estimating the possible destinations and likely transit times for dissolved material released at the ocean floor

  20. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  1. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  2. Investigating bomb radiocarbon transport in the southern Pacific Ocean with otolith radiocarbon

    Grammer, G. L.; Fallon, S. J.; Izzo, C.; Wood, R.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2015-08-01

    To explore the transport of carbon into water masses from the surface ocean to depths of ∼ 1000 m in the southwest Pacific Ocean, we generated time series of radiocarbon (Δ14C) from fish otoliths. Otoliths (carbonate earstones) from long-lived fish provide an indirect method to examine the "bomb pulse" of radiocarbon that originated in the 1950s and 1960s, allowing identification of changes to distributions of 14C that has entered and mixed within the ocean. We micro-sampled ocean perch (Helicolenus barathri) otoliths, collected at ∼ 400- 500 m in the Tasman Sea, to obtain measurements of Δ14C for those depths. We compared our ocean perch Δ14C series to published otolith-based marine surface water Δ14C values (Australasian snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) and nannygai (Centroberyx affinis)) and to published deep-water values (800-1000 m; orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)) from the southwest Pacific to establish a mid-water Δ14C series. The otolith bomb 14C results from these different depths were consistent with previous water mass results in the upper 1500 m of the southwest Pacific Ocean (e.g. World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Geochemical Ocean Sections Study). A comparison between the initial Δ14C bomb pulse rise at 400-500 m suggested a ventilation lag of 5 to 10 yr, whereas a comparison of the surface and depths of 800-1000 m detailed a 10 to 20 yr lag in the time history of radiocarbon invasion at this depth. Pre-bomb reservoir ages derived from otolith 14C located in Tasman Sea thermocline waters were ∼ 530 yr, while reservoir ages estimated for Tasman Antarctic intermediate water were ∼ 730 yr.

  3. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  4. Climate-driven changes to the atmospheric CO2 sink in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean.

    Dore, John E; Lukas, Roger; Sadler, Daniel W; Karl, David M

    2003-08-14

    The oceans represent a significant sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variability in the strength of this sink occurs on interannual timescales, as a result of regional and basin-scale changes in the physical and biological parameters that control the flux of this greenhouse gas into and out of the surface mixed layer. Here we analyse a 13-year time series of oceanic carbon dioxide measurements from station ALOHA in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean near Hawaii, and find a significant decrease in the strength of the carbon dioxide sink over the period 1989-2001. We show that much of this reduction in sink strength can be attributed to an increase in the partial pressure of surface ocean carbon dioxide caused by excess evaporation and the accompanying concentration of solutes in the water mass. Our results suggest that carbon dioxide uptake by ocean waters can be strongly influenced by changes in regional precipitation and evaporation patterns brought on by climate variability.

  5. Influences of two types of El Niño event on the Northwest Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean SST anomalies

    Hu, Haibo; Wu, Qigang; Wu, Zepeng

    2018-01-01

    Based on the HadISST1 and NCEP datasets, we investigated the influences of the central Pacific El Niño event (CP-EL) and eastern Pacific El Niño event (EP-EL) on the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies of the Tropical Indian Ocean. Considering the remote effect of Indian Ocean warming, we also discussed the anticyclone anomalies over the Northwest Pacific, which is very important for the South China precipitation and East Asian climate. Results show that during the El Niño developing year of EP-EL, cold SST anomalies appear and intensify in the east of tropical Indian Ocean. At the end of that autumn, all the cold SST anomaly events lead to the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events. Basin uniform warm SST anomalies exist in the Indian Ocean in the whole summer of EL decaying year for both CP-and EP-ELs. However, considering the statistical significance, more significant warm SST anomalies only appear in the North Indian Ocean among the June and August of EP-EL decaying year. For further research, EP-EL accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (EPI-EL) and CP El Niño accompany with Indian Ocean Basin Warming (CPI-EL) events are classified. With the remote effects of Indian Ocean SST anomalies, the EPI-and CPI-ELs contribute quite differently to the Northwest Pacific. For the EPI-EL developing year, large-scale warm SST anomalies arise in the North Indian Ocean in May, and persist to the autumn of the El Niño decaying year. However, for the CPI-EL, weak warm SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean maintain to the El Niño decaying spring. Because of these different SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean, distinct zonal SST gradient, atmospheric anticyclone and precipitation anomalies emerge over the Northwest Pacific in the El Niño decaying years. Specifically, the large-scale North Indian Ocean warm SST anomalies during the EPI-EL decaying years, can persist to summer and force anomalous updrafts and rainfall over the North Indian Ocean. The atmospheric

