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Sample records for south croatian population

  1. Association of TNF promoter polymorphisms with type 1 diabetes in the South Croatian population

    VESNA BORASKA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TIDM is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of pancreatic p cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is a pleotropic cytokine with potent immunomodulatory and inflammatory activity. Association studies of TNF polymorphisms and type 1 diabetes (TIDM frequently demonstrated TNF involvement with TIDM. Although TNF may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TIDM, the genetic association of TNF región with the disease has not been conclusive because of the strong linkage disequilibrium with HLA genes. In this study, we examined two TNF promoter variants (rs 1800629 at position -308, and rs361525 at position -238 for TIDM association in 233 patients and 144 controls from the population of South Croatia. A higher frequency of TNF -308 A alíele and also, a more frequent specific -308A -238G haplotype in TIDM patients were observed with a limited significance. However, we did not find strong evidence of association of TNF promoter polymorphisms with TIDM. In order to elucidate the trae contribution of TNF to TIDM susceptibility in our population, more comprehensive studies with HLA adjustment in a larger sample are required.

  2. The ageing of Croatian population.

    Murgić, Jure; Jukić, Tomislav; Tomek-Roksandić, Spomenka; Ljubicić, Mate; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-06-01

    With a share of people older than 65 years of 16.64 per cent in total population, Croatia is considered a very old country regarding it's population. This percentage is one of the highest in already old Europe. Demographic projections reveal a further increase of share of people older than 65 years in future. There are many causes of this condition. This fact carries negative economic and health care implications which burden Croatia. Many administrative reforms are necessary to resolve this issue and to avoid economy problems and intergenerational conflicts.

  3. Exposure of croatian population to radiopharmaceuticals

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.; Marovic, G.; Mestrovic, T.; Mrcela, I.; Cerovac, Z.; Golubovic, D.; Hajdinjak, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to call attention to the exposure of Croatian population to open sources of ionising radiation used in medical diagnostics, radiopharmaceuticals in particular, whose initial activity is very high. Without proper exposure monitoring, it is not possible to establish the effective dose per capita, but we have estimated it to be between 6.8 μSv and 7.0 μSv for this type of internal exposure, based on a very loose assumption that about 35,000 diagnostic procedures with radiopharmaceuticals are performed in Croatia every year. This calls for further research that would eventually lead to limiting the doses received through exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  4. Individual-based assessment of population structure and admixture in Austrian, Croatian and German draught horses.

    Druml, T; Curik, I; Baumung, R; Aberle, K; Distl, O; Sölkner, J

    2007-02-01

    All over Europe, the number of draught horses has decreased drastically during the last 50 years. As a prerequisite for efficient management decisions, we analysed the conservation status in Austrian (Noriker Carinthia - NC, Noriker Salzburg - NS), Croatian (Croatian Coldblood - C, Posavina horse - P) and German (Altmaerkisch Coldblood - A, Black Forest horse - BF, Mecklenburg Coldblood - M, Rhenish German Draught horse - R, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood - ST, Schleswig Draught horse - Sch, South German Coldblood - SG) draught horses (434) using multilocus genotypic information from 30 (effectively 27) microsatellite loci. Populations located in areas with less intensive agricultural production (C, NC, NS, P and SG) had greater diversity within the population and estimated effective population size than A, BF, Sch, M, R and ST populations. The PCA plots revealed that populations form five separate groups. The 'Noriker' group (NC, NS and SG) and the 'Rhenish' group (A, M, R and ST) were the most distinctive (pairwise F(ST) values ranged from 0.078 to 0.094). The 'Croatian' group (C and P) was in the centre, while the BF and Sch populations formed two out-groups. A posterior Bayesian analysis detected further differentiation, mainly caused by political and geographical factors. Thus, it was possible to separate the South German Coldblood from the Austrian Noriker population where no subpopulation structure was detected. The admixture analysis revealed imprecise classification between C and P populations. A small but notable separation of R from A, M and ST populations was detected, while Sch and BF populations remained as out-groups. The information obtained should aid in making efficient conservation decisions.

  5. Physical Activity of Croatian Population: Cross-sectional Study Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...

  6. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  7. The reliability and validity of the mini-mental state examination in the elderly Croatian population.

    Boban, Marina; Malojčić, Branko; Mimica, Ninoslav; Vuković, Sunčica; Zrilić, Ivan; Hof, Patrick R; Simić, Goran

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was standardization and validation of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the general Croatian aging population. Three-hundred and forty-four participants underwent the MMSE test, 217 cognitively healthy subjects without neurological and psychiatric disorders and 127 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. The optimal cutoff point for screening of the general Croatian population (cognitively healthy vs. MCI and dementia) is 26/27; in the Croatian population aged ≥65 years, the cutoff point is 24/25, whereas for screening of highly educated persons (≥14 years of education) aged ≥65 years a higher cutoff point should be used (26/27). MMSE results when standardized and validated in a certain population might better contribute to recognition of the individuals at risk that should be directed to dementia outpatient clinics. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A large cross-sectional study of health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population (the First Croatian Health Project).

    Turek, S; Rudan, I; Smolej-Narancić, N; Szirovicza, L; Cubrilo-Turek, M; Zerjavić-Hrabak, V; Rak-Kaić, A; Vrhovski-Hebrang, D; Prebeg, Z; Ljubicić, M; Janićijević, B; Rudan, P

    2001-06-01

    As the liberation of occupied Croatian territories ended the war in the country in 1995, the Ministry of Health and Croatian Health Insurance Institute have agreed to create the new framework for developing a long-term strategy of public health planning, prevention and intervention. They provided financial resources to develop the First Croatian Health Project, the rest of the support coming from the World Bank loan and the National Institute of Public Health. A large cross-sectional study was designed aiming to assess health attitudes, knowledge, behaviour and risks in the post-war Croatian population. The large field study was carried out by the Institute for Anthropological Research with technical support from the National Institute of Public Health. The field study was completed between 1995-1997. It included about 10,000 adult volunteers from all 21 Croatian counties. The geographic distribution of the sample covered both coastal and continental areas of Croatia and included rural and urban environments. The specific measurements included antropometry (body mass index and blood pressure). From each examinee a blood sample was collected from which the levels of total plasma cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein), LDL-cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein), lipoprotein Lp(a), and haemostatic risk factor fibrinogen (F) were determined. The detailed data were collected on the general knowledge and attitudes on health issues, followed by specific investigation of smoking history, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits, physical activity, family history of chronic non-communicable diseases and occupational exposures. From the initial database a targeted sample of 5,840 persons of both sexes, aged 18-65, was created corresponding by age, sex and geographic distribution to the general Croatian population. This paper summarises and discusses the main findings of the project within this representative sample of Croatian population.

  9. Genetic heritage of Croatians in the Southeastern European gene pool-Y chromosome analysis of the Croatian continental and Island population.

    Šarac, Jelena; Šarić, Tena; Havaš Auguštin, Dubravka; Novokmet, Natalija; Vekarić, Nenad; Mustać, Mate; Grahovac, Blaženka; Kapović, Miljenko; Nevajda, Branimir; Glasnović, Anton; Missoni, Saša; Rootsi, Siiri; Rudan, Pavao

    2016-11-01

    The research objective of this study is to enlarge and deepen the Y chromosome research on the Croatian population and enable additional insights into the population diversity and historic events that shaped the current genetic landscape of Croatia and Southeastern Europe (SEE). A high-resolution phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of 66 biallelic (SNPs) and 17 microsatellite (STRs) markers of the Y chromosome was performed using 720 Croatian samples. The obtained results were placed in a wider European context by comparison with ∼4450 samples from a number of other European populations. A high diversity of haplogroups was observed in the overall Croatian sample, and all typical European Y chromosome haplogroups with corresponding clinal patterns were observed. Three distinct genetic signals were identifiable in the Croatian paternal gene pool - I2a1b-M423, R1a1a1b1a*-M558, and E1b1b1a1b1a-V13 haplogroups. The analyses of the dominant and autochthonous I2a1b-M423 lineage (>30%) suggest that SEE had a significant role in the Upper Paleolithic, the R1a1a1b1a*-M558 lineage (19%) represents a signal from present day Slavic populations of Central Europe in the Croatian population, and the phylogeography of the E1b1b1a1b1a-V13 clade (around 9%) implies cultural diffusion of agriculture into Europe via the Balkan Peninsula. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:837-845, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES: EXAMPLES AND LESSONS FROM CROATIAN STUDENT POPULATION

    Branko Matic; Hrvoje Serdarusic; Maja Vretenar Cobovic

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the results of their research related to financial involvement and management of personal finances of the student population on the territory of eastern Croatia. The research focused on the reasons for the entrance of student population into the financial system, the amount of their use of credit institutions’ services as well as their motives for choosing a certain credit institution

  11. Genetic structure and admixture between Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and general Croatian population: evidence from Bayesian clustering analysis.

    Novokmet, Natalija; Galov, Ana; Marjanović, Damir; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Dragan; Rudan, Pavao

    2015-01-01

    The European Roma represent a transnational mosaic of minority population groups with different migration histories and contrasting experiences in their interactions with majority populations across the European continent. Although historical genetic contributions of European lineages to the Roma pool were investigated before, the extent of contemporary genetic admixture between Bayash Roma and non-Romani majority population remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic structure of the Bayash Roma population from northwestern Croatia and the general Croatian population and to investigate the extent of admixture between them. A set of genetic data from two original studies (100 Bayash Roma from northwestern Croatia and 195 individuals from the general Croatian population) was analyzed by Bayesian clustering implemented in STRUCTURE software. By re-analyzing published data we intended to focus for the first time on genetic differentiation and structure and in doing so we clearly pointed to the importance of considering social phenomena in understanding genetic structuring. Our results demonstrated that two population clusters best explain the genetic structure, which is consistent with social exclusion of Roma and the demographic history of Bayash Roma who have settled in NW Croatia only about 150 years ago and mostly applied rules of endogamy. The presence of admixture was revealed, while the percentage of non-Croatian individuals in general Croatian population was approximately twofold higher than the percentage of non-Romani individuals in Roma population corroborating the presence of ethnomimicry in Roma.

  12. The Impact of Coercive Migrations on the Changes of Total Population Flux in the War-Engulfed Croatian Counties

    Ana Pažanin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the war impact and the impact of coercive migrations on the changes of total population fl ux between two censuses. On the eve of and during the Croatian War of Independence, the migration of population of the Republic of Croatia from the war-engulfed areas to the free areas of the country or to the foreign countries increased. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has caused a new wave of refugees from that country and a further migrational fl ux in our country. In the article, the author has established, on the case of the war-engulfed areas of eleven Croatian counties, that the war and coercive migrations have caused a decline of population, the growth of aged population, as well as changes in national and confessional structure.

  13. Clinical, hormonal and metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome among obese and nonobese women in the Croatian population.

    Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Vrcić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav; Strelec, Mihajlo

    2013-06-01

    Obesity has a deteriorating impact on women with PCOS, although prevalence and the impact of specific traits of PCOS remain inconstant in different populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in clinical, hormonal and metabolic features between obese and nonobese Croatian women diagnosed as having PCOS according to Rotterdam consensus criteria. The study included 74 obese and 208 nonobese women with PCOS. Clinical, biochemical and metabolic variables were compared among those PCOS subgroups. Obese subjects with PCOS had a higher risk of developing oligo-amenorrhea (OR 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1-12.5) and lower risk for developing hirsutism and acne (OR 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.3 and OR 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.4, respectively). Obese PCOS subjects also had a higher risk of developing hyperandrogenemia (OR 2.5; CI 95% 0.9-6.7), insulin resistance (OR 4.5; CI 95%, 2.6-7.9), hypercholesterolemia (OR 5.0, CI 95% 2.5-10.2), hypertriglyceridemia (OR 5.2; 95% CI, 2.9-9.2) as well as elevated serum CRP levels (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.4-12.2) compared to nonobese PCOS women. In conclusion, nonobese Croatian women with PCOS are more inclined to cosmetic problems associated with PCOS then metabolic ones. This is the first study to report the impact of obesity on acne and irregular menses as a study outcome. Obesity deteriorates menstrual regularity, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in Croatian women with PCOS; therefore one of the fundamental treatment strategies of PCOS should be obesity prevention.

  14. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    factors to be examined concern the absolute number of community members, their geographical distribution, the number of Croatian language speakers, and the number of those with Croatian as their mother tongue. According to the 2011 census, there were 114 880 Canadians of Croatian origin, representing an increase of 3.5% over 2006. In 2006, 110 880 Canadian residents reported Croatian ancestry, representing a percentage change of 12.5% from 2001. In 2001, there were 97 050 Canadians who self-identified as being of Croatian origin, representing a percentage change of 13% from 1996, when there were 84 495 Canadians of Croatian origin. Furthermore, census data show that the percentage of Canadians of Croatian origin reporting multiple ethnicity increased over the period; in 1996, there were 65.5% single ethnic origin responses, compared to 60% in 2001, 50.9% in 2006, and only 45.1% in 2011. In terms of geographical distribution of members of Croatian community in Canada, almost two thirds of all Canadians of Croatian descent (74 020 live in the province Ontario, with significant numbers also in British Columbia (19 855 and Alberta (10 055. The largest Croatian community is in the Toronto area, where 35 115 Croatians live, with significant numbers also in Vancouver (13 025 and Hamilton (11 640. The census data presented here indicate that demographic factors that positively influence Croatian language maintenance are the size of the linguistic group and geographic concentration of the group. More precisely, the absolute number of people of Croatian descent living in Canada is on the rise and the population of Croatian origin is mostly concentrated in the province of Ontario and in major urban centers in other provinces. On the other hand, the rise in the percentage of Canadians of Croatian descent reporting more than one ancestry could be viewed as a factor that negatively affects Croatian language maintenance. It is provided by the evidence of gradually changing marriage

  15. Croatian visit

    2004-01-01

    On 11 December, President Stjepan Mesic of the Republic of Croatia visited CERN. He was welcomed by Director General, Robert Aymar, and the President of CERN Council, Maurice Bourquin. Afterwards he met, among others, the Directors of CERN and Croatian scientists working here. He finished his tour by visiting the underground cavern for the ATLAS experiment. The arrival at CERN of the President of the Republic of Croatia, Stjepan Mesic. In the first row, from left to right: Maurice Bourquin, President of CERN Council, Stjepan Mesic, President of the Republic of Croatia and Robert Aymar, Director General of CERN.

