WorldWideScience

Sample records for south east asia

  1. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, and Pakistan, contains articles on Economics, Political Science...

  2. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Iran contains articles on Political Science, Economics, Regional...

  3. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Israel, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan contains articles on International, Regional, Political and Economic Issues...

  4. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Iran, contains articles on International Affairs, Politics...

  5. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report contains articles on the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan...

  6. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    This report covers international issues relating to the Near East: regional affairs, Palestinian affairs, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and the Republic of Yemen; and South Asia...

  7. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisa, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Iran and Pakistan, the articles are on Politics, Economics...

  8. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Israel, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran and Pakistan, contains articles on Politics, Economics, Regional Affairs and Military Affairs...

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Minagar, Alireza; Pourmand, Shadi; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common chronic immune-mediated diseases of the human central nervous system and an important cause of non-traumatic neurologic disability among young population in several countries. Recent reports from East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia have proposed a low to moderate prevalence of MS in these countries. A literature review search was carried out in December 2014 in Medline, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane library to recover original population-based studies on MS epidemiology in East Asia, South East Asia and South Asia countries published between January 1, 1950 and December 30, 2014. We intended search strategies using the key words: multiple sclerosis, prevalence, incidence and epidemiology. Based on our inclusion criteria, 68 epidemiologic studies were included in this systematic review. The most extensively used diagnostic criteria in the studies were McDonald's criteria. Most studies were performed in a multi-center hospital setting. The female to male ratio varied and ranged from 0.7 in India to 9.0 in China. The mean age at disease onset ranged from the lowest age of 25.3 in Iran to the highest age of 46.4 in China. MS prevalence ranged from 0.77 in 100,000 populations in Hong Kong (1999) to 85.80 in 100,000 in Iran (2013). Advances in MS registries around the globe allow nationwide population-based studies and will allow worldly comparisons between the prevalence and incidence in different regions that are provided to monitor estimation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Pipelines to power South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholes, W

    1994-07-01

    European, North American and Australian pipeline companies are busy building pipelines to transport natural gas to power stations throughout South East Asia. Many countries, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, have economies expanding at more than eight percent a year. Cambodia and Laos are awaiting energy development. Myanmar will not only benefit from the global economic expansion but from the flourishing economies of nearby Thailand and Malaysia which are now investing in neighbouring countries, while their national petroleum companies are starting to operate worldwide. It is the ever expanding rush of industrialisation, urbanisation and the move to raise living standards throughout the region that is accelerating the need for more power stations, both gas and coal-fired, throughout South East Asia. (author)

  11. Pipelines to power South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, W.

    1994-01-01

    European, North American and Australian pipeline companies are busy building pipelines to transport natural gas to power stations throughout South East Asia. Many countries, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, have economies expanding at more than eight percent a year. Cambodia and Laos are awaiting energy development. Myanmar will not only benefit from the global economic expansion but from the flourishing economies of nearby Thailand and Malaysia which are now investing in neighbouring countries, while their national petroleum companies are starting to operate worldwide. It is the ever expanding rush of industrialisation, urbanisation and the move to raise living standards throughout the region that is accelerating the need for more power stations, both gas and coal-fired, throughout South East Asia. (author)

  12. Health promotion in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, N S

    1998-01-01

    The countries of the South East Asia region, which includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have undertaken a variety of strategies to address the health challenges in the region. The ever-growing pressure of population in the region has allowed rapid transmission of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, and HIV/AIDS. One of the innovative community-based health initiatives in response to this problem is Indonesia's Primary Health Care Project. This project aimed to develop a sustainable health infrastructure by training medical staff, coordinators, village cadres, midwives and those working for TB programs; provision of ongoing guidance and education in this area; and provision of medicines and funds. The project has pioneered a process towards positive changes. Another strategy is the collaboration of youth groups, island development committees, and health workers in Maldives which has led to the declaration of two islands (Madifushi and Haa Alif Berinmadhoo) as 'no smoking' islands. In addition, Sarvodaya has successfully developed a methodology to involve Buddhist monks in AIDS prevention and control through "the Buddhist approach to AIDS prevention in Sri Lanka."

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-28

    manufacturing soap , soft drinks, candy, a few plastics products, canned meats, reinforced concrete, olive oil. furniture, cooking oil, milk and dairy products...of mango, citrus, fig, Christ’s- thorn. grape, pomegranate, and guava . as well as date palm suckers. JPRS-NEA-89-057 28 August 1989 SOUTH ASIA 65

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-14

    something with our way of spelling our country in English. Being a person who believes in numerology , I couldn’t resist listening to what a numerologist...told me once. He said that ’Sri Lanka’ as spelt that way in English is numerologically not positive JPRS-NEA-90-043 14 August 1990 SOUTH ASIA 73 for

  15. National oil companies of South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip

    1998-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Pertamina; Petronas; Petroleum Authority of Thailand; Philippines National Oil Company; Petro Vietnam; Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise; Singapore; Asean Free Trade Agreement, and Appendix on Petroleum tax legislation in the main south east Asian countries. (Author)

  16. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-21

    helping Iraq and Iran to finance their reconstruction. We are ready to consider all viable proposals, he added. On the impact of introducing higher...Retailers Cooperative protested the Voice and Vision [ Televison ] programs. JPRS-NEA-89-022 21 March 1989 47 SOUTH ASIA Part of this letter said: The ...People’s Party administration ignores this fact, its impact would cause the the people to start thinking that the former administration was better than

  17. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmy Bin Agam

    1992-01-01

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  18. Online Health Search Experience: Sentiments from South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushia Inthiran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing an online health search is a popular activity conducted on the Internet. Research studies from developed countries provide information on source used, type of search performed and devices used to perform the search. However, the same cannot be said about the online health information searching scene in South East Asia. Online health information searching is gaining popularity in South East Asia. Citizens in these countries are turning to the Internet to obtain health information quickly. Current research studies pertaining to online health information searching in South East Asian is limited, particularly relating to search experiences of South East Asian health searchers. Search experience is pertinent asit could deter or encourage the possibility of conducting future health searches. In this research study, a user study was conducted to describe the online search experience of South East Asian health searchers. A face to face interview with 50 participants was conducted. The interview was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Results indicate participants have positive and negative search experiences. In some cases, post search outcomes influenced the search experience. Results of this research study contribute to the growing domain of knowledge in relation to online health information searching. Results of this study also provide an understanding pertaining to the search experience of South East Asian online health searchers.

  19. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  20. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Arwiyanto, Triwidodo

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum destroys many crops of different plant families in South East Asia despite many researches about the disease, and the availability of developed control method in other parts of the world. There is no chemical available for the bacterial wilt pathogen and biological control is then chosen as an alternative to save the crops. Most of the biological control studies were based on antagonism between biological control agent and the pathogen. ...

  1. Field evaluation of reflective insulation in south east Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Khar San; Yarbrough, David W.; Lim, Chin Haw; Salleh, Elias

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain thermal performance data for reflective insulations in a South East Asia environment. Thermal resistance data (RSI, m2 ṡ K/W) for reflective insulations are well established from 1-D steady-state tests, but thermal data for reflective insulation in structures like those found in South East Asia are scarce. Data for reflective insulations in South East Asia will add to the worldwide database for this type of energy-conserving material. RSI were obtained from heat flux and temperature data of three identical structures in the same location. One unit did not have insulation above the ceiling, while the second and third units were insulated with reflective insulation with emittance less than 0.05. RSI for the uninsulated test unit varied from 0.37 to 0.40 m2 ṡ K/W. RSI for a single-sheet reflective insulation (woven foil) varied from 2.15 to 2.26 m2 ṡ K/W, while bubble-foil insulation varied from 2.69 to 3.09 m2 ṡ K/W. The range of RSI values resulted from differences in the spacing between the reflective insulation and the roof. In addition, the reflective insulation below the roof lowered attic temperatures by as much as 9.7° C. Reductions in ceiling heat flux of 80 to 90% relative to the uninsulated structure, due to the reflective insulation, were observed.

  2. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-23

    HINDU 14 Jun] 9 Regional Affairs Hypochondria Seen in Conduct of Mideast Policy [THE HINDU 10 Jun] 10 Progress in Defense Ties To Israel Seen...because of "last-minute difficulties." Regional Affairs Hypochondria Seen in Conduct of Mideast Policy 92AS1194A Madras THE HINDU in English 10 Jun 92... hypochondria is more evident in West Asia than elsewhere. Among the cases that can be cited is the "flat" denial by the Minister of State for External

  3. Developments in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Reaz

    1992-01-01

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  4. Developments in South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Reaz [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1993-12-31

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-10

    But Something like the joke-either the oppressor horseman first of all we must stress the differences between us and will die or the horse will die...elements within the Bangladesh elections were countermanded in two following deaths of polity to the democratic process. This attributed to the two...THE FRONTIER POST American and British aims in the Middle East, which in English 4 Mar 91 p 9 include the complete destruction of Iraq, the death of

  6. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-26

    all forces having an interest m the solution and an interest in society there is an alliance and partnership to confront the danger overtaking the...must be partnership and consensus in order to reach a solution. I doubt that President al-Jumayyil can at this stage settle affairs in East Beirut by...mountains, followed by another, in 1977 in Dhofar. ! Three conservation projects were undertaken, with the sup- port of the WWF and IUCN, which

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-06

    as their Big Brother or the founder of the theory behind their move- ment. Of course, this change is not easy. There is resistance to it, and many...secretary of the UGET, and Hamadi El Euch, spokesman for the UGTE , by Nejib Lakenji; date and place not given] [Text] Following outbreaks of violence...1989 42 NEAR EAST of Tunisian Students], represented by its general secre- tary, Abdellatif Mekki; and the UGTE [Tunisian Gen- eral Student Union

  8. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-31

    Territories [Jerusalem AL-USBU’ AL-JADID 15 Jun] .. 25 Merchants Interviewed on Chamber of Commerce Elections...043 26 NEAR EAST 31 July 1991 deceased and the armed men during which they opened holding Chamber of Commerce elections in the West fire on Khayyal...passing through the after having given Chamber of Commerce officials a area and fled immediately. refusal to hold the elections? A climate of resentment

  9. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN EAST ASIA AND SOUTH ASIA: AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-01-01

    Many recent FDI studies have focused on the effects of corruption on FDI inflows. Theoretically, corruption can act as either a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs, which should impede FDI, or a helping hand by “greasing” the wheels of commerce in the presence of weak regulatory framework, which should facilitate FDI. This study analyzes the impact of corruption on FDI inflows in East Asia and South Asia – two regions that have recently received huge FDI inflows. Using ...

  10. Financial Shenanigans : Evidence from Developing Countries In East Asia and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Siew Yean

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the reported cases involved in financial shenanigans which subject to the enforcement actions by the authorities of selected developing countries in East Asia and South Asia between 2010 and 2012. The scope of this study includes the attempts used and causes of the financial shenanigans. This study finds that the most common attempt used by the sample companies is overstating the revenue and follows by manipulation of expenses and discretionary accounting. Revenue and ...

  11. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2010-09-01

    Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Genetic diversity of Diaphorina citri and its endosymbionts across east and south-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Xu, Changbao; Tian, Mingyi; Deng, Xiaoling; Cen, Yijing; He, Yurong

    2017-10-01

    Diaphorina citri is the vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the most widespread pathogen associated huanglongbing, the most serious disease of citrus. To enhance our understanding of the distribution and origin of the psyllid, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structures of 24 populations in Asia and one from Florida based on the mtCOI gene. Simultaneously, genetic diversity and population structures of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' and secondary endosymbiont (S-endosymbiont) 'Candidatus Profftella armatura' of D. citri were determined with the housekeeping genes. AMOVA analysis indicated that populations of D. citri and its endosymbionts in east and south-east Asia were genetically distinct from populations in Pakistan and Florida. Furthermore, P-endosymbiont populations displayed a strong geographical structure across east and south-east Asia, while low genetic diversity indicated the absence of genetic structure among the populations of D. citri and its S-endosymbiont across these regions. The 'Ca. C. ruddii' is more diverse and structured than the D. citri and the 'Ca. P. armatura' across east and south-east Asia. Multiple introductions of the psyllid have occurred in China. Management application for controlling the pest is proposed based on the genetic information of D. citri and its endosymbionts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Confidence- and security-building in South-East Asia. Working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappa, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion in the Working Group II focused on the following subjects: the establishment of a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality in South-East Asia; the establishment of a nuclear weapon-free zone in South-East Asia; the Cambodian conflict; regional co-operation; military security confidence-building measures

  14. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN EAST ASIA AND SOUTH ASIA: AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent FDI studies have focused on the effects of corruption on FDI inflows. Theoretically, corruption can act as either a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs, which should impede FDI, or a helping hand by “greasing” the wheels of commerce in the presence of weak regulatory framework, which should facilitate FDI. This study analyzes the impact of corruption on FDI inflows in East Asia and South Asia – two regions that have recently received huge FDI inflows. Using GLS methodology with 1995-2011 panel data, this study finds that the impact of corruption on FDI is significantly negative and robust, which validates the “grabbing hand” hypothesis. It is also found that, even after accounting for the economic fundamentals, East Asia seems to enjoy a locational advantage in attracting FDI vis-à-vis South Asia. These results further our knowledge of the FDI dynamics, which policymakers should find helpful in devising pro-FDI strategies.

  15. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwidodo Arwiyanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum destroys many crops of different plant families in South East Asia despite many researches about the disease, and the availability of developed control method in other parts of the world. There is no chemical available for the bacterial wilt pathogen and biological control is then chosen as an alternative to save the crops. Most of the biological control studies were based on antagonism between biological control agent and the pathogen. The biological control agents were intended to reduce the initial inoculum of the pathogen. The effort to minimize the initial inoculum of the pathogen by baiting with the use of hypersensitive host-plant was only reliable when conducted in the greenhouse experiments. Various microorganisms have been searched as possible biological control agents, for instance avirulent form of the pathogen, soil or rhizosphere bacteria (Bacillus spp. and fluorescent pseudomonads, actinomycetes (Streptomyces spp., yeast (Pichia uillermondii, Candida ethanolica, and a consortium of microorganisms known as effective microorganisms (EM. None of these biological control agents has been used in field application and they need further investigation in order to effectively control bacterial wilt. Opportunities and challenges in developing biological control to combat bacterial wilt are discussed in the paper. Penyakit layu bakteri yang disebabkan oleh Ralstonia solanacearum menghancurkan banyak tanaman dalam famili yang berbeda di Asia Tenggara meskipun telah banyak penelitian tentang metode pengendaliannya. Penyakit ini sulit dikendalikan karena banyaknya variabilitas patogen dan belum tersedianya sumber ketahanan yang mapan. Di samping itu, sampai saat ini belum ada bahan kimia yang tersedia untuk patogen layu bakteri ini sehingga pengendalian biologi kemudian dipilih sebagai cara alternatif untuk menyelamatkan tanaman. Sebagian besar penelitian pengendalian biologi didasarkan

  16. Regional fuel cycle centres for South and South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    A brief preliminary analysis of the economic feasibility of regional fuel cycle centres in South and South-East Asia is presented. The indicative break-even costs and break-even plant sizes for the various fuel cycle services are estimated and the timing for their establishment on the basis of IAEA and ESCAP nuclear power projections in the region are shown. The paper discusses the need for achieving regional self-sufficiency for nuclear fuel services and suggests that a detailed study should be undertaken by the IAEA in close co-operation with the countries of the region to find out their requirements for nuclear fuel services. (author)

  17. Russian Golf Profile with the Perspective of Golf Tourism in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforova, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to formulate Russian golf profile and evaluate it from the perspective of golf tourism in South East Asian countries concentrating on five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Singapore. The research discovered and analyzed the factors that accelerate and prevent Russian golf players from traveling to South East Asia region with golf and tourism purposes. In the theoretical part of the study the main issue was to describe the current situation...

  18. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, M. A.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Khan, A. E.; Ahmed, K. M.; Butler, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteoro...

  19. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  20. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Nam Q.; Barnes, Irene; Chen, ShuaiFei; Pham, Thu Q.; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of

  1. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  2. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  3. Large-scale patterns of plant diversity and conservation priorities in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, S.T.; Brummitt, N.A.; Kok, de R.P.J.; Utteridge, T.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of a complete floristic inventory, conservation priorities within South East Asia must often be based on incomplete knowledge or a rough approximation of diversity such as habitat cover. To help overcome this, a database containing distribution data for all 3 523 known flowering plant

  4. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  5. Women and AIDS in south and South-East Asia: the challenge and the response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboi, N

    1996-01-01

    South and South-East Asia are at the centre of the most aggressive advances of the AIDS epidemic today. The challenge this presents to the region is clear. While reported absolute numbers still lag behind the African region (11,160,900 in Africa; 3,081,235 in Asia) knowledgeable observers agree that the place of infection and potential devastation in this region exceed what we have seen in Africa. Those concerned with the welfare of the people of Asia, therefore, must make serious efforts to break the chain of HIV transmission as quickly and effectively as possible and identify and care for the infected. Women are entitled to protection by rights the same as men. However, for anatomical reasons, women are more vulnerable than men to infection by HIV. In addition, throughout the Asian region, women's "natural" vulnerability is vastly magnified by poverty and generally low levels of education and personal autonomy which make it difficult for them to gain access to information and appropriate services. Because of women's multiple roles in the epidemic-potential "infectee", care-giver, transmitter of infection-if we are to be successful in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS we must give particular attention to reaching, working with, and serving women. Meeting this challenge requires involvement of men as well as women, individuals and institutions, governments and NGOs, in four broad areas of activity: (i) HIV/AIDS education and information; (ii) basic education and economic activity to reduce gender inequities; (iii) improvements in policy and social environments; and (iv) provision of health and other services. Lack of commitment, skill, or persistence in meeting the challenge will cost lives across Asia.

  6. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  7. New species of Cylindrocladiella from plantation soils in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Q. Pham

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrocladiella spp. are widely distributed especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where they are mainly known as saprobes although some species are plant pathogens. Very little is known about these fungi in South-East Asia. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Cylindrocladiella isolates from soils collected in forest nurseries and plantations in Vietnam and Malaysia. This was achieved using DNA sequence comparisons and morphological observations. The study revealed two previously described species, Cy. lageniformis and Cy. peruviana as well as five novel taxa, described here as Cy. arbusta sp. nov., Cy. malesiana sp. nov., Cy. obpyriformis sp. nov., Cy. parvispora sp. nov. and Cy. solicola sp. nov. A relatively small collection of isolates from a limited geographic sampling revealed an unexpectedly high level of Cylindrocladiella diversity suggesting that many more species in this genus await discovery in South-East Asia.

  8. Geopolitics and security in post-cold-war South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, P.

    1997-01-01

    The most likely scenario is the one in which South-east Asia acquires a greater autonomy, as in Scenario 1. The recomposition of ASEAN as a larger and yet solid entity is far-reaching and requires a lot of mutual internal efforts and policy coordination on external issues. As aforementioned, a situation somewhere between the two sub-scenarios of Scenario I could be achieved. The broadened identity of ASEAN will definitely contribute to the autonomization of South-east Asia as a whole, at least in general geopolitical and security terms. In addition, a greater convergence may develop in economic, strategic and even political areas and gradually produce a subregional order with its own local character and specificities

  9. An adaptive thermal comfort model for hot humid South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a full procedure to develop an adaptive comfort model for South-East Asia. Meta-analysis on large number of observations from field surveys which were conducted in this region was employed. Standardization and bias control of the database were fully reported. Statistical tests of significance and weighted regression method applied in the analyses strengthened the reliability of the findings. This paper found a great influence of ‘Griffiths constant’ on the establish...

  10. Manila and the World Dance Space: Nationalism and Globalization in Cold War Philippines and South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamomo, M.; Villaruz, B.E.; Balme, C.B.; Szymanski-Düll, B.

    2017-01-01

    The rise of South East Asia as a region is inextricably linked to the birth of the Cold War. In no other region did the Cold War feel quite so ‘hot’. After decolonization, South East Asian nation-states forming new national identities each found allegiances with one or other of the two Cold War

  11. Österreichs Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in Südostasien [Austrian Economic Relations to South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Zimmermann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der süd- und südostasiatische Raum befindet sich im Aufholprozess. Der anhaltende Wachstumstrend geht einher mit der steigenden Nachfrage aus den Industriestaaten sowie dem Binnenmarkt und führt auch zu erhöhtem Bedarf an Infrastruktur. Auch die österreichische Wirtschaft profitiert vom Asien-Boom. Dies zeigt das stete Wachstum österreichischer Warenexporte in die Region, der Anstieg heimischer Direktinvestitionen sowie die wachsende Präsenz österreichischer Firmen. Ziel der österreichischen WirtschaftsvertreterInnen ist es, die Tigerstaaten Südostasiens mehr aus dem Schatten der aufstrebenden Wirtschaftssupermacht China zu holen und die österreichische Wirtschaftsverflechtung mit diesen Ländern zu intensivieren.The South and South East Asian Area has been catching up with the developed world. The sustained economic growth trend goes hand in hand with a higher demand from industrialized nations and a stronger internal demand, pushing for better infrastructure. The Austrian economy is also benefiting from booming Asia, underscored by the steady increase of Austrian exports to this region, the rise of foreign direct investment and companies doing business in these countries. The Austrian business community would like to see the South East Asian tiger states more out of the shadow of the new super power China. The overall objective is to intensify the economic integration with South and South East Asia.

  12. Donor issues in Indonesia: A developing country in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarmono, Yuyun S M

    2010-01-01

    In most developing countries in South East Asia blood services have not been treated properly as an important service to support health program. Indonesia as a large archipelago country in South East Asia has specific obstacles in managing a blood service. To position the country blood service profile especially in term of donor issues, we compared our blood service with that in other South East Asia countries. Indonesia has 17 thousand islands with 220 million inhabitants. Blood services have been mostly run by the Indonesian Red Cross as a government assignment since 1950. Donor recruitment programs have been directed toward 100% of Voluntary Non Remunerated Blood Donor (VNRD), which now have reached 81.3%. Dissemination of information on VNRD, donor recruiter's training and VNRD appreciation programs are strategies to increase and maintain the VNRD. Limited female donors and insufficient blood supply during the fasting month and holidays constitute major challenges. Low hemoglobin level, low body weight and fear are reasons for low number of female donors. Poor management of blood stock during fasting month, long holidays and also poor networking of blood supply are reasons for insufficient blood supply during the year. Considering the great size of Indonesia with different ethnic groups and cultures, worsened by lack of infrastructure, decisive and effective strategies in donor recruitment and retention programs are needed. Copyright 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  14. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur.

  15. Educational technology in transnational higher education in South East Asia: the cultural politics of flexible learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ziguras

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines appropriateness of using educational technologies to increase the flexibility of learning in transnational higher education in South East Asia. It considers the argument that while interactive educational technologies may be appropriate in countries in which self-directed study and student autonomy are emphasised, the same uses of technology may not be as appropriate in South East Asian countries in which education has traditionally been more tightly structured and teacher-directed. This paper examines government policies toward the use of educational technologies in higher education in Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam, and considers the experiences of five transnational institutions in these countries. The paper concludes that transnational educators are inevitably caught up in tensions between global modernising trends and local traditional practices. It argues that it is important for educators to recognise how their actions relate to local social changes in countries in which their students are located.

  16. Rice lands of South and South East Asia, some soil physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide about 148 million ha are planted to rice each year, taking into account double and triple cropping. About 90 percent of this area is in Asia and two thirds in South and South-East Asia, where rice is the most dominant crop grown during the wet season. When wetland rice is included in a cropping system, the soils undergo unique changes in physical properties. Wet tillage or puddling has become synonymous with wetland rice culture and it refers to the destruction of aggregated condition of the soil by mechanical manipulation within a narrow range of moisture contents above and below field capacity, so that soil aggregates lose their identity and the soil is converted into a structurally more or less homogenous mass of ultimate particles. During puddling, soils are subjected to two kinds of deforming stresses: (a) the normal stress (load) associated with compression and (b) tangential stress causing shear. The compression is more effective below the upper plastic limit (moisture content at which the soil-water system can flow as a sticky fluid paste); shearing effects dominate above the upper plastic limit. Puddling destroys and coverts aggregates and peds into plastic mud. When an initially dry soil is wetted, there is uneven swelling of aggregates, which subsequently explode due to entrapped air resulting in aggregates slaking. Continuous wet tillage (repeated plowings and harrowings) converts the soil into a plastic mud with massive structure. Puddling effects on bulk density are dependent on the aggregation status of the soil before puddling. If a parallel oriented, closely packed structure is produced from a well aggregated open structure, bulk density would increase. The strong inter-particle forces favor well oriented structure, while weak inter-particle forces favor an open gel structure. Initial submergence before tillage (a practice in many parts of Asia) also decreases bulk density. Bulk density increases when the puddled soils undergo desiccation

  17. The Steel and Shipbuilding Industries of South Korea: Rising East Asia and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-ho Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the roles of the steel and shipbuilding industries as generative sectors in Korea’s rapid economic ascent. We argue that a world-systems analysis focusing on these generative sectors provides a more complete understanding of Korea’s rapid economic ascent than do other theoretical models. We outline the similarities between this case and those analyzed by Bunker and Ciccantell (2005, 2007 both in terms of the central role of generative sectors in raw materials and transport industries and how the creation and growth of these two industrial sectors shaped institutional patterns and the broader economic ascent of South Korea and East Asia. Even though South Korea has not and may never become a challenger for global hegemony, its rapid ascent has helped reshape East Asia and the capitalist world-economy. We use the model of generative sectors to analyze the critical industries that underlay and shaped South Korea’s ascent from a low wage, light industry base to a world leader in electronics, automobiles, and other advanced industries.

  18. Tax Systems and Tax Reforms in South and East Asia: Overview of Tax Systems and main policy issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Gandullia, Luca; Fumagalli, Laura

    2005-01-01

    South and East Asia are a particularly fast developing world economic areas, and are becoming increasingly more economically integrated. These countries, however, are not homogenous, and are lacking in any supra - national Authority. The total fiscal pressure of South and East Asian countries looks somewhat low when compared to that of countries with a similar per-capita income, pertaining to other economic world areas. However, a smooth Wagner law is confirmed by the data so that fiscal pres...

  19. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  20. Ethnic differences in survival after breast cancer in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The burden of breast cancer in Asia is escalating. We evaluated the impact of ethnicity on survival after breast cancer in the multi-ethnic region of South East Asia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Singapore-Malaysia hospital-based breast cancer registry, we analyzed the association between ethnicity and mortality following breast cancer in 5,264 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2007 (Chinese: 71.6%, Malay: 18.4%, Indian: 10.0%. We compared survival rates between ethnic groups and calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR to estimate the independent effect of ethnicity on survival. Malays (n = 968 presented at a significantly younger age, with larger tumors, and at later stages than the Chinese and Indians. Malays were also more likely to have axillary lymph node metastasis at similar tumor sizes and to have hormone receptor negative and poorly differentiated tumors. Five year overall survival was highest in the Chinese women (75.8%; 95%CI: 74.4%-77.3% followed by Indians (68.0%; 95%CI: 63.8%-72.2%, and Malays (58.5%; 95%CI: 55.2%-61.7%. Compared to the Chinese, Malay ethnicity was associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.19-1.51, independent of age, stage, tumor characteristics and treatment. Indian ethnicity was not significantly associated with risk of mortality after breast cancer compared to the Chinese (HR: 1.14; 95%CI: 0.98-1.34. CONCLUSION: In South East Asia, Malay ethnicity is independently associated with poorer survival after breast cancer. Research into underlying reasons, potentially including variations in tumor biology, psychosocial factors, treatment responsiveness and lifestyle after diagnosis, is warranted.

  1. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  2. Vegetation Variability And Its Effect On Monsoon Rainfall Over South East Asia: Observational and Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chiu, L.; Kafatos, M.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing population and urbanization have created stress on developing nations. The quickly shifting patterns of vegetation change in different parts of the world have given rise to the pertinent question of feedback on the climate prevailing on local to regional scales. It is now known with some certainty, that vegetation changes can affect the climate by influencing the heat and water balance. The hydrological cycle particularly is susceptible to changes in vegetation. The Monsoon rainfall forms a vital link in the hydrological cycle prevailing over South East Asia This work examines the variability of vegetation over South East Asia and assesses its impact on the monsoon rainfall. We explain the role of changing vegetation and show how this change has affected the heat and energy balance. We demonstrate the role of vegetation one season earlier in influencing rainfall intensity over specific areas in South East Asia and show the ramification of vegetation change on the summer rainfall behavior. The vegetation variability study specifically focuses on India and China, two of the largest and most populous nations. We have done an assessment to find out the key meteorological and human induced parameters affecting vegetation over the study area through a spatial analysis of monthly NDVI values. This study highlights the role of monsoon rainfall, regional climate dynamics and large scale human induced pollution to be the crucial factors governing the vegetation and vegetation distribution. The vegetation is seen to follow distinct spatial patterns that have been found to be crucial in its eventual impact on monsoon rainfall. We have carried out a series of sensitivity experiments using a land surface hydrologic modeling scheme. The vital energy and water balance parameters are identified and the daily climatological cycles are examined for possible change in behavior for different boundary conditions. It is found that the change from native deciduous forest

  3. Biodiversity in South East Asia: an overview of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that South East (SE Asia is considered as a biodiversity hotspot, knowledge of sessile invertebrates such as freshwater sponges (Porifera: Haplosclerida: Spongillina in this region is poor and scarcely reported. For this synopsis, diversity and distribution of SE Asian inland water sponges is reported on the basis of available literature and a recent biodiversity assessment of the Lower Mekong basin. A diagnostic key of families/genera from SE Asia is provided together with Light Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy protocols to prepare the basic spicular complement for taxonomic identification. So far, SE Asian freshwater sponges consist of widespread and/or endemic species belonging to the families Metaniidae, Potamolepidae, and Spongillidae. The highest diversity is recorded from Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Myanmar, respectively. Data from the other countries are necessary for our understanding of their diversity and distribution. Biodiversity in SE Asia is strongly underestimated, as indicated by recent new records and the discovery of new species of freshwater sponges in Thailand. Further investigations should reveal higher values of taxonomic richness, highlighting biogeographic patterns at the family/genus/species levels. A cooperative network involving Thai, Laotian and Italian researchers, was set up to contribute and fulfil knowledge on taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potentialities of these neglected filter feeders, playing a key role in water purification and biomass production in both lentic and lotic ecosystems in the tropics.

  4. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  5. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  6. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  7. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  8. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  9. Nine-year spatial and temporal evolution of desert dust aerosols over South and East Asia as revealed by CALIOP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proestakis, Emmanouil; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Solomos, Stavros; Kazadzis, Stelios; Chimot, J.J.; Che, Huizheng; Alexandri, Georgia; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Daskalopoulou, Vasiliki; Kourtidis, Konstantinos A.; Johannes Van Der A, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    We present a 3-D climatology of the desert dust distribution over South and East Asia derived using CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) data. To distinguish desert dust from total aerosol load we apply a methodology developed in the framework of EARLINET

  10. Environmental change in south-east Asia. People, politics and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnwell, M.J.G.; Bryant, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of politics and ecology in the quest for sustainable development in South East Asia is explored in this book by contributors who provide a broad range of perspectives. In the first of the four main sections, the political context of ecological change is examined. The topics discussed are: Indonesia and Thailand in a globalising pulp and paper industry; environmental organisations and different political contexts in Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam; Japan and South East Asia's environment. Some of the processes and forms of human-induced environmental change are illustrated in the second section. These include: the search for sustainable livelihoods in Indonesian transmigration settlements; the 210 MW hydro-power project on the Theun river in Laos which illustrates the tensions between environmental costs and potential economic benefits; forest management in Laos. Discussion of the various methods which strengthen understanding of human-induced environmental change in the region is integrated with further illustrations of its process and context in the third section where the following are considered: environmental change in Malaysian Borneo; the value of remote sensing and geographical information systems in mapping the environment; the weakness of Vietnam's tropical forestry action plan. In the final section, an examination of some of the options for change which are necessary if sustainable development is to become a reality includes: the sustainability of ecotourism in Indonesia; the potential stewardship role of the Bajau people in Indonesia's proposed marine parks; environmental degradation, non-timber forest products and Iban communities in Sarawak; conservation and development in Brunei's rainforests; Philippine community-based forest management. (27 figures; 23 tables; 752 references) (UK)

  11. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Scheelbeek, P F D; Vineis, P; Khan, A E; Ahmed, K M; Butler, A P

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteorological variability and climate change along the (ca. 6000 km) coastline of SSE Asia. The risks of increasing climatic stresses are first considered, and then maps of relative vulnerability along the entire coastline are developed, using data from global scale land surface models, along with an overall vulnerability index. The results show that surface and near-surface drinking water in the coastal areas of the mega-deltas in Vietnam and Bangladesh-India are most vulnerable, putting more than 25 million people at risk of drinking 'saline' water. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this problem, with adverse consequences for health, such as prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for identifying locations that are most at risk of salinisation in order for policy makers and local officials to implement strategies for reducing these health impacts. To counter the risks associated with these vulnerabilities, possible adaptation measures are also outlined. We conclude that detailed and fine scale vulnerability assessments may become crucial for planning targeted adaptation programmes along these coasts.

  12. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  13. Calling line managers in employee continuous professional development in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubama Ramachandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to study the relationship of Line Managers’ (LMs Human Resource (HR role and its facets within employee’s Continuous Professional Development (CPD.Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative approach using 100 questionnaires were distributed to line managers in a South East Asia with a response rate of 87%.Findings: Results depict that LMs are actively involved in Strategic Partner, Employee Champion, and Change Agent roles. Study also shows that these three HR roles correlate with employee CPD. LMs’ are neither involved in Administrative Expert role, nor it correlates with employee Continuous Professional Development.Research limitations: Inability of the line managers to be fully involved with the four HR roles constraints the process of line manager deployment of HR roles specifically to employee CPD.Practical implications: Argues that the importance of strategic partner, employee champion, and change agent roles are the most important barrier and enabler of employee CPD, thus indirectly promoting organizational success and productivity.Social implications: Highlights the difficulties of managing organisations by getting the line managers directly involve in the development of employee CPD. Many line managers have to be made and given opportunities to develop their capabilities on this platform. Contends that HR can help an organization to succeed, provided that all line managers understand their roles, work together and take responsibility for their contribution. In addition is the adoption of the HR roles for the smooth delivery of HR functions which aligns with the overall organizational success.Originality/value: Specific HR roles are significant importance to the development of employee CPD within the setting of this South East Asian organization.