  6. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the Caribbean and northwestern South America: The case for accretion of two Late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John

    2005-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the thickened oceanic crust of the Caribbean plate, its basaltic accreted margins, and accreted mafic terranes in northwestern South America represent the remnants of a single ca. 90 Ma oceanic plateau. We review geologic, geochemical, and paleomagnetic evidence that suggests that the Caribbean-Colombian oceanic plateau in fact represents the remnants of two different oceanic plateaus, both dated as ca. 90 Ma. The first of these plateaus, the Caribbean Plateau, formed ca. 90 Ma in the vicinity of the present-day Galapagos hotspot. Northeastward movement of the Farallon plate meant that this plateau collided with the proto Caribbean arc and northwestern South America Gorgona Plateau, formed at 26° 30°S, possibly at the site of the present-day Sala y Gomez hotspot. Over the next ˜45 m.y., this plateau was carried progressively northeastward on the Farallon plate and collided in the middle Eocene with the proto Andean subduction zone in northwestern South America. The recognition of a second ca. 90 Ma Pacific oceanic plateau strengthens the link between plateau formation and global oceanic anoxic events.

  8. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    MacIsaac, Hugh J; De Roy, Emma M; Leung, Brian; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Hugh J MacIsaac

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  10. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    2012-12-12

    ... overfishing of the stock. DATES: Comments must be submitted in writing by January 11, 2013. A public hearing... effort quotas are an important step for reducing the overfishing of bluefin tuna. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna based on stock assessment results of the...

  11. Effect of climate-ocean changes on the abundance of Pacific saury.

    Gong, Yeong; Suh, Young Sang

    2013-01-01

    Effects of ocean climate changes on the population structure and abundance of Pacific saury (Cololabis sira) were investigated on the basis of climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, catch and body size information from the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) region (Yellow Sea, East China Sea and East/Japan Sea) during the period 1950-2010. It is suggested that oceanic regime shifts in the early 1970s, late 1980s and late 1990s occurred in the TWC region in winter, but the regime shifts in the mid-1970s and in the late 1980s were not evident in the spring SST anomaly series. The abundance and body size of Pacific saury fluctuated in association with the winter oceanic changes in the TWC region. The catch rates and abundance of large size saury were far bellow average during their northward migrations in the TWC region in the years with abnormally cool winters (e.g., 1963, 1970, 1977, 1981-1989 and 2006) and above average in the years with warm winters. These patterns demonstrate decadal-scale variations together with large inter-annual fluctuations in the structure and abundance of Pacific saury in association with the climatic-oceanic changes. These results, along with an alternation of dominant pelagic fish species, indicate the status of the saury population in the TWC region is in good condition, similar to that in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Current (KOC) region during the warm regime after the late 1980s climate regime shift.

  12. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Concentration and Community in the Pacific Ocean

    Rousseaux, C. S.; Gregg, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    Climate events such as El Nino have been shown to have an effect on the biology of our ocean. Because of the lack of data, we still have very little knowledge about the spatial and temporal effect these climate events may have on biological marine systems. In this study, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) to assess the interannual variability in phytoplankton community in the Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005. In the North Central and Equatorial Pacific Ocean, changes in the Multivariate El Nino Index were associated with changes in phytoplankton composition. The model identified an increase in diatoms of approx.33 % in the equatorial Pacific in 1999 during a La Nina event. This increase in diatoms coincided with a decrease of approx.11 % in cyanobacteria concentration. The inverse relationship between cyanobacteria and diatoms concentration was significant (pphytoplankton groups known to lead to contrasting food chain at a spatial and temporal resolution unachievable when relying solely on in-situ observations.