  16. ‘A Croatian champion with a Croatian name’

    Sindbæk, Tea

    2013-01-01

    ‘A Croatian champion with a Croatian name’: national identity and uses of history in Croatian football culture – the case of Dinamo Zagreb......‘A Croatian champion with a Croatian name’: national identity and uses of history in Croatian football culture – the case of Dinamo Zagreb...

  17. Interleukin-1 gene locus polymorphisms are associated with risk to breast cancer in Croatian population

    KAARVATN, MARIKKEN HEILAND; KROG EFTEDAL, RANDI; VRBANEC, JURICA; JOTANOVIC, ZDRAVKO; ETOKEBE, GODFREY E.; BALEN, SANJA; KULIC, ANA; DEMBIC, ZLATKO

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer has a complex genetic susceptibility. Innate and adaptive immunity can additionally increase the genetic risk to breast cancer development. We typed polymorphisms in the genes of the interleukin(IL)-1 and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines in a case-control study in Caucasian population from Croatia. We compared the allelic and genotypic frequencies between patients (n=194), healthy women (n=188) and general population (n=531). The risk for breast cancer has been significantly diff...

  18. Detection of thallium and uranium in well water and biological specimens of an eastern Croatian population.

    Curković, Mario; Sipos, Laszlo; Puntarić, Dinko; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Pivac, Nela; Kralik, Kristina

    2013-09-01

    Abstract Using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we measured the concentrations of thallium and uranium in local water resources from three villages (Ćelije, Draž, and Potnjani) in eastern Croatia, with the aim to determine if they were associated with the levels of these same elements in the serum, urine, and hair collected from the residents of this area. The exposure of the local population to thallium and uranium through drinking water was generally low. ICP-MS was capable of measuring the levels of both of the elements in almost all of the analysed samples. Although there were differences in the concentrations of both elements in water samples and biological specimens taken from the residents, they did not reach the maximum contaminant level in any of the four sample types studied. Although hair was previously reported as an excellent indicator of occupational and environmental exposure to various elements, our study did not confirm it as a reliable biological material for tracing thallium and uranium levels, mainly due to the very low concentrations of these elements, often well below the detection limit. However, our results have shown that the concentration of thallium and uranium in drinking water can be effectively traced in urine samples.

  19. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  20. Mitochondrial DNA heritage of Cres Islanders--example of Croatian genetic outliers.

    Jeran, Nina; Havas Augustin, Dubravka; Grahovac, Blaienka; Kapović, Miljenko; Metspalu, Ene; Villems, Richard; Rudan, Pavao

    2009-12-01

    Diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the Island of Cres was determined by high-resolution phylogenetic analysis on a sample of 119 adult unrelated individuals from eight settlements. The composition of mtDNA pool of this Island population is in contrast with other Croatian and European populations. The analysis revealed the highest frequency of haplogroup U (29.4%) with the predominance of one single lineage of subhaplogroup U2e (20.2%). Haplogroup H is the second most prevalent one with only 27.7%. Other very interesting features of contemporary Island population are extremely low frequency of haplogroup J (only 0.84%), and much higher frequency of haplogroup W (12.6%) comparing to other Croatian and European populations. Especially interesting finding is a strikingly higher frequency of haplogroup N1a (9.24%) presented with African/south Asian branch almost absent in Europeans, while its European sister-branch, proved to be highly prevalent among Neolithic farmers, is present in contemporary Europeans with only 0.2%. Haplotype analysis revealed that only five mtDNA lineages account for almost 50% of maternal genetic heritage of this island and they present supposed founder lineages. All presented findings confirm that genetic drift, especially founder effect, has played significant role in shaping genetic composition of the isolated population of the Island of Cres. Due to presented data contemporary population of Cres Island can be considered as genetic "outlier" among Croatian populations.

  1. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  2. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  3. [Croatian guidelines for perioperative enteral nutrition of surgical patients].

    Zelić, Marko; Bender, Darija Vranesić; Kelecić, Dina Ljubas; Zupan, Zeljko; Cicvarić, Tedi; Maldini, Branka; Durut, Iva; Rahelić, Velimir; Skegro, Mate; Majerović, Mate; Perko, Zdravko; Sustić, Alan; Madzar, Tomislav; Kovacić, Borna; Kekez, Tihomir; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of patients significantly affects the outcome of surgical treatment, whether it's about being obese or malnutrition with loss of muscle mass. Inadequate nutritional support in the perioperative period compromises surgical procedures even in patients who are adequately nourished. In this paper, particular attention was paid to malnourished patients, and their incidence in population hospitalized in surgical wards can be high up to 30%. Special emphasis was paid to the appropriateness of preoperative fasting and to the acceptance of new knowledge in this area of treatment. The aim of this working group was to make guidelines for perioperative nutritional support with different modalities of enteral nutrition. The development of these guidelines was attended by representatives of Croatian Medical Association: Croatian Society for Digestive Surgery, Croatian Society for Clinical Nutrition, Croatian Society of Surgery, Croatian Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Croatian Trauma Society and the Croatian Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care. The guidelines are designed as a set of questions that arise daily in clinical practice when preparing patients for surgery and after the surgical treatment, which relate to the assessment of nutritional status, perioperative nutritional support, duration of preoperative fasting period and the selection of food intake route. Assessment of nutritional status and the use of different modes of enteral nutrition should enter into standard protocols of diagnosis and treatment in the Croatian hospitals.

  4. Croatian genetic heritage: Y-chromosome story.

    Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir; Rudan, Pavao; Villems, Richard; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a concise interpretation of the scientific data about the topic of Croatian genetic heritage that was obtained over the past 10 years. We made a short overview of previously published articles by our and other groups, based mostly on Y-chromosome results. The data demonstrate that Croatian human population, as almost any other European population, represents remarkable genetic mixture. More than 3/4 of the contemporary Croatian men are most probably the offspring of Old Europeans who came here before and after the Last Glacial Maximum. The rest of the population is the offspring of the people who were arriving in this part of Europe through the southeastern route in the last 10,000 years, mostly during the neolithization process. We believe that the latest discoveries made with the techniques for whole-genome typing using the array technology, will help us understand the structure of Croatian population in more detail, as well as the aspects of its demographic history.

  5. Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population ...

    Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of a South African population and asymptomatic people infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: The transition health and urbanisation in South Africa (Thusa) study.

  6. Mortality and causes of death among Croatian male Olympic medalists.

    Radonić, Vedran; Kozmar, Damir; Počanić, Darko; Jerkić, Helena; Bohaček, Ivan; Letilović, Tomislav

    2017-08-31

    To compare the overall and disease-specific mortality of Croatian male athletes who won one or more Olympic medals representing Yugoslavia from 1948 to 1988 or Croatia from 1992 to 2016, and the general Croatian male population standardized by age and time period. All 233 Croatian male Olympic medalists were included in the study. Information on life duration and cause of death for the Olympic medalists who died before January 1, 2017, was acquired from their families and acquaintances. We asked the families and acquaintances to present medical documentation for the deceased. Data about the overall and disease-specific mortality of the Croatian male population standardized by age and time period were obtained from the Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS). Overall and disease-specific standard mortality ratios (SMR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare the mortality rates of athletes and general population. Among 233 Olympic medalists, 57 died before the study endpoint. The main causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (33.3%), neoplasms (26.3%), and external causes (17.6%). The overall mortality of the Olympic medalists was significantly lower than that of general population (SMR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94, P=0.013). Regarding specific causes of death, athletes' mortality from cardiovascular diseases was significantly reduced (SMR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38-0.93, P=0.021). Croatian male Olympic medalists benefit from lower overall and cardiovascular mortality rates in comparison to the general Croatian male population.

  7. Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations

    McGowan, D.P.; Otis, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

  8. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  9. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  10. Croatian Cadastre Database Modelling

    Zvonko Biljecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cadastral Data Model has been developed as a part of a larger programme to improve products and production environment of the Croatian Cadastral Service of the State Geodetic Administration (SGA. The goal of the project was to create a cadastral data model conforming to relevant standards and specifications in the field of geoinformation (GI adapted by international organisations for standardisation under the competence of GI (ISO TC211 and OpenGIS and it implementations.The main guidelines during the project have been object-oriented conceptual modelling of the updated users' requests and a "new" cadastral data model designed by SGA - Faculty of Geodesy - Geofoto LLC project team. The UML of the conceptual model is given per all feature categories and is described only at class level. The next step was the UML technical model, which was developed from the UML conceptual model. The technical model integrates different UML schemas in one united schema.XML (eXtensible Markup Language was applied for XML description of UML models, and then the XML schema was transferred into GML (Geography Markup Language application schema. With this procedure we have completely described the behaviour of each cadastral feature and rules for the transfer and storage of cadastral features into the database.

  11. [The population and economic problems of South Asia].

    Gu, J

    1983-07-29

    South Asia, which includes Central South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Southwest Asia, had a comparatively higher population growth rate during the 30-year postwar period because of the overall backward economy and strong religious tradition. From the viewpoint of economics, the high population growth in South Asia has slowed down economic growth, increased the foreign trade imblance, and worsened poverty. Secondly, the rapid population growth has overburdened the area's educational system. The illiteracy rate has been going up continuously because of inadequate funds available for education. Thirdly, young labor is lacking in skills, training, and work experience, and related productivity has declined. Consequently, profits, the investment capability, and wages are also declining. The problems of the oversupply of labor, unemployment, and poverty have also become increasingly serious. In addition, the rapid population growth has intensified the pressure on the food supply and worsened the average nutrition of the general public. In recent years, countries in South Asia have been trying to deal with various problems caused by the rapid population growth. Measures have been taken to control the population growth, with a redistribution of the population to places outside cities, and export labor to oil-producing nations of the Middle East and Africa in order to solve the problem of the domestic labor surplus and earn more income for the foreign exchange. Countries in South Asia need more time and effort to achieve a balance between the population growth and economic development.

  12. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant

  13. Dark Triad of Croatian Management Students

    Mario Bogdanovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the so-called “dark triad” personality traits of management student populations, because of their potential to generate dysfunctional organizational behavior and processes. Namely, the dark triad with characteristics such as lack of empathy, willingness to manipulate others (for self-betterment, antagonism, and belief in one’s own superiority can represent a real organizational threat. The goal of this paper is to stimulate thinking and discussion around this issue. The paper is based on questionnaire measurement that adopts the standardized short dark triad measurement instrument of Jones and Paulhus (2012 who measure the scales of Machiavellianism (9 items, narcissism (9 items and psychopathy (9 items. The sample included 150 students of professional management studies at the Faculty of Economics, University of Split in Croatia. Results of the Croatian students are compared with the results of 387 students in Canada. The results suggest significant statistical differences in the “dark triad” variables between the Canadian and Croatian samples. The practical implications of this paper are in raising awareness and stimulating the thinking of managers around the potential of the “dark triad” traits of engaged human resources to create organizational crisis, and to make preventive and responsive actions to manage the “toxic triad” threat.

  14. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  15. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  16. Term Croatian considered in russian context

    Željka Čelić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Term Croatian is considered in Russian context, i. e. context of Russian scientific material (which is comparable to the unwritten situation in universities. Russian scientific texts connect term Croatian, almost without an exception, with the term Serbian in words such as Serbo-Croatian. This point of view is politically approved in the period untill 1990’s, but it exists in the 21st century’s scientific material. The nature of the problem lays, at the same time, in politics, language and society; thus, the question is: what is the reason of such a context in which Croatian language is placed now? There are no arguments for it, especially if it is for Slovak language politically based and language approved to be an entity – in comparison to the Czech language; for Ukrainian (once Littlerussian – at least in principle, in comparison to the Russian, or, more convincable, Belorussian to Russian (the standard Belorussian language exists from 1905. The term Croatian is independently, even in new books, connected with terms of soil, state, nation, but not language. And though today, because of political reasons, exists an awareness of Croatian language without its Serbian mirror reflexion, the term Serbo-Croatian stays. Thus, this paper looks through the history concerning Croatian language in 19, 20 and 21st century’s Russian philology, including Juraj Križanić and Vatroslav Jagić – innovators of the Croatian word in Russia.