  14. Nine-year spatial and temporal evolution of desert dust aerosols over South and East Asia as revealed by CALIOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Proestakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a 3-D climatology of the desert dust distribution over South and East Asia derived using CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data. To distinguish desert dust from total aerosol load we apply a methodology developed in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network. The method involves the use of the particle linear depolarization ratio and updated lidar ratio values suitable for Asian dust, applied to multiyear CALIPSO observations (January 2007–December 2015. The resulting dust product provides information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of dust aerosols over South and East Asia along with the seasonal transition of dust transport pathways. Persistent high D_AOD (dust aerosol optical depth values at 532 nm, of the order of 0.6, are present over the arid and semi-arid desert regions. Dust aerosol transport (range, height and intensity is subject to high seasonality, with the highest values observed during spring for northern China (Taklimakan and Gobi deserts and during summer over the Indian subcontinent (Thar Desert. Additionally, we decompose the CALIPSO AOD (aerosol optical depth into dust and non-dust aerosol components to reveal the non-dust AOD over the highly industrialized and densely populated regions of South and East Asia, where the non-dust aerosols yield AOD values of the order of 0.5. Furthermore, the CALIPSO-based short-term AOD and D_AOD time series and trends between January 2007 and December 2015 are calculated over South and East Asia and over selected subregions. Positive trends are observed over northwest and east China and the Indian subcontinent, whereas over southeast China trends are mostly negative. The calculated AOD trends agree well with the trends derived from Aqua MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, although significant differences are observed over specific regions.

  15. Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions.

  16. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Sirenda; Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-12-01

    To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4-5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country's Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations.

  17. Challenges in Type 1 diabetes management in South East Asia: Descriptive situational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavadev, Jothydev; Sadikot, Shaukat M; Saboo, Banshi; Shrestha, Dina; Jawad, Fatema; Azad, Kishwar; Wijesuriya, Mahendra Arunashanthi; Latt, Tint Swe; Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes is a challenging issue in South East Asia. Unlike in the developed countries, patients have to procure insulin, glucometer strips and other treatment facilities from their own pockets. Coupled with poor resources are the difficulties with diagnosis, insulin initiation, insulin storage, marital and emotional challenges. Being a disease affecting only a minority of people, it is largely ignored by the governments and policy makers. Comprehensive diagnostic, treatment and team based educational facilities are available only in the speciality diabetes centers in the private sector whereas majority of the subjects with type 1 diabetes are from a poor socio-economic background. Unlike in the Western world, being known as a diabetes patient is a social sigma and poses huge emotional burden living with the disease and getting married. Even with best of the resources, long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes still remains a huge challenge across the globe. In this review, authors from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Bangladesh detail the country-specific challenges and discuss the possible solutions.

  18. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I

    1999-11-29

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.

  19. The Switch From Trivalent to Bivalent Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in the South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Sunil; Hasman, Andreas; Eltayeb, Abu Obeida; James Noble, Douglas; Thapa, Arun

    2017-07-01

    This analysis describes an innovative and successful approach to risk identification and mitigation in relation to the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 11 countries of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) in April 2016.The strong commitment of governments and immunization professionals to polio eradication and an exemplary partnership between the WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and other partners and stakeholders in the region and globally were significant contributors to the success of the OPV switch in the SEAR. Robust national switch plans were developed and country-specific innovations were planned and implemented by the country teams. Close monitoring and tracking of the activities and milestones through dashboards and review meetings were undertaken at the regional level to ensure that implementation time lines were met, barriers identified, and solutions for overcoming challenges were discussed and implemented.The SEAR was the first WHO Region globally to complete the switch and declare the successful withdrawal of trivalent OPV from all countries on 17 May 2016.A number of activities implemented during the switch process are likely to contribute positively to existing immunization practices and to similar initiatives in the future. These activities include better vaccine supply chain management, improved mechanisms for disposal of vaccination-related waste materials, and a closer collaboration with drug regulators, vaccine manufacturers, and the private sector for immunization-related initiatives. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  1. Barcoding, biobanking, ebanking for “One Health” projects in South-East Asia: considering ethics and international law

    OpenAIRE

    Lajaunie, Claire; Morand, Serge; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    A first workshop held within the framework of the PathodivSEA project has been the occasion to identify the major research challenges regarding the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases in South East Asia and the spread of pathogens responsible from those diseases. Based on supporting evidences indicating the zoonotic origins of those diseases, it appeared urgent to investigate the factors controlling the pathogens-human interface by addressing the “One Health” concept which integrates th...

  2. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  3. Globalization and Wage Inequality in South and East Asia, and Latin America: A Gender Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Enriqueta Camps; Maria Camou; Silvana Maubrigades; Natalia Mora-Sitja

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the reasons behind the evolution of the gender gap and wage inequality in South and East Asian and Latin American countries. Health human capital improvements, the exposure to free market openness and equal treatment enforcement laws seem to be the main exogenous variables affecting womenís economic condition. During the second globalization era (in the years 1975-2000) different combinations of these variables in South East Asian and Latin American countries have had...

  4. Are South East Asia Countries Capital Markets Characterized by Nonlinear Structures? An Investigation from Indonesia, Philippine and Singapore Capital Market Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Minarnita Yanti Verawati Bakara; Bambang Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    This research paper tries to detect the nonlinear structure in the South East Asia Countries Capital Markets. The capital markets of three South East Asia Countries are chosen: Indonesia, Philippine, and Singapore. Daily return data of Capital Markets composite indices are observed: Straits Times Index (STI) of Singapore Exchange from January 04, 1985 to December 31, 2007, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index (PSEi) of Philippines Stock Exchange from March 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007 and Jakarta Co...

  5. Growth and Divergence in Manufacturing Performance in South and East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Szirmai, Adam

    1997-01-01

    The growth experience in manufacturing in South and East Asian economies is well documented. Less is known about absolute levels of economic performance. This paper presents a star comparison of six Asian economies (China, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan) and the USA, the world

  6. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation

  7. Shippers’ Choice Behaviour in Choosing Transport Mode: The Case of South East Asia (SEA Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsun Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using South East Asia as a case study, shippers’ choice of transport modes taking into consideration their economic and environmental impacts was examined in this research. A triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative methods was deployed. First, a quantitative analysis using secondary data was conducted to establish the index score, which includes four quantitative factors (transport distance, cost, time, and CO2 emission, for each transport mode. In addition, in order to examine at what level of the importance weight shippers would change their decision on transport mode, a sensitivity analysis involving the four aforesaid factors was also conducted. Next, an in-depth interview with a major shipper in Singapore was also carried out to qualitatively validate the aforesaid four quantitative factors as well as two additional qualitative factors, namely, customer service and shipper-forwarder relationship in relation to shipper's choice. The results from this study indicate that shippers might change to the short-sea shipping (SSS mode when the importance weights of cost and CO2 emission increase, and to trucking mode when the weight of time decreases. It was also found that cost is the most important factor when shippers choose carriers/forwarders, whereas CO2 emission is not an important factor at the current stage. However, if the government imposes financial measures such as fine and/or tax for CO2 emission, shippers would choose eco-friendlier transport modes. This research is the first study considering the environmental issue as one of important factors that influence shippers’ choice behaviour. This research also facilitates managers’ understanding on how shippers may select LSPs taking into account important factors including the environmental consideration.

  8. A collaborative epidemiological investigation into the criminal fake artesunate trade in South East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Newton

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered.With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75, Cambodia (48, Lao PDR (115, Myanmar (Burma (137 and the Thai/Myanmar border (16, were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9% on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to approximately 50 mg per genuine tablet. Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy'. Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures.An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation. International cross

  9. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  10. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  11. A product innovation toolkit for green business in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.; Hong Long, N.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the available Sustainable Product Innovation (SPI) approaches and tools have been developed in Western Europe, based upon European experiences. However, in South-East Asian economies like Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, needs are different and more immediate. Also the characteristics of the

  12. The treaty on the South-East Asia nuclear-weapon-free zone (the Bangkok treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Bangkok Treaty was signed in 1995 during the Fifth ASEAN Summit by the 10 South-East Asian countries. It represents a commitment on the part of the signatories to the Treaty to maintain peace and stability in the region in the spirit of peaceful coexistence, mutual understanding and cooperation

  13. Advancing Positive Psychology in South East Asia: the Importance of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hashim, Intan Hashimah

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of positive psychology has been overwhelming. This can be observed from the number of academic conferences and journals attributed to this field. Similar patterns can be observed in Asia where more and more research are concentrating on investigating constructs deemed as important within the field of positive psychology. However, comparable to other fields within psychology, positive psychology cannot ignore the importance of culture. This is especially true in South Eas...

  14. Culture and mental health of women in South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIAZ, UNAIZA; HASSAN, SEHAR

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of cultural factors on mental health of South Asian women. Marked gender discrimination in South Asia has led to second class status of women in society. Their mobility, work, self-esteem and self-image, in fact their worth and identity, seem to depend upon the male members of a patriarchal society. Women's lack of empowerment and both financial and emotional dependence have restricted their self-expression and choices in life. This, along with family, social and work pressures, has a definite impact on women's mental health. PMID:16946955

  15. Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Dash, A P; Parnell, B; Bhattacharya, S K; Barua, S; Bhatia, R; Savioli, L

    2010-03-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which affect the very poor, pose a major public health problem in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Although more than a dozen NTDs affect the region, over the past five years four of them in particular - leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and yaws - have been targeted for elimination. These four were selected for a number of reasons. First, they affect the WHO South-East Asia Region disproportionately. For example, every year around 67% of all new leprosy cases and 60% of all new cases of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide occur in countries of the region, where as many as 850 million inhabitants are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. In addition, several epidemiological, technological and historical factors that are unique to the region make each of these four diseases amenable to elimination. Safe and effective tools and interventions to achieve these targets are available and concerted efforts to scale them up, singly or in an integrated manner, are likely to lead to success. The World Health Assembly and the WHO Regional Committee, through a series of resolutions, have already expressed regional and global commitments for the elimination of these diseases as public health problems. Such action is expected to have a quick and dramatic impact on poverty reduction and to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. This paper reviews the policy rationale for disease control in the WHO South-East Asia Region, the progress made so far, the lessons learnt along the way, and the remaining challenges and opportunities.

  16. One Health/EcoHealth capacity building programs in South and South East Asia: a mixed method rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Joseph, Jessy; Kakkar, Manish

    2017-09-29

    Although One Health (OH) or EcoHealth (EH) have been acknowledged to provide comprehensive and holistic approaches to study complex problems, like zoonoses and emerging infectious diseases, there remains multiple challenges in implementing them in a problem-solving paradigm. One of the most commonly encountered barriers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is limited capacity to undertake OH/EH inquiries. A rapid review was undertaken to conduct a situation analysis of the existing OH/EH capacity building programs, with a focused analysis of those programs with extensive OH engagement, to help map the current efforts in this area. A listing of the OH/EH projects/initiatives implemented in South Asia (SA) and South East Asia (SEA) was done, followed by analysis of documents related to the projects, available from peer-reviewed or grey literature sources. Quantitative data was extracted using a data extraction format, and a free listing of qualitative themes was undertaken. In SEA, 13 unique OH/EH projects, with 37 capacity building programs, were identified. In contrast, in SA, the numbers were 8 and 11 respectively. In SA, programs were oriented to develop careers in program management, whereas, in SEA, the emphasis was on research. Two thirds of the programs in SEA had extensive OH engagement, whereas only one third of those in SA did. The target for the SEA programs was wider, including a population more representative of OH stakes. SEA program themes reveal utilization of multiple approaches, usually in shorter terms, and are growing towards integration with the traditional curricula. Such convergence of themes was lacking in SA programs. In both regions, the programs were driven by external donor agencies, with minimal local buy-in. There is limited investment in research capacity building in both SA and SEA. The situation appears to be more stark in SA, whilst SEA has been able to use the systematic investment and support to develop the OH

  17. Labour migration from South and South-East Asia: some policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, M I

    1984-01-01

    The rise in migration for employment since the mid-1970s has had serious consequences for many Asian countries. This discussion examines the issues raised by the migration abroad of thousands of skilled workers and the efforts that sending countries have made in recent years to bring the effects of labor migration more closely into line with their development objectives. It also considers several problem areas requiring the attention of policymakers and authorities responsible for the administration of overseas employment policies. It is estimated that between 1976-81 annual labor migrant flows from the 8 major sending countries in Asia increased sevenfold, from a mere 146,400 to over 1 million. The Asian migrant workers tend to be young, male, married (with dependents in the sending country), and better educated than the average home population. Most of them come from rural areas and are predominantly employed in construction and labor. The most distinctive feature of these workers is their concentration in a few blue collar occupations--carpenters, masons, electricians, plumbers, lorry drivers, mechanics, and heavy equipment operators. These production and trnasport workers outnumber the professional and technical workers by anywhere from 3 to 1 (Philippines) to 17 to 1 (Pakistan and Sri Lanka). At the aggregate level labor emigration affects the sending country's economy through its impact on the labor market, on the financial market, and on the market for goods and services. It can be argued that the outflow of a significant proportion of the labor force should lead directly to a rise in labor projectivity in the sending country since capital per worker among those left behind will increase, yet it can also be argued that since migration sifts out the most skilled and experienced workers there will be an erosion of the country's human captial resources. Specific measures have been adopted in most labor sending Asian countries to protect the welfare of migrant

  18. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Silver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia.We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis.Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23% followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19% and hookworm (12%, 9-15%. Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh. When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24% and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%. Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63% and Ascaris (32%, 23-43% than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively. Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90% was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31% and Trichuris (22%, 14-34% were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16% was comparable.Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  19. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Zachary A; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar P; Samuel, Prasanna; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Kang, Gagandeep; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ajjampur, Sitara S R

    2018-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD) worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia. We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis. Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23%) followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19%) and hookworm (12%, 9-15%). Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh). When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24%) and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%). Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63%) and Ascaris (32%, 23-43%) than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively). Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90%) was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC) were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31%) and Trichuris (22%, 14-34%) were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16%) was comparable. Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  20. Investigating casino event management integration: The case of East and South Asia casinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Wei (Arwen Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the gap of event management in East and South Asia’s casinos throughout the information provided by casinos on their websites. Main objective is to identify the differences and similarities of event holding in East and South Asia’s casinos and suggest future directions for casino managers and event organizers. Four research questions were developed to provide ourselves a goal, as well as to further our understanding of our investigation. There are two steps to structure our study. First is to evaluate the performance of 138 casino’s websites, which were obtained from worldcasinodirectory. com by using a website evaluation tool that we have constructed. In the second step, we conduct a content analysis for the website so we can identify what kind of events are organized in the area on our samples. The data of the content analysis provides a comparison of events in our sampling, such as the event’s size, type, and frequency of holding an event. We believe that our research would contribute to event organizers and large scale corporations to give them an insight on the overall efficiency of websites, as well as the frequency of events around East and South Asian casinos.

  1. Livestock Production - Current Status in South and South-East Asia, Future Directions and Priority Areas for Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, B. M.A. Oswin, [Kandy (Sri Lanka)

    2014-01-15

    The role of livestock in agriculture in South and South-East Asia is complex and significantly different from that of industrialized nations. The traditional farming systems are mostly based on mixed crop-livestock systems, with small farms predominating. The most important livestock species in the region are cattle (Bos indicus, Bos taurus and their crosses), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, both river and swamp types), goats, sheep, pigs and poultry. In some high altitude areas Yaks (Poephagus grunniens) and Mithun or Gayal (Bos frontalis) are also important. Although the contribution of the livestock sub-sector to national GDP in most Asian countries is low, it is a crucial source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins to the population, by way of milk, meat and eggs. For millions of smallholder farmers it provides food security, draught power, fibre, manure and fuel, and also serves as a 'living bank' in periods of economic hardship. The farming systems in the region vary widely (Perera et al., 2005), determined by a matrix of several interacting factors that include climate (latitude, altitude and rainfall), location (rural, peri-urban or urban), cropping systems (rain-fed or irrigated, annual or perennial crops), type of operation (small or large farm, subsistence or commercial), and the species and their primary purpose (milk, meat, eggs, draught, capital or mixed). The ruminant production systems that were largely extensive or semi-intensive in the past (grassland-based or mixed crop-livestock, with rain-fed or irrigated mixed farming), which were sustained with locally available resources, have become constrained due to many factors. Competition for land from the increasing human population that demands space for habitation, crop production and other economic activities have dwindled grazing lands. Mechanization of agricultural operations and commercial market forces have also made such systems less competitive. Thus some enterprising farmers have moved

  2. Sediment Properties along Gradients of Siltation in South-East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp-Nielsen, Lars; Vermaat, J.; Wesseling, I.

    2002-01-01

    sediment properties, SE Asia, siltation, resuspension, iron, calcium, seagrass, corals, mangroves, mudflats......sediment properties, SE Asia, siltation, resuspension, iron, calcium, seagrass, corals, mangroves, mudflats...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in South East Asia: time to ask the right questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Chatterjee, Pranab; Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh; Grace, Delia; Lindahl, Johanna; Beeche, Arlyne; Jing, Fang; Chotinan, Suwit

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health concern, around which the international leadership has come together to form strategic partnerships and action plans. The main driving force behind the emergence of AMR is selection pressure created due to consumption of antibiotics. Consumption of antibiotics in human as well as animal sectors are driven by a complex interplay of determinants, many of which are typical to the local settings. Several sensitive and essential realities are tied with antibiotic consumption - food security, livelihoods, poverty alleviation, healthcare access and national economies, to name a few. That makes one-size-fits-all policies, framed with the developed country context in mind, inappropriate for developing countries. Many countries in the South East Asian Region have some policy structures in place to deal with AMR, but most of them lack detailed implementation plans or monitoring structures. In this current debates piece, the authors argue that the principles driving the AMR agenda in the South East Asian countries need to be dealt with using locally relevant policy structures. Strategies, which have successfully reduced the burden of AMR in the developed countries, should be evaluated in the developing country contexts instead of ad hoc implementation. The Global Action Plan on AMR encourages member states to develop locally relevant National Action Plans on AMR. This policy position should be leveraged to develop and deploy locally relevant strategies, which are based on a situation analysis of the local systems, and are likely to meet the needs of the individual member states.

  4. The long winding road of opioid substitution therapy implementation in South-East Asia: challenges to scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Reid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID. HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users.

  5. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  6. Communication dated 26 September 2008, copied to the Agency by the Permanent Mission of India regarding the Middle East and South Asia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a copy of a communication dated 26 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of India to the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan regarding the Middle East and South Asia Area. As requested by the Resident Representative of India to the Agency, during the meeting of the Board of Governors on 6 October 2008, the communication is herewith circulated for information

  7. Study of Landslide Disaster Prevention System in Malaysia as a Disaster Mitigation Prototype for South East Asia Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Tien Tay, Lea; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Hazarika, Hemanta; Jamaludin, Suhaimi; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of landslides occur in Malaysia and other tropical monsoon South East Asia countries. Therefore, prevention casualties and economical losses, by rain induced slope failure, are those countries government most important agenda. In Malaysia, millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for slope monitoring and mitigation in every year budget. Besides monitoring the slopes, here, we propose the IT system which provides hazard map information, landslide historical information, slope failure prediction, knowledge on natural hazard, and information on evacuation centres via internet for user to understand the risk of landslides as well as flood. Moreover, the user can obtain information on rainfall intensity in the monitoring sites to predict the occurrence of the slope failure. Furthermore, we are working with PWD, Malaysia to set the threshold value for the landslide prediction system which will alert the officer if there is a risk of the slope failure in the monitoring sites by calculating rainfall intensity. Although the IT plays a significant role in information dissemination, education is also important in disaster prevention by educating school students to be more alert in natural hazard, and there will be bottom up approach to alert parents on what is natural hazard, by conversion among family members, as most of the parents are busy and may not have time to attend natural hazard workshop. There are many races living in Malaysia as well in most of South East Asia countries. It is not easy to educate them in single education method as the level of living and education are different. We started landslides education workshops in primary schools in rural and urban area, in Malaysia. We found out that we have to use their mother tongue language while conducting natural hazard education for better understanding. We took questionnaires from the students before and after the education workshop. Learning from the questionnaire result, the students are

  8. Health spending, macroeconomics and fiscal space in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of

  9. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  10. Observations and lessons learnt from more than a decade of water safety planning in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, David

    2017-09-01

    In many countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region, drinking water is not used directly from the tap and faecal contamination of water sources is prevalent. As reflected in Sustainable Development Goal 6, access to safer drinking water is one of the most successful ways of preventing disease. The WHO Water Safety Framework promotes the use of water safety plans (WSPs), which are structured tools that help identify and mitigate potential risks throughout a water-supply system, from the water source to the point of use. WSPs not only help prevent outbreaks of acute and chronic waterborne diseases but also improve water-supply management and performance. During the past 12 years, through the direct and indirect work of a water quality partnership supported by the Australian Government, more than 5000 urban and rural WSPs have been implemented in the region. An impact assessment based on pre- and post-WSP surveys suggests that WSPs have improved system operations and management, infrastructure and performance; leveraged donor funds; increased stakeholder communication and collaboration; increased testing of water quality; and increased monitoring of consumer satisfaction. These achievements, and their sustainability, are being achieved through national legislation and regulatory frameworks for water supply, including quality standards for drinking water; national training tools and extensive training of sector professionals and creation of WSP experts; model WSPs; WSP auditing systems; and the institution of longterm training and support. More than a decade of water safety planning using the WSP approach has shown that supplying safe drinking water at the tap throughout the WHO South-East Asia Region is a realistic goal.

  11. Nuclear power in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This editorial discusses the shifting dominance in the nuclear reactor technology from the USA to new leadership in East Asia. With the expanding economies and electricity demand, Design, construction and operation of a large number of nuclear power plants in east Asia will support nuclear engineers, technologist, manufacturing facilities, and potential weapons experts. In contrast, the cessation of construction of power reactors in the US is leading to deminished nuclear capabilities

  12. Food consumption patterns and nutrition transition in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoeto, Nur Indrawaty; Geok Lin, Khor; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda

    2013-09-01

    The present study was done to confirm the relationship between changes in food patterns and nutrition transition in three South-East Asian countries, namely the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and August 2009 using three methods: interviews, focus group discussions and analyses of government reports. The study was conducted in rural and urban areas in Manila and Calabanga (Philippines), Selangor and Kuala Selangor (Malaysia), and Padang, Pariaman Tanah Datar and Limapuluh Kota (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Adults aged 18 to 77 years. The results showed that Filipinos, Malaysians and Indonesians have retained many aspects of their traditional diets. In fact, most participants in the study considered Western-style and franchise fast foods as snack or recreational foods to be consumed once in a while only. However, a significant difference was noted between urban and rural areas in food varieties consumed. Participants in urban areas consumed more varieties of traditional foods owing to their availability and the participants’ food purchasing power. Although traditional food patterns were maintained by most of the participants, more sugar and vegetable oils were consumed and added to the traditional recipes. The rapid nutrition transition in this region may be due, instead, to increasing food availability and food purchasing power, rather than to a shift in food preferences towards modern Western foods.

  13. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dittrich

    Full Text Available Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos, raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013, northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453 and southern (Salavan: n = 171 Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367, identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82 to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2% Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%, acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations.

  14. Neorickettsia sennetsu as a Neglected Cause of Fever in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Phuklia, Weerawat; Turner, Gareth D H; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Chansamouth, Vilada; Dumler, Stephen J; Ferguson, David J P; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Neorickettsia sennetsu infection is rarely recognized, with less than 100 globally reported patients over the last 50 years. The disease is thought to be contracted by eating raw fish, a staple of many South-East Asian cuisines. In 2009, the first patient with sennetsu was identified in the Lao PDR (Laos), raising the question as to how common this organism and related species are in patients presenting with fever. We investigated the frequency of N. sennetsu infection at hospitals in diverse areas of Laos. Consenting febrile hospital inpatients from central (Vientiane: n = 1,013), northern (Luang Namtha: n = 453) and southern (Salavan: n = 171) Laos were screened by PCR for N. sennetsu, if no previous positive direct diagnostic test was available. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was developed to differentiate between N. sennetsu, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. To allow more detailed studies of N. sennetsu, culture was successfully established using a reference strain (ATCC VR-367), identifying a canine-macrophage cell line (DH82) to be most suitable to visually identify infection. After screening, N. sennetsu was identified and sequence confirmed in four (4/1,637; 0.2%) Lao patients. Despite the previously identified high seroprevalence of N. sennetsu antibodies in the Lao population (~17%), acute N. sennetsu infection with sufficient clinical signs to prompt hospitalization appears to be rare. The reservoir, zoonotic cycle and pathogenicity of N. sennetsu remain unclear and require further investigations.

  15. Extrabudgetary programme on the safety of nuclear installations in South East Asia Pacific and Far East countries. Report of the consultative meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Based on the good experience with the rapid expansion of nuclear utilization in Japan and South Korea, China is planning to significantly expand its nuclear programme, and other countries in the region are likely to follow this example in order to meet their expected high electricity demand growth. The building of NPPs is being considered in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is however recognized that countries in the region are in different stages of nuclear power programme, and that their needs for assistance in nuclear safety will be substantially different. In this situation it would be advantageous for all countries to establish regional co-operation on nuclear safety to learn from each other, use the experience accumulated in the world, and to commonly assess the progress made in nuclear safety matters. The objective of this Consultative Meeting was to discuss co-operation and the needs for assistance by Member States in South-East Asia, Pacific and Far East to strengthen the safety of their nuclear installations. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Setting-up a cost recovery system for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønholdt, J; Elberg Jørgensen, P; O'Hearn, D

    2005-01-01

    A tariff system has been set up for the largest wastewater treatment plant in South-East Asia, the Samut Prakarn Wastewater Treatment Plant south of Bangkok, which is currently under completion. Fully functional the plant will have a design capacity for 500,000 m3 per day and will service a combined residential and industrial area with approximately 600,000 residents and 2,300 factories. The tariff system, which includes a tariff model, is based on water consumption and BOD load. As background for setting the tariffs a comprehensive monitoring system including an industrial permitting system has been developed. The paper presents the background and rationale for setting up the system as well as the objective, scope and content of the tariff system and the industrial permit system. Further, the feasibility of introducing cost recovery systems, which is widely accepted in developing economies on the conceptual level and to some extent implemented at the legal and regulatory level, but has yet to be implemented at large, is discussed.

  17. Failure of miltefosine treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in children and men in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Ostyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High frequency of relapse in miltefosine-treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients in India and Nepal followed up for twelve months. OBJECTIVE: To identify epidemiological and clinical risk factors for relapse of VL in patients recently treated with standard dosing of miltefosine in India and Nepal. DESIGN: Prospective observational study in three Primary Health Centers and one reference center in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar, India; and two zonal hospitals and a university hospital in South-east Nepal; records of all consenting patients diagnosed with VL and treated with miltefosine according to the current treatment guidelines of the Kala azar elimination program between 2009 and 2011. RESULTS: We compared the clinical records of 78 cases of relapse with those of 775 patients who had no record of subsequent relapse. Relapse was 2 times more common amongst male patients (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.27-3.61, and 2 to 3 times more frequent in the age groups below 15 compared to the over 25 year olds (age 10 to 14: IRR 2.53; 95% CI 1.37-4.65 and Age 2 to 9: IRR 3.19; 95% CI 1.77-5.77. History of earlier VL episodes, or specific clinical features at time of diagnosis such as duration of symptoms or spleen size were no predictors of relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Young age and male gender were associated with increased risk of VL relapse after miltefosine, suggesting that the mechanism of relapse is mainly host-related i.e. immunological factors and/or drug exposure (pharmacokinetics. The observed decrease in efficacy of miltefosine may be explained by the inclusion of younger patients compared to the earlier clinical trials, rather than by a decreased susceptibility of the parasite to miltefosine. Our findings highlight the importance of proper clinical trials in children, including pharmacokinetics, to determine the safety, efficacy, drug exposure and therapeutic response of new drugs in this age group.

  18. Parental migration and the mental health of those who stay behind to care for children in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P; Yeoh, Brenda S A

    2015-05-01

    The international migration of parents from the global south raises questions about the health impacts of family separation on those who stay behind. This paper uses data collected in 2008 and 2009 for a project on Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) to address a largely neglected research area by investigating the mental health of those who stay behind in Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam to care for the children of overseas migrants. A mixed-methods research design is employed to answer two questions. First, whether carers in transnational (migrant) households are more likely to suffer mental health problems than those in non-migrant households; and secondly, whether transnational family practices and characteristics of migration are associated with mental health outcomes for stay-behind carers. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was completed by carers in selected communities (N = 3026) and used to identify likely cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Multivariate logistic regression and thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (N = 149) reveal a nuanced picture. All stay-behind carers in the Indonesian sample are more likely than carers in non-migrant households to suffer CMD. Across the three study countries, however, it is stay-behind mothers with husbands working overseas who are most likely to experience poor mental health. Moreover, infrequent contact with the migrant, not receiving remittances and migrant destinations in the Middle East are all positively associated with carer CMD, whereas greater educational attainment and greater wealth are protective factors. These findings add new evidence on the 'costs' of international labour migration and point to the role of gendered expectations and wider geopolitical structures. Governments and international policy makers need to intervene to encourage transnational family practices that are less detrimental to the mental health of those who stay behind to care for the

  19. Transborder Environmental Justice in Regional Energy Trade in Mainland South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Middleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is mainland South-East Asia’s largest energy consumer. Since the early 1990s, community and civil society opposition to new domestic large-scale power projects has strengthened within Thailand. Partly in response and facilitated by deepening regional economic integration, Thailand’s electricity utility, private sector energy, and construction companies have increasingly looked to- wards neighbouring Laos and Myanmar to supply Thailand’s energy markets. This paper assesses the political economy of Thailand’s power sector development through the lens of distributive and procedural environmental justice, including the role of social movements and civil society in Thailand in reforming the country’s power planning process. The environmental and social costs of domestic power projects and power import projects are discussed. The author concludes that Thailand’s exist- ing energy imports from hydropower projects in Laos and a gas project in Myanmar have exported environmental injustice associated with energy production across borders, exploiting the compara- tively weak rule of law, judicial systems, and civil and political freedoms in these neighbouring countries. ----- Thailand ist der größte Energieverbraucher in Festland-Südostasien. Seit den frühen 1990-er Jahren hat sich der zivilgesellschaftliche Widerstand gegen neue großflächige Energieprojekte in Thailand verstärkt. Teilweise als Antwort darauf und erleichtert durch sich vertiefende regionale Integration haben thailändische Stromversorgungsunternehmen sowie private Energie- und Bauunternehmen zunehmend in die Nachbarländer Laos und Myanmar geblickt, die den Energiebedarf Thailands decken sollen. Dieser Artikel beurteilt die politische Ökonomie der Entwicklung des thailändischen Energiesektors durch die Brille distributiver und prozeduraler Umweltgerechtigkeit sowie die Rolle von sozialen Bewegungen und Zivilgesellschaft in den Reformprozessen der

  20. South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter I.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

  1. Supplier development and cost management in South-East Asia - Results from a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; van Jarwaarde, Ewout; Groen, B.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about supplier development when international companies have production sites in Southeast Asia and look for opportunities to switch from international suppliers to local suppliers. We conducted a field study involving site visits to companies in Thailand and Vietnam, and interviews at

  2. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  3. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lithosphere and the atmosphere/ionosphere, continuously exchange energy through various coupling mechanisms. Earthquake creates waves of energy, e.g. direct shock acoustic waves (SAWs and Rayleigh wave induced acoustic waves (RAWs. In the event of an earthquake occurring beneath the sea, atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs are also generated. If the earthquake is large enough (Mw > 6, SAWs, RAWs and AGWs induce detectable ionospheric plasma perturbations. Inferring the seismological information from these seismo-ionospheric manifestations is the subject that pertains to ionospheric seismology. Both ground and satellite based advanced radio techniques are being used in monitoring ionospheric plasma perturbations. In this study, seismo-ionospheric anomalies and implications from recent GNSS observations in India and South-East Asia are discussed, mainly pertaining to the following. (1 From the ionospheric plasma response to 2015 Nepal earthquake, the estimated group velocity for Andaman and Indian shield regions are 2100 ms−1 and 3900 ms−1 respectively and validated from ground measurements. (2 Atmospheric acoustic resonance at 4.0 mHz and a train of wave packet of TEC variation resulting from the beat phenomenon observed at the site ‘umlh’ and (3 GNSS-based tsunami warning which is going to be promising tool in augmenting the existing tsunami warning systems.

  4. Notes on the Vegetation of the Fast-flowing Streams in Peninsular Thailand, the Tropical Mainland of South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Stankovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species composition and structure of the plant communities along and in the fast-flowing streams on different bedrock types of the tropical mainland South-East Asia were investigated. The study was carried out in Peninsular Thailand, on the Nakhon Si Thammarat mountain range. A total number of 14 plots were placed within the five selected streams where vascular plants species had been collected, starting from November 2010 until July 2012. The estimation of the species was calculated by computer program EstimateS, and in order to distinguish plant communities, a cluster analysis was performed. A total number of 109 species of vascular plants has been recorded, with 59 species in the granite and 60 in the calcareous bedrock streams. There were four types of plant communities that had were categorized; of which three types occurred in the granitic bedrock streams and the other could be seen exclusively in the calcareous bedrock. It is convinced that the types of the bedrock as well as the topographic features of the streams might have major impact on the characterization of the plant communities.

  5. Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William A.; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.; Fayle, Tom M.; Cockerill, Timothy D.; Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Broad, Gavin R.; Chung, Arthur Y. C.; Eggleton, Paul; Khen, Chey Vun; Yusah, Kalsum M.

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of natural forest to oil palm plantation is a major current threat to the conservation of biodiversity in South East Asia. Most animal taxa decrease in both species richness and abundance on conversion of forest to oil palm, and there is usually a severe loss of forest species. The extent of loss varies significantly across both different taxa and different microhabitats within the oil palm habitat. The principal driver of this loss in diversity is probably the biological and physical simplification of the habitat, but there is little direct evidence for this. The conservation of forest species requires the preservation of large reserves of intact forest, but we must not lose sight of the importance of conserving biodiversity and ecosystem processes within the oil palm habitat itself. We urgently need to carry out research that will establish whether maintaining diversity supports economically and ecologically important processes. There is some evidence that both landscape and local complexity can have positive impacts on biodiversity in the oil palm habitat. By intelligent manipulation of habitat complexity, it could be possible to enhance not only the number of species that can live in oil palm plantations but also their contribution to the healthy functioning of this exceptionally important and widespread landscape. PMID:22006968

  6. Climate conditions, workplace heat and occupational health in South-East Asia in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Occupational health is particularly affected by high heat exposures in workplaces, which will be an increasing problem as climate change progresses. People working in jobs of moderate or heavy work intensity in hot environments are at particular risk, owing to exposure to high environmental heat and internal heat production. This heat needs to be released to protect health, and such release is difficult or impossible at high temperatures and high air humidity. A range of clinical health effects can occur, and the heat-related physical exhaustion leads to a reduction of work capacity and labour productivity, which may cause substantial economic losses. Current trends in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region are towards higher ambient heat levels during large parts of each year, and modelling indicates continuing trends, which will particularly affect low-income individuals and communities. Prevention activities need to address the climate policies of each country, and to apply currently available heat-reducing technologies in workplaces whenever possible. Work activities can be adjusted to reduce exposure to daily heat peaks or seasonal heat concerns. Application of basic occupational health principles, such as supply of drinking water, enforcement of rest periods and training of workers and supervisors, is essential.

  7. A Comparative Study of Surgical Training in South East Asia, Australia and The United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Kheong Lum

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Quality of training can be improved by changing to a curriculum and competency based model, utilization of continuous assessment methods, reducing service requirements and better compensation for trainers. Southeast Asia has the potential to provide centres of excellence for surgical training. Surgical educators in SEA will find useful information in this paper to improve their programs which will hopefully evolve into a common core curriculum and enable cross border exchange of surgical trainees in SEA for broader exposure.