  13. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  14. Simulation of heat storages and associated heat budgets in the Pacific Ocean: 2. Interdecadal timescale

    Auad, Guillermo; Miller, Arthur J.; White, Warren B.

    1998-11-01

    We use a primitive equation isopycnal model of the Pacific Ocean to simulate and diagnose the anomalous heat balance on interdecadal timescales associated with heat storage changes observed from 1970-1988 in the expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data set. Given the smallness of the interdecadal signals compared to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal, the agreement between model and observations is remarkably good. The total anomalous heat balance is made up of two parts, the diabatic part (from the model temperature equation) and the adiabatic part (from the model mass conservation equation) due to thermocline heave. We therefore describe our analysis of both the total and diabatic anomalous heat balances in four areas of the tropical and subtropical North Pacific Ocean in the upper 400 m. The interdecadal total (diabatic plus adiabatic) heat balance in the North Pacific Ocean is characterized by a complicated interplay of different physical processes, especially revealed in basin-scale averages of the heat budget components that have comparable amounts of variance. In smaller subregions, simpler balances hold. For example, in the western equatorial Pacific (area 1) the total heat content tendency term is nearly zero, so that a simple balance exists between surface heat flux, vertical heat transport, and horizontal mixing. In the western subtropical Pacific the total heat content tendency balances the three-dimensional divergence of the heat flux. We speculate that this complexity is indicative of multiple physical mechanisms involved in the generation of North Pacific interdecadal variability. The diabatic heat balance north of 24°N, a region of special interest to The World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), can be simplified to a balance between the tendency term, surface heat flux, and meridional advection, the last term dominated by anomalous advection of mean temperature gradients. For the western equatorial region the diabatic heat content

  15. Aerosol deposition velocities on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans calculated from 7Be measurements

    Young, J.A.; Silker, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be were measured in Pacific and Atlantic ocean water for past several years to determine the deposition velocity of aerosol particles on the ocean surface. Beryllium-7 is produced at a relatively constant rate in the atmosphere by spallation reactions of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen. Immediately after its formation 7 Be becomes attached to aerosol particles, and therefore can serve as tracers of the subsequent behavior of these particles. Isopleths of 7 Be surface water concentration, 7 Be inventory in the ocean, and deposition velocity have been prepared for the Pacific Ocean from 30 0 S to 60 0 N and for the Atlantic Ocean from 10 0 N to 55 0 N. The concentrations, inventories and deposition velocities tended to be higher in regions where precipitation was high, and generally increased with latitude. The average flux of 7 Be across the ocean surface was calculated to be 0.027 atoms cm -2 sec -1 which is probably not significantly greater than the worldwide average 7 Be flux across land and ocean surfaces of 0.022 atoms cm -2 sec -1 calculated by Lal and Peters. The average deposition velocity was calculated to be 0.80 cm sec -1 . This value may be 10 to 30% too low, since it was calculated using atmospheric 7 Be concentrations which were measured at continental stations. Measurements of atmospheric 7 Be concentrations at ocean stations suggest that the concentrations at the continental stations averaged 10 to 30% higher than the concentrations over the ocean