  17. Urban population and economic growth: South Asia perspective

    Sandip Sarker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously economic growth was generally discussed in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI, educational growth, savings, investments, inflation as well as trade openness of a nation. Very recently it has been identified that population is one of the major determinants of economic growth of a nation. In the recent years, the study of urbanization has gained a matter of concern in developing countries as it has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. South Asian countries are one of the emerging economics and growing at a faster rate over the past few years. At the same time, population of South Asia is growing at a significant rate. Therefore the study has attempted to identify the causal relationship between urban population and economic growth in South Asia using a panel data analysis. The study makes use of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Phillips-Perron (PP, Pesaran as well as Fisher methods for panel unit root test. The panel Pedroni cointegration test suggests that there is long run relationship between the variables. The further panel Vector Error Correction Model (VECM suggests that there is long run causality running from urban population growth to economic growth in South Asia. The study concludes that the growth of urban population can have significant impact on economic growth in South Asia in the long run.

  18. View at Croatian Chemistry through Meetings of Croatian

    Trinajstić, N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The 20th Croatian meeting of chemists and chemical engineers was a proper occasion to consider the past meetings and their role in the development of Croatian chemistry and chemical engineering last 40 years, because these meetings reflect to a large extent the state of these sciences in Croatia. The circumstances that lead to establishment of the Croatian meetings of chemists and chemical engineers and the role of Professor Marijan Laaan (1919-1981 who started these meetings by organizing the first one are described. He also organized the second and the seventh meeting. All persons who chaired these meetings are mentioned, as well as all the lecturers who won the Nobel Prize in chemistry. Especially emphasized is the participation of Vladimir Prelog (1906-1998 since the twentieth meeting was dedicated to him and to Leopold Ružička (1887-1976 - two excellent Croatian chemists who for their first-class research in organic chemistry won the Nobel Prize (Ružička in 1939 and Prelog 1975. The places where the meetings were held are listed. The structure of the meetings when the change of the meetings' title happened is delineated and the representation of various branches of chemistry according to the number of contributions is discussed. Similarly, the Croatian institutions according to the number ofcontributions of their staff-members and the contributors with the highest number of communications at each meeting are pointed out. Emphasized is the international character of these meetings and the countries from which the participants came are listed. Finally, only one contribution is discussed in detail - the report by Kata Mlinarić-Majerski and Zdenko Majerski on the preparation of [3.1.1]propellane inserted in the structure of adamantane. Adamantane chemistry in Croatia started with the first ever adamantane synthesis in 1941, when Prelog and Seiwerth prepared this cage hydrocarbon and is still going strong due to efforts by Kata Mlinaria

  19. A Croatian delegation visits CERN

    2001-01-01

    Professor Hrvoje Kraljeviç signing the Golden book with Professor Roger Cashmore. A Croatian delegation composed of the Minister of Science and Technology, Professor Hrvoje Kraljeviç, his deputy for international collaboration Prof. Davor Butkovic have visited CERN on the 12 and 13th of February and held talks with the CERN authorities, ALICE and CMS spokespersons on the possibilities to increase the participation of Croatia to the LHC related activities.

  20. Forecasting Croatian inbound tourism demand

    Tica, Josip; Kožić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a forecasting model for the overnight stays of foreign tourists in Croatia. Tourism is one of the most important parts of the Croatian economy. It is particularly important in the context of the services sector. Regular and significant surpluses and the consumption of foreign guests are an important element of budget revenues, especially VAT. The ability to forecast the development of inbound tourism demand in a timely manner is crucial for both business...

  1. Decarbonization of Croatian Energy System

    Potocnik, V.

    2012-01-01

    Energy system decarbonization is reduction of greenhouse gases (CO 2 ) emission, chiefly from the fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) combustion. The main objective of an energy system decarbonization is the climate change mitigation, and at the same time development of local industry and employment, better environment and health protection, as well as reduction of the fossil fuels import and foreign debt. Croatia has small fossil fuels reserves and large renewable energy sources (RES) reserves, energy efficiency (ENEF) is relatively low, and energy import, according to the actual Energy strategy 2009, should increase from 50% to 70% until 2020. Croatian energy system participates with about one third in the Croatian foreign trade deficit. The main measures of the Croatian energy system decarbonization should be: increasing ENEF (energy savings), switch from fossil fuels to RES, administrative measures (low carbon development strategy, environmental tax reform, and decoupling income from energy sales). By urgent application of these measures, Croatia could become fossil fuels free until the year 2050.(author)

  2. [Project HRANAFINA--Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology].

    Vodanović, Marin

    2012-01-01

    HRANAFINA--Croatian Anatomical and Physiological Terminology is a project of the University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine funded by the Croatian Science Foundation. It is performed in cooperation with other Croatian universities with medical schools. This project has a two-pronged aim: firstly, building of Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology and secondly, Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology usage popularization between health professionals, medical students, scientists and translators. Internationally recognized experts from Croatian universities with medical faculties and linguistics experts are involved in the project. All project activities are coordinated in agreement with the National Coordinator for Development of Croatian Professional Terminology. The project enhances Croatian professional terminology and Croatian language in general, increases competitiveness of Croatian scientists on international level and facilitates the involvement of Croatian scientists, health care providers and medical students in European projects.

  3. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations

    Ikediobi Ogechi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of pharmacogenetic variability in diverse populations is scarce, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we characterised population frequencies of clinically relevant pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African population groups. We genotyped 211 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs in 12 genes that influence antiretroviral drug disposition, in 176 South African individuals belonging to two distinct population groups residing in the Western Cape: the Xhosa (n = 109 and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA (n = 67 groups. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs of eight tagSNPs in six genes (those encoding the ATP binding cassette sub-family B, member 1 [ABCB1], four members of the cytochrome P450 family [CYP2A7P1, CYP2C18, CYP3A4, CYP3A5] and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 [UGT1A1] were significantly different between the Xhosa and CMA populations (Bonferroni p CYP2C18, CYP3A4, the gene encoding solute carrier family 22 member 6 [SLC22A6] and UGT1A1 between the two South African populations. Characterising the Xhosa and CMA population frequencies of variant alleles important for drug transport and metabolism can help to establish the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic testing in these populations.

  4. Crash and rebound of indigenous populations in lowland South America

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Walker, Robert S.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-04-01

    Lowland South America has long been a battle-ground between European colonization and indigenous survival. Initial waves of European colonization brought disease epidemics, slavery, and violence that had catastrophic impacts on indigenous cultures. In this paper we focus on the demography of 238 surviving populations in Brazil. We use longitudinal censuses from all known indigenous Brazilian societies to quantify three demographic metrics: 1) effects of European contact on indigenous populations; 2) empirical estimates of minimum viable population sizes; and 3) estimates of post-contact population growth rates. We use this information to conduct population viability analysis (PVA). Our results show that all surviving populations suffered extensive mortality during, and shortly after, contact. However, most surviving populations exhibit positive growth rates within the first decade post-contact. Our findings paint a positive demographic outlook for these indigenous populations, though long-term survival remains subject to powerful externalities, including politics, economics, and the pervasive illegal exploitation of indigenous lands.

  5. Grid-code of Croatian power system

    Toljan, I.; Mesic, M.; Kalea, M.; Koscak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Grid Rules by the Croatian Electricity Utility deal with the control and usage of the Croatian power system's transmission and distribution grid. Furthermore, these rules include obligations and permissions of power grid users and owners, with the aim of a reliable electricity supply.(author)

  6. Population specific genetic heterogeneity of familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa.

    Smyth, Natalie; Ramsay, Michèle; Raal, Frederick J

    2018-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and population-specific genetic heterogeneity of familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa. This review highlights the paucity of data on familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa, and the urgent need to uncover the mutation profiles in lipid-associated genes, causing an increase in LDL-cholesterol in the different ethnic groups. Case reports and small studies have shown that familial hypercholesterolemia, although apparently uncommon, is present in black Africans. Local founder effects have led to an increased prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia in several South African populations: Afrikaner founder mutations (c.681 C>G, c.1285 G>A, c.523 G>A), Ashkenazi founder mutation (c.654_656del) and possible Indian founder mutation (c.2054 C>T). Preliminary data in black Africans with elevated LDL-cholesterol identified a possible common mutation, c.137_142del. The South African multiethnic society and well described founder effects emphasize the need for differential approaches to diagnosis and management of familial hypercholesterolemia. Studies involving larger cohorts and inclusive of different ethnicities are paramount to establishing an accurate prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia in black Africans, not only in South Africa but in the Sub-Saharan African region. It is clear that the estimated world prevalence of one in 250 cannot be generally applied across African populations.

  7. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Republic of South Africa: unraveling the population puzzle. Country profile.

    Spain, D

    1984-06-01

    This discussion of the Republic of South Africa focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion of the population, age distribution, housing and households, education, employment, income, and marketing and communication. South Africans, condemmed by the world community for their policy of racial discriminatioon, contend that outsiders fail to understand the system they legalized in 1948. Apartheid calls for developing different political institutions for blacks and whites in preparation for their eventual separation. According to this reasoning, black Africans are not considered permanent residents of South Africa, but rather of the "homelands" to which each tribal group has been assigned by the government. 4 homelands have been made independent, and if the remaining 6 become independent as scheduled, South Africa theoretically will no longer have any black citizens. Under this plan, nearly 90% of the current area of South Africa would go to whites, while the remaining 10% would be divided among the 10 homelands. The UN has condemmed the homelands policy, and no country has recognized their independence. By law South Africa has 4 distinct populations: Africans, whites, coloureds, and asians. Rhe combination of Afrikaners and British makes up the white population. Whites are in the minority and numbered only 4.7 million in 1983, or 15% of the total population. Since whites rule the country, their importance is far disproportionate to their numbers. There were 2.7 million coloureds in 1983, approximately 9% of all South Africans. Black africans, the single largest population group, numbered 22.7 million in 1983, or 73% of the total population. Blacks are divided in 10 subgroups corresponding to the 10 ethnicallyy based homelands. The largest groups are the Zulu (5.9 million in 1981) and the Xhosa (3.1 million). Population growth varies by race. The annual growth rate for the entire country was 2.4% in 1983, but for blacks it was 2.7% and for

  9. Croatian Ethnogenesis: A Review of Component Stages and Interpretations (with Emphasis on Eurasian/Nomadic Elements

    Emil Heršak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the authors present certain parameters dealing with the nomadic element, or possible indications of it, in Croatian ethnogenesis. First, a comment is given on the ethnogenetic concept itself, and a working definition of ethnogenesis is suggested. Second, the major components that are considered to have had a role in Croatian ethnogenesis are listed. This discussion is followed by an identification of those elements that could somehow be considered nomadic, or else representative of influences from the Eurasian steppe region. Mention is made of historical sources that confirm or imply the presence of Eurasian nomad groups in the Croatian area, and the relative frequency of archaeological material is noted. The authors analise views of previous and present Croatian and foreign authors on Croatian ethnogenesis, especially in regard to the “Eurasian connection”. In this part of the discussion, the Iranian theory of Croat origins is presented in more detail. Finally, the authors briefly address recent genetic (DNA analyses of the contemporary Croatian population.

  10. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  11. The Ethnopsychological Framework of the Croatian and Serbian Nations

    Ivo Rendić-Miočević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proceeds from the opinion of E. Gellner that nationalism creates nations, and not vice versa. In South-East Europe homogeneity has been brought about through a traditional model, wherein archetypes and psychological matrices, especially those based on hajduk (bandit myths, proved to be persistent during the 20th century, even in its closing decades. As the historical framework in his analysis, the author uses the concept of Illyricum, and not of the Balkans. The later term was invented only at the beginning of the 20th century and it does not have any historical, cultural or geographic validity. In research on the problem of nationalism and nations in South-East Europe it is possible to apply an ethnopsychological approach, in which Freudian theories can be of great help. In order to understand archetypes that still survive in the area of ancient Illyricum, one must analyse three historical models that were formed during the long centuries in this region: 1 the Croatian-Pannonian feudal model as well as the Mediterranean one in the West, 2 the patriarchal model in the mid-areas, 3 the Serbian “despotic” model in the East. In regard to patriarchal society, the author recognises in its ideology (national songs, myths etc. the Kraljević Marko syndrome (with projections, paranoia and narcism as its symptoms. The author emphasises that the parental super-ego is transferred to children, and so becomes the upholding factor of tradition and values. Mediaeval Serbia, in which Church and State were linked, had a different social development from European society. “Oriental despotism” as a dominant type can be seen in Serbian history from the Nemanjić period, through the Ottoman epoch to the modern Serbian state. During the Ottoman period, a homogeneous national culture prevailed, which was deeply marked by the Dinaric heritage. Stimulating paranoia and projects in the population, the modern state, assisted by the Church, threatened

  12. Nursing as a career choice: perceptions of school students speaking Arabic, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Turkish or Vietnamese at home.

    Tang, K C; Duffield, C; Chen, X C; Choucair, S; Creegan, R; Mak, C; Lesley, G

    1999-01-01

    Australia is a multicultural society and nowhere is this more evident than in Sydney where 25% of the population speaks a language other than English. In one of the largest area health services in New South Wales, the five most frequently spoken languages at home are Arabic, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Turkish or Vietnamese, with these language groups comprising 12% of Sydney's population. Yet nurses speaking one of these five languages comprise less than 1% of the nursing workforce. A cost-effective method of addressing the shortage of nurses speaking languages other than English is to recruit students who already speak another language into the profession. This study examined high school students' perceptions of nursing in order to determine appropriate methods of recruiting students speaking one of these languages. Implications for the design of recruitment campaigns are also discussed.