  8. South-East Asia: Emerging Regional Identity. Interview with prof. Dmitry Mosyakov (Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н С Куклин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dmitry Mosyakov, leading Russian expert on South-East Asia, graduated from the History and Philology Department of Institute of Asian and African Countries at Lomonosov Moscow State Uni-versity, majoring as an interpreter of the Khmer language in 1979. In 1979-1983 he studied in the post-graduate school of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1983 he defended his thesis on the problems of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. He works for the Institute of Oriental Studies (IOS since 1985. In 1991, he was trained at the Yale University (USA. In 1994 he defended his doctoral dissertation on the modern history of Cambodia. He is the organizer of the multi-year project “Monitoring of the Modern History of Southeast Asian Countries”, within which the IOS hosts the annual inter-institute conference and, according to the results of the conferences, its materials are published in the peer-reviewed academic journal “Southeast Asia: To-pical Problems of Development”. Dmitry Mosyakov is an editor-in-chief of this journal. He is also the head of the center of South-Eastern Asia, Australia and Oceania of IOS, a member of the Academic Council of the IOS. He is a member of the dissertation council for historical sciences at the IOS, Moscow State Uni-versity, and of the editorial board of the journal “Asia and Africa Today”. Since 2001 he is a Professor and the head of the department of regional studies at the Moscow Humanitarian University (part-time. In 2015, Dmitry Mosyakov was the provisional director of the IOS. Since 2013 he is a member of Editorial Board of Vestnik RUDN. International Relations. The interview includes following topics: the state of development of the South-East Asian studies in Russia and abroad, the perception of international processes in the region, the contemporary problems of the South-East Asia, and the cooperation of Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union countries and integration

  9. A review of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) as a competitive South-East Asia hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardai, A. M.; Er, A. Z.; Johari, M. K.; Noor, A. A. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper is aimed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KUL) against its competitors in Southeast Asia countries. Due to the geographical and market relevance issues, several airport hubs around KUL are chosen for comparison: Changi International Airport (SIN), Suvarnabhumi International Airport (BKK) and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis is used to evaluate the comparative situation between the airports in relation to changing industry and market environment. The study discovers some competitive edges for KUL. Nonetheless, the airport still has to be improved to face future challenges and it is under imminent threat of new aircraft technology.

  10. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE HIGHLANDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA: GENERAL LESSONS FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fullen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil conservation in the highlands of South-East Asia is essential for sustainable agro-environmental development. The effectiveness of soil conservation treatments developed in runoff plots was investigated in farmer-managed plots on a natural catchment. This wasachieved by the development and scientific evaluation of modified and novel cropping practices in a representative highland catchment in Yunnan Province, China. Wang Jia Catchment covers 40.1 hectares near Kedu, in Xundian County, north-east Yunnan (25o28'N, 102o53'E. The initial project consisted of an evaluation of the effects of modified cropping practices on maize productivity and soil properties. This programme was extended to investigate ways of increasing the productivity of maize, wheat and soybean on fragile slopes in a sustainable and environmentally-friendly way. The approach incorporates modified and novel agronomic and soil conservation measures, with the evaluation of their agricultural, environmental and socio-economic impacts using multidisciplinary approaches. This European Union funded project involved an international research team from Belgium, China, Ireland, Thailand and the U.K. Five co-ordinated work packages were implemented. Involving: (1 Background agricultural and environmental assessment of Wang Jia Catchment. (2Implementation and evaluation of modified and novel cropping systems for wheat, maize and soybean in the catchment. (3 Cost-benefit analyses of the socio-economic impacts of the changed cropping practices. (4 Comparative scientific evaluation of the cropping techniques in the highlands of northern Thailand. (5 Dissemination of project outcomes and establishment of training programmes for best practice in highland rural development. The lessons of the Project for promoting sustainable agro-environmental development in tropical and subtropical highlands include: (1 Recognizing the importance of both ‘north-south’ and ‘south-south’ co

  12. Adaptation to Climate Change and Managing Disaster Risk in the Caribbean and South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolcemascolo, G. [Asian Disaster Preparedness Center ADPC, Pathumthani (Thailand); Collymore, J.; Keipi, K. [Inter-American Development Bank IDB, Christ Church (Barbados)

    2004-05-01

    Small island and coastal nations of the world have long been recognized as being among the most likely to be affected by the potential impacts of global climate change. Such nations may be found in both the Caribbean and Asian regions. These regions share other commonalities as well, such as tropical climates and, to some extent, the hazards to which these countries are vulnerable. The inextricable linkage between climate change and disaster management emerges from the potential of the former to result in an increased frequency and severity of hydro-meteorological hazards and the associated increase in risk faced by countries as a whole and by vulnerable communities in particular. Within the Caribbean, the most visible of these impacts has been the increasing vulnerability to severe storms and the increased frequency and intensity of flood events. In Asia, the severity of weather extremes associated with the El Nino phenomenon has been apparent. Recent events have resulted in significant social, economic and environmental losses. But, the more gradual-yet nevertheless potentially as catastrophic-impacts expected from climate change include enhanced coastal and beach erosion; loss of land and property; dislocation of people; reduced resilience of coastal ecosystems and hence reduced viability for fisheries; and the bleaching and destruction of coral reefs. For the island states of both the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, which depend heavily on tourism, agriculture and fisheries for their livelihood, these impacts could be ruinous. For many countries, increased vulnerability to water shortages due to climate change is also a very significant concern. The need for a comprehensive integrated approach to natural hazard risk management that would combine the broader climate change and risk management agendas, as well as the urgency to advance the mainstreaming of disaster management and climate change, resulted in the convening of the Seminar on Climate Change and Severe

  13. Literacy in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the various facets and dimensions of literacy programs in South Asia indicates that literacy is viewed as a means of human resource development geared toward meaningful participation of all sectors in society, with individual programs varying according to the magnitude of illiteracy, national goals, linguistic setting, and regional…

  14. Nuclear expansion: projections and obstacles in the Far East and South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, A.; Rogner, H.H.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) annually publishes an analysis of medium-term projections of the development of nuclear power worldwide. The 2004 publication covers the period between the present and 2030. For the paths of minor and major expansion of nuclear power, the projections foresee an installed nuclear capacity comparable with todays's level and higher by some 50%, respectively, for 2030. The contribution of nuclear power to electricity generation will attain approx. 13 to 16%, i. e. roughly the present level. The main regions advancing the expansion of nuclear power will continue to be the Middle West and Asia with annual increases of approx. 9% of nuclear generating capacity; however, also in Eastern Europe, another 40,000 MW of plant capacity will be installed in the high expansion scenario. The report also looks into the reasons for the uncertainties of long-term analyses of the type also conducted by IAEA and, for instance, the International Energy-Agency (IAE). Major aspects involved are the cost situation and the economic and political risks of investing into nuclear power in countries with strong oppositions to the use of nuclear power. The article concludes with a few thoughts on proliferation and on the role of IAEA within the framework of global non-proliferation. (orig.)

  15. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  16. Quantifying South East Asia's forest degradation using latest generation optical and radar satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, M.; Tulbure, M. G.; Wijaya, A.; Weisse, M.; Stolle, F.

    2017-12-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation form the 2nd largest source of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. While deforestation is being globally mapped with satellite image time series, degradation remains insufficiently quantified. Previous studies quantified degradation for small scale, local sites. A method suitable for accurate mapping across large areas has not yet been developed due to the variability of the low magnitude and short-lived degradation signal and the absence of data with suitable resolution properties. Here we use a combination of newly available streams of free optical and radar image time series acquired by NASA and ESA, and HPC-based data science algorithms to innovatively quantify degradation consistently across Southeast Asia (SEA). We used Sentinel1 c-band radar data and NASA's new Harmonized Landsat8 (L8) Sentinel2 (S2) product (HLS) for cloud free optical images. Our results show that dense time series of cloud penetrating Sentinel 1 c-band radar can provide degradation alarm flags, while the HLS product of cloud-free optical images can unambiguously confirm degradation alarms. The detectability of degradation differed across SEA. In the seasonal forest of continental SEA the reliability of our radar-based alarm flags increased as the variability in landscape moisture decreases in the dry season. We reliably confirmed alarms with optical image time series during the late dry season, where degradation in open canopy forests becomes detectable once the undergrowth vegetation has died down. Conversely, in insular SEA landscape moisture is low, the radar time series generated degradation alarms flags with moderate to high reliability throughout the year, further confirmed with the HLS product. Based on the HLS product we can now confirm degradation within time series provides better results than either one on its own. Our results provide significant information with application for carbon trading policy and land management.

  17. Early interglacial carbonate-dilution events in the South China Sea: Implications for strengthened typhoon activities over subtropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Enqing; Tian, Jun; Qiao, Peijun; Wan, Sui; Xie, Xin; Yang, Wenguang

    2015-10-01

    A compilation of many late Quaternary marine sediment records from the northern South China Sea (SCS) continental slope confirms 15-50% reductions in sedimentary calcium carbonate concentrations between 11.0 and 8.5 ka BP in the early Holocene. This low carbonate% event occurred at a time when the regional sea level rose from -50 m to -10 m, which drowned large areas of continental shelves especially those near and within the Taiwan Strait. This event is associated with a significant increase in bulk sedimentation rates on the upper continental slope and the relative abundance of fine-grained detritus. Sediment provenance analyses suggest a dominant terrigenous input from Taiwan and a minor contribution from Luzon during the low carbonate% event, similar to the background terrigenous deposition in other periods of the Holocene. Two comparable low carbonate% events, respectively from the beginning of marine isotope stages 5.5 and 7.3, have also been recognized, pointing to similar causal factors. While carbonate dissolution and carbonate accumulation rate should not have been responsible, increased terrigenous input and dilution is considered as the main cause for the recurrent low carbonate% events in early interglacials. We further hypothesize that, during early interglacials, fluvial sediment discharge from Taiwan and Luzon intensified due to stronger typhoon activities, and massive fine-grained sediments from these two end members may have been transported to the northern SCS continental slope via surface and deep ocean currents. The conjecture of strengthened typhoon activities over East Asia during the early Holocene is supported by high ocean heat contents in the West Pacific Warm Pool area with the prevailing La Niña-like conditions.

  18. Youth tobacco use in South-East Asia: Implications for tobacco epidemic and options for its control in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Manju; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Agarwal, Naveen

    2017-09-01

    Nearly half of all male population and two in every five females in the WHO South-East Asia Region (SEAR) consume some form of tobacco. Preventing initiation among adolescents is critical for overall tobacco control. We assessed the trends in youth tobacco use and policies in SEAR. Data are used from school-based youth (Global Youth Tobacco Survey and global school student-based health survey) and adult (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, STEPS) tobacco surveys and the WHO Framework of Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation database. More than 10% of 13-15-year-old adolescent students reported tobacco use in 8 out of 11 countries. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco exceeded that of cigarettes except in Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor-Leste. No consistent declining trends in tobacco use were observed in any of the countries with 3 or more data points. More than half of all daily smokers aged 20-34 years initiated "daily" smoking before 20 years of age. 19% (Bangladesh) to 55% (Timor-Leste) of 13-17-year old students tried their first cigarette before their 14th birthday. Majority of adolescent students in most of the SEAR countries reported purchasing their cigarettes from store/shop/vendor and as single sticks, with few exceptions and purchased them as "single" cigarette. There is a limited change in affordability of cigarettes in SEAR over time. Tobacco use remains high among youth in SEAR. Efforts should be strengthened to fully implement/enforce recommended policy measures (legal minimum age, fiscal measures to reduce tobacco affordability; prohibiting sale of single cigarettes, etc.) and to explore new measures (e.g., tobacco-free generation).

  19. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: the interface between economic and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoensuk, Petcharat; Adisasmito, Wiku; Sat, Le Minh; Silkavute, Pornpit; Muchlisoh, Lilis; Cong Hoat, Pham; Coker, Richard

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the contemporary policies regarding avian and human pandemic influenza control in three South-East Asia countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam. An analysis of poultry vaccination policy was used to explore the broader policy of influenza A H5N1 control in the region. The policy of antiviral stockpiling with oseltamivir, a scarce regional resource, was used to explore human pandemic influenza preparedness policy. Several policy analysis theories were applied to analyse the debate on the use of vaccination for poultry and stockpiling of antiviral drugs in each country case study. We conducted a comparative analysis across emergent themes. The study found that whilst Indonesia and Vietnam introduced poultry vaccination programmes, Thailand rejected this policy approach. By contrast, all three countries adopted similar strategic policies for antiviral stockpiling in preparation. In relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza, economic imperatives are of critical importance. Whilst Thailand's poultry industry is large and principally an export economy, Vietnam's and Indonesia's are for domestic consumption. The introduction of a poultry vaccination policy in Thailand would have threatened its potential to trade and had a major impact on its economy. Powerful domestic stakeholders in Vietnam and Indonesia, by contrast, were concerned less about international trade and more about maintaining a healthy domestic poultry population. Evidence on vaccination was drawn upon differently depending upon strategic economic positioning either to support or oppose the policy. With influenza A H5N1 endemic in some countries of the region, these policy differences raise questions around regional coherence of policies and the pursuit of an agreed overarching goal, be that eradication or mitigation. Moreover, whilst economic imperatives have been critically important in guiding policy formulation in the agriculture sector, questions arise

  20. Geological data indicate that the interpretation for the age-calibrated phylogeny for the Kurixalus-genus frogs of South, South-east and East Asia (Lv et al., 2018) needs to be rethought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jason R

    2018-02-12

    Recently, Lv et al. (2018) published an age-calibrated phylogenetic tree for the Kurixalus frogs, members of which occur across parts of South, South-east and East Asia. A clade on Taiwan, represented by Kurixalus idiootocus and the Kurixalus eiffingeri species complex, is deemed to have been resident since the middle Cenozoic; its closest congeners are in southern Indochina (not in the adjacent parts of south-east China), and the split between the two is dated at 32.8 Ma. Furthermore, a sub-population of Kurixalus eiffingeri is believed to have colonized islands in the western Ryukyus c. 13.5 Ma. There is, however, a problem with this scenario: the landmass regarded as modern-day Taiwan has existed only for 4-5 million years (it results from a young and ongoing tectonic-plate collision). Assuming the Kurixalus phylogeny and the dating of its branchings are correct, then a palaeobiogeographical scenario involving an older, alternative land surface with later transfer to Taiwan, possibly involving over-water dispersal, would reconcile the biology, but testing this may be difficult/impossible. If the ages of the nodes in the proposed tree are found to be significantly overestimated, the geology and biology might more easily be accommodated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Attribution of the Main Sources of Biomass Burning in South East Asia that Impact on Air Quality in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. B.; Kendall, E.; Chew, B. N.; Chong, W. M.; Gan, C.; Hort, M. C.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning in South East Asia causes intense haze episodes in Singapore, these are of major concern to the local government and the population exposed to the haze. Using a Lagrangian dispersion model we have studied haze in the seven most recent years (2010 - 2016) to gain a deeper understanding of intense haze in Singapore. In this study, modelled haze time-series at one eastern and one western monitoring station in Singapore are compared to local observed PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations. The haze time-series are broken down by season or month, source region, and monitoring location.The analysis, presented as time series and pie charts, illustrates the relative contribution to haze in Singapore from different regions, variations between seasons and the correlation of impact to the combined timing of burning activity and meteorological patterns. Air history maps, showing where air arriving in Singapore originates from and/or has travelled through, are used to isolate the meteorological dependence of impacts. These show a strong monsoonal variation and help explain the inter-annual differences between sources and actual concentrations of biomass burning PM in Singapore. For example, there is a strong correlation in 2013 between burning in Riau and haze in Singapore, but a weak correlation in other years when a significant part of haze originates from, e.g., Peninsula Malaysia, but emissions are seemingly negligible. We see that, in spite of the size of Singapore, there is significant difference in concentrations and major contributing source regions between the two monitoring stations, annually and seasonally. The differences at the two monitoring stations are seen in varying degrees in the years 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015, throughout different seasons. Although only biomass burning is considered in the simulations, our modelled results are in good agreement with local observations. We have identified the source regions with the biggest contributions to haze

  2. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  3. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  4. Health and safety management practices of contractors in South East Asia: A multi country study of Cambodia, Vietnam, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, P.; Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Phung, V. M.; Nguyen, T. T.; Ath, C.; Heng, A. Y. T.; Kit, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The construction sector is notorious for accounting for numerous occupational deaths, injuries and illnesses in many countries. In emerging economies this situation could be direr, and health and safety (H&S) management by contractors is important to tackling this. This study investigated the H&S management practices of contractors in three South East Asian countries (Malaysia, Vietnam, and Cambodia) with the view to highlighting implementation issues. A questionnaire instrument containing 40...

  5. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  6. Are South East Asia Countries Capital Markets Characterized by Nonlinear Structures? An Investigation from Indonesia, Philippine and Singapore Capital Market Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarnita Yanti Verawati Bakara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research paper tries to detect the nonlinear structure in the South East Asia Countries Capital Markets. The capital markets of three South East Asia Countries are chosen: Indonesia, Philippine, and Singapore. Daily return data of Capital Markets composite indices are observed: Straits Times Index (STI of Singapore Exchange from January 04, 1985 to December 31, 2007, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index (PSEi of Philippines Stock Exchange from March 1, 1990 to December 31, 2007 and Jakarta Composite Index (JCI of Indonesia Stock Exchange from January 05, 1988 to December 31, 2007.Should nonlinearity be found, the outcomes of each observation are compared to analyze the implications of each country in global, regional and local position of their competition in the continuously changing world of interdependency environment. The implications of nonlinearity finding in the three ASEAN countries capital markets to the current issues of AFAS on Financial Services, Harmonization among ASEAN countries capital markets in the ASEAN region and ASEAN integration and liberalization on Financial Services are analyzed.BDS statistic and R/S Analysis as our tools for nonlinearity testing are applied. Nonlinearity evidences in Jakarta Composite Index, Pilipino Stock Exchange Index and Straits Times Index are found.

  7. Field-evolved resistance to imidacloprid and ethiprole in populations of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens collected from across South and East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrood, William T; Zimmer, Christoph T; Gorman, Kevin J; Nauen, Ralf; Bass, Chris; Davies, Thomas G E

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of imidacloprid and ethiprole resistance in Nilaparvata lugens Stål collected from across South and East Asia over the period 2005-2012. A resistance survey found that field populations had developed up to 220-fold resistance to imidacloprid and 223-fold resistance to ethiprole, and that many of the strains collected showed high levels of resistance to both insecticides. We also found that the cytochrome P450 CYP6ER1 was significantly overexpressed in 12 imidacloprid-resistant populations tested when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain, with fold changes ranging from ten- to 90-fold. In contrast, another cytochrome P450 CYP6AY1, also implicated in imidacloprid resistance, was underexpressed in ten of the populations and only significantly overexpressed (3.5-fold) in a single population from India compared with the same susceptible strain. Further selection of two of the imidacloprid-resistant field strains correlated with an approximate threefold increase in expression of CYP6ER1. We conclude that overexpression of CYP6ER1 is associated with field-evolved resistance to imidacloprid in brown planthopper populations in five countries in South and East Asia. © 2015 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Use of evidence-based practices in pregnancy and childbirth: South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing Countries project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Laopaiboon

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The burden of mortality and morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth remains concentrated in developing countries. SEA-ORCHID (South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health In Developing countries is evaluating whether a multifaceted intervention to strengthen capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improves adoption of best clinical practice recommendations leading to better health for mothers and babies. In this study we assessed current practices in perinatal health care in four South East Asian countries and determined whether they were aligned with best practice recommendations.We completed an audit of 9550 medical records of women and their 9665 infants at nine hospitals; two in each of Indonesia, Malaysia and The Philippines, and three in Thailand between January-December 2005. We compared actual clinical practices with best practice recommendations selected from the Cochrane Library and the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library. Evidence-based components of the active management of the third stage of labour and appropriately treating eclampsia with magnesium sulphate were universally practiced in all hospitals. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section, a beneficial form of care, was practiced in less than 5% of cases in most hospitals. Use of the unnecessary practices of enema in labour ranged from 1% to 61% and rates of episiotomy for vaginal birth ranged from 31% to 95%. Other appropriate practices were commonly performed to varying degrees between countries and also between hospitals within the same country.Whilst some perinatal health care practices audited were consistent with best available evidence, several were not. We conclude that recording of clinical practices should be an essential step to improve quality of care. Based on these findings, the SEA-ORCHID project team has been developing and implementing interventions aimed at increasing

  9. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Spatio-temporal variability of lightning and convective activity over South/South-East Asia with an emphasis during El Niño and La Niña

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Siingh, Devendraa; Midya, S. K.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The present analysis investigates the spatio-temporal variability of the convective parameters and associated lightning flash rates during the period 1997-2013 including the El Niño and La Niña episode. It reveals that north-western and north-eastern part along the foothills of Himalayas as well as Indo-China peninsular region and South China Sea are much convective prone zones over the South/South-East Asia. The terrain/orography of the Himalayan range, the influence of cross-equatorial low-level jet and large-scale circulation during pre-monsoon and active phase of monsoon, the western Pacific Warm Pool with increased sea surface temperature as well as the solar-heating-originated local instability instigate the convective anomaly to propagate over the north-western and north eastern Indian sub-continent along with the Indo-China peninsula and South China Sea respectively. The land surfaces of the Indian sub-continent and the sea surface of South China Sea possesses significant correlation with lightning flash rates and convective parameters whereas the sea surface surrounding Indian sub-continent do not show such good correlations among them. Although, the occurrence of convective activities during the El Niño (La Niña) gets reduced (increased), the occurrence of lightning flashes gets enhanced (diminished) during this period which may be the direct consequence of warming atmosphere in relation to changing patterns of regional climate. Fig. S2 Spatial trend distribution per year of (a) LFR, (b) CAPE, (c) SCP, (d) LI, (e) CINE and (f) AT anomaly over South/South-East Asia during January-December for the years 1997-2013 (Trend is significant at 95% confidence level). Fig. S3 Correlation maps of LFR with (a) CAPE, (b) SCP, (c) CINE and (d) LI over South/South-East Asia during January-December for the years 1997-2013. Fig. S4 Synoptic wind direction patterns during (a)-(b) El Niño (May 2002 - February 2003) conditions and (c)-(d) La Niña (July 1998 - March

  11. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  12. A cadinene biopolymer in fossil and extant dammar resins as a source for cadinanes and bicadinanes in crude oils from South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aarssen, B. G. K.; Cox, H. C.; Hoogendoorn, P.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1990-11-01

    The chemical composition of a fossil resin from a Miocene outcrop in Brunei, South East Asia, is compared with its extant counterpart dammar, obtained from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae, to establish the nature of the precursor of bicadinanes. The alcohol soluble fractions of the resins consist of functionalised triterpenoids and a small amount of sesquiterpenoids. None of the compounds present in this fraction bears any structural relation to bicadinanes. The alcohol insoluble fractions of the resins consist of a polymer based on cadinene. A structure for this polymer is proposed. Heating the polymer in dammar resin resulted in the formation of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric cadinenes. It is thought that the naturally occurring bicadinanes result from dimeric cadinenes upon cyclisation.

  13. Media audit reveals inappropriate promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinje, Kristine Hansen; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Nguyen, Tuan Thanh; Henjum, Sigrun; Ribe, Lovise Omoijuanfo; Mathisen, Roger

    2017-06-01

    To review regulations and to perform a media audit of promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in South-East Asia. We reviewed national regulations relating to the Code and 800 clips of editorial content, 387 advertisements and 217 Facebook posts from January 2015 to January 2016. We explored the ecological association between regulations and market size, and between the number of advertisements and market size and growth of milk formula. Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Regulations on the child's age for inappropriate marketing of products are all below the Code's updated recommendation of 36 months (i.e. 12 months in Thailand and Indonesia; 24 months in the other three countries) and are voluntary in Thailand. Although the advertisements complied with the national regulations on the age limit, they had content (e.g. stages of milk formula; messages about the benefit; pictures of a child) that confused audiences. Market size and growth of milk formula were positively associated with the number of newborns and the number of advertisements, and were not affected by the current level of implementation of breast-milk substitute laws and regulations. The present media audit reveals inappropriate promotion and insufficient national regulation of products under the scope of the Code in South-East Asia. Strengthened implementation of regulations aligned with the Code's updated recommendation should be part of comprehensive strategies to minimize the harmful effects of advertisements of breast-milk substitutes on maternal and child nutrition and health.

  14. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011-2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3-6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU.

  15. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  16. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2: Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hill

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  17. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential

  18. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  19. Impact of land use change on the land atmosphere carbon flux of South and South East Asia: A Synthesis of Dynamic Vegetation Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervarich, M.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Stocker, B.; Arneth, A.; Viovy, N.; Kato, E.; Wiltshire, A.; Koven, C.; Sitch, S.; Zeng, N.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding our present day carbon cycle and possible solutions to recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide is dependent upon quantifying the terrestrial carbon budget. Currently, global land cover and land use change is estimated to emit 0.9 PgC yr-1 compared to emissions due to fossil fuel combustion and cement production of 8.4 PgC yr-1. South and Southeast Asia (India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Singapore) is a region of rapid land cover and land use change due to the continuous development of agriculture, deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, and the increased demand of land for people to live. In this study, we synthesize outputs of nine models participated in Global Carbon Budget Project to identify the carbon budget of South and southeast Asia, diagnose the contribution of land cover and land use change to carbon emissions and assess areas of uncertainty in the suite of models. Uncertainty is determined using the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of net ecosystem exchange and its component parts. Results show the region's terrestrial biosphere was a source of carbon emissions from the 1980 to the early 1990s. During the same time period, land cover and land use change increasingly contributed to carbon emission. In the most recent two decades, the region became a carbon sink since emission due to land cover land use changes. Spatially, the greatest total emissions occurred in the tropical forest of Southeast Asia. Additionally, this is the subregion with the greatest uncertainty and greatest biomass. Model uncertainty is shown to be proportional to total biomass. The atmospheric impacts of ENSO are shown to suppress the net biosphere productivity in South and Southeast Asia leading to years of increased carbon emissions.

  20. Blindness and Visual Impairment Profile and Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in South East Asia: Analysis of New Data. 2017 APAO Holmes Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Taraprasad

    2018-03-13

    The International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) South East Asia region (SEAR) that consists of 11 countries contains 26% of the world's population (1,761,000,000). In this region 12 million are blind and 78.5 million are visually impaired. This amounts to 30% of global blindness and 32% of global visual impairment. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey analysis. RAAB, either a repeat or a first time survey, was completed in 8 countries in this decade (2010 onwards). These include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Cataract is the principal cause of blindness and severe visual impairment in all countries. Refractive error is the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 countries: Bangladesh, India, Maldives, and Sri Lanka; cataract continues to be the principal cause of moderate visual impairment in 4 other countries: Bhutan, Indonesia, Thailand, and Timor Leste. Outcome of cataract surgery is suboptimal in the Maldives and Timor Leste. Rigorous focus is necessary to improve cataract surgery outcomes and correction of refractive error without neglecting the quality of care. At the same time allowances must be made for care of the emerging causes of visual impairment and blindness such as glaucoma and posterior segment disorders, particularly diabetic retinopathy. Copyright 2018 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  1. Population burden of betel quid abuse and its relation to oral premalignant disorders in South, Southeast, and East Asia: an Asian Betel-quid Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Ling, Tian-You; Sunarjo; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Han-Jiang; Liu, Lin; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia. The Asian Betel-Quid Consortium conducted a multistage sampling of 8922 representative participants from Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Participants received an interviewer-administered survey and were examined for oral mucosal disorders. The prevalence of betel quid abuse was 0.8% to 46.3% across 6 Asian populations. The abuse frequency was over 40.5% for current chewers, with the highest proportion in Nepalese and Southeast Asian chewers (76.9%-99.6%). Tobacco-added betel quid conferred higher abuse rates (74.4%-99.6%) among Malaysian, Indonesian, and Sri Lankan men than did tobacco-free betel quid (21.8%-89.1%). Gender, lower education level, younger age at chewing initiation, and clustering of familial betel quid use significantly contributed to higher abuse rates. Indonesian betel quid abusers showed the highest prevalence of OPDs and had a greater risk of OPDs than did nonabusers. Betel quid abuse is high in regions of Asia where it is customarily practiced, and such abuse correlates highly with OPDs. By recognizing abuse-associated factors, health policies and preventive frameworks can be effectively constructed to combat these oral preneoplasms.

  2. Health professional-patient communication practices in East Asia: An integrative review of an emerging field of research and practice in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Jack K H; Chan, E Angela; Wang, Sophie; Slade, Diana

    2018-01-31

    To provide an integrative review of literature on health communication in East Asia and detail culturally-specific influences. Using PRISMA model, search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, ERIC and CINAHL databases were conducted for studies between January 2000 and March 2017, using the terms 'clinician/health professional-patient', 'nurse/doctor-patient, 'communication' and 'Asia'. 38 studies were included: Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The existing body of research on clinician patient communication in East Asia can be classified: 1) understanding the roles and expectations of the nurse, clinician, patient, and family in clinician-patient consultations: a) nurse-patient communication; b) doctor-patient communication; c) the role of family member; and 2) factors affecting quality of care: d) cultural attitudes towards death and terminal illnesses; e) communication preferences affecting trust, decision-making and patient satisfaction; f) the extent to which patient centred care is being implemented in practice; and g) communication practices in multilingual/multi-disciplinary environments. The review detailed the complexity and heterogeneity of clinician-patient communication across East Asia. The studies reviewed indicate that research in East Asia is starting to move beyond a preference for Western-based communication practices. There is a need to consider local culture in understanding and interpreting medical encounters in East Asia. The paper highlights the need for a specific culturally-appropriate model of health communication in East Asia which may significantly improve relationships between clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Russia And East Asia: New Opportunities And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  4. RUSSIA AND EAST ASIA: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  5. Results of a real-world study on vortioxetine in patients with major depressive disorder in South East Asia (REVIDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheuk Ngen; Zain, Azhar; Hemrungrojn, Solaphat; Ung, Eng Khean; Kwansanit, Patanon; Au Yong, Koon Choong; Chong, Marvin Swee Woon; Inpa, Chalowat; Yen, Teck Hoe; Yeoh, Boon Beng David; Tay, Liam Kai; Bernardo, Carmina; Lim, Lionel Chee-Chong; Yap, Chin Hong; Fones, Calvin; Nayak, Ashwini; Nelleman, Lars

    2018-05-17

    The REVIDA study aimed to assess the evolution of major depression symptoms in South East Asian (SEA) patients treated with vortioxetine for major depression in real-world clinical practice. This non-interventional study was conducted from Aug 2016 to Apr 2017. A total of 138 patients (aged 18-65 years) with an active episode of major depression were recruited from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Vortioxetine was initiated on the first visit and patients were followed for 3 months. Depression severity was assessed using the PHQ-9 questionnaire (patient-assessed) and CGI-S scale (physician-assessed); cognitive function was assessed with the PDQ-D questionnaire; work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) was assessed with the WPAI questionnaire. At baseline, 89.9% of patients were moderately to severely depressed (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10). During the 3-month treatment period, mean±SD PHQ-9 score decreased from 18.7±5.7 to 5.0±5.3, mean±SD CGI-S score decreased from 4.4±0.7 to 2.2±1.1, and mean±SD PDQ-D score decreased from 42.1±18.8 to 13.4±13.0. By month 3, response and remission rates reached 80.8% and 59.0%, respectively. Work productivity loss decreased from 73.6% to 30.5%, while activity impairment decreased from 71.5% to 24.6%. Positive correlations were observed between PHQ-9, PDQ-D, and WPAI work productivity loss and activity impairment. By month 3, 82.0% of patients were either not depressed or only mildly depressed (PHQ-9 score ≤ 9). In real-world clinical settings, vortioxetine was effective in reducing depression severity and improving cognitive function and work productivity in SEA patients with major depression.

  6. What drives the Tibetan crust to the South East Asia? Role of upper mantle density discontinuities as inferred from the continental geoid anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet orogen formed as a result of the northward convergence of India into the Asia over the past 55 Ma had caused the north south crustal shortening and Cenozoic upliftment of the Tibetan plateau, which significantly affected the tectonic and climatic framework of the Asia. Geodetic measurements have also shown eastward crustal extrusion of Tibet, especially along major east-southeast strike slip faults at a slip rate of 15-20 mm a-1 and around 40 mm a-1. Such continental scale deformations have been modeled as block rotation by fault boundary stresses developed due to the India-Eurasia collision. However, the Thin Sheet model explained the crustal deformation mechanism by considering varying gravitational potential energy arise out of varying crustal thickness of the viscous lithosphere. The Channel Flow model, which also suggests extrusion is a boundary fault guided flow along the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime. Although many models have proposed, but no consensus in these models to explain the dynamics of measured surface geodetic deformation of the Tibetan plateau. But what remains conspicuous is the origin of driving forces that cause the observed Tibetan crustal flow towards the South East Asia. Is the crustal flow originated only because of the differential stresses that developed in the shallow crustal brittle-ductile regime? Or should the stress transfer to the shallow crustal layers as a result of gravitational potential energy gradient driven upper mantle flow also to be accounted. In this work, I examine the role of latter in the light of depth distribution of continental geoid anomalies beneath the Himalaya-Tibet across major upper mantle density discontinuities. These discontinuity surfaces in the upper mantle are susceptible to hold the plastic deformation that may occur as a result of the density gradient driven flow. The distribution of geoid anomalies across these density discontinuities at 220, 410 and 660 km depth in the

  7. Perilous Human Security in South Asia: Are There Ways Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    South Asia Source: UNFPA: State of World Population 2010. http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/ site /global/shared/swp/2010/swop_2010_eng.pdf (accessed on Jan...21819 and 74806 tons respectively. FAOSTAT, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, http://faostat.fao.org/ site /342/default.aspx...Strategic Environment, 10-11. 84 Aun Porn Moniroth, “Economic Integration in East Asia – Cambodia’s Experience” in East Asian Visions, ed. Indermit Gil

  8. Assessment of cirrus cloud and aerosol radiative effect in South-East Asia by ground-based NASA MPLNET lidar network data and CALIPSO satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Fatkhuroyan, Fatkhuroyan; Gu, Yu; Marquis, Jared W.