  16. Aerosol deposition velocities on the Pacific and Atlantic oceans calculated from 7Be measurements

    Young, J.A.; Silker, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of 7 Be have been measured in Pacific and Atlantic ocean water for the past several years to determine the deposition velocity of aerosol particles on the ocean surface. 7 Be is produced at a relatively constant rate in the atmosphere by spallation reactions of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen. Immediately after its formation 7 Be becomes attached to aerosol particles, and therefore can serve as tracers of the subsequent behavior of these particles. Isopleths of 7 Be surface water concentrations, 7 Be inventory in the ocean, and deposition velocity have been prepared for the Pacific Ocean from 30 0 S to 60 0 N and for the Atlantic Ocean from 10 0 N to 55 0 N. The concentrations, inventories and deposition velocities tended to be higher in regions where precipitation was high, and generally increased with latitude. The average flux of 7 Be across the ocean surface was calculated to be 0.027 atoms cm -2 s -1 which is probably not significantly greater than the worldwide average 7 Be flux across land and ocean surfaces of 0.022 atoms cm -2 s -1 calculated by Lal and Peters. The average deposition velocity was calculated to be 0.80 cm s -1 . This value may be 10-50% too low, since it was calculated using atmospheric 7 Be concentrations which were measured at continental stations. Measurements of atmospheric 7 Be concentrations at ocean stations suggest that the concentrations at the continental stations averaged 10-50% higher than the concentrations over the ocean. (orig.)

  17. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    Coleman, Richard R.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; DiBattista, Joseph; Rocha, Luiz A.; Randall, John E.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  18. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    Coleman, Richard R.

    2016-04-08

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  19. The South Pacific in the works of Robert Dean Frisbie

    Nataša Potočnik

    2001-12-01

    In Tahiti he had ambitious writing plans but after four years of living in Tahiti, he left his plantation and sailed to the Cook Islands. He spent the rest of his life in the Cook Islands and married a local girl Ngatokorua. His new happiness gave him the inspiration to write. 29 sketches appeared in the United States in 1929, collected by The Century Company under the title of The Book of Puka-Puka. His second book My Tahiti, a book of memories, was published in 1937. After the death of Ropati 's beloved wife his goals were to bring up his children. But by this time Frisbie was seriously ill. The family left Puka-Puka and settled down on the uninhabited atoll of Suwarrow. Later on they lived on Rarotonga and Samoa where Frisbie was medically treated. Robert Dean Frisbie died of tetanus in Rarotonga on November 18, 1948. Frisbie wrote in a vivid, graceful style. His characters and particularly the atoll of Puka-Puka are memorably depicted. Gifted with a feeling for language and a sense of humor, he was able to capture on paper the charm, beauty, and serenity of life of the small islands in the South Pacific without exaggerating the stereotypical idyllic context and as such Frisbie's contribution to South Pacific literature went far deeper than that of many writers who have passed through the Pacific and wrote about their experiences. Frisbie's first book The Book of Puka-Puka was published in New York in 1929. It is the most endearing and the most original of his works. It was written during his lifetime on the atoll Puka-Puka in the Cook Islands. It is a collection of 29 short stories, episodic and expressively narrative in style. This is an account of life on Puka-Puka that criticizes European and American commercialism and aggressiveness, and presents the themes of the praise of isolation, the castigation of missionaries, and the commendation of Polynesian economic collectivism and sexual freedom. At the same time, the book presents a portrait of Frisbie himself

  20. Changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion and Formation of Oceanic Flood Basalt Plateaus

    Kroenke, L. W.; Wessel, P.

    2006-12-01

    The origin of the large oceanic flood basalt plateaus that are prominent features of the central western Pacific Basin remains unclear. Major changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion (APM) have been identified as occurring at 145, 125, 96, and 47 Ma. Formation of the Shatsky Rise (~145 Ma), the Ontong Java Plateau (122+ Ma), the Southern Hess Rise (95±5 Ma), and the Louisiade Plateau (~48 Ma) appear to coincide with these changes. A smaller, but still prominent change in Pacific APM also occurred at 110 Ma when the Northern Hess Rise formed. Although these concurrent events may simply be chance occurrences, initiation of plate tectonic reorganizations upon arrival of mantle plume heads also was proposed by Ratcliff et al. (1998), who suggested that the mantle plume head delivery of hot material to produce flood basalts also had the potential to trigger reorganizations of plate motions. It should be noted, however, that Pacific Rim subduction zone development also coincides with these APM changes, and that the actual cause and effect of each change in APM has yet to be clearly established. Here we present a modified Pacific APM model that uses several older seamount chains (Musicians, Ratak-Gilbert-Ellice, the Wake trails, and the Liliuokalani trails) to constrain the oldest Pacific plate motion using the hybrid technique of Wessel et al (2006).