  13. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  14. On-line Delivery for Serbo-Croatian (Bosniac, Croatian, Serbian: Tailoring Technology to the Learner

    Danko Sipka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tbis paper discusses the project of full on-line delivery of an introductory Serbo-Croatian (Bosniac, Croatian, Serbian course at the Arizona State University Critical Languages Institute. The issue of tailoring technology to meet diversified needs of a wide range of learners (from heritage speakers of the three Serbo-Croatian speaking ethnic communities to professional non-heritage learners is in the center of the discussion.

  15. Genetic structure of three Croatian horse breeds: implications for their conservation strategy

    Miljenko Konjačić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability for a sample of 107 animals from three autochthonous Croatian horse breeds was estimated using 20 microsatellites. The average number of alleles per locus (6.3 and proportion of heterozygosity (0.732 indicated a moderate variability. The expected heterozygosity was similar among all breeds and ranged between 0.724 in the Posavina horse, and 0.737 in the Croatian Coldblood and Murinsulaner horse. The inbreeding coefficient FIS was low and non-significant over the three populations. The genetic differentiation among the three populations was low (FST=0.026, suggesting that only 2.6% of the total genetic variability was due to differences between the breeds, and 97% to individual differences. The results of pairwise genetic differentiation suggest that the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood were the most closely related populations (FST=0.016. These results are confirmed by Nei’s genetic distances with the highest value observed between the Posavina horse and the Murinsulaner (0.082 and the lowest between the Posavina horse and the Croatian Coldblood (0.044. An assignment test correctly assigned 82% of individuals to the correct breed. Strategies for preserving the original native genes in the Croatian native horse breeds should be considered in order to prevent these breeds from becoming extinct and include them in the future breeding programmes.

  16. The Americanization of the Croatian language.

    Bosnar-Valković, Brigita; Blazević, Nevenka; Gjuran-Coha, Anamarija

    2008-12-01

    The USA is spreading their political, military, economic, scientific, artistic and cultural mission throughout the world. The aim of this paper is to bring to the attention the Americanization of the Croatian language particularly evident in the newly adopted language manners, in teenage language, in specialist languages, in the field of advertising and in political correctness. The spread of Americanization of the Croatian language has both negative and positive effects. Positive effects can be regarded as enrichment of the Croatian language, whereas the negative ones endanger its deep structure. Positive effects should be supported and negative minimized through the cooperation between experts in linguistics and politics.

  17. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...... it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point...... for development of the model will be parameters influencing the industry in Croatia. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model. IED model produces results which can be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy. One of the conclusions shown in this paper is significant...

  18. Can Tourism Revive the Croatian Economy?

    McCormick Janice

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has one of its weakest economies in European Union. The most powerful engine driving a nation’s economy is its businesses. But Croatian business is not faring well. The Croatian government is hoping tourism will help revive the economy. This is a realistic hope but one that will be realized only through concerted action by business, government, and the education sector.

  19. The Derivatives as Financial Risk Management Instruments: The Case of Croatian and Slovenian Non-financial Companies

    Danijela Miloš Sprčić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses financial risk management practices and derivative usage in large Croatian and Slovenian non-financial companies and explores if the decision to use derivatives as risk management instruments in the analysed companies is a function of several firm’s characteristics that have been proven as relevant in making financial risk management decisions. On the basis of the research results it can be concluded that forwards and swaps are by far the most important derivative instruments in both countries. Futures as representatives of standardised derivatives together with structured derivatives are more important in the Slovenian than in the Croatian companies, while exchange-traded and OTC options are unimportant means of financial risk management in both countries. A comparative analysis conducted to explore differences between risk management practices in Slovenian and Croatian companies has shown evidence that Slovenian companies use all types of derivatives, especially structured derivatives, more intensively than Croatian companies. The survey has revealed that the explored hedging rationales have little predictive power in explaining financial risk management decisions both in Croatian and Slovenian companies. The decision to use derivatives in Croatian non-financial companies is related only to the investment expenditures-to-assets ratio which controls for costly external financing hypothesis, while the decision to use derivatives in Slovenian companies is dependent only on the size of the company. It can be argued that the characteristics of the Croatian and Slovenian firms could be found in other South-eastern European countries and that findings of this research may act as a baseline from which to generalise. Therefore, the survey results analysed in this paper also suggest a broader comparison across countries in the region. The advantage of this work is that it provides an impetus for further research to move beyond the

  20. Croatian energy regulatory council - independent Croatian regulatory body

    Klepo, M.

    2002-01-01

    By means of approving five energy laws, the Republic of Croatia established an appropriate legislative framework for energy sector regulation. A series of sub-law acts is presently being elaborated as well as some additional documents in order to bring about transparent and non-discriminatory provisions for the establishment of electric energy, gas, oil/oil derivatives and thermal energy markets, i.e. for the introduction and management of market activities and public services. A considerable share of these activities relates to the definition of transparent regulatory mechanisms that would guarantee the implementation of regulation rules based on the law, and be carried out by the independent regulatory body - Croatian Energy Regulatory Council. The Council's rights and obligations include firm executive functions, which present obligations to every energy entity. A dissatisfied party may set in motion a settlement of dispute, if it maintains that the decisions are not based on the law or reveal a flaw in the procedure. Therefore, it is the Council's priority to always make careful and law-abiding decisions. This paper gives insight into the regulatory framework elements based on the laws including the Council's organisational structure and non-profit entities that will prepare act proposals for the Council and perform other professional activities. (author)

  1. Mineral composition of enamel from two South African population groups

    Retief, D H [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit; Turkstra, J [University of Fort Hare, Alice (South Africa). Department of Chemistry; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Biddlecombe, F [Atomic Energy Board, Pelindaba, Pretoria (South Africa). Chemistry Div.

    1979-10-01

    The mineral composition of pooled bulk enamel from Black and White South Africans respectively, resident in the Johannesburg area, was determined by neutron activation analysis and high resolution gamma spectromety. The differences between the concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, Br and Co in the enamel of the two population groups were apparently not significant. There was a trend for the concentrations of Al, Ag, Au, Fe, Sb, and Zn to be higher in the enamel from the White subjects and for the concentrations of Mn, Se and Sr to be higher in the enamel from the Black subjects.

  2. PHRASEOLOGY IN PARČIĆ'S CROATIAN – ITALIAN DICTIONARY

    Helena Pavletić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes and classifies the types of phraseological groups in Parčić's Croatian – Italian Dictionary comparing them with Italian equivalents and the contemporary Croatian phraseology.

  3. Prevalence of primary glaucoma in an urban South Indian population

    Jacob Aby

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is fast emerging as a major cause of blindness in India. In order to estimate the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG in an urban South Indian population, we examined 972 individuals aged 30-60 years, chosen using a cluster sampling technique from 12 census blocks of Vellore town. They underwent a complete ocular examination, including applanation tonometry and gonioscopy, at the Medical College Hospital. Characteristic field defects on automated perimetry was a diagnostic requisite for POAG. Prevalence (95% CI of POAG, PACG, and ocular hypertension were 4.1 (0.08-8.1, 43.2 (30.14-56.3, and 30.8 (19.8-41.9 per 1,000, respectively. All the PACG cases detected were of the chronic type. Hitherto unavailable community-based information on primary glaucoma in our study population indicates that PACG is about five times as common as POAG.

  4. SMALL ENTERPRENEURSHIP IN HOSPITALITY: CROATIAN EXPERIENCES

    Slobodan Ivanovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available After introductory explanations regarding the selection problems of small enterprises in the Croatian hotel industry, the author provides a number of key indicators of their role in improving the competitiveness of the Croatian hotel industry in the global tourism market. In developed tourism countries, small enterprises have a dominant share in the structure of the hotel industry, and their importance is growing even in the former socialist countries of Europe. Small hotels in Italy accounted for more than 50%, and in Austria with more than 70% of lodging facilities and represent a generator of hotel business in a large number of European tourism countries, and great attention is given to the small enterpreneurs stimulating their growth with different measures of tourist and general economy politics. The author reflects on the Croatian experience of the small businesses in the hospitality through research of development of small family hotels and their importance for the improvement of the supply of the Croatian hotel industry which future is built on personal approach to guests and present trends in the tourism market. States that the role of the National Association of family and small hotels, which represents the specific interests of small hoteliers and enables the continuous improvement of the quality of their offerings, as well as measures to encourage small business development at the macro level. Based on the made analysis the measures of increasing the efficiency of small businesses in the Croatian hospitality are given.

  5. Distinct genomic architecture of Plasmodium falciparum populations from South Asia.

    Kumar, Shiva; Mudeppa, Devaraja G; Sharma, Ambika; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Dash, Rashmi; Pereira, Ligia; Shaik, Riaz Basha; Maki, Jennifer N; White, John; Zuo, Wenyun; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    Previous whole genome comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum populations have not included collections from the Indian subcontinent, even though two million Indians contract malaria and about 50,000 die from the disease every year. Stratification of global parasites has revealed spatial relatedness of parasite genotypes on different continents. Here, genomic analysis was further improved to obtain country-level resolution by removing var genes and intergenic regions from distance calculations. P. falciparum genomes from India were found to be most closely related to each other. Their nearest neighbors were from Bangladesh and Myanmar, followed by Thailand. Samples from the rest of Southeast Asia, Africa and South America were increasingly more distant, demonstrating a high-resolution genomic-geographic continuum. Such genome stratification approaches will help monitor variations of malaria parasites within South Asia and future changes in parasite populations that may arise from in-country and cross-border migrations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Joso Vurdelja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  7. Anthropometric analysis of the hip joint in South Indian population using computed tomography

    Vetrivel Chezian Sengodan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that there are significant differences in anthropometric parameters of proximal femur among the South Indian population compared with Western population. Even within the Indian population, the anthropometric parameters vary region to region.

  8. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  9. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF CROATIAN COUNTIES ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Elza Jurun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the focus of this paper is a multivariate analysis of Croatian Counties entrepreneurship. Complete data base available by official statistic institutions at national and regional level is used. Modern econometric methodology starting from a comparative analysis via multiple regression to multivariate cluster analysis is carried out as well as the analysis of successful or inefficacious entrepreneurship measured by indicators of efficiency, profitability and productivity. Time horizons of the comparative analysis are in 2004 and 2010. Accelerators of socio-economic development - number of entrepreneur investors, investment in fixed assets and current assets ratio in multiple regression model are analytically filtered between twenty-six independent variables as variables of the dominant influence on GDP per capita in 2010 as dependent variable. Results of multivariate cluster analysis of twentyone Croatian Counties are interpreted also in the sense of three Croatian NUTS 2 regions according to European nomenclature of regional territorial division of Croatia.

  10. New Croatian Act on Ionizing Radiation Protection

    Grgic, S.

    1998-01-01

    According to the new Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection which is in a final stage of genesis, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia is the governmental body responsible for all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, health institution for the performance of scientific and investigation activities in the field of radiation protection. Ministry of Health is also working together with the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. More emphasis has been laid on recent discussion among the world leading radiation protection experts on justification of the last recommendations of the ICRP 60 publication. (author)

  11. The First Year of Croatian Meteor Network

    Andreic, Zeljko; Segon, Damir

    2010-08-01

    The idea and a short history of Croatian Meteor Network (CMN) is described. Based on use of cheap surveillance cameras, standard PC-TV cards and old PCs, the Network allows schools, amateur societies and individuals to participate in photographic meteor patrol program. The network has a strong educational component and many cameras are located at or around teaching facilities. Data obtained by these cameras are collected and processed by the scientific team of the network. Currently 14 cameras are operable, covering a large part of the croatian sky, data gathering is fully functional, and data reduction software is in testing phase.

  12. Restorative treatment decisions of Croatian university teachers.

    Baraba, Anja; Doméjean, Sophie; Jurić, Hrvoje; Espelid, Ivar; Tveit, Anne B; Anić, Ivica

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in diagnostic criteria and restorative treatment among Croatian university teachers. The questionnaire was distributed to 120 Croatian university teachers in Zagreb and Rijeka. Responses were collected from 59 (49.2%) university teachers. Treatment thresholds for hypothetical approximal and occlusal caries, as well as most favored types of restorative techniques and materials were assessed. The majority (34%) of the respondents would intervene for an approximal caries lesion at the enamel-dentin junction. The leading strategy for occlusal caries was postponing operative treatment until the caries lesion was in the outer third of dentin and removing caries tissue only. Composite resin was the predominant material of choice for restoration of approximal and occlusal caries (70% and 81% respectively). More than half (54%) of Croatian university teachers believed the radiographs underestimated the depth of the caries lesion compared with clinical finding. Findings of this study should be a guideline for Croatian university teachers for a more consistent and modern teaching on the subject of caries management.

  13. Analysis of Cruise Tourism on Croatian Rivers

    Astrid Zekić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cruise trips have been rising in popularity since the 1970sand are currently a trend in the tourism market. This is particularly true of river cruises, which record a constant growth in the number of ship calls. The general upward trend in the number of river cruise passengers and dockings is also present in Croatia. Prerequisites for the development of cruising on Croatian rivers include, in addition to other geographical features, also the length of navigable water ways, but a systematic approach to this issue is needed for further development. The authors investigate the level of development of infrastructure on Croatian rivers and analyse the passenger and ship traffic on them. Special attention is given to the importance of cruises for tourism on European rivers and worldwide. In accordance with the Croatian Tourism Development Strategy until 2020, the authors explore geographical and other conditions necessary for the development of river cruise tourism. The aim of the paper is to point to the importance of building infrastructure for accommodation of vessels sailing on Croatian rivers, and in particular to the need to improve tourism offer in river destinations.