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol, together with cirrus clouds, play a fundamental role in the earth-atmosphere system radiation budget, especially at tropical latitudes, where the Earth surface coverage by cirrus cloud can easily reach 70%. In this study we evaluate the combined aerosol and cirrus cloud net radiative effects in a wild and barren region like South East Asia. This part of the world is extremely vulnerable to climate change and it is source of important anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions. The analysis has been carried out by computing cirrus cloud and aerosol net radiative effects through the Fu-Liou-Gu atmospheric radiative transfer model, adequately adapted to input lidar measurements, at surface and top-of-the atmosphere. The aerosol radiative effects were computed respectively using the retrieved lidar extinction from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization in 2011 and 2012 and the lidar on-board of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations for the South East Asia Region (27N-12S, 77E-132E) with 5° x 5° spatial resolution. To assess the cirrus cloud radiative effect, we used the ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar Network measurements at Singapore permanent observational site. Results put in evidence that strong aerosol emission areas are related on average to a net surface cooling. On the contrary, cirrus cloud radiative effect shows a net daytime positive warming of the system earth-atmosphere. This effect is weak over the ocean where the albedo is lower and never counter-balances the net cooling produced by aerosols. The net cooling is stronger in 2011, with an associated reduction in precipitations by the four of the five rain-gauges stations deployed in three regions as Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java with respect to 2012. We can speculate that aerosol emissions may be associated with lower rainfall, however some very important phenomena as El Nino Southern Oscillation , Madden-Julian Oscillation, Monsoon and Indian Dipole are not

  9. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, K; Rizwan, S A; Sinha, D N; Andes, L J; Amarchand, R; Krishnan, A; Asma, S

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide, particularly in South-East Asia. Health risks associated with exclusive use of one form of tobacco alone has a different health risk profile when compared to dual use. In order to tease out specific profiles of mutually exclusive categories of tobacco use, we carried out this analysis. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data was used to describe the profiles of three mutually exclusive tobacco use categories ("Current smoking only," "Current smokeless tobacco [SLT] use only," and "Dual use") in four World Health Organization South-East Asia Region countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Thailand. GATS was a nationally representative household-based survey that used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design proportional to population size. Prevalence of different forms of usage were described as proportions. Logistics regression analyses was performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were weighted, accounted for the complex sampling design and conducted using SPSS version 18. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varied across countries. Current tobacco use ranged from 27.2% in Thailand to 43.3% in Bangladesh. Exclusively smoking was more common in Indonesia (34.0%) and Thailand (23.4%) and less common in Bangladesh (16.1%) and India (8.7%). Exclusively using SLT was more common in Bangladesh (20.3%) and India (20.6%) and less common on Indonesia (0.9%) and Thailand (3.5%). Dual use of smoking and SLT was found in Bangladesh (6.8%) and India (5.3%), but was negligible in Indonesia (0.8) and Thailand (0.4%). Gender, age, education and wealth had significant effects on the OR for most forms of tobacco use across all four countries with the exceptions of SLT use in Indonesia and dual use in both Indonesia and Thailand. In general, the different forms of tobacco use increased among males and with increasing

  10. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Pami

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  11. Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances Using Radio and Optical Observations in South-East Asia -- The Initial Results of the ASI and FPI Observations in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Komonjinda, S.; Komolmis, T.; Somboon, E.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of monitoring and forecasting equatorial ionospheric disturbances, SEALION (SouthEast Asia Low-latitude IOnospheric Network) has been developed since 2003 as a cooperation project by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) in Thailand, Chiang Mai University (CMU) in Thailand, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) in Indonesia, Hanoi Institute of Geophysics (HIG), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology in Vietnam, Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, Kyoto University in Japan, and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University in Japan. SEALION consists of five ionosondes, four GPS receivers, two GPS scintillation monitors, and a magnetometer. As a part of this project, we newly installed an all-sky imager (ASI) and a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) at Sirindhorn observatory in Chiang Mai (18.8N, 98.9E, Dip lat. 13.1), Thailand. This site is located near conjugate to EAR site in Kototabang, Indonesia. One of main targets of the ASI observation is the large-scale wave structure (LSWS) with wavelengths of 100-1000 km. The LSWS is thought to be connected to the generation mechanism of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPB). The optical observations in Chiang Mai started in February 2010, and we have detected several ionospheric disturbance events with these instruments In this paper, we will show the initial results of the optical observations from Sirindhorn observatory, and discuss the features of ionospheric disturbances in Southeast Asia.

  12. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  13. Towards robust subsidence-based soil carbon emission factors for peat soils in south-east Asia, with special reference to oil palm plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm and Acacia pulpwood plantations are being established at a rapid rate on drained peatland in south-east Asia. Accurate measurements of associated carbon losses are still scarce, however, due mainly to difficulties of excluding autotrophic carbon fluxes from chamber-based flux measurements and uncertainties about the extent of waterborne losses. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach to determining total net carbon loss from subsidence records that is applicable to steady state conditions under continuous land use. We studied oil palm and Acacia plantations that had been drained for 5–19 years. Very similar subsidence rates and dry bulk density profiles were obtained, irrespective of crop type or age of the plantation, indicating that the peat profiles were in a steady state. These are conditions that allow for the deduction of net carbon loss by multiplying the rate of subsidence by the carbon density of the peat below the water table. With an average subsidence rate of 4.2 cm y-1 and a carbon density of 0.043 g cm-3, we arrive at a net carbon loss of ~18 t ha-1 y-1 (~66 t CO2-eq ha-1 y-1 for typical oil palm and Acacia plantations more than five years after drainage, without large differences between the plantation types. The proposed method enables calculation of regional or project-specific carbon loss rates to feed into mitigation schemes of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  14. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory P D; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-11-27

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change-and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined.

  15. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  16. Conclusion: applying South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme science to land-use management policy and practice in a changing landscape and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory P. D.; Nussbaum, Ruth; Fowler, David; Weilenmann, Maja; Hector, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The context and challenges relating to the remaining tropical rainforest are briefly reviewed and the roles which science can play in addressing questions are outlined. Key messages which articles in the special issue, mainly based on projects of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme (SEARRP), have raised of relevance to policies on land use, land management and REDD+ are then considered. Results from the atmospheric science and hydrology papers, and some of the ecological ones, demonstrate the very high ecosystem service values of rainforest (compared with oil palm) in maintaining high biodiversity, good local air quality, reducing greenhouse emissions, and reducing landslide, flooding and sedimentation consequences of climate change—and hence provide science to underpin the protection of remaining forest, even if degraded and fragmented. Another group of articles test ways of restoring forest quality (in terms of biodiversity and carbon value) or maintaining as high biodiversity and ecological functioning levels as possible via intelligent design of forest zones and fragments within oil palm landscapes. Finally, factors that have helped to enhance the policy relevance of SEARRP projects and dissemination of their results to decision-makers are outlined. PMID:22006974

  17. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia : attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using human and animal trypanocidal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Desquesnes, M.; Yangtara, S.; Kunphukhieo, P.; Jittapalapong, S.; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Beside typical human trypanosomes responsible of sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America, there is a growing number of reported atypical human infections due to Trypanosoma evansi, a livestock parasite, or Trypanosoma lewisi, a rat parasite, especially in Asia. Drugs available for the treatment of T. brucei ssp. in humans are obviously of choice for the control of T. evansi because it is derived from T. brucei. However, concerning T. lewisi, there is an urgent need to ...

  18. Financing Technological Upgrading in East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Mubarik, Shujaat; Yap, Xiao-Shan

    2017-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion on the drivers of economic growth in East Asia. While most studies recognize that capital accumulation and macroeconomic management were critical in hastening growth, few have examined systematically and comparatively how policy frameworks – spearheaded through

  19. Estimating radiotherapy demands in South East Asia countries in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorazrul; Roslan, Nurhaziqah

    2018-01-08

    As about 50% of cancer patients may require radiotherapy, the demand of radiotherapy as the main treatment to treat cancer is likely to rise due to rising cancer incidence. This study aims to quantify the radiotherapy demand in countries in Southeast Asia (SEA) in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions. SEA country-specific cancer incidence by tumor site for 2015, 2025 and 2035 was extracted from the GLOBOCAN database. We utilized the optimal radiotherapy utilization rate model by Wong et al. (2016) to calculate the optimal number of fractions for all tumor sites in each SEA country. The available machines (LINAC & Co-60) were extracted from the IAEA's Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) from which the number of available fractions was calculated. The incidence of cancers in SEA countries are expected to be 1.1 mil cases (2025) and 1.4 mil (2035) compared to 0.9 mil (2015). The number of radiotherapy fractions needed in 2025 and 2035 are 11.1 and 14.1 mil, respectively, compared to 7.6 mil in 2015. In 2015, the radiotherapy fulfillment rate (RFR; required fractions/available fractions) varied between countries with Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia are highest (RFR > 1.0 - available fractions > required fractions), whereas Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Timor-Leste and Vietnam have RFR fractions, estimation for number of machines required can be obtained which will guide acquisition of machines in SEA countries. RFR is low with access varied based on the economic status. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Functional traits determine heterospecific use of risk-related social information in forest birds of tropical South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Yong, Ding Li; Janra, Muhammad Nazri; Fitri, Liza M; Prawiradilaga, Dewi; Sieving, Kathryn E

    2016-12-01

    In birds and mammals, mobbing calls constitute an important form of social information that can attract numerous sympatric species to localized mobbing aggregations. While such a response is thought to reduce the future predation risk for responding species, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. One way to test the link between predation risk reduction and mobbing attraction involves testing the relationship between species' attraction to mobbing calls and the functional traits that define their vulnerability to predation risk. Two important traits known to influence prey vulnerability include relative prey-to-predator body size ratio and the overlap in space use between predator and prey; in combination, these measures strongly influence prey accessibility, and therefore their vulnerability, to predators. Here, we combine community surveys with behavioral experiments of a diverse bird assemblage in the lowland rainforest of Sumatra to test whether the functional traits of body mass (representing body size) and foraging height (representing space use) can predict species' attraction to heterospecific mobbing calls. At four forest sites along a gradient of forest degradation, we characterized the resident bird communities using point count and mist-netting surveys, and determined the species groups attracted to standardized playbacks of mobbing calls produced by five resident bird species of roughly similar body size and foraging height. We found that (1) a large, diverse subcommunity of bird species was attracted to the mobbing calls and (2) responding species (especially the most vigorous respondents) tended to be (a) small (b) mid-storey foragers (c) with similar trait values as the species producing the mobbing calls. Our findings from the relatively lesser known bird assemblages of tropical Asia add to the growing evidence for the ubiquity of heterospecific information networks in animal communities, and provide empirical

  1. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using human and animal trypanocidal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desquesnes, Marc; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kunphukhieo, Pawinee; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    Beside typical human trypanosomes responsible of sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in Latin America, there is a growing number of reported atypical human infections due to Trypanosoma evansi, a livestock parasite, or Trypanosoma lewisi, a rat parasite, especially in Asia. Drugs available for the treatment of T. brucei ssp. in humans are obviously of choice for the control of T. evansi because it is derived from T. brucei. However, concerning T. lewisi, there is an urgent need to determine the efficacy of trypanocidal drugs for the treatment in humans. In a recent study, pentamidine and fexinidazole were shown to have the best efficacy against one stock of T. lewisi in rats. In the present study suramin, pentamidine, eflornitine, nifurtimox, benznidazole and fexinidazole, were evaluated at low and high doses, in single day administration to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi recently isolated in Thailand. Because none of these treatments was efficient, a trial was made with the most promising trypanocide identified in a previous study, fexinidazole 100mg/kg, in 5 daily administrations. Results observed were unclear. To confirm the efficacy of fexinidazole, a mixed infection protocol was set up in cyclophosphamide immunosuppressed rats. Animals were infected successively by T. lewisi and T. evansi, and received 10 daily PO administrations of 200mg/kg fexinidazole. Drastic effects were observed against T. evansi which was cleared from the rat's blood within 24 to 48h; however, the treatment did not affect T. lewisi which remained in high number in the blood until the end of the experiment. This mixed infection/treatment protocol clearly demonstrated the efficacy of fexinidazole against T. evansi and its inefficacy against T. lewisi. Since animal trypanocides were also recently shown to be inefficient, other protocols as well as other T. lewisi stocks should be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  2. The economic impact of foot and mouth disease and its control in South-East Asia: a preliminary assessment with special reference to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Kalpravidh, W; Coleman, P G; Horst, H S; McDermott, J J; Randolph, T F; Gleeson, L J

    1999-08-01

    A pilot study of the economic impact of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the countries and region of South-East Asia is described. Previous economic impact assessments are reviewed and summarised and a synthesis of these contributions is constructed. A framework for the future economic impact of the disease is then developed, incorporating analyses at the sectoral (production system), national and regional levels. Data requirements for such studies are also identified. Integrated epidemiological and economic models for impact assessment were developed and applied to the case study country of Thailand. The models were used to evaluate the economic viability of FMD control programmes in the country. Scenarios evaluated include the effect of improving vaccination coverage and thus reducing productivity losses, and the effect of eventual eradication of the disease. The results indicate that economic returns to the high expenditures incurred in FMD control could be achieved in the short term if greater international trade in pork products was made possible and export prices higher than those in the domestic market could be attained. If FMD were to be eradicated from Thailand in 2010, the eradication would be economically viable, even without exports, with a predicted benefit-cost ratio of 3.73. With additional exports, the economic justification for control becomes much stronger with a benefit-cost ratio of up to 15:1 being achieved. If eradication is not achieved until 2020, returns remain positive without exports, but at a lower rate. The authors propose that the integrated epidemiological and economic models developed be applied to other countries of the region to gain a more accurate insight into the future benefits of FMD control and eradication in the region.

  3. Regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in South-East Asia region: The journey so far and the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2017-09-01

    South-East Asia Region (SEAR) has more smokeless tobacco users as compared to smokers. The growing prevalence and cultural acceptance of consumption of flavored areca nut and related products, for example, supari and pan masala in many countries are confounding the scenario. The prevalence of a variety of tobacco products makes regulation a challenge which gets more complicated in view of weak enforcement of regulatory policies aggressive marketing of such products by the tobacco industry. Some countries have attempted to regulate smokeless tobacco and related products by enforcing bans. However, limited evidence base along with lack of technical and regulatory capacities have restricted the SEAR countries to effectively implement product regulation in respect of smokeless tobacco and related products. This paper lays out specific priorities for research and need to enhance regulatory capacity for smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut in the SEAR countries. A systematic and comprehensive search was conducted to identify all original published literature related to regulating smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut. Studies reporting on the same were obtained through searches in relevant academic databases. Relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and reports on tobacco products regulation were consulted. Generating the right evidence along with the need to build the capacity of the countries to test the smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products by establishing testing facilities and providing practical guidelines is of paramount importance. The countries of the SEAR need to prioritize the implementation of Articles 9 and 10 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to strengthen the regulation of smokeless tobacco and processed areca nut products.

  4. The incidence of malaria in travellers to South-East Asia: is local malaria transmission a useful risk indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jänisch Thomas

    2010-10-01

    recommendations to minimize use of chemoprophylaxis for low risk exposure during visits to S-E Asia. Policy needs to be adjusted regularly to reflect the changing risk.

  5. Carbon Markets and REDD in South-East Asia: An Interview with Chris Lang from REDD-Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chris Lang is a climate justice activist and currently runs REDD-Monitor, a website that follows projects and developments around REDD (www.redd-monitor.org. The acronym REDD refers to Re- ducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and is a UN programme that aims to offer incentives for countries in the Global South to reduce emissions from deforestation by creating financial values for the forest carbon stocks. In this interview, Lang talks about structural shortcomings of REDD and the danger of carbon cowboys, provides an insight in the 1 billion dollar agreement between Norway and Indonesia, and discusses the relation between REDD and indigenous peoples’ rights. ----- Chris Lang ist Klimaaktivist und betreibt derzeit die Webseite REDD-Monitor, die Projekte und En- twicklungen rund um REDD verfolgt (www.redd-monitor.org. Die Abkürzung REDD bezieht sich auf das UN-Programm Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, das darauf abzielt, Anreize für Länder des globalen Südens zu schaffen, ihre Emissionen aus Abholzung durch finanzielle Werte für den Kohlenstoffgehalt der Wälder zu reduzieren. In diesem Interview spricht Lang über strukturelle Schwächen von REDD und der Gefahr durch carbon cowboys. Er gibt einen Einblick in das 1-Milliarde-Dollar Abkommen zwischen Norwegen und Indonesien und diskutiert die Beziehung zwischen REDD und den Rechten indigener Völker.

  6. Turkey and Stability in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    military growth. China will try to expel the United States from the region, and then conflict is inevitable . Liberals think that the economic...ascendance in East Asia. Realists view the rise of China as a reason for conflict and power struggle in the region; a rising power inevitably leads to an... conflict is inevitable because, according to Kenneth Neal Waltz, “a state that is amassing instruments of war, even for its own defensive, is cast

  7. Jalons pour une anthropologie de l’éthique entrepreneuriale en Asie du Sud-Est Groundwork for an Anthropology of Entrepreneurial Ethics in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Gallenga

    2013-06-01

    élargi aux marges sino-indiennes.The entrepreneurship ethics is widely mobilized in business and enterprise milieu in South-East Asia where it is most often presented as a set of moral, ideological or religious precepts that local actors designate by the term “Asian values”. The purpose of this introduction is to put these so called values in the context of entrepreneurship on the basis of seminal works dealing with South-East Asian entreprises. We will see that in most cases these works oscillate between two poles: first, Max Weber’s sociology of industrial capitalism through the prism of religious ethics, and secondly the substantivist approach of Karl Polanyi. If the analytical tools of these debates have been applied mostly to entrepreneurs from the Chinese Diaspora, it is the question of the entrepreneurs’ dominant ideology through the prism of philosophical and religious currents which serve as benchmarks. How values and ideologies are perpetuated, adapted or implemented by company management? How do they fit also in micro-strategies of local actors? How does entrepreneurial ethics decline in business of various statutes and in entrepreneurs’ families? What images these families do build, and what are the values involved in the construction of this ethics? In other words, we mean to observe existing practices in this part of the world and understand their logic through anthropological analysis. Thus, contributions of this issue provide both some answers and open to other ideas to contribute to outline what “entrepreneurship ethics” can be in the region of South-East Asia expanded to Sino-Indian margins.

  8. [The population and economic problems of South Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J

    1983-07-29

    South Asia, which includes Central South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Southwest Asia, had a comparatively higher population growth rate during the 30-year postwar period because of the overall backward economy and strong religious tradition. From the viewpoint of economics, the high population growth in South Asia has slowed down economic growth, increased the foreign trade imblance, and worsened poverty. Secondly, the rapid population growth has overburdened the area's educational system. The illiteracy rate has been going up continuously because of inadequate funds available for education. Thirdly, young labor is lacking in skills, training, and work experience, and related productivity has declined. Consequently, profits, the investment capability, and wages are also declining. The problems of the oversupply of labor, unemployment, and poverty have also become increasingly serious. In addition, the rapid population growth has intensified the pressure on the food supply and worsened the average nutrition of the general public. In recent years, countries in South Asia have been trying to deal with various problems caused by the rapid population growth. Measures have been taken to control the population growth, with a redistribution of the population to places outside cities, and export labor to oil-producing nations of the Middle East and Africa in order to solve the problem of the domestic labor surplus and earn more income for the foreign exchange. Countries in South Asia need more time and effort to achieve a balance between the population growth and economic development.

  9. Exploring the Impact of ClNO2 on the Tropospheric Oxidation Capacity in South East Asia during KORUS-AQ 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, D.; Seco, R.; Gu, D.; Lee, Y.; Knote, C. J.; McGee, T. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Nault, B.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Blake, D. R.; Sanchez, D.; Guenther, A. B.; Tanner, D.; Huey, L. G.; Ahn, J. Y.; Kim, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is a night time radical and NOx reservoir that photolyzes in the morning to release chlorine radicals (Cl·) and NO2. This highly reactive Cl· will react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce organic peroxy radicals (RO2) eventually producing O3 and increasing the HOx (OH+HO2) radical pool. ClNO2 is generated from heterogeneous reactions of chlorine containing aerosols and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5), which is also a night time NOx reservoir. The reactive chlorine can come from both natural (e.g., ocean, biomass burning) and anthropogenic (e.g., steel making, coal combustion, pulp industries etc.) sources. Previous model studies show that the photolysis of ClNO2 can increase O3 and HOx by 20 %. However, ClNO2 observations have been very limited especially in East Asia with only a few field measurements conducted. In this study, we present the ClNO2 observation results from the KORUS-AQ 2016 field campaign conducted in May-June in South Korea. ClNO2 was measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) on the DC-8 and in two ground sites. Olympic park and Taehwa research forest represents a heavily populated urban area and a forest nearby respectively. Both ground sites are 50 km from the ocean, the largest source of chlorine. A comprehensive set of trace gas, aerosol, and meteorology parameters have also been carried out during the observation period. We explore the influence of ClNO2 on tropospheric oxidation chemistry mainly focusing on 3 main points: 1) What are the factors controlling the production of ClNO2 (night time v.s. morning)? 2) What are the relative importance of the possible sources of reactive chlorine (oceanic v.s. anthropogenic)? 3) What are the implications of ClNO2 on the local radical chemistry based on box model simulations (F0AM v3.1) embedded with heterogeneous and a comprehensive Cl· + VOC chemistry?

  10. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  11. The genus Cuscuta L. in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Aistova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of published data, herbarium collections  and  our  own  research  the  overview  of  the spread  of  7  dodder  species  (genus  Cuscuta  on  the territory of  of the Russian Far East and East Asia is given. The  history  of  research  dodders  on  the  territory  of  the Russian Far East, ecological and spreading peculiarities are described. Certain eurytopic species (C. campestris Yunck., C. japonica Choisy and C. europaea L. growing on the territory of the Russian Far East have plasticity and  rapid  adaptive  response  for  changing  ecological and  geographical  conditions.  C.  epilinum  Weihe, C. epithymum (L. Nathh., C. tinei Insenga have not been naturalized in the Russian Far East.

  12. Forecasting of Currency Crises in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Young Song

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a forecasting system for currency crisis in East Asia based on a signaling approach. Our system uses 15 monthly indicators of five East Asian countries including Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand that were severely hit by the currency crisis in 1997. We investigate the performance of the system through deploying out-of-sample forecasting for the periods both before and after the 1997 East Asian currency crisis. Unlike the existing research based on the signaling approach, our out-of-sample forecasting does not fix the in-sample period. The out-of-sample forecasting between July 1995 and June 1997 shows that prior to breakout of the crisis, several indicators including real exchange rates and exports sent frequent warnings to all crisis-hit East Asian countries except the Philippines. This may indicate that a signaling-based early warning system for currency crisis could have been an useful method of forecasting the East Asian crisis. On the other hand, we also find that our forecasting system often generates warning signals during the out-of-sample period between July 1999 and June 2001. Since we have not observed any currency crisis in this region after 1998, these are all false alarms, indicating that our system may be seriously exposed to the type II error. We can, however, mitigate this problem if we adjust the optimal critical values of indicators depending on the preferences of forecasting system manager.

  13. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  15. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture. In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  16. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  17. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region.

  18. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  19. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  20. United States interests in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Gulf of Malacca in the 10 Bhupinder Singh , ―The Indian Ocean and regional Security‖ (Punjab: B.C...Qaida in Afghanistan. Swati Parashar of the South Asian Analysis Group says that, US led anti terrorist operations cannot exclude South Asia...23 Swati Parashar, ―The U.S and South Asia: From Tactical Security Relationship Towards a Strategic Partnership,‖ 2006, http

  1. On the fog variability over south Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, F.S. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Koernich, H.; Tjernstroem, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, The Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of ''cross-over temperature'' combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards. (orig.)

  2. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  3. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  4. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm A. Moore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  5. Far East Asia | Page 189 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  6. Far East Asia | Page 107 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  7. Variations of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.

  8. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monetary Cooperation in East Asia: Major Issues and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai-Won Ryou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian currency crisis in 1997 and the launch of the euro in 1999 made the possibility and desirability of introducing a regional currency union in East Asia a point of debate. At present, the empirical findings and policy implications of previous studies are mixed. We are still in need of theoretical and empirical studies that capture the salient features of East Asia, and give us reliable recommendations for incentive structures, configurations and policy instruments in monetary cooperation in its various stages. This paper aims to review major conceptual and empirical issues relevant to monetary cooperation in East Asia, including proposals for a regional cooperative framework for exchange rate stability or forming a currency union in the region. East Asian countries have no experience with any type of monetary cooperation and all we have are hypothetical predictions. Nevertheless, East Asian countries may be on the brink of an historical evolution to economic and monetary integration, as Europe was half a century ago. The progressive integration of markets in East Asia has conferred a commonality of economic interest upon the countries in the region. As the economic structures of East Asian countries converge with one another through closer ties of trade, investment and finance, the necessity for monetary cooperation will be more likely to emerge in the future. Monetary cooperation in East Asia will be a long process. East Asian countries should make efforts to build collective institutions in the beginning.

  10. Impact of macro-level socio-economic factors on rising suicide rates in South Korea: panel-data analysis in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in suicide rates in South Korea, particularly in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, compares with the declining suicide rates observed in most other OECD countries over the same period. This study aimed to examine an array of macro-level societal factors that might have contributed to the rising suicide trend in South Korea. We first investigated whether this trend was unique to South Korea, or ubiquitous across five Asian countries/areas that are geographically and culturally similar (South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), using WHO mortality data and national statistics (1980-2009). Age-standardised suicide rates (per 100,000 population) were calculated for each gender and age group (15-24, 25-44, 45-64, and 65+) for each country. Both panel data and country-specific time-series analyses were employed to investigate the impact of economic change and social integration/regulation on suicide. Despite similarities in geography and culture, the rising trend of suicide rates was unique to South Korea. This atypical trend was most apparent for people aged 65 and over, which was in sharp contrast to the decreasing suicide trends observed in the other four Asian countries. The results of the panel data analyses generally pointed to a negative relationship between economic growth and suicide rates, particularly for working-aged people. The results of the time-series analyses further suggested that low levels of social integration, as indicated by rising divorce rates, may also have a role in rising suicide rates in South Korea, particularly for older people. Furthermore, the association between suicide rates and economic adversity (unemployment and economic downturn) was most salient among middle-aged men in South Korea. Compared to four other East Asian countries/areas (Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), South Korea has uniquely experienced a rising trend of suicide rates over the past three decades

  11. CNA Maritime Asia Project. Workshop One: The Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    in 2011.8 In October, South Korean Coast Guard forces used tear gas and rubber bullets to subdue Chinese fishermen wielding clubs and shovels.9 An...tation Disputes in the East China Sea,” NBR Special Report No.35 (December 2011): 135 and 141. 39 CNA Maritime Asia Project Workshop One: The Yellow

  12. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  13. Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ... the low donor awareness of societal needs and the lack of donor education and skills development. ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... Supporting sustainable economic growth in ASEAN.

  14. Far East Asia | Page 69 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Startup : Philippine Community eCentres Network. Language English. Read more about Mise sur pied d'un réseau philippin de télécentres communautaires. Language French. Read more about Transnational Migration of Vietnamese Women in Asia. Language English.

  15. Far East Asia | Page 110 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about L'initiative Samdrup Jongkhar, un modèle de développement intégré écologiquement responsable. Language French. Read more about Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Language English. Read more about Soutien aux processus ...

  16. Far East Asia | Page 105 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Renforcement des capacités de recherche et de l'élaboration de politiques fondées sur des données probantes en Afghanistan et en Asie centrale. Language French. Read more about Microwork and Virtual Production Networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.

  17. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  18. Far East Asia | Page 67 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Environmental Degradation, Social Marginalization and the Dynamics of Vulnerability in the Earthquake of October 2005 (Pakistan). Language English. Read more about Promoting Trade in Services in the Middle East and North Africa : Pilot Project. Language English.

  19. Far East Asia | Page 185 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Multinationals and East Asian Integration, leading Asian economists examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. With examples from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, ...

  20. Far East Asia | Page 184 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Multinationals and East Asian Integration, leading Asian economists examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia. With examples from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, ...

  1. Prevalence, risk factors and secondary prevention of stroke recurrence in eight countries from south, east and southeast asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Y Y; Sakinah, H; Aryati, A; Hassan, B M

    2018-04-01

    In most Asian countries, stroke is one of the major causes of mortality. A stroke event is life-changing for stroke survivors, which results in either mortality or disability. Therefore, this study comprehensively focuses on prevalence, risk factors, and secondary prevention for stroke recurrence identified in South, East, and Southeast Asian countries. This scoping review uses the methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley. A comprehensive search of academic journals (English) on this topic published from 2007 to 2017 was conducted. A total of 22 studies were selected from 585 studies screened from the electronic databases. First-year stroke recurrence rates are in the range of 2.2% to 25.4%. Besides that, modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with pathophysiological factors (hypertension, ankle-brachial pressure index, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and atrial fibrillation) and lifestyle factors (obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and high salt intake). Furthermore, age, previous history of cerebrovascular events, and stroke subtype are also significant influence risk factors for recurrence. A strategic secondary prevention method for recurrent stroke is health education along with managing risk factors through a combination of appropriate lifestyle intervention and pharmacological therapy. To prevent recurrent stroke, health intervention should be geared towards changing lifestyle to embody a healthier approach to life. This is of great importance to public health and stroke survivors' quality of life.

  2. Insight into Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Toll-Like Receptor/Interferon Signalling Pathways for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Chia Chai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in genes involved in toll-like receptor/interferon signalling pathways have been reported previously to be associated with SLE in many populations. This study aimed to investigate the role of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms within TNFAIP3, STAT4, and IRF5, which are involved in upstream and downstream pathways of type I interferon production, in SLE in the South East Asian populations. Genotyping of 360 Malaysian SLE patients and 430 normal healthy individuals revealed that minor alleles of STAT4 rs7574865 and rs10168266 were associated with elevated risk of SLE in the Chinese and Malay patients, respectively (P=0.028, odds ratio (OR=1.42; P=0.035, OR=1.80, respectively. Polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 and IRF5 did not show significant associations with SLE in any of the ethnicities. Combined analysis of the Malays, Chinese, and Indians for each SNP indicated that STAT4 rs10168266 was significantly associated with the Malaysian SLE as a whole (P=0.014; OR=1.435. The meta-analysis of STAT4 rs10168266, which combined the data of other studies and this study, further confirmed its importance as the risk factor for SLE by having pooled OR of 1.559 and P value of <0.001.

  3. Insight into Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Toll-Like Receptor/Interferon Signalling Pathways for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kek Heng; Lim, Soo Kun; Phipps, Maude Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in toll-like receptor/interferon signalling pathways have been reported previously to be associated with SLE in many populations. This study aimed to investigate the role of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms within TNFAIP3, STAT4, and IRF5, which are involved in upstream and downstream pathways of type I interferon production, in SLE in the South East Asian populations. Genotyping of 360 Malaysian SLE patients and 430 normal healthy individuals revealed that minor alleles of STAT4 rs7574865 and rs10168266 were associated with elevated risk of SLE in the Chinese and Malay patients, respectively (P = 0.028, odds ratio (OR) = 1.42; P = 0.035, OR = 1.80, respectively). Polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 and IRF5 did not show significant associations with SLE in any of the ethnicities. Combined analysis of the Malays, Chinese, and Indians for each SNP indicated that STAT4 rs10168266 was significantly associated with the Malaysian SLE as a whole (P = 0.014; OR = 1.435). The meta-analysis of STAT4 rs10168266, which combined the data of other studies and this study, further confirmed its importance as the risk factor for SLE by having pooled OR of 1.559 and P value of <0.001. PMID:24741605

  4. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  5. Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia: Community of ... evidence-based policy development, decision-making, and practice in South Asia. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  6. Selection of vaccine strains for serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses (2007-2012) circulating in Southeast Asia, East Asia and Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Aviso, Sharie; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya

    2017-12-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Southeast Asia (SEA) and East Asia with circulation of multiple serotypes and multiple genotypes within each serotype of the virus. Although countries like Japan and South Korea in the Far East were free of FMD, in 2010 FMD serotype O (O/Mya-98) outbreaks were recorded and since then South Korea has experienced several FMD outbreaks despite regular vaccination. In this study a total of 85 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 2007 to 2012 from SEA, East Asia and Far East were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using antisera to four existing (O/HKN/6/83, O/IND/R2/75, O/SKR/2010 and O/PanAsia-2) and one putative (O/MYA/2009) vaccine strains, and by full capsid sequencing. Serological studies revealed broad cross-reactivity with the vaccine strains; O/PanAsia-2 exhibited a good match with 95.3%, O/HKN/6/83 with 91.8%, O/IND/R2/75 with 80%, and the putative strain O/MYA/2009 with 89.4% isolates employed in this study. Similarly O/PanAsia-2 and O/IND/R2/75 vaccines showed a good match with all eight viruses belonging to O-Ind-2001d sublineage whereas the vaccines of O/Mya-98 lineage, O/MYA/2009 and O/SKR/2010 exhibited the lowest match indicating their unsuitability to protect infections from O-Ind-2001d viruses. A Bayesian analysis of the capsid sequence data indicated these circulating viruses (n = 85) to be of either SEA or Middle East-South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Lao PDR, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand reflecting the trade links with the Indian subcontinent, and also within the SEA countries. Implications of these results in the context of FMD control in SEA and East Asian countries are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Intercountry prevalences and practices of betel-quid use in south, southeast and eastern Asia regions and associated oral preneoplastic disorders: an international collaborative study by Asian betel-quid consortium of south and east Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Yin, Bang-Liang; Sunarjo; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Ibrahim, Salah Osman; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Li, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Kuntoro; Utomo, Budi; Rajapakse, Palandage Sunethra; Warusavithana, Supun Amila; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Abdullah, Norlida; Shrestha, Prashanta; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Health risks stemming from betel-quid (BQ) chewing are frequently overlooked by people. Updated epidemiological data on the increased BQ use among Asian populations using comparable data collection methods have not been widely available. To investigate the prevalence, patterns of practice and associated types of oral preneoplastic disorders, an intercountry Asian Betel-quid Consortium study (the ABC study) was conducted for Taiwan, Mainland China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nepal and Sri Lanka. A random sample of 8,922 subjects was recruited, and the data were analyzed using survey-data modules adjusted for the complex survey design. Chewing rates among men (10.7-43.6%) were significantly higher than women (1.8-34.9%) in Taiwan, Mainland China, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while women's rates (29.5-46.8%) were higher than that for men (9.8-12.0%) in Malaysia and Indonesia. An emerging, higher proportion of new-users were identified for Hunan in Mainland China (11.1-24.7%), where Hunan chewers have the unique practice of using the dried husk of areca fruit rather than the solid nut universally used by others. Men in the Eastern and South Asian study communities were deemed likely to combine chewing with smoking and drinking (5.6-13.6%). Indonesian women who chewed BQ exhibited the highest prevalence of oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral leukoplakia (9.1-17.3%). Lower schooling, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were identified as being associated with BQ chewing. In conclusion, the ABC study reveals the significant cultural and demographic differences contributing to practice patterns of BQ usage and the great health risks that such practices pose in the Asian region. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  8. Far East Asia | Page 108 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts with researchers and other actors, local communities address and learn from ...

  9. The local impact of globalization in South and Southeast Asia: offshore business processes in services industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambregts, B.; Beerepoot, N.; Kloosterman, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, several millions of IT-enabled services jobs have been relocated or ‘offshored’ from the US and Europe to, in particular, low cost economies around the world. Most of these jobs so far have landed in South and South-East Asia, with India and the Philippines receiving the

  10. Media, Mobilities and Identity in East and Southeast Asia: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Edwards

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This collection for Cultural Studies Review aims to address gaps in existing mobilities scholarship from two perspectives. First, while several articles here discuss the physical movement of various groups, the overarching focus is the complex interplay of mobile technologies and information on the one hand, and rapidly evolving formations of culture and identity on the other. Geographically, our focus is outside the ‘global north’, on a region that has perhaps been more dramatically transformed by physical, cultural and informational mobility than any other: East and Southeast Asia. Rather than taking ‘Asia’ as a category of cultural identity, this collection conceptualises the geographic region as a zone of cultural and political plurality, in which a vast array of migrations, imaginings, representations and discourses are constantly bumping up against political and cultural borders, as well as various state-sponsored and state-sanctioned ideas and images, in fascinating and often highly volatile ways. Topic covered in this collection include Hong Kong working holidaymakers in Australia (Louis Ho, literary narratives of overseas adoptees who have returned to South Korea (Ethan Waddell, online debates and conflicts between Chinese migrants and local Chinese-Singaporeans (Sylvia Ang, the politics of representing urban demolition and relocation in independent Chinese documentaries (Dan Edwards, the ‘glocalisation’ of Japanese anime culture in the online space in China (Asako Saito and the representation of migrant worker experience in South Korean cinema (Sina Kim.