  14. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in a South African population

    Gibwa Cole

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains a problem of epidemic proportions. Despite evidence demonstrating persistent lung impairment after PTB cure, few population-based South African studies have investigated this finding. Pulmonary rehabilitation post-cure is not routinely received. Objectives: To determine the effects of PTB on lung function in adults with current or past PTB. To determine any association between PTB and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods: This study was observational and cross-sectional in design. Participants (n = 55 were included if they were HIV positive on treatment, had current PTB and were on treatment, and/or had previous PTB and completed treatment or if they were healthy adult subjects with no history of PTB. A sample of convenience was used with participants coming from a similar socio-economic background and undergoing spirometry testing. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on each lung function variable. Results: Compared to normal percentage-predicted values, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 , forced vital capacity (FVC and FEV1 :FVC were significantly reduced in those with current PTB by 23.39%, 15.99% and 6.4%, respectively. Both FEV1 and FVC were significantly reduced in those with past PTB by 11.76% and 10.79%, respectively. There was no association between PTB and COPD – those with previous PTB having a reduced FEV1 :FVC (4.88% less than the norm, which was just short of significance (p = 0.059. Conclusions: Lung function is reduced both during and after treatment for PTB and these deficits may persist. This has implications regarding the need for pulmonary rehabilitation even after medical cure. Keywords: Lung function, pulmonary, tuberculosis

  15. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding Sex Differences in Croatian Mortality Rates

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Being male is the strongest demographic predictor of early mortality in Croatia. For every woman who dies between the ages of 15 and 34, three men die. Between the ages of 15 and 54, men are four times as likely as women to die from behavioral causes of death, such as accidents, homicides, and suicides. A causal explanation for sex differences in mortality must be based on an understanding of how sex differences were shaped by natural selection, and how those differences interact with environmental factors to create observed patterns and variations. In brief, males have been selected for riskier behavioral and physiological strategies than women, because of the greater variance and skew in male reproductive success. This paper examines the sex difference in Croatian mortality in three parts. First, we quantify the Croatian Male to Female Mortality Ratio (M:F MR for 9 major causes of death across age group to provide a richer understanding of the sex difference in mortality from a life history framework. Second, we compare the Croatian M:F MR from behavioral, internal, and all causes with that of the available world population to demonstrate how Croatian mortality can be understood as part of a universal pattern that is influenced by unique environmental context. Third, we investigate how the War of Independence in 1991-1995 affected mortality patterns though its impact on behavioral strategies and the physical embodiment of distress.

  16. Why is the NORM Waste Included in to the Croatian RadWaste Strategy

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.; Hajdinjak, M.

    2016-01-01

    Croatian RADWASTE Strategy uses modern approach according to EC Directive 2013/59/EURATOM and Croatian Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety (Official Gazette 141/13, 39/15) linking the entire field of, till modern times non regulated industrial NORM wastes to properly regulated RADWastes. This approach has brought some obscurities to a professional radiation protection community because the fact that NORM will be treated together with the 'heavy' concept of nuclear and radioactive waste was not acceptable due to a historical division of those two fields of radioactivity. As NORM is still regarded as a slightly technologically blended radioactivity which is of no concern to be a risk for the population and RADWASTE is a 'murder' of any population in its vicinity, the need for terminology harmonization and scientifically correct public education was recognized. It is barely known that during the recent past some Croatian professionals did included the NORM sites into the state documents and reports to international regulatory bodies as pure RADWASTE sites. This fact produces immense regulatory difficulties even today. The one and only legal way to solve both, regulatory issues providing real radiation protection procedures during existing NORM waste site sanation and exempting sites to be reused for a legal public purpose (industrial or any other) was to incorporate the existing Croatian NORM sites into the RADWASTE Strategy and to solve all legal radioactivity burden issues during the governmental acceptance process. This approach is a new one in Croatian regulatory acquits and first responses from the stake holders and public involved are promising. The experience from the field and first responses to a concept of harmonizing the reuse approach of existing NORM waste sites from stake holders and partly from general public will be discussed.(author).

  17. Distinctiveness of the Roma population within CYP2B6 worldwide variation.

    Tomas, Željka; Kuhanec, Antonija; Škarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Janićijević, Branka; Salihović, Marijana Peričić

    2017-11-01

    To determine variation of CYP2B6 gene within the genetically specific Croatian Roma (Gypsy) population originating from India and to examine it in the worldwide perspective. Seven SNP loci (rs12721655, rs2279343, rs28399499, rs34097093, rs3745274, rs7260329 and rs8192709) were genotyped in 439 subjects using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) method. The Croatian Roma took an outlying position in CYP2B6 variation from the worldwide perspective mainly due to their exceptionally high minor allele frequency (MAF) for rs8192709 (12.8%), and lower for rs2279343 (21.1%) compared with south Asian populations. This study provides the first data of several CYP2B6 polymorphisms in Roma population and indicates the need for systematic investigation of the most important pharmacogenes' variants in this large, transnationally isolated population worldwide.

  18. Staff/population ratios in South African public sector mental health ...

    To document existing staff/population ratios per 100 000 population in South African public sector mental health services. Design. Cross-sectional survey. ... The staff/population ratios per 100 000 population for selected personnel categories (with the interprovincial ranges in brackets) were as follows: total nursing staff 15.6 ...

  19. Exchange Market Pressure on the Croatian Kuna

    Srđan Tatomir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Currency crises exert strong pressure on currencies often causing costly economic adjustment. A measure of exchange market pressure (EMP gauges the severity of such tensions. Measuring EMP is important for monetary authorities that manage exchange rates. It is also relevant in academic research that studies currency crises. A precise EMP measure is therefore important and this paper reexamines the measurement of EMP on the Croatian kuna. It improves it by considering intervention data and thresholds that account for the EMP distribution. It also tests the robustness of weights. A discussion of the results demonstrates a modest improvement over the previous measure and concludes that the new EMP on the Croatian kuna should be used in future research.

  20. Planning the rad waste repository - Croatian case

    Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lokner, V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in Croatia from various nuclear applications as well as from the Krsko NPP (Slovenian and Croatian joint venture facility). The national programme on radioactive waste management is aimed at straightening existing infrastructure, establishing new (more transparent) system of responsibilities and development of new legislation. The siting of LL/ILW repository is important segments of the whole radioactive waste management cycle. The status and efficiency of the rad waste management infrastructure in the country have the significant influence on all the activities related to the project of repository construction - from the very first phases of preliminary planning and background preparations to advanced phases of the project development. The present status of the Croatian national radioactive waste infrastructure and its influence on the repository project are presented. The role of national legislation and institutional framework are specially discussed. (author)

  1. International Trade of Croatian Chemical Industry Summary

    Goran Buturac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Croatian chemical industry in international trade is analyzed by applying k-means cluster method. The work is oriented toward the role and contribution of individual product groups in total trade patterns of chemical industry. The RCA indicator, GL index, RUV indicator and the share of individual chemical products in the total export of chemical industry are used as variables. The products at the fourdigit level of the SITC are used as objects. The cluster of chemical products in which Croatia has comparative advantages contributes significantly in export structure. At the same time this cluster consists of a few product types thus indicating strong export concentration of Croatian chemical industry. Regarding of the value of RUV indicator, Croatian chemical industry benefits most in the international trade with antibiotics and medicines that contain antibiotics. Beside fertilizers, these two products have the greatest share in the export structure. The great majority of the chemical products have the low level of intra-industry trade specialization.

  2. Energy Prices and Internal Costs in Croatian Energy System Restructuring

    Potocnik, V. , Magdic, M.

    1995-01-01

    After social and political changes in 1990, energy prices in Croatia have been getting closer to the West European averages, faster than in the most European countries in transition. The energy prices for industry are almost at the West European level, while the energy prices of electricity and natural gas for households and those of the gasoline are well behind. If the population purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, these relations change. While the internalization of external energy costs is under way in the developed world, it has not practically started yet in Croatia. The Croatian energy system restructuring shall require gradual adjustment of energy prices, together with multistage internalization of external energy costs. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India.

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292-0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  4. COLLOCATION PHRASES IN RELATION TO OTHER LEXICAL PHRASES IN CROATIAN

    Goranka Blagus Bartolec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the semantic and lexicological aspects of collocation phrases in Croatian with tendency to separate them from other lexical phrases in Croatian (terms, idioms, names. The collocation phrase is defined as a special lexical phrase on a syntagmatic level, based on the semantic correlation of the two individual lexical components in which their meanings are specified.

  5. Disambiguation of neutralized forms in two Croatian varieties

    Višnja Josipović

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A type of northwestern Croatian pronunciation, also known as the Kajkavian accent, was compared with the standard Croatian pronunciation with respect to the strategies used to disambiguate neutralized final obstruents. The two varieties differ in that the former is characterized by the phonological rule of Final Devoicing, where word-final obstruents are realized as voiceles.

  6. Rate of inbreeding and effective population size in four major South ...

    huis

    Keywords: Dairy cattle, genetic diversity, pedigree analysis ... inbreeding and effective population sizes for the four major South African ... breeding programs and therefore L was computed as an average of generation intervals for the four.

  7. Health status of an elderly population in Sharpeville, South Africa

    Wilna H Oldewage-Theron

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this cross-sectional study was a comprehensive nutrition and health assessment to provide a basis for future intervention strategies for an elderly population attending a day-care centre. Socio-demographic, health and 24-hour recall dietary intake questionnaires were administered and anthropometric and biochemical measurements taken. The results indicate that the majority of respondents had an income of between R501 and R1 000 (South African rand per month and most of them reported an occasional lack of funds to meet basic household needs, confirming the presence of food insecurity. Daily dietary intakes (mean±Standard Deviation [SD] of the women were 5 395±2 946 kJ energy, 47±27 g protein, 28±21 g fat and 196±123 g carbohydrates compared to 8 641±3 799 kJ, 86±48 g, 49±32 g and 301±139 g of the men, respectively. The majority (83.6% of the women were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >25 or obese (BMI > 30 whilst 78% had a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC of > 21.7 cm. Mean intakes of micronutrients were low in comparison to reference standards and serum zinc levels were suboptimal. Obesity, hypertension and raised total serum cholesterol levels indicated an increased risk for coronary heart disease. It can be concluded that a low income, household food insecurity and risk factors associated with malnutrition and non-communicable diseases were prevalent in this elderly population. Opsomming Die doelwit van hierdie dwarssnitstudie was ‘n omvattende bepaling van voeding- en gesondheidstatus om as basis te dien vir toekomstige intervensie-strategieë vir ’n groep bejaardes wat ’n dagsentrum besoek. Sosiodemografiese, gesondheid- en 24-uur herroep-dieetinname vraelyste is voltooi en antropometriese en biochemiese metings is geneem. Die resultate het bevestig dat die meerderheid respondente ‘n maandelikse inkomste van tussen R501 en R1 000 (Suid-Afrikaanse rand gehad het. Die meeste het ‘n geldtekort vir basiese

  8. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Croatian MPs and Croatian Government Offi cials 2000-2003

    Davorka Budimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses sociodemographic characteristics of the Croatian MPs in the fourth term (2000-2003 and Croatian government offi cials (2000-2003, based on a conducted survey. The lack of empirical research of the Croatian political élite since 1990 is the main reason why it is not possible to establish with certainty measurable indicators of changes in their social structure and comings and goings. The analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of MPs and government offi cials is a method for better understanding of structural changes, and the data on sex, age, and type and level of education ensure better understanding of some specifi c qualities of the Croatian political élite. Sociodemographic characteristics of the parents of the interviewed MPs and government offi cials show that members of the political élite have found a successful channel of social promotion through their engagement in politics. The results have shown that high politics is a privilege of mostly highly educated men older than 40, who have graduated in social sciences, with an evident lack of women and the young in politics.

  9. Croatian Hotel Industry Financial Features Within the Period of Privatization

    Jasmina Lončar

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian tourist sector has been stagnating during the period of transition. By analyzing the balance of Croatian hotels, the influence on the changes and courses of balance, the author points out the increasing seriousness of the situation in Croatian hotel industry measured in the relation of property, debts and owners’ capital. The connection between the financial structure, balance liabilities and the diversification of the instruments of property structure, defines the optimal financial adjustment of firms in tourism. In present-day Croatian hotel companies, uncertain profits make the company risky, not only in the aspect of debts but also considering the equity capital, which is then reflected in unsatisfactory business results. Similar researches are crucial ways towards a global knowledge about privatization in Croatian tourism today.

  10. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  11. Measurement of Radioactivity in Some Croatian Regions

    Orehovec, Z.; Ilijas, B.; Bokan, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: After Government of Canada expressed its suspicion that Canadian soldiers who were included in UNPROFOR mission in Croatia were exposed to increased radioactivity and possible some chemical influences, a large action of measuring and sampling was undertaken. Canadian and Croatian experts were working together and a very large number of samples was collected. Measurements of alpha, beta and gamma radioactivity on terrain, as well as later analysis of samples showed no increased radioactivity or any other signs of radioactive contamination. The conclusion is that any possible diseases of Canadian soldiers can not originate from radiation or radioactive contamination in Croatia. (author)

  12. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    Marjeta Tomulić Vehovec

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly explains the methods for eliminating double taxation on income from dividends. Finally, it addresses the changes necessary for accession to the European Union.

  13. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  14. Business Intelligence technology: The Croatian case

    Katarina Ćurko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company aims to improve its business performance. Business Intelligence (BI helps enterprises to optimize their decision-making capabilities and to attain unprecedented levels of competitive advantage. Its usage leads to conditions, procedures and mechanisms for creating quality information and business knowledge. By these the organization can successfully respond to numerous pressures in dynamical and complex environment. The main objective of the paper is to present what the business intelligence is, and show the results of the research about the level and use of business intelligence in Croatian large organizations.

  15. OPHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF TAKAYASU ARTERITIS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Nandhini Arumugam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory vasculopathy mainly affecting the aorta and its main branches and rarely the pulmonary artery. It usually affects females of the childbearing age group and is more prevalent in the South East Asian countries. 1 Ocular manifestations are not uncommon in cases of Takayasu arteritis. They may be ischaemic ocular manifestations when aorta and its branches are involved and get stenosed or hypertensive retinopathy when renal or suprarenal aorta is involved. 2 Uyama and Asayama broadly classified the ocular manifestations into three types. 3 Type 1 comprised of the ischaemic ocular manifestations of Takayasu arteritis, termed as Takayasu Retinopathy which has been further classified into four stages. Stage one is characterised by the distention of veins, stage two consists of microaneurysm formation, occurrence of arteriovenous anastomoses indicates stage three and complications like retinal ischaemia, neovascularisation, rubeosis iridis and vitreous haemorrhage occurs in stage four. Type two ocular findings have features of mixed retinopathy and type three had retinal manifestations due to hypertension which occurs due to the involvement of the renal and abdominal aorta. Since this disease occurs predominantly in younger individuals it causes severe ocular morbidity in the young if not diagnosed and intervened at an early stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical spectrum of ocular findings in patients with Takayasu arteritis and to describe the Fundus Fluorescein angiographic characteristics of various retinal findings in patients with Takayasu arteritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 63 patients who were diagnosed as Takayasu Arteritis who attended our tertiary eye care centre in the time period of November 2014 to march 2017 were included in our study. RESULTS This cross-sectional study consisted of 63 patients. The mean age of the presentation of the study population was 27.8 years

  16. Population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT from potatoes in South Africa.

    Muzhinji, Norman; Woodhall, James W; Truter, Mariette; van der Waals, Jacquie E

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT is an important potato pathogen causing significant yield and quality losses in potato production. However, little is known about the levels of genetic diversity and structure of this pathogen in South Africa. A total of 114 R. solani AG 3-PT isolates collected from four geographic regions were analysed for genetic diversity and structure using eight microsatellite loci. Microsatellite analysis found high intra-population genetic diversity, population differentiation and evidence of recombination. A total of 78 multilocus genotypes were identified with few shared among populations. Low levels of clonality (13-39 %) and high levels of population differentiation were observed among populations. Most of the loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and all four populations showed evidence of a mixed reproductive mode of both clonality and recombination. The PCoA clustering method revealed genetically distinct geographic populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa. This study showed that populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa are genetically differentiated and disease management strategies should be applied accordingly. This is the first study of the population genetics of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa and results may help to develop knowledge-based disease management strategies. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. How to Improve Patient Safety Culture in Croatian Hospitals?

    Šklebar, Ivan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Šklebar, Duška; Cesarik, Marijan; Milošević, Milan; Brborović, Hana; Šporčić, Krunoslav; Petrić, Petar; Husedžinović, Ino

    2016-09-01

    Patient safety culture (PCS) has a crucial impact on the safety practices of healthcare delivery systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the state of PSC in Croatian hospitals and compare it with hospitals in the United States. The study was conducted in three public general hospitals in Croatia using the Croatian translation of the Hospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC). A comparison of the results from Croatian and American hospitals was performed using a T-square test. We found statistically significant differences in all 12 PSC dimensions. Croatian responses were more positive in the two dimensions of Handoff s and Transitions and Overall Perceptions of Patient Safety. In the remaining ten dimensions, Croatian responses were less positive than in US hospitals, with the most prominent areas being Nonpunitive Response to Error, Frequency of Events Reported, Communication Openness, Teamwork within Units, Feedback & Communication about Error, Management Support for Patient Safety, and Staffing. Our findings show that PSC is significantly lower in Croatian than in American hospitals, particularly in the areas of Nonpunitive Response to Error, Leadership, Teamwork, Communication Openness and Staffing. This suggests that a more comprehensive system for the improvement of patient safety within the framework of the Croatian healthcare system needs to be developed. Our findings also help confirm that HSOPSC is a useful and appropriate tool for the assessment of PSC. HSOPSC highlights the PSC components in need of improvement and should be considered for use in national and international benchmarking.

  18. Dynamics of market orientation in Croatian economy

    Ivana First

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was the goal of this research to examine the dynamics of Croatian transformation to market orientation and test whether the market orientation model changes with time as the business environment changes. Based on the literature analysis, we proposed a hypothetical model which relies on behavioural approach in understanding market orientation. To empirically test the hypothetical model, we used data previously collected for 2001, and by replicating the same questionnaire now collected data for 2011. Data was analyzed by hierarchical regression analysis on the two sets of data. Our findings reveal that Croatian organizations reached the level of moderate market orientation leaving space for improvement. Findings also reveal that higher level of market orientation correlates with higher business performance. Furthermore, with development of ICT, the model of market orientation modified in time in a way that in predicting successful market oriented reaction, specific information on consumer satisfaction gains importance, while general information from competitor and consumer databases lose importance. Despite the changes in the relationships among the elements of market orientation, the model itself similarly predicts performance today as it did ten years ago. Managers are advised to increase implementation of market orientation especially focusing on market responsiveness as such behaviour will lead to better performance.

  19. Critical analysis of marketing in Croatian publishing

    Silvija Gašparić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is an inevitable part of today's modern lifestyle. The role that marketing plays is so big that it has become the most important part of business. Due to crisis that is still affecting publishers in Croatia, this paper emphasizes the power of advertising as a key ingredient in how to overcome this situation and upgrade the system of publishing in Croatia. The framework of the paper is based on marketing as a tool that leads to popularization of books and sales increase. Beside the experimental part which gives an insight into public's opinion about books, publishing and marketing, the first chapter gives the literature review and analysis conducted on the whole process of book publishing in Croatia with pointing out mistakes that Croatian publishers make. Also, benefits of foreign publishing will be mentioned and used for comparison and projection on to the problems of the native market. The aim of this analysis and this viewpoint paper is to contribute the comprehension of marketing strategies and activities and its use and gains in Croatian publishing.

  20. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  1. Stock Market Liquidity: Comparative Analysis of Croatian and Regional Markets

    Vladimir Benić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Croatian stock market liquidity has never been in the focus of academic research thus we find it necessary to observe liquidity at the aggregate level. This paper observes multi-dimensional liquidity through the impact of turnover on price change together with several one-dimensional measures. In our empirical research we applythe illiquidity measureto seven different stock markets. We focus on the Croatian stock market as compared to other markets in the Central and Eastern Europe and German market. The results of the research indicate a substantial level of illiquidity in the Croatian and other developing markets.

  2. Esperanto (sen perspektivo? Croatian Esperantists on the International Language Esperanto

    Krunoslav Puškar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge, there is to date no significant number of sociological studies dealing with the Esperanto movement, and there are even fewer sociolinguistic explorations of the whole Esperanto phenomenon. Concentrating on the Croatian Esperanto movement, we conducted an extensive study of Croatian Esperantists? attitudes towards the structure of Esperanto, and their perception of the Esperanto movement and the overall Esperanto phenomenon - aspects still conspicuously missing in recent Esperantological research. This study offers invaluable insight into these under-researched interlinguistic areas, and also into the specific outlook of the traditional Croatian Esperanto movement.

  3. Liberalization of power generation sector in the Croatian electricity market

    Viskovic, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization and the restructuring of power utilities eventually leads to the establishment of a single electricity market in Europe, which is especially important for efficiency gains in electricity generation coupled with increased security of supply, economic competitiveness and fulfillment of environmental requirements. The European electricity market Directives as well as the Energy Community Treaty for South East Europe (legislative Menu) have remarkable impact on the restructuring of the Croatian power sector and the development of electricity generation. The Croatian model of restructuring includes legal un bundling (in the ownership of one holding company - Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP)). The operation of HEP Group and its subsidiaries in the conditions of partially opened electricity market in an important element that shapes the interactions of competitive activities and regulated activities in the environment influenced by exogenous factors a thirteen percent electricity are controlled by the Energy Market Operator (MO), the Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA). The introduction of eligible procedures and newly created operative procedures for power system operation, are creating completely new conditions for competition in the power generation sector, where almost all power plants are owned by HEP. New generating capacities in Croatia can be built through tendering and licensing procedures carried out by the Regulator. Electricity prices are still regulated by the Government (below the cost reflective level), there is a small share of industrial consumers and the annual electricity production is 12 TWh, with relatively large share of hydro plants. All these have implications on the development of the power generation sector in Croatia as well as on electricity market operation. The subject matter of this paper is an impact of power system restructuring and electricity market opening on the

  4. Survival Outlook for Middle-Aged Populations in South Mrica

    1974-10-12

    Oct 12, 1974 ... death at middle-age and beyond, reduces rather than in- creases ... mate longevity of populations may be genetically pro- ...... concluded that 'the characteristic life span of man and .... Ageing: The Biology of Senescence.

  5. Breakfast habits of adolescents in for South African populations.

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J

    1982-10-01

    Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies.

  6. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...

  7. BUSINESS CLIMATE INDICATOR AS A PREDICTOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Business and Consumer Surveys (BCS are one of the most frequently used tools to assess economy’s cyclical behavior. Croatia has been conducting the surveys continually since 1995. Nevertheless, there is still a research niche in the Croatian BCS framework that has not been adequately represented. The Joint Harmonised EU Programme of Business and Consumer Surveys suggests Business Climate Indicator (BCI as a composite leading indicator of the economy as a whole. In accordance to the EU methodology, this paper examines managers’ qualitative assessments on five important variables related to their economic environment. Using factor analysis one factor was extracted from those five variables, representing the BCI. It’s predictive properties were analyzed with regards to Croatian industrial production using Granger causality test, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis. Results strongly confirm the precedence of BCI to the changes of Croatian industrial production, validating the importance of its introduction and utilization in Croatian economic cycles analysis.

  8. Sociogeographical elements and determinants of Croatian Islands classification

    Veni Marinković

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Croatian Islands belong to the same macro-region of the Adriatic Croatia, they are characterized by a great heterogeneity of their geospatial reality at regional, micro regional, interinsular and local level, as well as by the complexity of the socio-economic structure and dynamic characteristics, as a result of physical-geographical and historical processes and contemporary development trends on them. The paper deals with sociogeographical classification of Croatian archipelago and provides an overview and systematization of scientific and professional considerations of its geospatial heterogeneity. It also includes an overview of Croatian Islands typification based on multi-criteria indicators. The author concluded the work by presenting a proposal of Croatian Islands clusterization concept as a contribution to the islands developmental policy.

  9. Eu Enlargement and Migration: Scenarios of Croatian Accession

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes possible incidence of pending Croatian EU accession that is to take place on the 1st of July 2013, on the labour migration from Croatia to the European Union. We apply panel data estimators using the data on emigration from 18 EU countries into Germany (which is the EU country with the largest share of ex-Yugoslav and Croatian migrants in order to construct possible scenarios of Croatian migration to the EU.Three scenarios of migration - pessimistic, realistic and optimistic - are drawn and the sensitivity of estimated coefficients on migration from Croatia into Germany during next 25 years is further discussed in detail. We conclude that, similarly to hypothetical Turkish accession, Croatian EU accession is not going to cause massive migration inflows.

  10. FINANCING POLICIES OF CROATIAN PUBLICLY LISTED FIRMS

    Mihaela Grubisic Seba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a typical bank-based transition economy whose capital market has been primarily used for secondary trading purposes since its re-establishment in 1990s. Except for a couple of exceptions, public offers of shares and corporate bonds have been rather rate. Private offerings of shares and short-term debt have been more frequent. However, due to secondary debt market illiquidity, the debt issues are signed up and either held until maturity or renewal, or they are traded exclusively between the institutional investors.This paper provides evidence from the field on financing preferences of Croatian public companies regarding seasoned equity and corporate debt issuance. It questiones why public offerings of corporate securities in non-financial sector after initial, mostly mandatory shares’ listing have been rare and whether making decisions on securities’ offers depend on other financial instruments’ sufficiency, costs of issunace or previous experience of companies in collecting funds in the capital market.

  11. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  12. Impacts of biodiesel production on Croatian economy

    Kulisic, Biljana; Loizou, Efstratios; Rozakis, Stelios; Segon, Velimir

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the direct and indirect impacts on a national economy from biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester (RME)) production using input-output (I-O) analysis. Biodiesel development in Croatia is used as a case study. For Croatia, as for many other countries in Europe, biodiesel is a new activity not included in the existing I-O sectoral accounts. For this reason the I-O table has to be modified accordingly before being able to quantify the effect of an exogenous demand for biodiesel. Impacts in terms of output, income and employment lead to the conclusion that biodiesel production could have significant positive net impact on the Croatian economy despite the high level of subsidies for rapeseed growing

  13. Organisation development possibilities of Croatian electricity markets

    Toljan, I.