  11. South Asia | Page 99 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Asia. Asie du sud. Read more about Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology in South Asia. Language English. Read more about La nanotechnologie en Asie du Sud : renforcement des capacités et encadrement des technologies. Language French. Read more about La ...

  12. Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1993-07-02

    This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

  13. The economic burden of angina on households in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, an estimated 54 million people have angina, 16 million of whom are from the WHO South-East Asia region. Despite the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Asia, there is no evidence of an economic burden of angina on households in this region. We investigated the economic burden of angina on households in South Asia. Methods We applied a novel propensity score matching approach to assess the economic burden of angina on household out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, borrowing or selling assets, non-medical consumption expenditure, and employment status of angina-affected individual using nationally representative World Health Survey data from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka collected during 2002-2003. We used multiple matching methods to match households where the respondent reported symptomatic or diagnosed angina with control households with similar propensity scores. Results Angina-affected households had significantly higher OOP health spending per person in the four weeks preceding the survey than matched controls, in Bangladesh (I$1.94, p = 0.04), in Nepal (I$4.68, p = 0.03) and in Sri Lanka (I$1.99, p angina-affected households relative to matched controls in India (9.60%, p Angina-affected households significantly relied on borrowing or selling assets to finance OOP health expenses in Bangladesh (6%, p = 0.03), India (8.20%, p angina-affected individual remained mostly unaffected. We adjusted our estimates for comorbidities, but limitations on comorbidity data in the WHS mean that our results may be upwardly biased. Conclusions Households that had the respondent reporting angina in South Asia face an economic burden of OOP health expenses (primarily on drugs and other outpatient expenses), and tend to rely on borrowing or selling assets. Our analysis underscores the need to protect South Asian households from the financial burden of CVD. PMID:24548585

  14. The economic burden of angina on households in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-02-19

    Globally, an estimated 54 million people have angina, 16 million of whom are from the WHO South-East Asia region. Despite the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Asia, there is no evidence of an economic burden of angina on households in this region. We investigated the economic burden of angina on households in South Asia. We applied a novel propensity score matching approach to assess the economic burden of angina on household out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, borrowing or selling assets, non-medical consumption expenditure, and employment status of angina-affected individual using nationally representative World Health Survey data from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka collected during 2002-2003. We used multiple matching methods to match households where the respondent reported symptomatic or diagnosed angina with control households with similar propensity scores. Angina-affected households had significantly higher OOP health spending per person in the four weeks preceding the survey than matched controls, in Bangladesh (I$1.94, p = 0.04), in Nepal (I$4.68, p = 0.03) and in Sri Lanka (I$1.99, p finance OOP health expenses in Bangladesh (6%, p = 0.03), India (8.20%, p < 0.01) and Sri Lanka (7.80%, p = 0.01). However, impoverishment, non-medical consumption expenditure and employment status of the angina-affected individual remained mostly unaffected. We adjusted our estimates for comorbidities, but limitations on comorbidity data in the WHS mean that our results may be upwardly biased. Households that had the respondent reporting angina in South Asia face an economic burden of OOP health expenses (primarily on drugs and other outpatient expenses), and tend to rely on borrowing or selling assets. Our analysis underscores the need to protect South Asian households from the financial burden of CVD.

  15. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  16. Emigration dynamics from and within South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N M

    1995-01-01

    This review of current knowledge about emigration dynamics from and within South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) opens with a brief history of the three phases of emigration from the area since the 1830s (plantation labor; postindependence to the UK, US, Canada, and Australia; and labor migration to the oil-exporting countries). The influence of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh is also covered as are British colonial and commonwealth policies. It is noted that migration data are incomplete and that India exhibits an ambivalence about collecting such information. The discussion then turns to emigration since 1970 and considers permanent migration from South Asia to the traditional receivers; South Asian asylum seekers in Europe; South Asian refugees, illegal migrants, migrant workers (flows and destinations), the stock of contract migrant workers (and their characteristics); returnee migrant workers; and skill levels. Analysis is provided of macro level determinants of emigrations such as gross national product (level and growth), the general demographic and social situation, labor force growth and structure, poverty and inequality, and internal and international migration. Environmental factors causing displacement in Southern Asia include floods, cyclones, river bank erosion, drought, and desertification. Global warming could displace millions of people in the region, and development projects have contributed to displacement. The remainder of the report covers political and ethnic factors, micro-factors influencing migration decision-making, the policies of sending and receiving countries, the consequences of emigration, and the potential for migration in the future.

  17. Development of Europe's gas hubs: Implications for East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas trading hubs have been initially developed in the US in 1980s, UK in 1990s, more recently in European in the 2000s and mulled in East Asia now. Due to its freshness and diversification in nationality, governance and culture, the European hub experience can offer valuable lessons for East Asia. This paper seeks to advance understanding of gas hub development in Europe and provide lessons for East Asia. The European experience highlights that market liberalization and transition of gas pricing mechanism are necessary in creating the competitive markets that are needed for functional gas hubs. Political will and regulations further safeguard the competition environment needed for hub development. Natural factors, such as significant domestic production and culture could have a significant impact on the hub development and transition of pricing mechanism. In East Asia, the path to gas trading hubs might be more difficult than in Europe but a growing market creates an opportunity to start new terms with new contracts. Nevertheless, East Asian needs to work hard to development its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs.

  18. Climate Investment Opportunities in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2017-01-01

    South Asia is home to three of the top five countries in terms of vulnerability to climate change globally.It thus urgently needs climate investment to enhance resilience and unlock opportunities for low carbon growth. The region is one of the fastest growing regions in the world; however, estimates suggest that climate impacts could reduce its annual gross domestic product by an average o...

  19. Pension Fund Performance in East Asia: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamri Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and analyzes asset allocation and performance of the major pension funds in four East Asia countries, namely Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea. The respective funds for these countries are Employee Provident Fund (EPF, Central Provident Fund (CPF, Mandatory Pension Fund (MPF and National Pension Service (NPS. The impact of some economic crises on the fund performance will also be assessed. Besides looking at the individual countries, a comparison of the performance among all the funds will also be done. From the analyses, it is found that the CPF is the most conservative pension fund as it invested most of its funds in fixed income and the investments were made in the local markets, while MPF is the most aggressive pension fund as most of its funds were invested in equities. Performance of the funds was measured in terms of return on investment (ROI. All funds recorded the lowest ROI during the subprime crisis in 2008. Besides the subprime crisis, these funds were also affected by the Japanese earthquake as lower ROI were also observed in 2011.

  20. Teaching South Asia beyond Colonial Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Caton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the methodological innovations of Subaltern Studies in the 1980s and 1990s, most historians’ familiarity with South Asian history is limited to the colonial or modern period. While the subalternist view is undoubtedly useful, it does not provide much help in thinking about what came before or after the colonial period. This limited context may prove to be a problem for a non-specialist constructing a full course in South Asian history or adding South Asia content to a course that seeks to break down area studies or nation-state boundaries. This article provides a starting point for such an enterprise. It reviews the South Asian history textbooks available in the market and identifies some of the scholarship that would suit courses or units organized by theme or by a larger Asian geography. It also reviews some of the collections of primary sources that could be used in such coursework.

  1. Oil Shocks and Stock Prices of Airlines - An East Asia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pau Boon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to study and analyse the impact of oil price shock on the share prices of airline companies in East Asia, in particular international air carriers from Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia by looking at how the companies‘ share prices respond to the news of oil shocks. The companies involved in this study were Japan Airlines ("JAL"), All Nippon Airways ("ANA"), Cathay Pacific Airways ("Cathay"), Korean Air ("KAL"), Malaysian Airlines ("MAS") an...

  2. Nuclearisation in South Asia: reactions and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, B.M.; Hexamer, Eva-Maria

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses the core issues, problems and challenges that confront the Nuclear South Asia. It is a patent fact that both India and Pakistan are now nuclear weapon states. Critical to this fact is the question of threat perceptions, the peculiar national psyche in India and Pakistan, domestic settings in both countries and unresolved bilateral disputes including Kashmir. It is at this crucial juncture, a galaxy of scholars and specialists in this book dispassionately examine alternative security paradigms essential for the de-escalation of nuclear threat not only to the peace, security and stability of the South Asia region but also to other volatile regions including the international peace, in general. Departing from the traditional understanding of and approaches to the nuclear question in South Asia, the book focuses on threat perceptions, sociopsychological problems, and political and cultural factors which go a long way in determining the nuclear behaviour of India and Pakistan. The contributors have also examined in depth the reactions and responses of great powers-US, Russia, China and Japan-to the recent nuclear tests of India and Pakistan. Some of them have also taken into account the fallout of these tests in economic, strategic, security, military, political and cultural terms. This book should prove immensely useful as a reliable guide to top policy-makers, nuclear decision-makers, strategic analysts as well as for academics and scholars engaged in nuclear, defence and strategic studies

  3. Trade in Services and Investment Flows in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Chadha; Geethanjali Nataraj

    2008-01-01

    Despite being a group of contiguous countries South Asia is one of the least integrated regions in terms of intra-regional investment and trade relations. The share of services in GDP of South Asian countries has increased substantially with South Asia exhibiting a high revealed comparative advantage in commercial services and more particularly in other services including computer and information technology enabled services. Analysis of the FDI inflows in South Asia reveals that the number of...

  4. State and change of Dryland East Asia (DEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiquan Chen; Ranjeet John; Guanghua Qiao; Ochirbat Batkhishig; Wenping Yuan; Yaoqi Zhang; Changliang Shao; Zutao Ouyang; Linghao Li; Ke Guo; Ge Sun

    2013-01-01

    Dry land East Asia (DEA) refers to a region with 4.81 million square kilometers (km²) and includes Mongolia and four provinces/regions in Northern China (hereafter called "administrative units" ): Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. This introduction chapter provides an overview of the DEA region from three perspectives: 1) geography,...

  5. Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Ahsan, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the economic and social impact of international migration on labor sending and labor receiving countries in the East Asia region. More specifically, the book seeks: (a) to examine the impact of international migration on key development indicators, including poverty, investment, labor force participation, labor productivity and wages; (b) to evaluate ...

  6. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  7. Far East Asia | Page 96 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Toward an Innovation-led Development Path in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Vers un développement axé sur l'innovation aux Philippines. Language French. Read more about Evaluating a Real-Time Bio Surveillance Program : Pilot Project.

  8. Far East Asia | Page 114 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Femmes et gouvernance locale - exploration de nouvelles possibilités. Language French. Read more about Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la ...

  9. Far East Asia | Page 43 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Diet-related Policy Options in Pakistan to Promote the Intake of Healthy Foods. Language English. Read more about La dévalorisation des filles au ...

  10. Far East Asia | Page 72 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Institutionnalisation et élargissement de la protection sociale en Asie. Language French. Read more about TIC et microentreprises en milieu urbain : optimisation des possibilités de développement économique. Language French. Read more about ICTs and Urban Micro ...

  11. Far East Asia | Page 184 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avec un revenu annuel d'environ 200 dollars US par habitant, la République ... examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  12. Far East Asia | Page 68 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Connaissances, attitudes et perceptions de la population à l'égard des OGM en Inde. Language French. Read more about Pauvreté, qualité des emplois et dynamique des marchés du travail au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord. Language French. Read more about ...

  13. Far East Asia | Page 103 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Élaboration d'une politique environnementale reposant sur des données scientifiques dans le cadre de la transition démocratique en Birmanie. Language French. Read more about Établissement du programme de recherche 2012-2014 du réseau d'analyse du ...

  14. Far East Asia | Page 70 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Strengthening Mission 2007 through Demonstration of Social Enterprise Models, Products and Services. Language English. Read more about Consolidation de Mission 2007 par l'essai de modèles, de produits et de services d'entreprises sociales. Language French.

  15. Far East Asia | Page 76 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Renforcement d'un cadre favorable à l'entrepreneuriat en Cisjordanie et à Gaza. Language French. Read more about Enhancing the Framework for Entrepreneurship in the West Bank and Gaza. Language English. Read more about Mekong Economic Research Network ...

  16. Far East Asia | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Détermination des orientations futures de l'Alliance mondiale pour le savoir (GKP). Language French. Read more about Diffusion et passage à grande échelle des extrants liés aux ressources naturelles en Asie. Language French. Read more about Scaling out Natural ...

  17. Far East Asia | Page 82 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Tabagisme, tabagisme passif, maladies chroniques et pauvreté en Chine. Language French. Read more about Active and Passive Smoking, Chronic Disease and Poverty in China. Language English. Read more about Programme du Centre international pour la justice ...

  18. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven't been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in East Asia since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output.

  19. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia, LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    1941 - 1991 JPRS Repor East Asia Southeast Asia LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure mom m £C QUALITY »ra^r...prostitution, will be impris- oned for three to five years. Article 124. Incest . Anyone who has sexual intercourse with parents, step- parents...This consists of facts which indicate whether there have been actions dangerous to society, the guilt of the per- sons who undertook the

  20. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω(CMAQ, MEGAN) and Ω(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Housing East Asia: socioeconomic and demographic challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doling, J.; Ronald, R.

    2014-01-01

    Housing and home ownership has been strongly embedded in East Asian socioeconomic and policy models. Based on the primacy of national economic growth objectives, it was promoted as a means of, on the one hand, contributing directly to economic growth through the motor of the construction industry,

  2. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H. [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, C.H., E-mail: chsong@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω{sub HCHO}) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MEGAN} and Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MOHYCAN}), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω{sub SCIA}). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO{sub 2}) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO{sub y} species. For example, the HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO{sub x} radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO{sub y} chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia.

  3. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S.; Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H.; Kim, J.; Song, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω HCHO ) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω CMAQ, MEGAN and Ω CMAQ, MOHYCAN ), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω SCIA ). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO 2 ) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO y species. For example, the HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO x radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO y chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia. • Using MEGAN or MOHYCAN emissions in CMAQ well captured

  4. South Asia energy security: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Singh, Bhupendra

    2013-01-01

    South Asia has witnessed a growing imbalance between energy demand and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence. Energy endowments differ among the South Asian countries. However, access to the significant energy resources in the neighboring countries is denied, which increases the cost of energy supply and reduces energy security of the individual countries and of the region as a whole. The countries in the region could benefit significantly only by strengthening the mechanism of energy trade through improved connectivity. Therefore, greater cooperation within South Asia could be one of the most effective ways to deal with this Regional Energy deficit and ensure Energy Security of the Region. - Highlights: • No South Asian country is going to be able to meet its energy needs domestically. • Fostering cross border energy trade and promotion of investments opportunities are key solutions. • India’s neighbors have huge potential in hydroelectricity. • Co-operation among nations to tap the energy resource can be a win–win situation for all. • However it faces certain challenges

  5. COPD in Asia: where East meets West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan C; Ng, Tze P

    2008-02-01

    COPD is a global health concern, and is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, it is currently the sixth leading cause of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality of the disease is predicted for the coming decades. These increases are mainly linked to the epidemic of tobacco exposure and indoor and outdoor air pollution in Asian countries. The burden of COPD in Asia is currently greater than that in developed Western countries, both in terms of the total number of deaths and the burden of disease, as measured in years of life lost and years spent living with disability. The types of health-care policies and the practice of medicine vary considerably among the regions of Asia and have an impact on the burden of disease. Treatment aims in Asian countries are based on evidence-based management guidelines. Barriers to the implementation of disease management guidelines are related to issues of resource conflict and lack of organizational support rather than cultural differences in medical practice. To reduce this burden of COPD in Asian countries, there is a need for a multifaceted approach in improving awareness of prevalence and disease burden, in facilitating accurate diagnosis of COPD among chronic respiratory diseases, in championing health policies that reduce the burden of the main risk factors for COPD and in the wider use of evidence-based management for COPD.

  6. Seasonal, interannual, and long-term variabilities in biomass burning activity over South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, P; Naja, M; Kumar, R; Chandola, H C

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal, interannual, and long-term variations in biomass burning activity and related emissions are not well studied over South Asia. In this regard, active fire location retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from MODIS Terra, and tropospheric column NO2 from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are used to understand the effects of biomass burning on the tropospheric pollution loadings over South Asia during 2003-2013. Biomass burning emission estimates from Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) and Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are also used to quantify uncertainties and regional discrepancies in the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and black carbon (BC) due to biomass burning in South Asia. In the Asian continent, the frequency of fire activity is highest over Southeast Asia, followed by South Asia and East Asia. The biomass burning activity in South Asia shows a distinct seasonal cycle that peaks during February-May with some differences among four (north, central, northeast, and south) regions in India. The annual biomass burning activity in north, central, and south regions shows an increasing tendency, particularly after 2008, while a decrease is seen in northeast region during 2003-2013. The increase in fire counts over the north and central regions contributes 24 % of the net enhancement in fire counts over South Asia. MODIS AOD and OMI tropospheric column NO2 retrievals are classified into high and low fire activity periods and show that biomass burning leads to significant enhancement in tropospheric pollution loading over both the cropland and forest regions. The enhancement is much higher (110-176 %) over the forest region compared to the cropland (34-62 %) region. Further efforts are required to understand the implications of biomass burning on the regional air quality and climate of South Asia.

  7. E-Waste Recycling Systems and Sound Circulative Economies in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Systems in Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-cheol Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to review and compare E-waste management systems operating in East Asian countries in efforts to identify future challenges facing the circulative economies in the region. The first topic of this paper is cost sharing (physical and financial as applied to the various stakeholders, including producers, consumers, local governments and recyclers, in the E-waste management systems. The second topic is the environmental and economical impacts of these E-waste management systems on recycling technology, trans-boundary movement of E-wastes and Design for Environment (DfE. The final topic is the possibility for international cooperation in the region in terms of E-waste management systems. The authors’ preliminary result is that the E-waste management systems operating in these East Asian countries have contributed to extended producer responsibility and DfE to some extent, but many challenges remain in their improvement through proper cost sharing among the stakeholders. It is also clear that the cross-border transfer of E-wastes cannot be resolved by one nation alone, and thus international cooperation will be indispensable in finding a suitable solution.

  8. The Impact of Outsourcing on the Japanese and South Korean Labor Markets: International Outsourcing of Intermediate Inputs and Assembly in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Sanghoon; Fukao, Kyoji; Ito, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    Applying a common empirical approach to comparable industry-level data on production, trade, and labor markets for Japan and South Korea, this paper aims to investigate the impacts of outsourcing on different sectors of the labor market focusing on differences in educational attainment. While outsourcing measures used in previous studies only take account of the outsourcing of intermediate inputs, this paper, utilizing the Asian International Input-Output Tables, incorporates the outsourcing ...

  9. Gas export potential of Russia's East: Will it match Asia-Pacific markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.; Starostina, E.

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Far East and East Siberia are emerging as new major sources of gas supplies for East Asian energy markets. Thanks to ongoing and earmarked resource and infrastructure developments in Sakhalin, Yakutia (Sakha) and Irkutsk, by around 2020 these poorly developed but naturally endowed areas of the country's East can provide between 50 and 70 Bcm/yr (5-7 Bcfd) of natural gas, including up to 10 Mt/yr of LNG, available for exports to neighbouring Pacific countries (primarily to the PRC, Japan, South Korea as well as to Taiwan and the U.S. West Coast). This can noticeably reshape today's matrix of the Asia-Pacific energy flows and even destabilize the regional gas market. (author)

  10. Getting real with the upcoming challenge of electronic nicotine delivery systems: The way forward for the South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta

    2017-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are being marketed to tobacco smokers for use in places where smoking is not allowed or as aids similar to pharmaceutical nicotine products to help cigarette smokers quit tobacco use. These are often flavored to make them more attractive for youth - ENDS use may lead young nonsmokers to take up tobacco products. Neither safety nor efficacy as a cessation aid of ENDS has been scientifically demonstrated. The adverse health effects of secondhand aerosol cannot be ruled out. Weak regulation of these products might contribute to the expansion of the ENDS market - in which tobacco companies have a substantial stake - potentially renormalizing smoking habits and negating years of intense tobacco control campaigning. The current situation calls for galvanizing policy makers to gear up to this challenge in the Southeast Asia Region (SEAR) where the high burden of tobacco use is compounded by large proportion of young vulnerable population and limited established tobacco cessation facilities. Banning ENDS in the SEAR seems to be the most plausible approach at present. In the SEAR, Timor-Leste, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and Thailand have taken the lead in banning these products. The other countries of the SEAR should follow suit. The SEAR countries may, however, choose to revise their strategy if unbiased scientific evidence emerges about efficacy of ENDS as a tobacco cessation aid. ENDS industry must show true motivation and willingness to develop and test ENDS as effective pharmaceutical tools in the regional context before asking for market authorization.

  11. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  12. Far East Asia | Page 185 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The "Using Diversity" workshop explored the common ground between the two approaches. It brought together scientists, farmers and NGO workers from across South Asia who share the conviction that genetic diversity, on-farm, is key to rural people's food security and that farmers must be involved in its maintenance and ...

  13. Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

  14. Far East Asia | Page 85 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Language French. Read more about Occasions et difficultés associées aux activités commerciales dans les zones économiques spéciales en Birmanie. Language French. Read more about ...

  15. Far East Asia | Page 73 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Réforme judiciaire, la décolonisation et l'édification de l'État palestinien. Language French. Read more about Gestion de la biosécurité des cultures génétiquement modifiées (Chine). Language French. Read more about Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops ...

  16. The Impossible Trinity and Capital Flows in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Grenville

    2011-01-01

    The Impossible Trinity doctrine still holds a powerful sway over policymakers, advisors (particularly the International Monetary Fund [IMF]) and academia. In East Asia over the past decade, however, most countries have been able to maintain open capital markets, monetary policy independence, and a fair degree of management over their exchange rates. This is because the Impossible Trinity model does not fit the actual circumstances very closely. Capital flows are dominated by factors other ...

  17. The case for regional exchange rate arrangement in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Kinkyo

    2004-01-01

    The Asian crisis highlighted the difficulties for developing countries to actively manage exchange rates in an environment of high capital mobility. Now it became fashionable to argue that the exchange rate should be either allowed to float freely or irrevocably fixed. This paper examines the case for regional exchange rate arrangements as an instrument to enhance the manageability of exchange rates and discusses the options in East Asia. It critically assess the existing proposal of common b...

  18. The Institutional Basis of East Asia's Economic Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Lingle, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Restructuring and modernization of basic political institutions is the crucial key for longterm recovery of East Asia's crisis economies. These steps are necessary to restore confidence and allow for their economies to stabilize as the first step towards recovery. Then they must recapture or reengineer their respective competitive positions in the global economy. Long-term competitiveness will require gains in overall productivity embodied in advanced technical systems and greater in...

  19. Taking CERN physics to South Asia

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2015-01-01

    CERN physicists travelled to South Asia last month to bring a plethora of particle physics events to schools, universities and public venues. The initiative was the first of its kind in the region, and brought CERN particle physics to a new audience in Nepal and India.   Kathmandu University students take part in an ATLAS virtual visit. On 19 December 2014, students from Kathmandu University and Tribhuvan University, Nepal and 16 schools in Punjab, India took part in a joint virtual visit to ATLAS. The visit, which was the first of its kind in South Asia, followed a two-day Masterclass in particle physics that took place simultaneously in the two countries. The Masterclass was organised as a part of Physics Without Frontiers, an International Centre for Theoretical Physics project in partnership with CERN. Besides the Masterclass, physics workshops led by ATLAS physicists Kate Shaw, Joerg Stelzer and Suyog Shrestha were held for high school students and science teachers in three different d...

  20. Spectral Discrimination of Fine and Coarse Mode Aerosol Optical Depth from AERONET Direct Sun Data of Singapore and South-East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Cortijo, S.; Chew, B.; Liew, S.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol optical depth combined with the Angstrom exponent and its derivative, are often used as a qualitative indicator of aerosol particle size, with Angstrom exp. values greater than 2 indicating small (fine mode) particles associated with urban pollution and bio-mass burning. Around this region, forest fires are a regular occurrence during the dry season, specially near the large land masses of Sumatra and Borneo. The practice of clearing land by burning the primary and sometimes secondary forest, results in a smog-like haze covering large areas of regional cities such as cities Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and sometimes the south of Thailand, often reducing visibility and increasing health problems for the local population. In Singapore, the sources of aerosols are mostly from fossil fuel burning (energy stations, incinerators, urban transport etc.) and from the industrial and urban areas. The proximity to the sea adds a possible oceanic source. However, as stated above and depending on the time of the year, there can be a strong bio-mass component coming from forest fires from various regions of the neighboring countries. Bio-mass related aerosol particles are typically characterized by showing a large optical depth and small, sub-micron particle size distributions. In this work, we analyze three years of direct Sun measurements performed with a multi-channel Cimel Sun-Photometer (part of the AERONET network) located at our site. In order to identify bio-mass burning events in this region, we perform a spectral discrimination between coarse and fine mode optical depth; subsequently, the fine mode parameters such as optical depth, optical ratio and fine mode Angstrom exponents (and its derivative) are used to identify possible bio-mass related events within the data set.

  1. South Asia | Page 115 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009–2010. Language French. Drawing on research and practical experiences from China, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, this book presents and analyzes novel approaches to collaborative learning and communities of practice. Case studies show how, through joint efforts ...

  2. Multicentre studies of insecticide-treated durable wall lining in Africa and South-East Asia: entomological efficacy and household acceptability during one year of field use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messenger Louisa A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS is a primary method of malaria vector control, but its potential impact is constrained by several inherent limitations: spraying must be repeated when insecticide residues decay, householders can tire of the annual imposition and campaign costs are recurrent. Durable lining (DL can be considered an advanced form of long-lasting IRS where insecticide is gradually released from an aesthetically attractive wall lining material to provide vector control for several years. A multicentre trial was carried out in Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Mali, South Africa and Vietnam to assess the feasibility, durability, bioefficacy and household acceptability of DL, compared to conventional IRS or insecticide-treated curtains (LLITCs, in a variety of operational settings. Methods This study was conducted in 220 households in traditional rural villages over 12-15 months. In all sites, rolls of DL were cut to fit house dimensions and fixed to interior wall surfaces (usually with nails and caps by trained teams. Acceptability was assessed using a standardized questionnaire covering such topics as installation, exposure reactions, entomology, indoor environment, aesthetics and durability. Bioefficacy of interventions was evaluated using WHO cone bioassay tests at regular intervals throughout the year. Results The deltamethrin DL demonstrated little to no decline in bioefficacy over 12-15 months, supported by minimal loss of insecticide content. By contrast, IRS displayed a significant decrease in bioactivity by 6 months and full loss after 12 months. The majority of participants in DL households perceived reductions in mosquito density (93% and biting (82%, but no changes in indoor temperature (83%. Among those households that wanted to retain the DL, 73% cited protective reasons, 20% expressed a desire to keep theirs for decoration and 7% valued both qualities equally. In Equatorial Guinea, when offered a choice of

  3. North-East Asia: a risk of nuclear proliferation; Un risque de proliferation nucleaire en Asie du Nord-Est?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courmont, B. [Centre d' Etudes Transatlantiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-04-15

    North-East Asia is distinguished by being potentially one of the world's most nuclearised regions. It includes two nuclear powers recognised by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (Russia and China), a proliferating state (North Korea) and three countries that could very quickly complete nuclear programmes (Japan, South Korea and Taiwan). Now that the question of nuclear proliferation has again surfaced on the international strategic scene, and that North Korea's test of October 2006 has introduced a new security paradigm into the region, how real is the risk of nuclear proliferation in North-East Asia? (author)

  4. Are Fluctuations in Energy Consumption Transitory or Permanent? Evidence From a Panel of East Asia & Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the unit root properties of energy consumption per capita for 15 East Asia & Pacific countries employing the Lagrange Multiplier (LM panel unit root test with one structural break for 1971-2007. When we apply the LM univariate test without break, we find a unit root in per capita consumption for Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Myanmar. However, when we apply LM unit root with structural break, we find overwhelming evidence that there is no unit root in per capita energy consumption for these 15 East Asia & Pacific countries.

  5. Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia : Building a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia : Building a Community of Experts. This grant will allow the Association for ... to other evaluation practitioners in the region. It is expected that the project will help strengthen evaluation in South Asia, leading to more effective and efficient development interventions.

  6. South Asia | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology in South Asia. Language English. Read more about La nanotechnologie en Asie du Sud : renforcement des capacités et encadrement des technologies. Language French. Read more about Gestion des forêts et des ...

  7. How Nuclear South Asia is Like Cold War Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom states that the stability-instability paradox does not explain the effect of nuclear proliferation on the conflict propensity of South Asia and that nuclear weapons have had a different and more dangerous impact in South Asia than Cold War Europe. I argue that the paradox...... Europe and South Asia. Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf may have adopted more moderate foreign policy towards India after experiencing fear of imminent nuclear war during the ten month mobilised crisis in 2002 as Nikita Khrushchev did forty years earlier. I argue that the stability-instability...... explains nuclear South Asia, that the similarities between nuclear South Asia and Cold War Europe are strong, and that conventional instability does not cause revisionist challenges in the long run. I develop and probe a psychological causal mechanism that explains the impact of nuclear weapons on Cold War...

  8. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-25

    series of name-brand goods, chicken, milk, yogurt , and other things. These items not only must be produced, but distributed and sold as well. Right...villages, was in ferment . This reminds us of the death of Raja Abu ’Ammashah on the roof of the British embassy in Jerusalem. The Palestinian...who took the easy way out caused the crisis. 84 We decided to take a stand on the side of the ferment within Fatah, on the side of the Palestinian

  9. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-18

    Arab leaders. I ask the Arab leaders to adopt a firm position. I also salute the Egyptian Pharmacists Union’s decision to boycott American...announced date by utie ... of Economic Affairs and Finance-rto business units falling under the above- stated articles which have failed to comply

  10. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-21

    to sell the land, and they bought this land from them at several of them. Some Alawites are pharmacists , and very low prices. The Alawites’ economic...Speaker of the Chamber of Dep- Yasin, father of Dr. Muhammad Yasin, who is a member uties "His Excellency, the Prime Minister: of the Supreme Committee of

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-10

    Aswan, Luxor, and are there. Everything moves backwards. There is a policy Giza have half the antiquities of the world. And there is of statements...think it is going to happen to us if we in the sarcophagus of Cheops in the Great Pyramid ; that quicken our pace towards reform, even though we made...crazy about the Pyramid and its ment; from a government that lives in a cemetery and secrets, crazy about Akhnaten and the Sphinx. If I were still

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-22

    come to us for a free, fair and franchise . impartial election. He said 371,000 conducting election, he said 67 Emphasising the importance of the role...Iraq. She told the CNN in an interview in Washington private entrepreneurship . All our top businessmen have that such barbaric bombing should be

  13. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-11

    by Radwan Fahmi ’Ali: "Head of Executive Council of Autonomous Region Says That President’s Interest in Region Has Hastened Its Development" date and...speech of the session for this seminar yesterday morning, Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Reza Taqavi, the Friday imam of Shahr-e Kord, spoke calling for more

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-08

    likely that the radicals may perpetrate any new act. Brigadier General Muhammad Fahmi ’Azab, a criminal investigations inspector at the Interior Ministry...the participa- tion of Astan-e Qods-e Razavi [the administration in charge of the endowments dedicated to the tomb of Imam Reza in Mashhad]. Today

  15. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-07

    Reliance Urged [JASARAT 23 Dec] I1 U S Hegemony in Arab World Alleged [JASARAT 13 Dec] £f U.S. Accused Of Abandoning Afghan Mujahidin [JASARAT... masculine setting such as a jail, women are an important topic. To this day there are no family visits in "Ansar-3," because of disagree- ments between...them. U.S. Hegemony in Arab World Alleged 91AS0415B Karachi JASARAT in Urdu 13 Dec 90 p 3 [Editorial: "The Arab World and The Serious Situa- tion

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-22

    course the new immigrants can replace the 125,000 Arab workers. For example, Tigbor is trying to introduce new immigrants in the bakery sector...in 1970. Adult franchise was adopted and a presidential system of government was introduced, which functioned for four years. In 1974, it was...The Assembly consists of 40 Members, elected on the basis of adult franchise , and eight co-opted members of which five are women. One member is co

  17. JPRS Report: Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-19

    at the request of university profes- sors, reprints poems in Tamazight written in Arabic characters, along with their translation into Arabic. The...there could be no question of translating Tamazight into Arabic. I do not think anyone has a monopoly over Berber culture; it belongs to all Algerians

  18. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-27

    Diary of Events From the Announcement of the Entry of the Border Guard into the Gaza Strip up until Last Week 6 March: 3 lightly injured in clashes...production. On April 7, pursuant to his earlier announcement, Aya - tollah Aredebili said 7,000 price inspectors were to be commissioned to control

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-28

    Bangladesh Government for political asylum, for the first time by any foreigner, on 12 September and lodged a diary at the Dhanmondi police station in the...in anybody’s mind regarding the legitimacy and legality of the said assembly. The election of his excellency Aya - tollah Khamene’i as the leader

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-05

    outlook Draconian law forbidding aid to a nuclear- branded Paki- remains grim and not so grim, dark and not so dark stan. depending on how one might like to... underdog . And subservient to the First dreams are not allowed to come true. Martin Luther World, otherwise.... Such are the ground rules of the New

  1. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-19

    not raising its voice? And why should the Congress appear to take a pro-U.S. line when it had consistently sided with the underdog ? It has not been...the issue of branding China as the aggressor brought about a complete break in the fraternal relations between the CPI and CPC. For over two decades

  2. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-23

    projecting outside! Inured to its own peculiar brand of democracy, elections, political activities, etc., the Government of India and its Organization...heroes, own brand of democracy among its assumed proteges in the LTTE, whom they went to help and the abominable Sri Lanka. lack of military...population is constituted by people of Going to the polls as underdog , the two parties have Nepalese origin. deliberately kept a low profile even as

  3. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-26

    parties it tried to woo into a coalition last Kohen didn’t care about the brand name. She had just year. In the end, the Likud’s offers won the day, so...is actually being Therefore, his depiction as a martyr, a victim, and an conducted among the Arabs themselves, and its peak underdog is nonsense...the army and The group was housed in buildings in an abandoned one of them was a combat officer in the Armoured military camp from the period of the

  4. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-14

    Committee in their fight for retaining Tin Bigha at any cost. The district administration of Cooch Behar , too, report - edly did not approve of the...totally alienated and there was no administration functioning in the State . He said the first achievement of the National Front Government had been...and always checked and counter-checked inputs before publishing them. In the annual report , the section on Punjab said 495 "terrorists" were killed

  5. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-03

    have the worst Aside from the fatal attack on two French assistants at memories of the period running from 1984-88, marked La Lyonnaise des eaux by a...guide the students academically and potatoes more than 49 percent. On the other hand, encourage them to return to the country during academic production

  6. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-23

    as to improve the efficiency of both import and export activities by national operators and fits in per- fectly with the process of introducing...serious situation. In any event, the residents of Judaea and Samaria will not suffer. It will perhaps force us to become more efficient as a military...crores (16.9 percent) during the comparable period of 1987-88. Forex reserves down: On the external front, the pressures on the balance of payments

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-12

    IOC may stagger its market purchase of dollars above the allocated $5.1 billions over the next five months to minimise the impact on the forex ...banks and the financial sector to arrest the irregularities, make them more efficient and their oper- ations transparent. The prime minister, while...be to create an efficient and viable banking system. He said despite the scam the investment mood of the general public had not been affected and

  8. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-24

    Approved for public release; ^ Distribution Unlimited j / ^> NOTE JPRS publications contain Information primarily from foreign newspapere, periodicals...not his strong Icce;t.; Vi/aS afrald °f Domren.VdomWion since his ideas are not alwayS ?n J ^ r°Utlne- Sh0mr0n knOWS h°W t0 argue his vlews... Barik and al-Ghabar—could start producing in 1986 at a rate ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 barrels per day. Development of oil deposits at Siyalah and al

  9. JPRS Report: Near East & South Asia India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-19

    these parties alites are on this committee. Mamata once planned a trip have been given time to be fully prepared. They had to Cooch Behar to take part in...tone that Mamata Ban- market. After the failure of their conspiracy to wipe her nerjee had illegally constructed a palace by exploiting her out

  10. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-11

    of emotion , and, at the end of the 14-year crisis in Afghanistan, form an interim council government of the mujaheddin; and, with unanimous...masses of Afghanistan came to our country, they were accompanied by their criminal, terrorist, antisocial , and enemy agents. There was no way for us to...Sindh is the irresponsible behaviour , incompetence and lack of action by the police. Had it not been for the police department’s failure to carry

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-02

    construction, road networks, energy sources in the area, and social and legal studies on the settlement of this large Regarding the extent to which differences...with their request: that I hear them the withdrawal. In fact, I will say to you that if such a depositos ind khee hear tm ocrisis occurs in the banks...the prosecutor. be granted to persons who report violators of Article 1, if a 5. Legal action shall be instituted by a prosecutor they can furnish

  12. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-12

    favour. The highlight of the "electoral reforms" resolution was not any meaningful step to curb malpractices or reduce the role of money in elections...facility, avionics repair, electronics manufactur- ing, and medical products. The British do not have to concentrate on such high technology ventures...circumventing the land ceiling law in Uttar Pra- desh to save his farm. The prime minister, Mr Rajiv Gandhi, himself took the opportunity of a talk with

  13. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-21

    of the association of the sexes, as some people are doing, is entirely infantile , above all today. This is really not the priority. Frankly, the...Cairo LIWA’ AL-ISLAM in Arabic 26 Apr 90 pp 48-49 [Article by Asma ’ al-Husayni al-Ghabashi: "Muslim People of Oromia Break the Ethiopian Blockade

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-10

    194.2 273.0 40.6% Potatoes 143.0 200.0 39.9% Tomatoes 378.0 454.0 20.1% Beef 58.3 71.2 22.2% Mutton and lamb 65.4 80.9 23.7% Poultry 56.6 63.6...rice ration is one cup and lentil and rice mixture, one cup, without meat. Split pea stew is a combination of a bit of potatoes and some meat, less...than 10 grams. The food is very poorly prepared, and meatless stews are much worse in quality and quantity. In early Khordad [May], red meat and

  15. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-24

    of the wolf and the lamb . How can the policies of an independent and autonomous nation be decided according to the specific economic interests of a...and make a concrete decision about it. Otherwise, the wolf will devour the lambs one by one. The U.S. administration threatened India exactly when Dr...clear that they will do all they can to frustrate the government’s moves in this direction. Narasimha Rao is stewing in a brew of his own making. It

  16. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-03

    during his five-year stew - ardship as Karnataka Chief Minister by the Congress (I), he sought the indulgence of party leaders in shielding him. He...United States is like the relationship between the lamb and the wolf: there can be no compromise between the two. The statement does not leave much...says: "As the Imam declared, your—i.e., the United States—relations with us is like the relations of the wolf and the lamb ." But he does not add that

  17. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-24

    countries. Secondly, the exchange of important missions. Indian delegations from the Confederation of Indian Industry, ministry of agriculture, solar ...1993 are about to invest in it tens of millions of dollars in new factories. The refrigerator factory of Tadiran, the diapers of Hogla, Kislok, Moraz

  18. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-03

    Delhi, 28 Aug-The first high-level contacts LTTE is "essentially India’s creation" and that in Tamil [et] new D el 2 ue ft hgleve l contactsb tween the...mindedness about police forces have become useless. The separatist ele - philosophy, ments have, of course, divided the Hindus and the Muslims and now are...old Ramayana has stopped. The Manusmirity is referred to Saudi Arabian "once again raises the issue of a modern only in antihuman contexts. The West

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-19

    relations and development efforts in the two countries. Also, an agreement was signed to prevent double taxation between the two countries. This...cooperation. On this basis, Sidqi stated, the agreement preventing double taxation signed between the two countries will have a significant effect in... juridical and legislative systems, as well as their interpretation should be obligated to adapt the law, the interpretation, and the regulations to

  20. Survey in South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    In early 1959 an IAEA mission visited Burma, Ceylon, Indonesia and Thailand. In each of the four countries, the mission held detailed discussions with scientists and officials, collected information and exchanged ideas. Besides general discussion, consultations were held in small working groups on specific topics and problems. The members of the mission also visited atomic energy centres, other scientific and technical organizations, educational institutions as well as sites of actual or possible projects. The reports of the mission contain, a general description of the atomic energy programmes of the four countries, covering both current and planned activities, the mission's comments and recommendations and lists of specific requests for Agency assistance made by these countries after discussions with the mission. Atomic energy work in Burma is primarily the responsibility of the Union of Burma Atomic Energy Centre (UBAEC). Set up in 1955, the Centre is a part of the Union of Burma Applied Research Institute (UBARI). The programme of UBAEC includes a broad training scheme, the setting up of a Nuclear Radiation Laboratory by 1960-61, a study of the possibilities of installing a research reactor by 1962-63 and the possible erection of other reactors at a later date. The mission discussed with the Burmese authorities their tentative plans for atomic energy legislation and the advice given might help in the early establishment of an independent atomic energy commission. Ceylon too is embarking on several atomic energy activities and long-range plans are being developed. The emphasis, it is expected, will be mainly on education, raw material prospecting, isotopes and nuclear power development. A Committee on Atomic Energy was created in 1958 by Ceylon's National Planning Council, and the Committee is now working towards the early formation of a central atomic energy authority. The IAEA mission advised the officials of the Committee on the framing of such legislation as is considered immediately necessary for this purpose. A State Commission on Radioactivity and Atomic Energy was established in Indonesia in 1954. In 1958, the Commission was replaced by the Council for Atomic Energy as an advisory body to the Cabinet; an Institute of Atomic Energy is to be formed to serve as the operational arm of the Council. At present, all work in this field is centred in Bandung, Bogor, Djakarta and Jogjakarta. Training and research reactors are contemplated for both Bandung and Jogjakarta, and should serve in the near future as focal points in the gradual development of a programme of research and training. There are also plans for the use of radioisotopes in agriculture, medicine and industry. In Thailand, a good start has already been made with a broad atomic energy programme. Work is planned or under way for training, research, the use of radioisotopes in agriculture and medicine, atomic power, raw materials and other related fields. The Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace, established in 1956, is charged with the promotion, development and control of all peaceful atomic energy activities in the country. The Commission made early plans to install a research reactor and has entered into a contract with the Curtiss Wright Corporation of the USA for the construction of a swimming pool reactor with a maximum output of 1 mw. The estimated period of construction is twenty-four months and the reactor is expected to become operational by 1961 or 1962. The Commission has also established a programme of training for Thai scientists, a substantial number of whom have already studied or are now studying abroad. The mission paid particular attention to the possibilities of applying the tools of atomic energy to agriculture, medicine, health physics and raw materials needed in atomic energy. The reports of the mission also contain considerable information on a variety of other related subjects. On all issues of interest, the members of the mission held detailed discussions with the national authorities. On the basis of these discussions, ea ch of the four countries has formulated requests for assistance from the Agency, -mainly for the provision of experts and equipment. Some of these requests have already been approved by IAEA's Board of Governors

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-06

    us or on the market! needs for the Ramadan table, which is filled with the best meat, the freshest fish, the most appetizing chicken , the [A1-Sa’dani...remain on the card. baladi [native Egyptian] and shami [Arab-style breadmade with white flour] bread is 330 Egyptian pounds [Abu-Dahab] That is correct...the secret behind baladi and western-style bread, and pastry factories will the low price of meat is the fact that breeders and the not acquire it

  2. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-28

    34 a socio-economic essay whose gist is that the world financial casino finances the world money printer, the economy of the United States. Just...JPRS-NEA-90-054 28 September 1990 "Neither the melody nor the lyrics express the Zionist revolution, but ’Hatiqvah’ was sanctified in ceremonies in

  3. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    Partial Contents: International Affairs, Gulf Cooperation, Industrial Development, Cultural Cooperation, Blood Revenge, Drought, Water Resources, Military Intelligence,People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Car Crash...

  4. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-27

    wage structure, even within the same household. Everyone now is thinking of acquiring property, and banks in villages have turned into boutiques ...serv- ice. The prisoners are asked if they wish to donate blood and they give blood voluntarily." And the children? "The prison is like a hotel ," said

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-09

    costly for our country to administer a birth spacing program than to support 800,000 pregnancies . The ONS’ population director, Mr. Khelladi... vampirize this entire petroleum-rich region, [passage omitted] It is 1500 hours on 29 April. The bus that has been provided to take the delegation to the

  6. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-26

    respect for the profession and nothing else. It is a question related to concern for the unstained professional history of the editor in chief and...along would naturally snatch up those votes. Others had their ballots marked for the tamazight RCD for 40 years and were simply waiting for candidate to...member and who has acquired a gandoura and tells himself now that he will vote FIS and see what he how far he can ride for free on history . We could

  7. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-19

    regards this position as a type of positive opposition to we rejected halting the history of the revolution and the American course. Based on these...and will that the teaching the Tamazight language in schools, without PLO sets forth. I believe that the issue of Palestine is one of creating a rival...knowledge and Council was elected by secret ballot-the first time in research and will be open to the world. Algerian history that it was used instead of

  8. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-25

    PAKISTAN Prime Minister Urges Less Dependence on Imported Edible Oil (BUSINESS RECORDER, 8 May 85) • 222 Ashgar Khan Calls for Abolition of Feudal...Equipment 4 Vehicle Traitors 5 Travel goods 6 Edible oils 7 Garments & knitwear 8 Paper & Paper Products 9 TV aerials and overhead cables 10 Water meters...Telecommunication equipment 92 Con- struction components 93 Power tillers 94 Vehi- cle components 95 Cutlery plant 96 Plastic cor- rugated cardboard 97 Pre

  9. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-09

    edibles , is very alert indeed in apprehending those who adulterate alcoholic beverages. Regarding the aid issue the U.S. administration ensured He...do not wish to see our industry achieve unrealistic cutlery exports have been exempted from payment of growth under the umbrella of high tariff...ores all sorts. cutlery . (c) Semi-processed agricultural products e.g. Malik Naeem announced duty free import of machinery (i) cotton year, and spare

  10. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-16

    now violating all laws and regulations here to enable us to send you the goods." Karl-Erik Schmitz has previously stressed to reporters that he has... cumin seeds, pumpkin seeds, coriander seeds, roasted pear seeds, turpentine trees, henna, dyes and indigo, gypsum, ready-made indoor and outdoor... stressing the impor- tance of local government as a nursery of national leaders. We should have learnt by now that non-party elections would

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-11

    political situation was better than it had been in 1967, but 84 percent of the answers stressed that the Arab summit conferences had not succeeded in...34 Rabin stressed that the police was following the law in dealing with the suspects arrested in the riots, and that he was convinced that the report he...no exporting and do not understand it. None of those things we see as exportable traditional goods, such as carpets, cumin and so forth, were part of

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    and being torn, splin- smoke obscuring the horizon and cutting off the oxygen. tered, and marginalized, staggering between poverty, The blood covering...and the countries of battle. Despite our abstinence from citing examples, we Southern Europe, based on an exchange of information remind the Arabs that...that 23 legal claims were filed against the technical school graduate to the IDF. Because of the Board and that "our goal is to end this season in the

  13. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    34Is your magazine making a profit?" I said, "As far as I know, it has the largest circulation and advertising figures, thank God." He looked at me...large air-to-air missiles, but also for (grundik) television sets; Soni videos; one, two and three sound system machines; Adidas shoes; (izi) oants

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: International Conference, Leader, Armed Struggle, Peace Process, Investment, Budgets, Health Care Costs, Economics, Reconstruction Efforts, Trade Defict, Water Shortage, Salary Reduction,Tax...

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    and half of whom would be elected by direct, lected medicine and milk for children and told the world secret balloting, about the killing of civilians...the continua- nomic siege on Iraq and banning milk from reaching the tion of campaigns of pressure and the blockade. Conser- children and elderly...organizations, which are characterized by ment. falsehood, falsification of facts, the shirking of responsi- bility, insistence on pushing for the

  16. JPRS Report: Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-15

    some Israeli goods, such as long-life milk , cleaning fluids, canned tomato paste and washing powder. Many of the Pales- tinian goods also have...and sundees, it only takes a rise in the price of onions to render a generation of ministers, in all proba- bility brought up on powdered milk , open...given the background of those who are raising these accusations and the tangled web of lies, fabrication and falsification of evidence, the ulterior

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-24

    no responsibility for the form, sufficiency, accuracy, genuineness, falsification or legal effect of any document.... Nor do they assume any...babies go hungry by depriving them of milk no longer disturbs them. Cries from the heart have never been a stumblingblock preventing the construction...complicated. They were tired of buying Algerian milk for babies in Oujda [Morocco] and at times paying for it in Moroccan currency. They openly expressed

  18. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-09

    since last year, such as meat and so on. As cial differences will be signed by the two presidents? French companies begin working on certain projects...the petrochemical complex and Halal indebted to them. [passage omitted] Barim, 2,400 square meters of land behind Takhti Sta- dium, and 14,500 square...percent exemption on commercial profits for commercial goods imported through Kish [Text] Kerman, Sept. 4 (IRNA)-A Rls.[rials]25 billion Island have

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-08

    countries. There- fore, meat from even ’ halal ’ animals can be ’haram’ for us. Most of the animal fat that Pakistan imports comes from the United States...into a profitable venture, despite fierce international competition. /06091 Incentive for Users of Indigenous Technology 46001121 Calcutta THE...Branch on Tuesday claimed to have busted two gangs engaged in international level racket of sending illegal immigrants to USA through Mexico and

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-11

    practice, however, a but I never heard him; I have enough music here at the good number of ceremonies are held at the Western Western Wall." Wall...Israel on the volume Company, Daihatsu, Suzuki, Sony , Hitachi, and others. of their purchases from Israeli industry. Golan: "We are certain that, under...Kibbutz that arrived in the corresponding period last year. How- Yad Mordekhai, an entertainment center on the Dead ever, in recent months, the branch

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-21

    overlooked is that we have gone overboard in producing theoretical, pedagogical ideas. We are flying right over where we ought to be. Today, we are in the...demanded that the shipment, with all its components, be returned and that its kid - naped engineers and workers be released immediately, else it

  2. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-16

    contacting us a second time from Dam- ascus and reproaching us for not publishing the response even though we had promised to publish it. We explained to...new Israeli shekels to each young officer 22 years of age who accepts the appeal of the Manpower branch to stay in permanent service two more...be felt. The target population is officers between the ranks of Lieutenant and Lt. Colonel ( ages 22-40). Along the optimal service path (about 18

  3. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-14

    and various other kinds of sweets. Another specialized in such baked goods as Kibbeh and Safiha. One lady was given charge of cof- fee—to roast ...freezing as well as coffee grinding and roasting . We used our own equipment in the beginning, she said pointing to a small mixer and a medium-size oven...before it was closed that they were selling at prices lower than the merchants and were able to break the monopoly on chicken prices, which some

  4. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-24

    its variety of food, different kinds of rice and roasted and skewered kebabs all colored with saffron and your prayers after the party for the... chicken she had,ran after the truck taking donations for the war fronts, and let’s ask ourselves whether we have any re- ligiously lawful reason in

  5. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-11

    dawn will at last come and rehabilitate us. One wonders when the hell road travelled from the last Election Cell to our present hopelessness will ever...anxiously watch the unfolding political drama as our ruling elite vie for power at the expense of national JPRS-NEA-93-087 11 August 1993 ECONOMIC 47... therapy " and insists on the need for a substantial number of clinical psychologists at the hospitals. According to doctors, acid causes instant damage to

  6. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Freedom, Diaspora party, Divided Territory, Election Proposal, Journals, Courts, Industry, Trade Representatives, Industrial Growth, Gas Pipeline, Water Resources, Budgets, Government, Negotiation...

  7. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-22

    streets of Yerevan has not forgotten the past and the genocide and keeps his eyes fixed on Mount Ararat . Birand is not mistaken. It is Yesayi...five frozen accounts—Lotus, Tulip, Mont Blanc, Svenska Inc and an unidentified account—be passed on to the Indian investigators. Even if the Cantonal...accounts of ’Tulip,’ ’Lotus’ and ’ Mont Blanc’ (these are accused numbers 11, 12 and 13 respectively), and certain public servants of the government

  8. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The deterioration of government action has resulted in a decrease in the field of law and has given free rein to authoritarianism and the...8217Abd-al-’Aziz, for the attention and paternal solicitude that the king—may God keep him—extended to him during his confinement at the kingdom’s...free health services, a high rate of literacy, high life expectancy following the defeat of malaria, a drastic reduction in maternal and infant

  9. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-04

    short-term gains. It would sustained minor injuries . One of the ULFA militants was call for quite a change in attitude on the part of Indian also injured...central committee who assist the politburo. They are Mr woo him into the cabinet since his mentor Vasantdada Prakash Karat and Mr Sitaram Yachuri from Delhi...The market share of the Indian yarn was too low for it REP licence system. Success in eliminating quantity to cause material injury . restrictions will

  10. Jprs Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    Partial Contents; Female, Soldiers, Military, Defense, Political Issues, Elections, Violence, Murder, Assassination Theories, Restoration, Real Power, Economics, Wasted Opportunity, New World, Leadership, Windshield...

  11. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-13

    agreements, describing them as important steps. The chairman of the UGTT expressed the hope that the various parties would re- spect the agreements now...It’ is no coincidence that tbi * ^historic city of. pari» bat been. ’i. chosen as the venue of the con- ference. It was here that about...aligned Summit and| here I quot«? " Tbi persis«entf4 presence of »Ionia HsnY ’.»’«4« racism in . Southern" Africaif tie an

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    and ensuring its fulfillment in the shadow of freedom, justice, and openness to the outside world. Our party has expressed the organic relationship ...an individual, attacking his honor, plundering his property, violating his home, changing his consanguinity , expelling him from his homeland, or

  13. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-15

    particular marriage, divorce, linear consanguinity , legal competence, and inheritance. 3. The requirements for establishing legal status. 4. Basic...has never had a colonial or destructive relationship to American territory or to any other terri- tory of the world. So American hatred for my...will be an important part of Sudan’s history because Numayri will reveal in them the relationships of all those who worked with him. He will also

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-27

    staff cruelly sent back to Baghdad some Indian nurses. On the Libya-Egypt border recently, a dozen Indian managers were handcuffed by Egyptians for...carrying "bogus" visas issued by the Egyptian mission in Tripoli. Indians entering Cairo with a valid visa still encounter obstacles. Western help...generation is emphasized. In our education curriculum, we must include brahamcbharya [total abstina- tion], yoga , and physical control to lead a

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-06

    macroeconomic unbal - the Government. Much will depend on how far India is ances. The team will leave as soon as New Delhi concurs, prepared to tighten its belt...Dr. Singh said "commitments should be hon- justice? Mr. Singh saw no contractions. The real growth oured." of an economy could not be assessed only by...system to WEEK something to this effect: "We are not able to increase the scope of export growth . To this effect we will bring down prices because the

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-21

    States to last forever. But no mood or policy lasts forever. There is a large Arab lobby there now, and American public opinion has been influenced...interpretation of Saddam Husayn’s handwriting by Israeli graphologist Hana Qoren, who plainly and without any hesitation warned about the danger of Saddam...and sports. The adults are always correct and your ability to dispute your destiny is limited. In his childhood, he drew caricatures of Hitler

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-04

    of content of the newspapers. Cherif Ladraa, a journalist who works for ADHWA, a weekly that appears in Arabic and is published by the EL-Chaab...organic status, protection [under the law] or others. The rank and file will settle the matter." Bachir Rezzoug (EL-MOUDJAHID) ties the future to

  18. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-15

    television series and cinema movies that have used the theory that "the wife is entitled to the apartment" as material for numerous dramas and comedies . To...medicine. These hunger- stricken thousands have crossed long distances in the desert, where they met with many dangers and horrors before reaching the

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-20

    equality of aerial forces between Iraq and the United States, these are two different leagues, these are the NBA [National Basketball Association] and...those are the basketball champions of ’Afula." [Arkin] What are the differences? [Peled] At the personnel flight level, in command and control, in

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-07

    34forgive and forget" that the Israeli prime minister tricked their president, and to turn a new leaf in relations with him. This optimism is based...as groundnut, cashew and pan. The 30,000-odd betel vines have added a distinctive character to Baliapal-Bhograi and, according to many, it is...extensive betel cultivation that provides the base for the area’s prosperity. The "pan baraja", as the rectangular enclosures used for growing betal

  1. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-11

    Mirage 2000 can also take off on less than 1,200m at full load. It reaches a speed greater than Mach 2.2 and a service ceilling of over 18,000m. The...all necessary data in either head-down configuration on a wide screen radar or HUD using superposition on the windshield glass . Its avionics contains

  2. JPRS Report: Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-16

    professors raised a provocative issue that we discussed for several successive weeks: the conceptual democracy that is suitable to be a model...this matter in the framwork of and with respect for the right of peoples to self-determination," Maurice Gourdault-Montagne, deputy Quai d’Orsay

  3. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-04

    to increase the use of the new powerful launcher, " Energia ". He said Soviet launchers, predecessors to " Energia ", were available for service, but... renovated in 1971 and resumed activities with a capacity of 15,000 barrels a day. "Once the Iraqi-imposed war was launched, the flow of crude oil...manufacturing. He said that the refinery was once renovated in 1980, following the disruption of crude oil from the Naft Shahr region. He further

  4. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-21

    aritificial intelligence system (expert system), which aids the performance of unmanned vehi- cles. The system makes evaluations of an unmanned vehicle’s...intensifies. The artificial intelligence group in the aircraft industry, in cooperation with the IET Company from Tel Aviv, has developed an... intelligence field, is currently being converted for civilian use. In the initial stage it is likely to be exploited for discovering uranium and

  5. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-16

    investments of money and human effort. These will yield both im- mediate and long-term returns to the Egyptian economy in the shape of fu- ture...transferred abroad and used in foreign investments whose political tendencies are unknown to us. Some of these funds are deposited in the coffers of...abandoning or disregarding some fundemental causes. In spite of its small size, the Islamic trend has been able to create an effective presence for

  6. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-08

    Aug 85; THE BANGLADESH OBSERVER, 21 Aug 85)....’ 107 Arrival on 19 Aug 107 Talks With Foreign Minister 108 Reportage on Bangladesh- Malaysia ...against homosexuals and underscores the fact that only right is right, only the straight are straight and virtue brings health and depravity brings...law outlining the procedure for declaring divorce and for presenting the wife with the divorce papers and informing her of the new marriage . The

  7. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-07

    DIFFICULT—Egypt is putting considerable obstacles in the way of Israelis and tourists who want to sail from Elat to Coral Island, or to anchor near it...the international market and prices would also be competitive . Retail prices of consumer goods were controlled in Iran and they would be fixed at...cordiality at Cancun in 1981, In Washington in July 1989 and again liter that year at the UN; Headouarters. la term» of sheer ,puMle relation» and red

  8. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-20

    tracts with the private sector to take charge of their management. That is what actually happened in the sector of hotels and some tourist ... competition from these new countries in view of the similarity of their products. It also spoke about the negotiations which are underway now between the...Minister Indira Gandhi met Premier Hua Guofeng in Belgrade and during the Cancun con- ference in Mexico. Foreign Minister Huang Hua visited New

  9. Near East/South Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-27

    Libya, into consideration, and if we consider that the aquifer for the artificial river project erected in Libya passes through the territories of...Revolution". Asked why Bahrain and Qatar were under a threat from Iran, he said: We do not want to export the Revolution to any country. These States

  10. JPRS Report: Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-27

    anyone was thinking of examining the groundwater in the vicinity of the Makhtesh and in the aquifer of the plain, but she was not too expert on the...United Arab Emirates Qatar Sultanate of Oman Yemen Iraq Total Differ- ence: less or minus 85/86 5,276 440 23 15 359 25 10 1,006 7,154 — 86/87

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-19

    events. It has frequently warned about suspi- music, and cinema festivals. Economic exhibits were cious moves by international and regional figures to...in the world, with capital AGENCY-A consortium of private Malaysian compa- costs reaching a median of over $300 per capita. Given a nies under the...of war over the flow of the gave preference to the Malaysian wood industry for Euphrates to the Al-Thawrah Dam. Tensions between participation in

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-10

    34Only for health purposes. We do some exercises and we play matkot [a racket game] on the beach. Not interested in ball games." One needs...a few who go with girls without permission." Masturbation ? Homosexuality? "It exists here not because men are attracted to men, but because there...for these hospitals and health centers amounted to 1,421,756 dinars. The total cost for the road systems connecting the various branches of the

  13. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-24

    LEBANON Beirut Citizens Offer Gloomy Response in Economic Poll ( Ilham Nasr Tablt, Hayyam Kayruz; AL-NAHAR AL-’ARABI WAL-DUWALI, 18-23 Feb 85) 115...concern ?obo?h sides. ^ develoPme^s and common iShSS-rSi B^^tj^^ yesterday, Mr Habib areas of cooperation between ?he So Countries ^ ^f^f?’ disc...8217ARABI WAL-DUWALI in Arabic 18-23 Feb 85 pp 36-41 [Article by Ilham Nasr Tabit and Hayyam Kayruzs "AL-NAHAR AL-’ARABI WAL- DUWALI’ s Poll of the

  14. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-17

    8217Uthman] What about the expected role of Egypt in cocoa, sugar, coffee, cotton, bananas, rubber, gum , many Africa, especially after the declaration...team were." Then he said that stable conditions can be guar - has been formed from 15 giant public and private sector anteed by true democracy...200,000 canned goods; 560,000 loaves of issue 1 of its journal dedicated to enhance both trade bread; 70 tonnes of dates; 9,600 tins of powdered milk

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-28

    Israel’s peace in first instance. Having guar - anteed the Jewish state the separate peace it wanted with Egypt, the United States paid no attention to...plant gums , marine prod- ucts, wool and yarn have decreased. This decrease has been compensated by the great increase in the export of dried goods...mentioned session, the requests of the "Tuli Pers" company to export 3,000 tons of powdered detergent and the Pars pump company to export 1,500

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-21

    Poultry feed was one item, which private businessmen were allowed to import as well as distribute freely and butchers say this has already brought...have lost their provider and pays them monthly allowances. The committee has invested in training projects, such as the establishment of a poultry ...Nabilah al- Ibrashi, gets 1 egg every 5 days, or 6 eggs a month? Who can believe that an Egyptian’s intake of animal protein, that is meat, poultry , or

  17. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-23

    associations, and finally in their being forced to buy at market price and then sell at less than the price of the butcher , for example. In any case, the...reached with the General Land Reform Association to sell poultry , eggs and legumes in our outlets within 1 month. Also an agreement with the

  18. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-10

    month of RamadanI The fact is that the issuance of the April decrees is to be considered a historic milestone on the road of the growth of Egyptian...called me an artist of sexual passions. They associated my name with the Baligh Hamdi scandal, and I am innocent of all that. All that happened

  19. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-10

    studies. Hajj Yahya the student adjusted very quickly to the Jewish society. He frequented the Nitzan coffee house in Jerusalem and was elected...consciousrof Pruning cownc ers. of the perils involved in any What camie into being in 1972, Party philosophy large scale de-nationalisationeffort. "This’s

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    though it Hussain for his choice of candidates. All they hope for is will remain in the background. Its workers may be asked that their absentee ’pir...do not have an Pakistan they are not in visible chains except millions of infected and utterly uninfected sector in the government bonded labour

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    he’s as happy as a jaybird. So I should argue against it? If they ask for spicy dishes why should I not give it to them? They used to get bread from...Settlement With U.S., Not Israel [Nicosia FILASTIN AL-THAWRAH 7 May] 18 ALGERIA Demand Grows for Stronger Price Control 20 High Cost of Food Protested...charter, including the claim that the charter calls for the destruction of Israel, the throwing of its inhabitants into the sea, and the like . Such

  2. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-14

    of water a year. Avocado is one of the most important components of the agricultural export basket. A great recovery began in the branch in the...than its needs, importing twice as much as it exports , and is barely able to carry loans, which it [certainly] cannot double! Any thinker asked about...aspirations, and ambitions of the honorable. There are many models in the private sector. In the space of a very few years, they have become able to export

  3. JPRS Report: Near East & South Asia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-17

    Republics Discussed [ AKHBAR AL-YA WM 23, 30 Apr] 1 Internal Affairs Aims, Conflicts of Political Islam Analyzed [AL-AHRAM 2 May] 3 Party Changes...is deportation for lack of visa. Interest in CIS Muslim Republics Discussed 92AF0747B Cairo AKHBAR AL-YAWM in Arabic 23, 30 Apr 92 [Article by Dr...between secular Turkey and Islamic Iran. Last November, Turkey recognized independent Azerbai- jan , while Iran was calling for Azerbaijan’s nomination

  4. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    Partial Contents: Securities,Striakes, Investment, Economic,Ministry, Shortage, Exchange rate, diplomatic, parliamentary, politics, Presidential Election Plans, Television, Radio, Press Conference, Democracy, Taxes...

  5. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-19

    PALESTINIAN AFFAIRS PFLP Leader Habash on Mideast Conflict [Barcelona LA VANGUARDIA 4 Feb] 4 EQYPT Islamic Leaders Say War During Holy Months...Valid [AKHIR SA’AH 23 Jan] 5 Muslim Brotherhood Leader on Persian Gulf War [Barcelona LA VANGUARDIA 3 Feb] 7 Growing Political Role Perceived...PALESTINIAN AFFAIRS PFLP Leader Habash on Mideast Conflict 91P20180A Barcelona LA VANGUARDIA in Spanish 4Feb91 p9 [Interview with PFLP [Popular Front for

  6. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-11

    economies of both countries, as well as the human and material aspects, not to mention its social impact . Both sides are aware of this. /Qasim ’Abd-al...hundreds of party leaders, and insulting it with conventional televison confessions and after declaring the . dissolution and illegality of this... the conference dealt with the impact of the reduced oil prices on the economic policies, an authoritative source has told AL- MAJALLAH that this

  7. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-23

    displeasure with the Cairo Declaration, but such displeasure is expressed by some romantics and those with a passion for drawing parallels. As for...tonight and the , members had a good laugh over the comedy of errors, since it became known later that the Prime Minister did not say that the meeting

  8. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  9. An overview of mineral dust modeling over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Kang, Litai; Yang, Ben; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yuzhi; Yuan, Tiangang; Wang, Tianhe; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-08-01

    East Asian dust (EAD) exerts considerable impacts on the energy balance and climate/climate change of the earth system through its influence on solar and terrestrial radiation, cloud properties, and precipitation efficiency. Providing an accurate description of the life cycle and climate effects of EAD is therefore critical to better understanding of climate change and socioeconomic development in East Asia and even worldwide. Dust modeling has undergone substantial development since the late 1990s, associated with improved understanding of the role of EAD in the earth system. Here, we review the achievements and progress made in recent decades in terms of dust modeling research, including dust emissions, long-range transport, radiative forcing (RF), and climate effects of dust particles over East Asia. Numerous efforts in dust/EAD modeling have been directed towards furnishing more sophisticated physical and chemical processes into the models on higher spatial resolutions. Meanwhile, more systematic observations and more advanced retrieval methods for instruments that address EAD related science issues have made it possible to evaluate model results and quantify the role of EAD in the earth system, and to further reduce the uncertainties in EAD simulations. Though much progress has been made, large discrepancies and knowledge gaps still exist among EAD simulations. The deficiencies and limitations that pertain to the performance of the EAD simulations referred to in the present study are also discussed.

  10. Moving Toward a Regional Safeguards System in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Griggs, James R.

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the nuclear nonproliferation challenges of South Asia, it is useful to examine the similar past nonproliferation problems in South America. The nuclear rapprochement between Argentina and Brazil involved several developments in progression. We conclude that two developments are particularly applicable to the India/Pakistan problem: technical cooperation and a regional safeguards system. This paper reviews the history of Argentina/Brazil rapprochement, discusses application to India/Pakistan, and proposes specific actions to move South Asia toward regional stability.

  11. Strategic Stability in South Asia: An Indian?s Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanwal, Gurmeet [Inst. for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi (India)

    2017-05-01

    The security environment in South Asia has been marked by instability for several decades. The foremost causes of regional instability are the nuclear weapons-cum-missile development program of China, North Korea and Pakistan, the strident march of Islamist fundamentalism, the diabolical nexus between narcotics trafficking and terrorism, the proliferation of small arms and the instability inherent in the rule of despotic regimes. Instability on the Indian sub-continent is manifested, first and foremost, in the continuing conflict in Afghanistan, its tense relations with Iran and the Central Asian Republics (CARs); Pakistan’s struggle against the Taliban, the emerging fissiparous tendencies in Balochistan and Pakhtoonkhwa, the rise of Jihadi Islam and what some fear is Pakistan’s gradual slide towards becoming a ‘failed state’ despite some economic gains in the last five years. Also symptomatic of an unstable and uncertain security environment in the South Asian region are what some see as Sri Lanka’s inability to find a lasting solution to its internal challenges; the potential for Bangladesh’s gradual emergence as the new hub of Islamist fundamentalist terrorism and its struggle for economic upliftment to subsistence levels; the continuing negative impact of Maoist insurgency on Nepal’s fledgling democracy; the simmering discontent in Tibet and Xinjiang and what some see as a low-key uprising against China’s regime; and, the Myanmar peoples’ nascent movement for democracy. In all these countries, socio-economic development has been slow and, consequently, per capita income is alarmingly low. Transborder narcotics trafficking – the golden triangle lies to the east of South Asia and the golden crescent to its west – and the proliferation of small arms, make a potent cocktail. Ethnic tensions and fairly widespread radicalization, worsened by the advent of the vicious ideology of the Islamic state, add further to regional instability.