    1999-01-01

    Organisational development of the European Union members' power sector is defined by the obligatory legislative document D irectives 92/96 EC, 19.12.1996 . The development goal is a natural monopoly decrease and introduction of competition, having in mind environmental protection which will enable sustainable development of each member. This would provide the European economy to become globally more competitive and to protect macro economic stability more efficiently. The EU members are allowed to make their own decisions regarding the mode of implementation they will use to establish the organisation of electricity market. Non-members of EU are also involved in defining future changes. Developed non-members are more efficient in that process and promptly follow all changes. Transition countries, among them also Croatia, are trying to adjust to such demands, with different success. The aim of this paper is analyse the current Croatian power system and the possibilities if its modernisation. (author)

  14. Croatian Energy Sector Reform - Results Achieved

    Nota, R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past ten years, the energy sector has passed through significant changes including fundamental market, economic, legislative and institutional aspects of sector operation. As the main goal of the Republic of Croatia is the integration into the European Union, the energy sector reform ought to be conducted in keeping with the present market development processes of the EU in such a way as to fulfil all safety criteria. In view of the above mentioned, the Croatian Parliament brought a number of laws during its session in July 2001 (''Official Gazette'' 68/01): 1. Energy Law 2. Energy Activities Regulation Law 3. Electricity Market Law 4. Gas Market Law 5. Oil and Oil Derivatives Market Law, which present the commencement of the energy sector reform (www.mingo.hr).(author)

  15. The Attitudes of Croatian Citizens toward Cultural Diversities

    Milan Mesić; Dragan Bagić

    2011-01-01

    The paper is based on part of results of a representative national examination of Croatian citizens’ attitudes about cultural diversities in Croatian society. A field survey was conducted by using the personal interview method in the respondent’s household, within the framework of an omnibus research. By cultural diversities, the authors mean national and religious communities. In this respect, Croatia is culturally a heterogeneous political community like most countries of the contemporary w...

  16. Inconsistencies In Croatian Strategy Of Radioactive Waste Management

    Knapp, A.; Levanat, I.; Lokner, V.; Saponja-Milutinovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses inconsistencies appearing in the new Croatian Strategy of radioactive waste, spent sources and spent nuclear fuel management. These appear both at the conceptual level as well as at the level of justification: 1) New Croatian Strategy is planning unconditional and hasty establishment of a Croatian dry storage for the Croatian half of the spent fuel from the Krsko nuclear power plant (in about 10 years), although the plant itself is planning establishment of dry storage for its spent fuel on its own site in Slovenia by 2019 - which is noted in the same Strategy. 2) The Croatian Strategy provides false arguments for establishment of radioactive waste storage and repository in Croatia (based on invented 'interpretations' of the Bilateral agreement with Slovenia), although true arguments, legitimate and convincing, are obvious and sufficient for such strategic planning. One author of this paper communicated suggestions, based on above arguments, to the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety, who had drafted the Strategy and was coordinating preparation of the final proposal during the document adoption procedure. Croatian Radiation Protection Association and Croatian Nuclear Society also provided comments aimed at improving the draft. The authors here suggest that only clear and honest arguments can maintain public confidence in the competence of the State, which is a prerequisite for establishing radioactive waste management facilities. The authors propose that the State office should engage Croatian professional associations and societies already in the process of strategic documents drafting, whereas they should most seriously focus on the conceptual aspects of such documents. (author).

  17. Nuclear energy - an option for Croatian sustainable development

    Mikulicic, V.; Skanata, D.; Simic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The uncertainties of growth in Croatian future energy, particularly electricity demand, together with growing environmental considerations and protection constraints, are such that Croatia needs to have flexibility to respond by having the option of expanding the nuclear sector. The paper deals with nuclear energy as an option for croatian sustainable economic development. The conclusion is that there is a necessity for extended use of nuclear energy in Croatia because most certainly nuclear energy can provide energy necessary to sustain progress. (author)

  18. APPLYING THIESSEN POLYGON CATCHMENT AREAS AND GRIDDED POPULATION WEIGHTS TO ESTIMATE CONFLICT-DRIVEN POPULATION CHANGES IN SOUTH SUDAN

    L. Jordan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP, in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12 increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24 experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  19. Applying Thiessen Polygon Catchment Areas and Gridded Population Weights to Estimate Conflict-Driven Population Changes in South Sudan

    Jordan, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent violence in South Sudan produced significant levels of conflict-driven migration undermining the accuracy and utility of both national and local level population forecasts commonly used in demographic estimates, public health metrics and food security proxies. This article explores the use of Thiessen Polygons and population grids (Gridded Population of the World, WorldPop and LandScan) as weights for estimating the catchment areas for settlement locations that serve large populations of internally displaced persons (IDP), in order to estimate the county-level in- and out-migration attributable to conflict-driven displacement between 2014-2015. Acknowledging IDP totals improves internal population estimates presented by global population databases. Unlike other forecasts, which produce spatially uniform increases in population, accounting for displaced population reveals that 15 percent of counties (n = 12) increased in population over 20 percent, and 30 percent of counties (n = 24) experienced zero or declining population growth, due to internal displacement and refugee out-migration. Adopting Thiessen Polygon catchment zones for internal migration estimation can be applied to other areas with United Nations IDP settlement data, such as Yemen, Somalia, and Nigeria.

  20. Paleopathology and Nutritional Analysis of a South German Monastery Population

    Andreas G. Nerlich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The monastery of Attel, Upper Bavaria, which was founded in AD 1030, harbours a series of crypt burials from the time period between AD 1700 and 1750. Due to a restoration of the church, 16 crypts had to be removed and were subjected to an extensive anthropological-paleopathological and isotope analysis. The 16 crypts contained 19 burials in open wooden coffins. All bodies were covered by an extensive layer of calcium carbonate. Despite this “treatment,” bone and teeth were excellently preserved (mean degree of conservation > 75%, completeness > 85%. The anthropological investigation revealed a mean age of 38.5 years and a body height of 1.71 m. Paleopathologically, a surprisingly high rate of trauma was seen (13 injuries in 7 different individuals, i.e., 36.8% of individuals affected, 2 cases presented signs of extensive arthritis urica (gout, and several monks were affected by arthrosis of shoulder and knee joints. Extensive dental attrition, numerous foci of dental caries, and dentogenic abscesses coincided with considerable dental calculus indicating poor oral hygienic conditions. Stable isotope analysis showed adequate mixed carnivore-herbivore nutrition, comparable to that of contemporaneous upper class individuals. This extensive combined analysis provides considerable insight into the nutrition and disease pattern of a middle-class monastery of early 18th century South Germany.

  1. Gender issues in a cataract surgical population in South India.

    Joseph, Sanil; Ravilla, Thulasiraj; Bassett, Ken

    2013-04-01

    To investigate patterns and characteristics of men and women who used different cataract surgery payment streams in a South Indian hospital. We randomly sampled patients with age-related cataract aged 40 years and over from three routine cataract surgical service streams: walk-in paying, walk-in subsidized and free camp. Presenting visual acuity (VA) and cataract surgical details were obtained from routine hospital records. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected from patient interviews. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with use of different streams with walk-in paying as the reference group. There were 7076 eligible admissions (3742 women and 3334 men). Proportionately more women than men attended the walk-in subsidized (56%) or free camp sections (55%) compared to the walk-in paying stream (42%, odds ratio, OR, 1.40 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.25-1.57 and OR 1.33 95% CI 1.19-1.49, respectively). After adjustment for socioeconomic factors (illiteracy, not being in paid work), rural residence and poor presenting VA, OR for women compared to men for the walk-in subsided stream was 1.02, (95% CI 0.87-1.18) and for the free camp 0.94 (95% CI 0.80-1.11). Our results indicate that women are underrepresented in the paying section, reflecting their poorer socioeconomic and educational statuses.

  2. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  3. An evaluation of nasal bone and aperture shape among three South African populations.

    McDowell, Jennifer L; Kenyhercz, Michael W; L'Abbé, Ericka N

    2015-07-01

    Reliable and valid population specific standards are necessary to accurately develop a biological profile, which includes an estimation of peer-reported social identification (Hefner, 2009). During the last 300 years, colonialism, slavery and apartheid created geographic, physical and social divisions of population groups in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate variation in nasal bone and aperture shape in a modern population of black, white, and coloured South Africans using standard craniometric variables and geometric morphometrics, namely general Procrustes and elliptical Fourier analyses. Fourteen standard landmarks were digitally recorded or computationally derived from 310 crania using a 3D coordinate digitizer for discriminant function, principal components and generalized Procrustes analyses. For elliptical Fourier analysis, outlines of the nasal aperture were generated from standardized photographs. All classification accuracies were better than chance; the lowest accuracies were for coloured and the highest accuracies were for white South Africans. Most difficulties arose in distinguishing coloured and black South African groups from each other. Generally, misclassifications were noted between the sexes within each group rather than among groups, which suggests that sex has less influence on nasal bone and aperture shape than ancestry. Quantifiable variation in shape of the nasal aperture region between white and non-white South African groups was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The promise of discovering population-specific disease-associated genes in South Asia.

    Nakatsuka, Nathan; Moorjani, Priya; Rai, Niraj; Sarkar, Biswanath; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Bhavani, Gandham SriLakshmi; Girisha, Katta Mohan; Mustak, Mohammed S; Srinivasan, Sudha; Kaushik, Amit; Vahab, Saadi Abdul; Jagadeesh, Sujatha M; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Singh, Lalji; Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-09-01

    The more than 1.5 billion people who live in South Asia are correctly viewed not as a single large population but as many small endogamous groups. We assembled genome-wide data from over 2,800 individuals from over 260 distinct South Asian groups. We identified 81 unique groups, 14 of which had estimated census sizes of more than 1 million, that descend from founder events more extreme than those in Ashkenazi Jews and Finns, both of which have high rates of recessive disease due to founder events. We identified multiple examples of recessive diseases in South Asia that are the result of such founder events. This study highlights an underappreciated opportunity for decreasing disease burden among South Asians through discovery of and testing for recessive disease-associated genes.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Croatian Language Version of the Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire on Dental Medicine Students.

    Laktić, Martina; Kuftinec, Krešimir; Čelebić, Asja; Kovačić, Ines; Alhajj, Mohamed Nasser; Kiršić, Sanja Peršić

    2017-09-01

    To develop the Croatian version of the 41-item Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES) for stress assessment of dental students in both, preclinical and clinical years of study and to test its psychometric properties in Croatian dental student population. The English version of the 41-Item DES questionnaire was first translated into the Croatian language. Subsequently, it was set on the google drive and filled out by a total of 202 students from the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb and 30 additional students from other Faculties. Students also assessed their overall level of stress on the Likert scale (1=no stress, 5=highest level of stress). Internal consistency was tested on 202 dental students; test-retest reliability on 30 dental students who filled out the same questionnaire twice; convergent validity on 202 dental students; and divergent validity on 202 dental students and 30 students from faculties not belonging to the biomedicine group. Internal consistency showed high Cronbach alpha coefficient (0.9) and test-retest reliability showed no significant difference (P>0.05) within the period of 14 days when stress level had not changed (vacation). Convergent validity was confirmed by the significant association between the DES summary scores and the self- perceived level of stress (Spearman's rho=0.881; P <0.001). Divergent validity was confirmed by significantly lower DES summary scores in students not belonging to the Biomedicine group (t=7.5, P<0.001). Excellent psychometric properties of the Croatian version of the DES questionnaire enable its utilization for assessment of stress level in Croatian dental students.

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Croatian Language Version of the Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire on Dental Medicine Students

    Martina Laktić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop the Croatian version of the 41-item Dental Environment Stress questionnaire (DES for stress assessment of dental students in both, preclinical and clinical years of study and to test its psychometric properties in Croatian dental student population. Materials and Methods: The English version of the 41-Item DES questionnaire was first translated into the Croatian language. Subsequently, it was set on the google drive and filled out by a total of 202 students from the School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb and 30 additional students from other Faculties. Students also assessed their overall level of stress on the Likert scale (1=no stress, 5=highest level of stress. Internal consistency was tested on 202 dental students; test-retest reliability on 30 dental students who filled out the same questionnaire twice; convergent validity on 202 dental students; and divergent validity on 202 dental students and 30 students from faculties not belonging to the biomedicine group. Results: Internal consistency showed high Cronbach alpha coefficient (0.9 and test-retest reliability showed no significant difference (P>0.05 within the period of 14 days when stress level had not changed (vacation. Convergent validity was confirmed by the significant association between the DES summary scores and the self- perceived level of stress (Spearman’s rho=0.881; P<0.001. Divergent validity was confirmed by significantly lower DES summary scores in students not belonging to the Biomedicine group (t=7.5, P<0.001. Conclusion: Excellent psychometric properties of the Croatian version of the DES questionnaire enable its utilization for assessment of stress level in Croatian dental students.

  7. A model of population dynamics of TB in a prison system and application to South Africa

    Witbooi, Peter; Vyambwera, Sibaliwe Maku

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) continues to spread in South African prisons in particular, as prisons are over-capacitated and have poor ventilation. The awaiting trial detainees are not screened on admission and are at high risk of getting infected with TB. Results We propose a compartmental model to describe the population dynamics of TB disease in prisons. Our model considers the inflow of susceptible, exposed and TB infectives into the prison population. Removal of individuals out of the pr...