  12. Security environment and nuclear proliferation problems in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Mark Byung-Moon

    1997-01-01

    East Asia was and still is divided into two conflicting ideological blocs. Because of the Cold War between these two blocs, two international wars were fought and tensions limited interactions among these countries. Despite these political constraints, in recent years East Asia has become economically one of the most dynamic regions in the world. Now that the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union is over, the danger of global nuclear war involving the nuclear powers in the region has been practically eliminated. Nonetheless, security has become more complex and demands a whole new set of arrangements. Yet the region lacks a cohesive multilateral framework for conflict resolution, and only recently have various attempts been made to create a political forum for the countries in the region. The problem and the danger of nuclear proliferation was vividly shown by the North Korean nuclear crisis in the last years. This issue not only halted the fragile process of normalization between the two Koreas, which started in 1988, but almost led to a new military conflict on the peninsula involving the two Koreas and the USA. It was defused only after the USA proved willing to offer security guarantees to North Korea. This problem still needs to be resolved, and it demands radical changes in the overall political environment in the region. Needless to say, proliferation in North Korea would have entailed grave consequences for the security of the region as well as for the international non-proliferation regime. This paper reviews the issue of nuclear proliferation of the three non-nuclear states in the region and deals with the non-introduction of nuclear weapons in the region by the nuclear powers. It discusses the prospects for a nuclear-weapon-free zone on the Korean peninsula. Perspectives of a sustainable security environment in East Asia will be briefly discussed

  13. RUSSIA'S PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL MECHANISMS IN EAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  14. Russia's Participation In Multilateral Mechanisms In East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Stapran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War Russia has significantly increased its participation in multilateral mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and is clearly trying to become a significant player in regional institution-building. For two post-Cold War Russia decades was involved in almost all the basic mechanisms of multilateral cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. However, often Russia isn't perceived by Asian partners as an equal participant in the Asia-Pacific region, it is felt particularly in the area of multilateral economic cooperation. Russia's entry into the WTO (2011 and the formation of the Common Economic stimulated Russia's engagement in multilateral economic structures. Russia's inclusion in the negotiating framework of ASEM (2010 and EAS (2011 perceives that Asian countries are willing to see Russia as a full member not only in regional processes, but also globally. The main stimulus for the revision of the Asian direction of foreign policy and the role of Siberia and the Far East appears during APEC summit in Vladivostok in 2012. The APEC summit demonstrated the geostrategic importance of the development of the Russian Far East and Siberia, as a key element of Russia's inclusion in the mechanisms of regional cooperation, on the other hand, it became clear that without the participation of foreign partners effective development of the Far Eastern territories is hardly possible. Large-scale investment and infrastructure projects in the Far East has already significantly revived the situation in the region opening new opportunities for multilateral cooperation.

  15. Disarmament and confidence-building in North-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Il Nam

    1992-01-01

    Disarmament and confidence building are essential issues to be addressed urgently as they are directly linked with national security. The successful solutions of this issue will ensure world peace and security. These statements have special significance if applied to the situation in North-East Asia and particularly Korean Peninsula. Even under the circumstances of the continued existence of the United States Nuclear Threat, the Government of North Korea has concluded a safeguards agreement and has been inspected by IAEA, thus indicating constant effort to denuclearize the Korean peninsula

  16. Ecological and meteorological drought monitoring in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Um, M. J.; Kim, Y.; Chae, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to how well the ecological drought index can capture the drought status in the East Asia. We estimated the drought severe index (DSI), which uses the evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggested by Mu et al. (2013) to define the ecological drought. In addition, the meteorological drought index, which is standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI), are estimated and compared to the DSI. The satellite data by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to analyze the DSI and the monthly precipitation and temperature data in the climate research unit (CRU) are applied to estimate the SPEI for 2000-2013 in the East Asia. We conducted the statistical analyses to investigate the drought characteristics of the ecological and meteorological drought indices (i.e. the DSI and SPEI, respectively) and then compared those characteristics drought indices depending on the drought status. We found the DSI did not well captured the drought status when the categories originally suggested by Mu et al. (2013) are applied to divide the drought status in the study area. Consequently, the modified categories for the DSI in this study is suggested and then applied to define the drought status. The modified categories in this study show the great improvement to capture the drought status in the East Asia even though the results cannot be acquired around Taklamakan desert due to the lack of the satellite data. These results illustrate the ecological drought index, such as the DSI, can be applied for the monitoring of the drought in the East Asia and then can give the detailed information of drought status because the satellite data have the relatively high spatial resolutions compared to the observations such as the CRU data. Reference Mu Q, Zhao M, Kimball JS, McDowell NG, Running SW (2013) A remotely sensed global

  17. Promotion of Nuclear Non-proliferation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2009-07-01

    KAERI has jointly worked with Sandia National Laboratories for Nuclear Energy Non-proliferation in East Asia for the last five years. This project aims at support activities in this joint project between two states. The annual meetings were held during the project period, the 4th one in 2008 and the 5th one in 2009. In addition code comparison between KAERI and SNL's codes for assessing the back-end fuel cycle options was carried out. This project strongly enhances the close tie for the non-proliferation, transparency and safeguards among Korea Japan China Taiwan the United States Russia Malaysia Singapore Indonesia Thailand Vietnam and others for the project period

  18. The near-eastern roots of the Neolithic in South Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Gangal

    Full Text Available The Fertile Crescent in the Near East is one of the independent origins of the Neolithic, the source from which farming and pottery-making spread across Europe from 9,000 to 6,000 years ago at an average rate of about 1 km/yr. There is also strong evidence for causal connections between the Near-Eastern Neolithic and that further east, up to the Indus Valley. The Neolithic in South Asia has been far less explored than its European counterpart, especially in terms of absolute (14C dating; hence, there were no previous attempts to assess quantitatively its spread in Asia. We combine the available (14C data with the archaeological evidence for early Neolithic sites in South Asia to analyze the spatio-temporal continuity of the Neolithic dispersal from the Near East through the Middle East and to the Indian subcontinent. We reveal an approximately linear dependence between the age and the geodesic distance from the Near East, suggesting a systematic (but not necessarily uniform spread at an average speed of about 0.65 km/yr.

  19. Zwischen Khao San und Lonely Planet: Aspekte der postmodernen Backpacking-Identität in Südostasien [Between Khao San and Lonely Planet: Aspects of Postmodern Backpacking Identity in South-East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Spreitzhofer

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to highlight some aspects of postmodern backpacking, which has come to be more appreciated by South-East Asian governments as a development tool after the decrease of package tourist arrivals due to terrorism, diseases and natural disasters. Special focus has been put on backpacking performance, perception and transformation within the region, where the accumulation of youthful travellers has been obvious for more than three decades, when the first underground guidebo...

  20. Analysis on Price Elasticity of Energy Demand in East Asia: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications for ASEAN and East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Han PHOUMIN; Shigeru KIMURA

    2014-01-01

    This study uses time series data of selected ASEAN and East Asia countries to investigate the patterns of price and income elasticity of energy demand. Applying a dynamic log-linear energy demand model, both short-run and long-run price and income elasticities were estimated by country. The study uses three types of dependent variable “energy demand” such as total primary energy consumption (TPES), total final energy consumption (TFEC) and total final oil consumption (TFOC) to regress on its ...

  1. Redefining Human Security for Vulnerable Migrants in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes human security as an analytical framework to understand the current trends of irregular migration (both forced and unauthorised in East Asia and revisits the seven pillars of human security defined in the 1994 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP. It explains how the concepts of human security are parallel to those prescribed in international human rights conventions but different in terms of the attitude towards states. Human security does not directly challenge state authority and adds a sense of urgency and moral authority that requires extra-legal measures by the states. The author argues that human security is the securitisation of human rights and is a better framework and policy discourse than human rights to engage with state and non-state actors, especially in East Asia where political leaders are more receptive to the former idea. The study draws examples from stateless Rohingyas, undocumented sex workers in Thailand and Singapore, trafficked brides from Vietnam and Cambodia, and smuggled North Korean refugees in China to demonstrate the nexus between human security and irregular migration.

  2. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  3. Finance and Inequality – Evidence from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Salah Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic debate about inequality has occupied a huge place in the scientific discourse of the last decades. Several factors have been identified as causes for the rising wealth and income inequality in various regions such as economic growth, capital return and intergenerational wealth. In this paper, East Asia is chosen as a regional focus for the analysis due to the region’s specific characteristics and history regarding inequality. Until the end of the 1980s, the region experienced a period of so-called “growth with equity” where high economic growth rates were associated with decreasing poverty and inequality. In recent years, however, growth in East Asia has gone hand in hand with inequality. This shift from “growth with equity” to “growth with inequality” makes the region worth investigating. The paper focuses particularly on the size of the financial sector, analyzing its role and impact on the development of inequality. Therefore, the theoretical connection and the natural relationship between poverty, inequality, economic growth as well as the size of the financial sector are discussed. Indicators, proxies and measurements for these variables are identified, based on existing literature. The main analysis delivers an answer to the research question of whether and how financial development affects the inequality in a society. For the analysis, cross-country and panel data for the ASEAN+3 countries from 1960-2012 are used.

  4. Long-term trends of sulfur deposition in East Asia during 1981-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Masatoshi; Ohara, Toshimasa; Morino, Yu; Uno, Itsushi; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    We used a chemical transport model to investigate the long-term trends of sulfur deposition in East Asia during 1981-2005. The model reproduced the observed spatial distributions in East Asia of the rate of wet deposition of non-seasalt sulfate (nss-SO42-), volume-weighted mean concentrations of nss-SO42- in precipitation, precipitation, and concentrations in air of gaseous sulfur dioxide and particulate nss-SO42-. The model also reproduced well observed seasonal variations and long-term trends of wet deposition of nss-SO42- in Japan from 1988 to 2005. The increasing rate of wet deposition of nss-SO42- in Japan during 1991-2005 was demonstrated with 99.9% significance for both observed and modeled data. The annual rate of total (wet + dry) sulfur deposition in Japan increased from 15.6 Gmol S y-1 in 1981-1985 to 23.9 Gmol S y-1 in 2001-2005 in response to both increasing contributions from Chinese emissions and the eruption of Miyakejima volcano in 2000. During that 25-year period, approximately 2.1% of the sulfur from Chinese emissions was deposited in Japan. Over the same period, the rate of deposition of sulfur in East Asia increased gradually from 14.2 mmol S m-2 y-1 to 24.0 mmol S m-2 y-1, and the contribution of emissions from China to total sulfur deposition in East Asia increased from 65% to 77%. The contribution of Miyakejima volcano was 3% during 2001-2005. The increase in the sulfur deposition rate was remarkably high on the North China Plain, around Guangzhou, and south of Chongqing. The rate of increase in East Asia was greatest in winter, although the rate of sulfur deposition was highest in summer. Sulfur flux from China to Japan increased by a factor of 2.5 at altitudes of 0-3000 m from 1981 to 2005.

  5. The carbon budget of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Patra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Flux estimates were based on top-down methods that use inversions of atmospheric data, and bottom-up methods that use field observations, satellite data, and terrestrial ecosystem models. Based on atmospheric CO2 inversions, the net biospheric CO2 flux in South Asia (equivalent to the Net Biome Productivity, NBP was a sink, estimated at −104 ± 150 Tg C yr−1 during 2007–2008. Based on the bottom-up approach, the net biospheric CO2 flux is estimated to be −191 ± 193 Tg C yr−1 during the period of 2000–2009. This last net flux results from the following flux components: (1 the Net Ecosystem Productivity, NEP (net primary production minus heterotrophic respiration of −220 ± 186 Tg C yr−1 (2 the annual net carbon flux from land-use change of −14 ± 50 Tg C yr−1, which resulted from a sink of −16 Tg C yr−1 due to the establishment of tree plantations and wood harvest, and a source of 2 Tg C yr−1 due to the expansion of croplands; (3 the riverine export flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the coastal oceans of +42.9 Tg C yr−1; and (4 the net CO2 emission due to biomass burning of +44.1 ± 13.7 Tg C yr−1. Including the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels of 444 Tg C yr−1 for the 2000s, we estimate a net CO2 land–atmosphere flux of 297 Tg C yr−1. In addition to CO2, a fraction of the sequestered carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is released to the atmosphere as CH4. Based on bottom-up and top-down estimates, and chemistry-transport modeling, we estimate that 37 ± 3.7 Tg C yr−1

  6. A New Paradigm for Higher Education and Culture in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how cultural identity reveals itself in East Asian higher education. The following questions are addressed. First, what is culture and what is the characteristic of East Asian culture? Second, what are cultural situations of East Asian higher education? Third, how does the cultural identity of East Asia reveal itself in…

  7. Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The gender dimension of enterprise development in South Asia is also a significant factor, ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ... social inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower women and girls.

  8. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Giri, C.; Long, J.; Abbas, S.; ManiMurali, R.; Qamer, F.M.; Pengra, B.; Thau, D.

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions...

  9. Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nanotechnology in South Asia : Building Capabilities and Governing the Technology ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  10. Stepping Stones: Engaging with youth in South Asia – PANOS ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... new ways of preventing sexual violence by working with young people in educational and ... of sexual violence in five countries in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, ... violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive development.

  11. Making Evaluation Matter: Writings from South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... ... South Asia's Community of Evaluators to advance evaluation practices in the region. ... a space and platform to stimulate dynamic exchange and interaction ... health, nutrition, and rights and social justice-oriented programs.

  12. Women and militarization in South Asia: Media Research Fellowships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Women and militarization in South Asia: Media Research Fellowships ... of the research institutes and senior media personnel in May 2014. ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  13. Poland’s Trade with East Asia: An Outlier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Shoiw-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland achieved an excellent reputation for economic transformation during the recent global recession. The European debt crisis, however, quickly forced the reorientation of Poland’s trade outside of the European Union (EU, especially toward the dynamic region of East Asia. This study analyzes time series data from 1999 to 2013 to detect outliers in order to determine the bilateral trade paths between Poland and each East Asian country during the events of Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004, the global financial crisis from 2008 to 2009, and the European debt crisis from 2010 to 2013. From the Polish standpoint, the results showed significantly clustering outliers in the above periods and in the general trade paths from dependence through distancing and improvement to the chance of approaching East Asian partners. This study also shows that not only China but also several other countries present an excellent opportunity for boosting bilateral trade, especially with regard to Poland’s exports.

  14. Regional economic integration in Great East Asia: determinants and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Korol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies both general trends and peculiar characteristics of processes of economic integration in the Great East Asia, which plays the role of one of the major centers of contemporary global development. The basic determinants and barriers for implementation of regional strategies by China, Japan, ASEAN that will influence the geo-economic policy of Ukraine not only in East Asian, but also European and Eurasian areas. Attention is focused on the basic principles of realized and potential future integration models in the "ASEAN+" format with variable composition of member states that correspond to different extents to strategic objectives of both specified key actors in the region and extra-regional states that have global and transnational interests. Extrapolation of dominant trends in the nature and dynamics of transformation processes of East Asian economic regionalization allowed forming a forecast for the longterm conservation of importance of free trade agreements in the absence of preconditions to create customs unions. At the same time it was stressed out that proper assurance of national interests of international economic relations will be based on contractual instruments at the international level, without creating institutional and legal superstructure similar to the European Union or the Eurasian Economic Union as supranational law and supranational bodies.

  15. Outdoor Adventure Education in East Asia: Interpreting Data from Outward Bound Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Funnell, Aaron; Riley, Mike; Chan, Bacon; Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education (OAE) is philosophically rooted in Western values, yet it has been implemented in non-Western cultures, such as East Asia. This paper examines how OAE functions in East Asia, through data from Hong Kong. Although some cultural differences are clear, there is no compelling evidence that OAE cannot provide benefits in…

  16. The Continental Margin of East Asia: a collage of multiple plates formed by convergence and extension from multiple directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Wang, T.; Ludington, S.; Qiu, Z.; Li, Z.

    2017-12-01

    East Asia is one of the most complex regions in the world. Its margin was divided into 4 parts: Northeast Asia, North China, South China and Southeast Asia. During the Phanerozoic, continental plates of East Asia have interacted successively with a) the Paleo Tethyan Ocean, b) the Tethyan and Paleo Pacific Oceans and c) the Pacific and Indian. In the Early Mesozoic, the Indosinian orogeny is characterized by the convergence and extension within multiple continental plates, whereas the Late Mesozoic Yanshanian orogeny is characterized by both convergence and compression due to oceanic subduction and by widespread extension. We propose this combination as "East Asia Continental Margin type." Except in Northeast Asia, where Jurassic and Cretaeous accretionary complexes are common, most magmatic rocks are the result of reworking of ancient margins of small continental plates; and oceanic island arc basalts and continental margin arc andesites are largely absent. Because South China is adjacent to the western margin of the Pacific Plate, some effects of its westward subduction must be unavoidable, but juvenile arc-related crust has not been identified. The East Asian Continental Margin is characterized by magmatic rocks that are the result of post-convergent tectonics, which differs markedly from the active continental margins of both South and North America. In summary, the chief characteristics of the East Asian Continental Margin are: 1) In Mesozoic, the periphery of multiple blocks experienced magmatism caused by lithospheric delamination and thinning in response to extension punctuated by shorter periods of convergence. 2) The main mechanism of magma generation was the partial melting of crustal rocks, due to underplating by upwelling mafic magma associated with the collapse of orogenic belts and both extension and compression between small continental blocks. 3) During orogeny, mostly high Sr/Y arc-related granitoids formed, whereas during post-orogenic times, A

  17. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  18. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. Results A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Conclusions Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s. The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

  19. How Will Air Quality Change in South Asia by 2050?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Barth, Mary C.; Pfister, G. G.; Delle Monache, L.; Lamarque, J. F.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Tilmes, S.; Ghude, S. D.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Naja, M.; Walters, S.

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to unhealthy air causes millions of premature deaths and damages crops sufficient to feed a large portion of the South Asian population every year. However, little is known about how future air quality in South Asia will respond to changing human activities. Here we examine the combined effect of changes in climate and air pollutant emissions projected by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 and RCP6.0 on air quality of South Asia in 2050 using a state-of-the-science Nested Regional Climate model with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). RCP8.5 and RCP6.0 are selected to represent scenarios of highest and lowest air pollution in South Asia by 2050. NRCM-Chem shows the ability to capture observed key features of variability in meteorological parameters, ozone and related gases, and aerosols. NRCM-Chem results show that surface ozone and particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter will increase significantly by midcentury in South Asia under the RCP8.5 but remain similar to present day under RCP6.0. No RCP suggest an improvement in air pollution in South Asia by midcentury. Under RCP8.5, the frequency of air pollution events is predicted to increase by 20-120 days per year in 2050 compared to the present-day conditions, with particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter predicted to breach the World Health Organization ambient air quality guidelines on an almost daily basis in many parts of South Asia. These results indicate that while the RCP scenarios project a global improvement in air quality, they generally result in degrading air quality in South Asia.

  20. Supertall Asia/Middle East: Technological Responses and Contextual Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Sun Moon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Supported by rapid economic growth, major cities in Asia and the Middle East have been rising as new centers for tall buildings. This article reviews the state of tall building developments in Asian and Middle Eastern countries with an emphasis on supertall buildings, with their greater urban and global impacts. Focusing primarily on physical construction, this article examines technological responses for building tall in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts. The architectural transformation and globalization of what was once called the “American Building Type” in Asian and Middle Eastern countries is studied. Sustainable design technology transfer and adjustment in Asian and Middle Eastern climates are presented. Further, future prospects on supertall design in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts are discussed.

  1. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    spatial distribution of various climate-related hazards in 1,398 subnational areas of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. An analysis of country-level population exposure showed that approximately 750 million people are affected from combined climate-hazards. Of the affected population 72% are in India, followed by 12% each from Bangladesh and Pakistan. Due in part to the economic importance of agriculture, it was found to be most vulnerable and exposed to climate extremes. An analysis of individual hazards indicates that floods and droughts) are the dominant hazards impacting agricultural areas followed by extreme rainfall, extreme temperature and sea-level rise. Based on this vulnerability assessment, all the regions of Bangladesh and the Indian States in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Orissa; Ampara, Puttalam, Trincomalee, Mannar and Batticaloa in Sri Lanka; Sind and Baluchistan in Pakistan; Central and East Nepal; and the transboundary river basins of Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra are among the most vulnerable regions in South Asia.

  2. Growing threat of intense tropical cyclones to East Asia over the period 1977–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Doo-Sun R; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The threat of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) to East Asia has increased in recent decades. Integrated analyses of five available TC data sets for the period 1977–2010 revealed that the growing threat of TCs primarily results from the significant shift that the spatial positions of the maximum intensity of TCs moved closer to East Asian coastlines from Vietnam to Japan. This shift incurs a robust increase in landfall intensity over east China, Korea and Japan. In contrast, an increase of TC genesis frequency over the northern part of the South China Sea leads to a reduction in the maximum TC intensity before landfall, because of their short lifetime; thus, there are no clear tendencies in the landfall intensity across Vietnam, south China and Taiwan. All changes are related to the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, closely linked with the recent manifestation that the warming trend of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific is much higher than that in the central to eastern Pacific. (paper)

  3. Dust modeling over East Asia during the summer of 2010 using the WRF-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Huang, J.; Chen, S.

    2017-12-01

    An intense summer dust storm over East Asia during June 24-27, 2010, was systematically analyzed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and a variety of in situ measurements and satellite retrievals. The results showed that the WRF-Chem model captured the spatial and temporal distributions of meteorological factors and dust aerosols over East Asia. This summer dust storm was initiated by the approach of a transverse trough in the northwestern Xinjiang. Because of the passage of the cutoff-low, a large amount of cold air was transported southward and further enhanced in the narrow valleys of the Altai and Tianshan Mountains, which resulted in higher wind speeds and huge dust emissions over the Taklimakan Desert (TD). Dust emission fluxes over the TD were as high as 54 μg m-2 s-1 on June 25th. The dust aerosols from the TD then swept across Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Mongolia, and some were also transported eastward to Beijing, Tianjin, the Hebei region, and even South Korea and Japan. The simulations further showed that summer dust over East Asia exerts an important influence on the radiation budget in the Earth-atmosphere system. Dust heat the atmosphere at a maximum heating rate of 0.14 k day-1, effectively changing the vertical stability of the atmosphere and affecting climate change at regional and even global scales. The dust event-averaged direct radiative forcing induced by dust particles over the TD at all-sky was -6.0, -16.8 and 10.8 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere, the surface, and in the atmosphere, respectively.

  4. Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2016-05-01

    An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over East Asia, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in East Asia in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.

  5. Understanding Emissions in East Asia - The KORUS 2015 Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Park, R.; Choi, Y.; Simpson, I. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Streets, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    The air quality over Northeast Asia have been deteriorated for decades due to high population and energy use in the region. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse sometimes. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are much higher to effectively protect public health and ecosystems. Two aircraft filed campaigns targeting year 2016, MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ, have been organized to study the air quality of over Korea and East Asia relating to chemical evolution, emission inventories, trans-boundary contribution, and satellite application. We developed a new East-Asia emissions inventory, named KORUS2015, based on NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment), in support of the filed campaigns. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, and PM2.5. Since the KORUS2015 emissions framework was developed using the integrated climate and air quality assessment modeling framework (i.e. GAINS) and is fully connected with the comprehensive emission processing/modeling systems (i.e. SMOKE, KU-EPS, and MEGAN), it can be effectively used to support atmospheric field campaigns for science and policy. During the field campaigns, we are providing modeling emissions inventory to participating air quality models, such as CMAQ, WRF-Chem, CAMx, GEOS-Chem, MOZART, for forecasting and post-analysis modes. Based on initial assessment of those results, we are improving our emissions, such as VOC speciation, biogenic VOCs modeling. From the 2nditeration between emissions and modeling/measurement, further analysis results will be presented at the conference. Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change

  6. Increasing millet production in South Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asia, which has put the emphasis on cash crops and cereals ... aims to increase production and consumption of minor ... practices. They will then develop sustainable agriculture tool kits to help farmers to increase millet production in these.

  7. New Magnetic Anomaly Map of the East Asia with Some Preliminary Tectonic Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Doo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic data provides basic information for geological and geophysical interpretation. In this study we compile recently collected (57 cruises survey and old (published and open access magnetic data. This compilation includes land, marine and aeromagnetic data acquired in the East Asia region. The newly acquired magnetic data are mainly concentrated mainly in the South China Sea (SCS (especially in the northern continental shelf, the northwestern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB, and the East China Sea. The updated magnetic dataset is gridded with a spacing of one arc-minute. The new magnetic map provides new insights into the tectonic setting of East Asia. Analysis of the compiled data reveals several regional anomaly patterns: (1 the NE-SW trending high positive magnetic anomaly zone extending from southwest Taiwan to the area about 114.5°E114.5°E and 22°N22°N is pronounced; but it is less continuous southwest of the Penghu islands. In addition, the orientation of this high linear magnetic zone changes slightly in 118.5°E,118.5°E, 22.5°N22.5°N from N60°EN60°E - N50°E.N50°E. (2 Between the Gagua Ridge (GR and the Luzon-Okinawa Fracture Zone (LOFZ the marine magnetic stripes of the WPB exhibit a NW-SE orientation. This suggests that the seafloor spreading could be related to the first stage of the WPB east of the LOFZ. (3 The Urdaneta and Amami plateaus are associated with high magnetization zones. These high magnetization zones extend northwestward and are subducting beneath the Ryukyu Trench.

  8. Synergistic impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on summer surface O3 in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yu; An, Junling; Li, Jian

    2013-03-01

    A factor separation technique and an improved regional air quality model (RAQM) were applied to calculate synergistic contributions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs), biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to daily maximum surface 03 (O3DM) concentrations in East Asia in summer (June to August 2000). The summer averaged synergistic impacts of AVOCs and NOx are dominant in most areas of North China, with a maximum of 60 ppbv, while those of BVOCs and NOx are notable only in some limited areas with high BVOC emissions in South China, with a maximum of 25 ppbv. This result implies that BVOCs contribute much less to summer averaged O3DM concentrations than AVOCs in most areas of East Asia at a coarse spatial resolution (1 degree x 1 degree) although global emissions of BVOCs are much greater than those of AVOCs. Daily maximum total contributions of BVOCs can approach 20 ppbv in North China, but they can reach 40 ppbv in South China, approaching or exceeding those in some developed countries in Europe and North America. BVOC emissions in such special areas should be considered when 03 control measures are taken. Synergistic contributions among AVOCs, BVOCs and NOx significantly enhance O3 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and decrease them in some areas in South China. Thus, the total contributions of BVOCs to O3DM vary significantly from day to day and from location to location. This result suggests that 03 control measures obtained from episodic studies could be limited for long-term applications.

  9. Overview of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Initiatives in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ankur; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Suri, Kunal; Mishra, Sundeep; Iqbal, Romaina; Virani, Salim S

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Industrialization and economic growth have led to an unprecedented increment in the burden of CVD and their risk factors in less industrialized regions of the world. While there are abundant data on CVD and their risk factors from longitudinal cohort studies done in the West, good-quality data from South Asia are lacking. Several multi-institutional, observational, prospective registries, and epidemiologic cohorts in South Asia have been established to systematically evaluate the burden of CVD and their risk factors. The PINNACLE (Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP), the Kerala Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), and Trivandrum Heart Failure registries have focused on secondary prevention of CVD and performance measurement in both outpatient and inpatient settings, respectively. The Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE), Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS), and other epidemiologic and genetic studies have focused on primary prevention of CVD and evaluated variables such as environment, smoking, physical activity, health systems, food and nutrition policy, dietary consumption patterns, socioeconomic factors, and healthy neighborhoods. The international cardiovascular community has been responsive to a burgeoning cardiovascular disease burden in South Asia. Several collaborations have formed between the West (North America in particular) and South Asia to catalyze evidence-based and data-driven changes in the federal health policy in this part of the world to promote cardiovascular health and mitigate cardiovascular risk.

  10. Preface of special issue on ;tectonics, volcanism and geo-energy in East Asia;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sheng-Rong; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Ryu, Byong-Jae; Lin, Saulwood

    2017-11-01

    The East Asia, from north to south, including Russia, China, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines and Indonesia etc., is one of the most active tectonic and natural hazardous regions in the world. The subduction and collision zones, such as the Pacific Plate subducting into the Japan Arc and the Philippine Sea, and the Philippine Sea Plate subducting into the Eurasia Plate, and the collision zones of the Philippine Sea Plate with the Asian continental margin in the Taiwan mountain belt, and the India Plate with the Eurasia Plate in Himalaya mountain belts, distribute widely in this region. It is also the most densely populated areas in the world. More than two billion people (one/third populations of the world) live in East Asia. Most of disastrous natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and debris flows induced by floods occur frequently and cause many building collapses and causalities in this area. Geoscientists, therefore, must seriously consider and endeavor for mitigations of the natural hazards and reduction of the properties lose and human death.

  11. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  12. South Asia | Page 194 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is the outcome of the collaborative PANdora research and development ... $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. ... role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  13. South Asia | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avec un revenu annuel d'environ 200 dollars US par habitant, la République ... examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  14. South Asia | Page 193 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With an annual income of approximately $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of ... the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent and rapid economic growth and integration in East Asia.

  15. Hydroclimatic variability in East Asia: A case study in the Yangtze river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Fok, H. S.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Klaus, J.; Mamet, S.

    2017-12-01

    New regional patterns of droughts and flooding are emerging at south and east Asia river basins, but the causal climatic mechanisms underlying these new hydrological extreme events are yet unknown. The Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures affect hydrological conditions in Asia at different spatiotemporal scales. During the negative phase of the Southern Oscillation, anticyclone systems occur more frequently and modulate precipitation patterns near the southeast coast of China. Monsoons related to the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) locations have been used to explain regional droughts and flooding. Moreover, sea surface temperatures affect wind anomalies and thermocline adjustments across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Here we propose using a major catchment in China, the Yangtze river basin, to understand regional modes of climate variability influencing local hydrological dynamics in Asia. By decomposing the variance of precipitation and hydrological time series, we are able to quantify the relative contributions of the Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures to the Yangtze river discharges. Our results suggest that the Southern Oscillation has a relatively weak effect on discharges, whereas the Indian and western North Pacific monsoons are important for the upstream and downstream Yangtze river, respectively. Furthermore, rising Pacific sea surface temperatures may be related to more intensive precipitation at the downstream basin. Based on the hydroclimatic relationships identified here, we discuss future scenarios of changing environmental conditions in the region.

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO2 emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO2 emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO2 in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO2 emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO2 concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO2 and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO2 concentration in Japan is found during 2000–2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO2 is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO2 from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO2 emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO2 emission in

  17. The role of the East Asian active margin in widespread extensional and strike-slip deformation in East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Wouter P.; Lister, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    East Asia is a region of widespread deformation, dominated by normal and strike-slip faults. Deformation has been interpreted to result from extrusion tectonics related to the India-Eurasia collision, which started in the Early Eocene. In East and SE China, however, deformation started earlier than

  18. Regional climate projection based on RCP scenarios in the CORDEX East Asia Domain Using RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, M. S.; Oh, S. G.; Cha, D. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate projection data is essential to the adaptation and risk management for the expected climate change. In this stduy, we reproduced regional climate over CORDEX East Asia for 72 years from 1979 to 2050 with 50-km resolution using the latest regional climate model version 4, RegCM4, driven by HadGEM2-AO with about 135-km resolution under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5/4.5. Simulation skills of RegCM4 for the present climate (1980-2005, spin up time: 1979) over CORDEX East Asia are evaluated with CRU-TS (Climate Research Unit Time-Series) 3.0 and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). And KMA ground observation data are also used for the detailed assessment of RegCM4 over South Korea. The evaluation results showed that RegCM4 reasonalbly simulated the spatial distribution, and inter-annual and seasonal variations of surface air temperature. However, it showed a non-negligible systemartic biases in the precipitation. In particular, the rainband accompanied by the seasonal march of East Asian summer monsoon was simulated too southward, below 30° N comparing to the GPCP. As a reulst, summer precipitation over South Korea and Japan island was significantly underestimated. Under RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenario, annual mean temperature over the CORDEX East Asia is expected to increase by + 1.6 oC(+1.4oC) above the present level (1980-2005) by the end of the future simulation period. Most of the regions (South-Korea, South-China, North-China, India, Japan, Mongolia) show the increaseing trend of surface air temperature. On the other hand, the future changes of precipitation are not systemaic at the most of regions and seasons. More detailed results including projected regional climate change will be discussed in the presentation.

  19. Current knowledge of the South East Asian large branchiopod Crustacea (Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, Cyclestherida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The large branchiopod crustaceans (fairy shrimp, tadpole shrimp and clam shrimp of South East (SE Asia have only recently been examined with scientific vigor. Although more than 70 species have been reported for Asia and Indonesia, only six native taxa and one introduced species are known from SE Asia. The majority of records are from Thailand, with fewer than three records each from Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Singapore. Eleven genera reported from adjacent regions may potentially occur in SE Asia. Spinicaudatan clam shrimp have been collected from Thailand and Cambodia, but have not been identified beyond genus. Four of the five native fairy shrimp species are endemic to SE Asia. The limited distributions of these few taxa suggest that this region has a distinct branchiopod fauna. In addition, we present new species and records of clam shrimp from Thailand. Future survey efforts will undoubtedly reveal additional taxa.

  20. Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2014-09-01

    This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of Σ19ClPAHs and Σ9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  2. Urban population and economic growth: South Asia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Sarker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously economic growth was generally discussed in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI, educational growth, savings, investments, inflation as well as trade openness of a nation. Very recently it has been identified that population is one of the major determinants of economic growth of a nation. In the recent years, the study of urbanization has gained a matter of concern in developing countries as it has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. South Asian countries are one of the emerging economics and growing at a faster rate over the past few years. At the same time, population of South Asia is growing at a significant rate. Therefore the study has attempted to identify the causal relationship between urban population and economic growth in South Asia using a panel data analysis. The study makes use of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Phillips-Perron (PP, Pesaran as well as Fisher methods for panel unit root test. The panel Pedroni cointegration test suggests that there is long run relationship between the variables. The further panel Vector Error Correction Model (VECM suggests that there is long run causality running from urban population growth to economic growth in South Asia. The study concludes that the growth of urban population can have significant impact on economic growth in South Asia in the long run.

  3. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  4. Methane emissions in East Asia for 2000-2011 estimated using an atmospheric Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Stohl, A.; Zhou, L. X.; Dlugokencky, E.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Kim, S.-Y.; Lee, H.; Nisbet, E. G.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present methane (CH4) emissions for East Asia from a Bayesian inversion of CH4 mole fraction and stable isotope (δ13C-CH4) measurements. Emissions were estimated at monthly resolution from 2000 to 2011. A posteriori, the total emission for East Asia increased from 43 ± 4 to 59 ± 4 Tg yr-1 between 2000 and 2011, owing largely to the increase in emissions from China, from 39 ± 4 to 54 ± 4 Tg yr-1, while emissions in other East Asian countries remained relatively stable. For China, South Korea, and Japan, the total emissions were smaller than the prior estimates (i.e., Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research 4.2 FT2010 for anthropogenic emissions) by an average of 29%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. For Mongolia, Taiwan, and North Korea, the total emission was less than 2 Tg yr-1 and was not significantly different from the prior. The largest reductions in emissions, compared to the prior, occurred in summer in regions important for rice agriculture suggesting that this source is overestimated in the prior. Furthermore, an analysis of the isotope data suggests that the prior underestimates emissions from landfills and ruminant animals for winter 2010 to spring 2011 (no data available for other times). The inversion also found a lower average emission trend for China, 1.2 Tg yr-1 compared to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in the prior. This trend was not constant, however, and increased significantly after 2005, up to 2.0 Tg yr-1. Overall, the changes in emissions from China explain up to 40% of the increase in global emissions in the 2000s.

  5. Sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer using the ECCC monthly forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ping; Lin, Hai

    2018-02-01

    A useful sub-seasonal forecast is of great societal and economical value in the highly populated East Asian region, especially during boreal summer when frequent extreme events such as heat waves and persistent heavy rainfalls occur. Despite recent interest and development in sub-seasonal prediction, it is still unclear how skillful dynamical forecasting systems are in East Asia beyond 2 weeks. In this study we evaluate the sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer in the operational monthly forecasting system of Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).Results show that the climatological intra-seasonal oscillation (CISO) of East Asian summer monsoonis reasonably well captured. Statistically significant forecast skill of 2-meter air temperature (T2m) is achieved for all lead times up to week 4 (days 26-32) over East China and Northeast Asia, which is consistent with the skill in 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500). Significant forecast skill of precipitation, however, is limited to the week of days 5-11. Possible sources of predictability on the sub-seasonal time scale are analyzed. The weekly mean T2m anomaly over East China is found to be linked to an eastward propagating extratropical Rossby wave from the North Atlantic across Europe to East Asia. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are also likely to influence the forecast skill of T2m at the sub-seasonal timescale over East Asia.

  6. Far East Asia | Page 88 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... has shown that, as more and more people go online in Asia, digital privacy is increasingly ... An IDRC-funded project in Asia found that distance education can be as ... education in delivering quality teaching and a good learning experience.

  7. Far East Asia | Page 182 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although economic growth has reduced poverty in much of Asia, rural and ... These pressures strain the infrastructure and fray human relations, ultimately hampering development. ... Our regional office for Asia is located in New Delhi, India.

  8. Spring Soil Temperature Anomalies over Tibetan Plateau and Summer Droughts/Floods in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Li, W.; LI, Q.; Diallo, I.; Chu, P. C.; Guo, W.; Fu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recurrent extreme climate events, such as droughts and floods, are important features of the climate of East Asia, especially over the Yangtze River basin. Many studies have attributed these episodes to variability and anomaly of global sea surface temperatures (SST) anomaly. In addition, snow in the Tibetan Plateau has also been considered as one of the factors affecting the Asian monsoon variability. However, studies have consistently shown that SST along is unable to explain the extreme climate events fully and snow has difficulty to use as a predictor. Remote effects of observed large-scale land surface temperature (LST) and subsurface temperature variability in Tibetan Plateau (TP) on East Asian regional droughts/floods, however, have been largely ignored. We conjecture that a temporally filtered response to snow anomalies may be preserved in the LST anomaly. In this study, evidence from climate observations and model simulations addresses the LST/SUBT effects. The Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) of observational data identifies that a pronounce spring LST anomaly pattern over TP is closely associated with precipitation anomalies in East Asia with a dipole pattern, i.e., negative/positive TP spring LST anomaly is associated with the summer drought/flood over the region south of the Yangtze River and wet/dry conditions to the north of the Yangtze River. Climate models were used to demonstrate a causal relationship between spring cold LST anomaly in the TP and the severe 2003 drought over the southern part of the Yangtze River in eastern Asia. This severe drought resulted in 100 x 106 kg crop yield losses and an economic loss of 5.8 billion Chinese Yuan. The modeling study suggests that the LST effect produced about 58% of observed precipitation deficit; while the SST effect produced about 32% of the drought conditions. Meanwhile, the LST and SST effects also simulated the observed flood over to the north of the Yangtze River. This suggests that inclusion of

  9. STOCK PRICES OF DOMESTIC BANKING SECTOR AND EXTERNAL SHOCKS IN EAST ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Inoguchi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of price fluctuations in foreign stock markets on the stock prices of domestic banks’ stocks to explore if and how external shocks have affected the banking system in Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand during the 2000s. Some researchers insist that domestic banks in East Asia were less affected by the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. However, few previous articles have investigated how the banking sector in East Asia has been affected by external shocks....

  10. NO to ¥E$? Enhancing Economic Integration in East Asia through Closer Monetary Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.; Milo, Melanie S.; Pontines, Victor

    2001-01-01

    This paper has reviewed four major developments in the last 30 years: the collapse of the Bretton Woods arrangements; deepening of economic integration worldwide; the frequency and severity of the crises that affected not only developing economies but developed economies as well; and the formation of the Euroland. Against this background was the increasing intra-regional trade and investment in East Asia. Existing empirical studies generally show that East Asia has satisfied the economic crit...

  11. Financial Integration and Cooperation in East Asia: Assessment of Recent Developments and Their Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Bum Jang

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current situation pertaining to trade and financial integration in East Asia from various approaches and discusses potential linkages between intra-regional trade and financial integration. This paper also offers policy suggestions based upon its analyses that take full account of the post-global crisis policy landscape. The main conclusions drawn from this study are as follows: (i) the overall degree of intra-regional trade and financial integrations in East Asia stil...

  12. Dangerous deterrent: nuclear weapons proliferation and conflict in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Kapur, S.

    2008-01-01

    This book discusses the acquisition of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan and its effect on security of the South Asian region. The author uses quantitative analysis to establish the relationship between nuclearization and conventional stability in the region between 1971 and 2002. He shows a positive correlation between nuclear proliferation and conventional instability during these three decades. Thus, this study affirms that nuclear weapons have failed to prevent conflict in South Asia. In fact, they have escalated tensions

  13. South Asia | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les questions relatives à la taille des entreprises manufacturières sont au coeur des débats en matière de stratégies de développement. Dans leur livre, intitulé Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia: Size Structure and Economic Growth, Dipak Mazumdar et Sandip Sarkar proposent une interprétation des trajectoires de ...

  14. Non-proliferation efforts in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    1994-01-01

    Southern Asia is one of the most volatile regions in the world because of inter-State and intra-State conflicts. Security in the region highly depends on the rival capabilities of the involved states, Pakistan, India, China. Increased Confidence building and nuclear transparency are becoming more significant issues in attaining stability in the region, although non-proliferation efforts in this region have attained little headway

  15. Oil refining in South Asia and Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the oil markets of Southeast Asia and Australasia is presented focussing on oil refining. Key statistics of both areas are tabulated, and figures providing information on GDP/capita, crude production, comparison of demand barrels, and product demand are provided. Crude oil production and supply, oil product demand, and the refining industries are examined with details given of evolution of capacity and cracking to distillation ratios

  16. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eui-soon, E-mail: shine@yonsei.ac.k [School of Economics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Savage, Tim, E-mail: seoul@nautilus.or [Nautilus Institute, 58-14 Shinmun-ro 1-ga, Hangeul Hall Room 503, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-061 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: {yields} Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. {yields} There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. {yields} No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. {yields} Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  17. The U.S.A. and the energy safety in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmat, K.

    2006-01-01

    In the contribution under consideration the author reports on the impact of the United States of America (U.S.A.) in East Asia. The American policy in East Asia is based on two fundamental principles: providing, that no regional authority may provoke the position of the U.S.A., as well as protection of the access to regional markets for the American economy. The U.S.A. fulfill their protective function of their Asiatic partners by means of their maritime superiority with the pacific fleet. Strong-points and safety contracts with Japan and the Republic of Korea form the support of the presence of the U.S. American military. The According to energy security, the interests of the U.S.A. in East Asia are: (a) Secure supply of the national economies in East Asia; (b) Security of the maritime supply systems; (c) Stability and liberalization of the international oil markets; (d) Responsible handling of nuclear energy; (e) Environmental protection. Furthermore, the author describes the conflict potentials between the U.S.A. and the energy safety in East Asia as well as the long-term significance of the energy safety in East Asia

  18. Joint stockpiling and emergency sharing of oil: Arrangements for regional cooperation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eui-soon; Savage, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The East Asia region includes three of the world's top five oil-importing nations-China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. As a consequence, international oil supply disruptions and oil price spikes, and their effects on the economies of the region, have historically been of significant concern. Each of these three nations, as well as other nations in East Asia, has developed or is developing their own strategic oil stockpiles, but regional coordination in stockpiling arrangements and sharing of oil stocks in an emergency could provide significant benefits. This article describes the overall oil supply security situation in East Asia, reviews the attributes of different stockpiling arrangements to address energy supply security concerns, summarizes ongoing national approaches to stockpiling in East Asia, describes the development of joint oil stockpile initiatives in the region, and suggests the most attractive options for regional cooperation on oil stockpiling issues. - Highlights: → Rising oil consumption will make East Asia more vulnerable to energy insecurity. → There have been various dialogs on the need for a joint regional oil stockpile. → No serious joint oil stockpiling efforts have been made in East Asia to date. → Despite various impediments, diverse benefits justify oil stockpile cooperation.

  19. National Target for South Asia Specialists. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Foreign Language and International Studies, New York, NY.

    The South Asia Panel of the National Council on Foreign Languages and International Studies reports on the need for specialists in the languages and cultures of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives. Two categories of specialists are discussed: (1) individuals in government, mission, etc., in…

  20. Institutionalizing Evaluation Training in Universities in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The long-term objectives are to strengthen evaluation skills in the context of the development challenges in South Asia, and to support a culture of innovation, experimentation and research in academic institutions. The overall goal is to contribute to more accountable and effective development research, policy and ...

  1. Food Sovereignty and Uncultivated Biodiversity in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2007 ... In the food systems of South Asia, the margin between cultivated and ... and guides the reader into new territory, where food, ecology, and culture converge. ... Based on extensive field research in India and Bangladesh, with and by ... Le CRDI se joint au Forum économique mondial afin de présenter les ...

  2. South Asia | Page 90 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Language French. Read more about Economics for the Environment: Research Capacity Building in South Asia. Language English. Read more about Occasions et difficultés associées aux activités commerciales dans les zones ...

  3. How can Small Countries in South Asia benefit from Biotechnology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will help small developing countries in South Asia develop ... and Development) countries and emerging economies like India and China. The second concerns a plan to implement agro-biotechnology businesses based on tissue ... in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  4. In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures | Ganguli | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Asia, it's cattle vs vultures. Ishani Ganguli. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 50-51. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  5. Phylogenetic tests of distribution patterns in South Asia: towards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The last four decades have seen an increasing integration of phylogenetics and biogeography. However, a dearth of phylogenetic studies has precluded such biogeographic analyses in South Asia until recently. Noting the increase in phylogenetic research and interest in phylogenetic biogeography in the region, we ...

  6. Water Security in Periurban South Asia : Adapting to Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chargé(e) de projet. Prof. Ashutosh Kumar Shukla. Institution. Nepal Engineering College. Pays d' institution. Nepal. Site internet. http://www.nec.edu.np. Extrants. Études. Communication strategy in action research on water security in four South Asian peri-urban locations : CCW Asia Regional Partners Meeting, June ...

  7. Reforming Security Sector Governance South Asia | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In South Asia, security discourse has traditionally been confined to government circles, with no room for voices from civil society. ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...

  8. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  9. South Asia | Page 95 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Asia. Asie du sud. Read more about Soutien au Programme de recherche du CGIAR sur les racines, tubercules et bananes. Language French. Read more about Amélioration de la nutrition au Cambodge au moyen de l'aquaculture et des jardins potagers domestiques (FCRSAI). Language French. Read more about ...

  10. Increasing gender equality among small millet farmers in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Gender equality among small millet. More than 1,600 women were involved in testing small millet varieties. One reason for the decline in small millet cultivation is the drudgery involved in their processing, a task that traditionally falls to women. The Revalorizing small millets in South Asia (RESMISA) project ...

  11. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  12. Exploring Options to Address Chinas Strategy in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    india_news-article-52022.htm (accessed December 19, 2012). 82 M. V. Ramana and Zia Mian , “The Nuclear Confrontation in South Asia,” SIPRI Yearbook 2003...english.peopledaily.com.cn/90883/7839137.html (accessed December 17, 2012). 90 Bin Wang and Shen Li , “Education Tourism Market in China - an Explorative Study

  13. How will changes in globalization impact growth in south Asia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Ejaz; Anand, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    The current global crisis may change globalization itself, as both developed and developing countries adjust to global imbalances that contributed to the crisis. Will these changes help or hinder economic recovery and growth in South Asia? This is the focus of this paper. The three models of globalization--trade, capital, and economic management--may not be the same in the future. Changes ...

  14. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  15. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14 and A. luchuensis (n = 6. The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948 does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

  16. RCA/IAEA third external dosimetry intercomparison in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Cruz Suarez, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Several intercomparison exercises were organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or interregional basis. These exercises revealed significant differences in the approach, methods and assumptions, and consequently in the measurement results obtained by participating laboratories. In the East Asia region, the third phase of the Hp(10) intercomparison, organized within the frame of the Regional Cooperation Agreement (RCA) as a follow-up to previous exercises during 1990-92 and 1995-96, was completed mid-2004. The first phase grouped 25 laboratories from 16 member states, and 4 Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories irradiated dosimeters in 6 different qualities for photon and beta radiations. In the second phase, 23 laboratories from 16 member states participated, and 3 Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories provided irradiation in 5 different radiation qualities simulating workplace fields. The results of the second phase for the determination of operational quantities Hp(d) were satisfactory for all participating Member States, with marked improvement from the first phase; the laboratories demonstrated good performance in both quantities tested. These results underline the importance of such an intercomparison programme as a key element towards the harmonization of quantities and units on an international level. This paper presents the results of this RCA/IAEA intercomparison, and also the forthcoming RCA activities supporting intercomparison runs for the assessment of occupational exposure. Member states strongly recommend that the IAEA continue acting as a focal point for, inter alia, training in all forms, particularly in measurements and dosimetry techniques. This exercise also stressed the importance for the IAEA to take an active role in establishing a network of monitoring laboratories for radiation protection purposes, as it would provide for better information

  17. Non-communicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karen R; Patel, Shivani A; Ali, Mohammed K

    2014-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as metabolic, cardiovascular, cancers, injuries and mental health disorders are increasingly contributing to the disease burden in South Asia, in light of demographic and epidemiologic transitions in the region. Home to one-quarter of the world's population, the region is also an important priority area for meeting global health targets. In this review, we describe the current burden of and trends in four common NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in South Asia. The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study supplemented with the peer-reviewed literature and reports by international agencies and national governments. The burden of NCDs in South Asia is rising at a rate that exceeds global increases in these conditions. Shifts in leading risk factors-particularly dietary habits, tobacco use and high blood pressure-are thought to underlie the mounting burden of death and disability due to NCDs. Improvements in life expectancy, increasing socioeconomic development and urbanization in South Asia are expected to lead to further escalation of NCDs. Although NCD burdens are currently largest among affluent groups in South Asia, many adverse risk factors are concentrated among the poor, portending a future increase in disease burden among lower income individuals. There continues to be a notable lack of national surveillance data to document the distribution and trends in NCDs in the region. Similarly, economic studies and policy initiatives addressing NCD burdens are still in their infancy. Opportunities for innovative structural and behavioral interventions that promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles-such as moderate caloric intake, adequate physical activity and avoidance of tobacco-in the context of socioeconomic development are abundant. Testing of health care infrastructure and systems that best provide low-cost and effective detection and treatment of NCDs is a priority for

  18. Decoupled warming and monsoon precipitation in East Asia over the last deglaciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterse, F.; Prins, M.A.; Beets, C.J.; Troelstra, S.R.; Zheng, H.B.; Gu, Z.Y.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the continental climate development in East Asia is mainly based on loess-paleosol sequences and summer monsoon precipitation reconstructions based on oxygen isotopes (delta O-18) of stalagmites from several Chinese caves. Based on these records, it is thought that East Asian

  19. The future of nuclear non-proliferation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqa, A.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation in South Asia is currently one of the hot topics in world politics. The concern of the international community, and especially the USA, over this issue is coupled with the fear of nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan. As a result, Washington has been using its 'stick and carrot' policy to persuade the two countries involved not to develop their nuclear programs for military purposes. However both countries have not only continued to develop their nuclear ambitions, but seem to have achieved vertical nuclear proliferation. This paper examines the future non-proliferation in the South Asian region in the 1990s. This will be achieved by looking at the following: the development of the nuclear capabilities of both India and Pakistan; how these programs have been developed; the reasons for acquiring the capability for non-conventional defence; the real fear in terms of nuclear proliferation in the region; the possible options for dealing with nuclear proliferation in South Asia

  20. Women are key players in the economies of East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, S B; Mason, A

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the East-West Center's Program on Population investigated the links between population change and economic growth in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. This document discusses the findings pertaining to women's changing marriage and childbearing patterns, education attainment, and labor force participation as well as changes in family life. In eastern and southeastern Asia, women are delaying marriage and having fewer children as a result of their overwhelming acceptance of modern contraception. Concurrently, women's secondary school enrollment has increased dramatically since 1960, and women have accounted for steadily increasing proportions of total labor force growth. Economic development has led to fewer women employed in agriculture and more in clerical positions. Women continue to be marginalized in low-paying manufacturing jobs and to lose these jobs more frequently than do men. Women's labor force participation continues to be dependent upon their child care responsibilities, but women are beginning to combine both activities with the help of live-in grandparents. Women have made an important contribution to economic growth in Asia. Policies should address job discrimination against married women, wage discrimination, the problems faced by young women who leave home for employment in the manufacturing and service sectors, and the lack of child care facilities.

  1. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change.

  2. Suicide in South Asia: a scoping review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Kaufman, Anne; Brenman, Natassia; Adhikar, Ramesh; Luitel, Nagendra; Tol, Wietse; Komproe, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, suicide is an important cause of mortality. In low- and middle income settings, it is difficult to find unequivocal data to establish suicide rates. The objective of this review is to synthesize the reporting of suicide incidence in six south Asian countries. Methods We

  3. Modeling biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions using a new, satellite constrained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R.; Cohen, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    regions being burned at significantly higher rates than previously known. These findings, however, are consistent with the current rapid economic development and population movement throughout South, South East and East Asia, as well as independent studies which have observed long-range transport of smoke throughout portions of this region.

  4. Globalization and language policies of multilingual societies: some case studies of south east Asia Globalização e políticas linguísticas em sociedades multilíngues: estudos de caso do sudeste da Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Kumar Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world. These changes also have put a significant mark on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. There is a clear movement towards multilingual practices in the world, which is also evident in the title of UNESCO 2003 education position paper, "Education in a multilingual world." Given the long-standing history of multilingual contexts of the Himalayan region and the emergence of the two major global economic power centers of 21st century, China and India, language policies and practices of the region have become a great matter of interests for linguists and policy makers around the world. This paper uses case studies to investigate how globalization influences language education policies and practices in multilingual countries. The case studies that we have drawn from the four nations of South East Asia - Afghanistan, China, India, and Nepal offer insights for other multilingual nations of the world, as they portray the influences of globalization on language policies and practices of multilingual countries. This paper suggests more research on comparative studies of multilingual education across multilingual nations in the world.Nas últimas décadas, transformações econoômicas e políticas significativas transcorreram no mundo. Essas mudanças deixaram sua marca também nas práticas de ensino e aprendizagem de línguas em todo o globo. Há um claro movimento em prol de práticas multilíngues, o que fica evidente no título do artigo de posição da UNESCO sobre a educação de 2003, "Education in a multilingual world". Frente à longa história de contextos multilíngues na região do Himalaia e à emergência de duas potências mundiais no século 21, a Índia e a China, as práticas e políticas linguísticas da região tornaram-se assunto de grande interesse para linguistas e legisladores de todo o mundo. Este artigo

  5. Key Issues on Nuclear Energy Non-proliferation in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Whang, Joo Ho; Lee, Un Chul

    2005-01-01

    Energy demand in East Asia casts a significant challenge to sustainable economy development and socio-political stability in the region which has experienced tensions throughout the history. The energy demand in this region has been dramatically increased since the start of reform in PRC. DPRK is another challenge. The current electricity consumption in DPRK is around 10% of that in ROK. If the economy of PRC continuously grows to the level of neighboring states and if the living standard of DPRK reaches that of ROK, the energy and electricity demand in the region will certainly be out of control unless the proper measures are taken into actions from today. The only feasible energy option is the nuclear one. PRC already proclaimed its ambitious plan to deploy more than 30 reactors in the near future. In addition, a couple of the South Eastern Asian states expressed their willingness to introduce nuclear power plants in the future. The increase in the use of nuclear energy is expected to bring up the nuclear renaissance in the region. However, without the proper mechanisms to supply fresh fuels and to manage spent nuclear fuels with full compliance of nuclear energy nonproliferation, the new development will inevitably cause the instability in the region. So far many interesting proposals on nuclear cooperation in East Asia were announced. Unfortunately, none of them works out properly yet, partly because the old proposals were too political. To restart the engine of the nuclear cooperation and nonproliferation in the region, it is necessary to find out what would be the common interests of the region not so much related to politics. In this paper, some key technical issues are addressed for future regional joint studies

  6. A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibig, H.-J.; Belward, A.S.; Roy, P.S.; Rosalina-Wasrin, U.; Agrawal, S.; Joshi, P.K.; ,; Beuchle, R.; Fritz, S.; Mubareka, S.; Giri, C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Our aim was to produce a uniform ‘regional’ land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia based on ‘sub-regional’ mapping results generated in the context of the Global Land Cover 2000 project.Location  The ‘region’ of tropical and sub-tropical South and Southeast Asia stretches from the Himalayas and the southern border of China in the north, to Sri Lanka and Indonesia in the south, and from Pakistan in the west to the islands of New Guinea in the far east.Methods  The regional land-cover map is based on sub-regional digital mapping results derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite data for the years 1998–2000. Image processing, digital classification and thematic mapping were performed separately for the three sub-regions of South Asia, continental Southeast Asia, and insular Southeast Asia. Landsat TM images, field data and existing national maps served as references. We used the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) for coding the sub-regional land-cover classes and for aggregating the latter to a uniform regional legend. A validation was performed based on a systematic grid of sample points, referring to visual interpretation from high-resolution Landsat imagery. Regional land-cover area estimates were obtained and compared with FAO statistics for the categories ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’.Results  The regional map displays 26 land-cover classes. The LCCS coding provided a standardized class description, independent from local class names; it also allowed us to maintain the link to the detailed sub-regional land-cover classes. The validation of the map displayed a mapping accuracy of 72% for the dominant classes of ‘forest’ and ‘cropland’; regional area estimates for these classes correspond reasonably well to existing regional statistics.Main conclusions  The land-cover map of South and Southeast Asia provides a synoptic view of the distribution of land cover of tropical and sub

  7. Measures for regional security and arms control in the South-East Asian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of regional security and arms control in the South-East Asia raises some new and difficult issues. No approach to ensuring regional security could be complete without military dimension including the following categories: regional arms control; global arms control measure; confidence building measures that are designed to enhance the transparency of defense policies; confidence building measures that encourage cooperation among the military forces in the region

  8. East-Asia nuclear/fossil power plant competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Ch.

    1996-01-01

    The competitiveness of a new nuclear plant vs. a new oil or gas fired combined cycle plant or a coal fired plant in East-Asia, is reviewed in the paper. Both the nuclear and the fossil fired plants are evaluated as either utility financed or independent power producer (IPP) financed. Two types of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) are considered in this paper, namely evolutionary ALWRs (1200 MWe size) and passive ALWRs (600 MWe class). A range of capital and total generation costs for each plant type is reported here. The comparison centers on three elements of overall competitiveness: generation costs, hard currency requirements, and employment requirements. Each of these aspects is considered perspective. Year-by-Year generation cost history over the plant lifetime is shown in some cases. It is found here that a utility financed evolutionary and passive ALWRs are broadly competitive with an IPP financed gas fired combined cycle plant and are more economic than oil fired combined cycle or a coal fired plant. A single unit evolutionary ALWR may have a 12 - 15 % capital cost advantage over a single passive ALWR then adjusted on a per KWe basis. Front-end hard currency requirements of a passive ALWR are 2.5 times higher than for a combined plant and evolutionary ALWRs requires 3.6 times higher up-front cost. However, on a lifetime basis, passive ALWR net hard currency requirements are two times lower than for a combined cycle plant. Evolutionary ALWR net hard currency requirements are three times over than those of a combined cycle plant. The effects of domestic vs. world price of fossil fuels on relative nuclear competitiveness are reviewed in this nuclear competitiveness paper. Employment requirements in an ALWR during both the construction period and lifetime operation, exceed the requirements for oil or gas fired plants by a factor of five. While contributing to overall plant cost, employment requirements can also be viewed as opportunity to increase national

  9. The Role of Stigma and Denormalization in Suicide-Prevention Laws in East Asia: A Sociocultural, Historical, and Ethical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin A; Courtwright, Andrew; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    In many Western countries, the criminalization and stigmatization of suicide has given way to a biomedical approach aimed at destigmatizing suicide and treating underlying mental illness. By contrast, in many East Asian countries, suicide has never historically been criminalized or stigmatized. High rates of suicide in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan have recently led policy makers in those countries to pursue innovative suicide-prevention strategies. The intentional denormalization of harmful behaviors has been discussed in the public health and ethics literatures, particularly with regard to smoking cessation, and could represent a novel mechanism for preventing suicides in East Asia. Using examples from the sociocultural, historical, and legal discourses surrounding suicide in Western and East Asian contexts, we suggest that denormalization can be a justified, culturally relevant suicide-prevention strategy, but that care must be taken to avoid shaming or stigmatizing suicidal individuals. Specifically, we propose the term weak denormalization to refer to an ethically permissible strategy at the mildest end of a spectrum of denormalizing approaches-milder than the reintegrative shaming described in the criminal justice literature, and diametrically opposed to outright stigmatization, which is generally considered ethically impermissible. Given the severe stigma of mental illness in East Asia, adopting the dominant Western view of suicide as solely a psychiatric concern would not be justified. Weak denormalization strategies in East Asia should be culturally tailored and rigorously tested on a small scale. They should include social supports, praise for the bravery of those of who seek help, and strategies to reduce shame regarding perceived social failure.

  10. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2(CO(2)ff, derived from Delta(CO2)-C-14 observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO(2)ff when local air comes from...... the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO(2)ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO(2)ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2 variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2....../ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low R-CO:CO2ff of 13 +/- 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than...

  11. The History of East Asia as Newly Recognized from the Perspective of Korean Historians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Young-hun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Miyazima Hiroshi and Bae Hang-seob, eds. Tong Asia nŭn myŏt si inga?: Tong Asia-sa ŭi saeroun ihae rŭl ch’ajasŏ 동아시아는 몇 시인가?: 동아시아사의 새로운 이해를 찾아서 [What time is East Asia? In search of a new understanding of East Asian history]. Seoul: Nŏmŏ puksŭ, 2015. ISBN: 9788994606392. The Eurocentrism and modern-centrism that have established themselves as the predominant discourses of historians may need to be further pushed aside by new discourses. Sinocentrism, decentralism, multiple modernities, alternative modernity—these are just a few of the candidates. No one knows what the dominant discourse is going to be down the road. Fourteen authors, including editors Miyazima Hiroshi and Bae Hang-seob, contributed to the collection What Time Is East Asia? In Search of a New Understanding of East Asian History in 2015. This book presents a new historical discourse that emerged in Korea as a critique of Eurocentrism and modern-centrism. The title refers to a question posed by Alexander Woodside in his 2006 book, Lost Modernities, and is meant to suggest that the historical experience of East Asia cannot be grasped by historical perspectives based on Eurocentrism...

  12. Changes in Cold Surge Occurrence over East Asia in the Future: Role of Thermal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Heo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of wintertime cold surges (CSs over East Asia is largely controlled by the surface air temperature (SAT distribution at high latitudes and thermal advection in the lower troposphere. The thermodynamic background state over northeastern Asia is associated with the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon and the variation of Arctic Oscillation. This study assesses the importance of the SAT structure with thermal advection in determining the frequency of CS occurrences over East Asia through the analysis of nine atmosphere–ocean coupled global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. The historical simulations can reproduce the observed typical characteristics of CS development. On the basis of this model performance, ensemble-averaged future simulations under the representative concentration pathway 8.5 project a reduction in CS frequency by 1.1 yr−1 in the late 21st century (2065–2095 compared to the present-day period (1975–2005. The major reason for less frequent CSs in the future is the weakened cold advection, caused by notable SAT warming over the northern part of East Asia. These results suggest that changes in the meridional SAT structure and the associated changes in thermal advection would play a more substantial role than local warming in determining future changes in the frequency of CS occurrences over East Asia.

  13. Future regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia: Energy security costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Hayes, Peter; Kang, Jungmin; Katsuta, Tadahiro

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in East Asia has rapidly increased regional energy, and especially, electricity needs. Many of the countries of East Asia have sought or are seeking to diversify their energy sources and bolster their energy supply and/or environmental security by developing nuclear power. Rapid development of nuclear power in East Asia brings with it concerns regarding nuclear weapons proliferation associated with uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel management. This article summarizes the development and analysis of four different scenarios of nuclear fuel cycle management in East Asia, including a scenario where each major nuclear power user develops uranium enrichment and reprocessing of spent fuel individually, scenarios featuring cooperation in the full fuel cycle, and a scenario where reprocessing is avoided in favor of dry cask storage of spent fuel. The material inputs and outputs and costs of key fuel cycle elements under each scenario are summarized. - Highlights: → We evaluate four scenarios of regional nuclear fuel cycle cooperation in East Asia and the Pacific. → The scenarios cover fuel supply, enrichment, transport, reprocessing, and waste management. → We evaluate nuclear material flows, energy use, costs, and qualitative energy security impacts. → Regional cooperation on nuclear fuel cycle issues can help to enhance energy security. → A regional scenario in which reprocessing is rapidly phased out shows security and cost advantages.

  14. Possible teleconnections between East and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in projected future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sumin; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Oh, Jai-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2018-01-01

    The present paper examined the teleconnections between two huge Asian summer monsoon components (South and East Asia) during three time slices in future: near-(2010-2039), mid-(2040-2069) and far-(2070-2100) futures under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. For this purpose, a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model is used and integrated at 40 km horizontal resolution. To get more insight into the relationships between the two Asian monsoon components, we have studied the spatial displaying correlation coefficients (CCs) pattern of precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region with that of South Asia and three regions of East Asia (North China, Korea-Japan and Southern China) separately during the same three time slices. The possible factors responsible for these teleconnections are explored by using mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and wind fields at 850 hPa. The CC pattern of precipitation over South Asia shows an in-phase relationship with North China and an out-of-phase relationship with Korea-Japan, while precipitation variations over Korea-Japan and Southern China exhibit an out-of-phase relationship with South Asia. The CCs analysis between the two Asian blocks during different time slices shows the strongest CCs during the near and far future with the RCP8.5 scenario. The CC pattern of precipitation over Korea-Japan and Southern China with the wind (at 850 hPa) and MSLP fields indicate that the major parts of the moisture over Korea-Japan gets transported from the west Pacific along the western limb of NPSH, while the moisture over Southern China comes from the Bay of Bengal and South China Seas for good monsoon activity.

  15. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R. Mani; Qamer, Faisal M.; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests in South Asia occur along the tidal sea edge of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. These forests provide important ecosystem goods and services to the region's dense coastal populations and support important functions of the biosphere. Mangroves are under threat from both natural and anthropogenic stressors; however the current status and dynamics of the region's mangroves are poorly understood. We mapped the current extent of mangrove forests in South Asia and identified mangrove forest cover change (gain and loss) from 2000 to 2012 using Landsat satellite data. We also conducted three case studies in Indus Delta (Pakistan), Goa (India), and Sundarbans (Bangladesh and India) to identify rates, patterns, and causes of change in greater spatial and thematic details compared to regional assessment of mangrove forests.

  16. Nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia: South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo-Hang Lee

    1995-01-01

    Under new circumstances, that is after the end of the Cold War, the current security situation in Northeast Asia and Korean peninsula is reviewed. The South Korean Non-proliferation policy and its strong commitment to the NPT is embodied in the following: treaty commitments; government officials' statements; presidential declarations; North/South joint declarations; and domestic laws and regulations.Korea has made efforts towards denuclearisation of Korean peninsula. Its nuclear policy is based on peaceful uses of nuclear energy and on maintaining a strong commitment to the NPT. The ultimate goal of its policy is to deter North Korea from developing nuclear weapons and thus secure a nuclear-free Korean peninsula. This could lay foundation for the ultimate creation of region-wide nuclear-free zone in Northeast Asia

  17. Gas and LNG trading hubs, hub indexation and destination flexibility in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng; Padinjare Variam, Hari Malamakkavu

    2016-01-01

    In the East Asian gas markets, issues like gas trading hubs, hub indexed pricing, and destination flexibility are being debated. This paper examines the impact of a change in East Asia's pricing benchmark and contract flexibility on the regional and global gas markets. The paper uses the Nexant World Gas Model, a linear program with global cost minimization as the objective. To our knowledge, this study on hub competition, price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvement in East Asia will be the first in the literature and have real policy relevance. The results show that both price benchmark change and contract flexibility improvements will create an overall benefit for the world and East Asia importers, but the impacts are different among exporters and importers. However, there is no evidence of competition among different benchmark hubs and no evidence that destination restrictions cause the “Asia Premium”. It implies that removal of destination clauses has higher priority than the change to hub indexation for Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei, but both should be treated equally in China. The study also suggests that East Asian importers should cooperate among themselves and with exporters to facilitate the hub creation and contract changes in East Asia. - Highlights: •Gas trading hubs in Japan and China are not mutually exclusive. •Both price benchmark changes and contract flexibility improvements are beneficial. •The “Asian Premium” is not caused by destination restriction. •Destination flexibility is much more important than hub indexation in East Asia except China. •Hub indexation is as important as destination flexibility in China due to pipeline imports.

  18. South Asia Economic Focus, Spring 2017 : Globalization Backlash

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    South Asia remains the fastest growing region in the world. With a strong performance in the eastern part of the region – in particular in Bhutan, Bangladesh and India – the region defied disappointing world growth in 2016. Inflation slowed down in the second half of 2016, mainly due to lower food prices, but appears to be turning up again. Despite recent real exchange rate appreciation, current account balances are mostly in order throughout the region. After a sharp decline triggered by low...

  19. Far East Asia | Page 187 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    E-commerce in Asia has been receiving considerable attention as a result of the ... social, methodological, and security issues related to this emerging business ... the state-of-practice and trends in information and communication technologies ...

  20. The challenge of nuclear proliferation control in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mian, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Prevention of nuclear weapon proliferation in South Asia is considered a a difficult challenge. The paper discusses the difficulties met in implementing the nuclear non-proliferation policy due to numerous disputes concerning China, North and South Korea, India and Pakistan, and the countries of former Soviet Union. Matters preventing proliferation are mentioned as well as obstacles to non-proliferation proposing that decisions whether voluntary or, eventually, compulsory would have to be consistently enforced by the Security Council, if states are to rely upon those methods for their security