  8. Marine foraging and annual fish consumption of a south polar Skua population in the maritime Antarctic

    Hahn, S.M.; Ritz, M.S.; Reinhardt, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pelagic fish are an important component of Antarctic food webs but few quantitative data exist on energy transfer from fish to seabirds for the Seasonal Pack-ice Zone. We studied a local population of south polar, skuas Catharacta maccormicki during a whole breeding cycle and estimated its entire

  9. First Steps to School Readiness: South Carolina's Response to At-Risk Early Childhood Population.

    Buford, Rhonda; Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes South Carolina's new state early childhood program, First Steps to School Readiness. Includes a profile of the state's at-risk child population, noting poverty and education risk indicators, and describing key program components. The article discusses program oversight, local program partnerships, program funding mechanisms, and local…

  10. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and l...

  11. Comparative population genetics of the German shepherd dog in South Africa

    N. J. Coutts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern breeding practices strive to achieve distinctive phenotypic uniformity in breeds of dogs, but these strategies are associated with the inevitable loss of genetic diversity. Thus, in parallel with the morphological variation displayed by breeds, purebred dogs commonly express genetic defects as a result of the inbreeding associated with artificial selection and the reduction of selection against disease phenotypes. Microsatellite marker analyses of 15 polymorphic canine loci were used to investigate measures of genetic diversity and population differentiation within and between German-bred and South African-bred German shepherd dogs. These data were quantified by comparison with typically outbred mongrel or crossbred dogs. Both the imported and locally-bred German shepherd dogs exhibited similar levels of genetic diversity. The breed is characterised by only a moderate loss of genetic diversity relative to outbred dogs, despite originating from a single founding sire and experiencing extensive levels of inbreeding throughout the history of the breed. Non-significant population differentiation between the ancestral German and derived South African populations indicates sufficient contemporary gene flow between these populations, suggesting that migration resulting from the importation of breeding stock has mitigated the effects of random genetic drift and a population bottleneck caused by the original founder event in South Africa. Significant differentiation between the combined German shepherd dog population and the outbred dogs illustrates the effects of selection and genetic drift on the breed since its establishment just over 100 years ago.

  12. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  13. Environmental challenges for sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region

    Jelena Lončar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of the North Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted with problems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy, especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastal region where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Another environmental problem is the oil transportation by a pipeline which is planned to be built in the frames of Russian-Croatian project Družba-Adria.

  14. Population specific biomarkers of human aging: a big data study using South Korean, Canadian and Eastern European patient populations.

    Mamoshina, Polina; Kochetov, Kirill; Putin, Evgeny; Cortese, Franco; Aliper, Alexander; Lee, Won-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Min; Uhn, Lee; Skjodt, Neil; Kovalchuk, Olga; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-11

    Accurate and physiologically meaningful biomarkers for human aging are key to assessing anti-aging therapies. Given ethnic differences in health, diet, lifestyle, behaviour, environmental exposures and even average rate of biological aging, it stands to reason that aging clocks trained on datasets obtained from specific ethnic populations are more likely to account for these potential confounding factors, resulting in an enhanced capacity to predict chronological age and quantify biological age. Here we present a deep learning-based hematological aging clock modeled using the large combined dataset of Canadian, South Korean and Eastern European population blood samples that show increased predictive accuracy in individual populations compared to population-specific hematologic aging clocks. The performance of models was also evaluated on publicly-available samples of the American population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition, we explored the association between age predicted by both population-specific and combined hematological clocks and all-cause mortality. Overall, this study suggests a) the population-specificity of aging patterns and b) hematologic clocks predicts all-cause mortality. Proposed models added to the freely available Aging.AI system allowing improved ability to assess human aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  15. Lack of Population Structure and Mixed Reproduction Modes in Exserohilum turcicum from South Africa.

    Human, Maria Petronella; Barnes, Irene; Craven, Maryke; Crampton, Bridget Genevieve

    2016-11-01

    Exserohilum turcicum is the causal agent of northern corn leaf blight, a destructive foliar disease of maize that results in yield losses worldwide. In South Africa, typical yield losses range from 15 to 30%. Previous studies found high haplotypic diversity with evidence for sexual recombination in E. turcicum populations from tropical climates such as Kenya. However, the population genetic structure and method of reproduction of E. turcicum in South Africa is unknown and, therefore, was investigated. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were screened on 258 E. turcicum isolates from maize collected during 2012 and 2013 from three maize fields in South Africa. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay amplifying both mating type idiomorphs was applied to investigate the distribution of mating types. No distinct genetic clusters were observed. Shared haplotypes were identified between isolates separated by distances of up to 762 km, which provided evidence of migration. High haplotypic diversity indicated that sexual reproduction is occurring among E. turcicum isolates, although mating type ratios and linkage disequilibrium analyses did not support the hypothesis of random mating. The population genetic structure of E. turcicum in South Africa is likely due to the direct movement and spread of isolates undergoing a mixed reproductive lifecycle.

  16. Competition Efficiency Analysis of Croatian Junior Wrestlers in European Championship

    Kristijan Slacanac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatian junior wrestler won a bronze medal at the European Championship 2016 year. Considering the potential of our wrestlers there is an obvious need of technical and tactical analysis so our juniors and seniors U23 wrestlers would be able to achieve even better results. Match analysis were conducted by LongoMatch 0.20.1. Seven matches of Croatian wrestlers were analysed. Time parameters, score efficiency, technical efficiency and tactical structure were observed and analysed from the aspect of attack and defence phase and successful/unsuccessful techniques. This paper shows descriptive parameters and competitor efficiency were calculated. The results show a great number of positive score in a standing position in relation to parterre position. The parameters of competitive efficiency (0.49 points per minute show better attacking efficiency (1.32 points per minute in relation to defence efficiency (0.83 points per minute. Croatian wrestlers achieve less score per minute in relation with elite wrestlers, but it is visible a significant progress in technical and tactical efficiency in relation in the past three year. According to place realization of technique, Croatian wrestlers realized more technique in the center, while opponents realized technique in the zone and moving to the zone. Further analysis of efficiency and individualisation training will improve efficiency of Croatian national wrestlers.

  17. Scientific Output of Croatian Universities: Comparison with Neighbouring Countries

    Boris Podobnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the Croatian research output with the neighboring countries and the Croatian universities with the largest Slovenian, Hungarian, and Serbian universities. As far as papers listed by Social Science Citation Index are concerned, since 2000 the University of Zagreb exhibits best results in social sciences compared to the competing universities, that is not the case in “hard” sciences. For the last 12 years, only the University of Ljubljana has shown better results in total research output than the University of Zagreb. The difference in research output between the University of Zagreb and the rest of the Croatian universities has been constantly decreasing. As a case study we compare research output at Faculty of Civil Engeenering on different Croatian universities. By analyzing European countries, we show a functional dependence between the gross domestic product (GDP and the research output. From this fit we conclude that the Croatian science exhibits research output as expected for the given level of GDP.

  18. Comparative analysis of entrepreneurial orientation of Croatian and Sweden students

    Najla Podrug

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the comparison of entrepreneurial orientation of Croatian and Swedish students. Croatian students show significantly lower entrepreneurial intention than Swedish students, and positive attitudes are more frequent with Swedish students. Design/methodology/approach – The cross-cultural research strategy used in this study was a narrowsample strategy which is based on a survey questionnaire comparison of the similar subcultures in different countries. Findings – Croatian students show significantly lower entrepreneurial intention, while positive entrepreneurial attitudes are more frequent with Swedish students. Interestingly, Swedish students consider the entrepreneurial climate to be more evident in their schools. This finding is especially significant if one considers the significantly lower entrepreneurial education of Swedish than Croatian students. Research limitations/implications – Conclusions based on this research are tentative and require further comparison including representatives of other cultures and faculties. Another limitation is identified through additional option of changing intentions and other factors of entrepreneurial orientation, and therefore would longitudinal research of tracking changes of entrepreneurial orientation over the years of study, as well as after studies, along with exploring the reasons of changing them, be desirable. The size of the sample of respondents appears as another potential limitation. Originality/value – Confidence in their own entrepreneurial skills for Croatian students is dependent on the support of the environment, which is not the case with Swedish students whose confidence depends solely on how individually entrepreneurial they are.

  19. Croatian library leaders’ views on (their library quality

    Kornelija Petr Balog

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and describe the library culture in Croatian public libraries. Semi-structured interviews with 14 library directors (ten public and four academic were conducted. The tentative discussion topics were: definition of quality, responsibility for quality, satisfaction with library services, familiarization with user perspective of library and librarians, monitoring of user expectations and opinions. These interviews incorporate some of the findings of the project Evaluation of library and information services: public and academic libraries. The project investigates library culture in Croatian public and academic libraries and their preparedness for activities of performance measurement. The interviews reveal that library culture has changed positively in the past few years and that library leaders have positive attitude towards quality and evaluation activities. Library culture in Croatian libraries is a relatively new concept and as such was not actively developed and/or created. This article looks into the library culture of Croatian libraries, but at the same time investigates whether there is any trace of culture of assessment in them. Also, this article brings the latest update on views, opinions and atmosphere in Croatian public and academic libraries.

  20. PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION ON CROATIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper was to research portfolio optimization problem on Croatian capital market using Markowitz theory. Research systematically investigated the selection of securities, and defined the importance of using fundamental analysis when selecting the best combination of securities. Since fundamental analysis involves a large number of indicators, this paper selected key indicators that enable a complete and quick securities review on the market. This paper clarifies diversification effect and influence of the correlation coefficient on diversification. Two basic types of assets (stocks and cash funds have been chosen to build the optimal portfolio. Cash funds were selected because they represent a form of risk-free investment, while stocks were chosen because of the high level of return which they achieve. At the end of paper, optimal portfolio was calculated with an excellent yield of 1.82% and deviation of 5.77% on a monthly basis which corresponds to the minimum deviation of the selected stocks. Calculated optimal portfolio achieves better expected value than investing in stock index CROBEX, which for the same period achieves the expected result of -0.02%.

  1. CROATIAN HONEY MARKET IN EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT

    Dragana Dukić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This examination is based on comparison of honey production, in countries of European Union, transition countries and The Republic of Croatia. The situation in Croatia is shown with all information about honey production. All data are compared with already managed European countries. In comparison with registrated number of beekeepers and hives, Croatia belongs to transition countries with the smallest number of beekepers and hives. On the other hand, values, such as, number of hives per beekeper and average honey production by hive, classify Croatia ahead of transition countries. There are very few professional beekepers in Croatia, as well as in other transition countries, but not countries of The European Union. Honey production in Croatia has been increasing last seven years and in the last few it increased more than 50%. Export of honey in the last 2 years is half of the complete honey production, which accomplish conditions for export enlargement. At the same time, import of honey is considerable reduced. Conditions for export can be better with production of biological clean honey (eco-honey, since Croatia has great resources for it. Also, cost of Croatian honey on the foreign market, will be considerable higher.

  2. Croatian Support for Strengthening International Safeguards

    Cizmek, Ankica; Novosel, Nevenka

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science and technology has the potential to contribute to health and prosperity. However, it is also the basis for the development of nuclear weapons. The acceptance and implementation of IAEA safeguards therefore serve as important confidence building measures, through which a State can demonstrate, and other States can be assured, that nuclear energy is being used only for peaceful purpose. Practically, all countries around the world use nuclear techniques for a variety of peaceful purposes, including food and water security, energy, industrial application and human health. Only a few of these activities involve the type of nuclear material that could potentially be diverted to make nuclear weapons or other explosive devices. And here the safeguards are on duty. The safeguards system aims at detecting the diversion of nuclear material. In this paper will be presented international conventions and bilateral agreements in the field of nuclear safety as well as the Croatian cooperation with international organizations and associations in the nuclear area, such as Nuclear Supplier Group, Zangger Committee, Wassenaar Arrangement, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban treaty Organization, Euratom and civil expert groups of NATO. (author)

  3. Employees older than 50 on Croatian labour market – need for a new approach

    Srecko Goic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has reached demographic maturity, with ever lower cohorts of youngers (and younger labour force numbers, longer life expectations, and rapidly growing share of older population. In such situation, working population older than 50 becomes more and more significant, not only by number, but also as an important pool of knowledge and experiences. 28,36% of total employed in Croatia in 2014 were 50+ years old. That same year (2014 27,7% of total unemployed in Croatia were 50+ years old. The share of persons 50+ in total number of unemployed grew to 29,6% in 2015, and 31,7% in 2016. Long duration of unemployment is especially accentuated among persons older than 50: in 2016 older persons made 41,91% among those with unemployment duration between 2 and 3 years, 44,00% among those with unemployment duration between 4 and 5 years, 53,23% among those with unemployment duration between 6 and 8 years, and even 70,04% among those with unemployment duration over 8 years. Although Croatian governments for almost quarter of century were devising different “active labour market policies” directed to older persons, their results are questionable. With growing problems to acquire and retain necessary workforce in Croatian enterprises, there is obviously strong need to develop new approach (es towards people older than 50. This paper is trying to shed new light on this problem and offer new ideas in the field of labour market policies, and human resources management oriented towards older employees in Croatia. The Croatian example (changes, problems, and experiences may be of interest to other, particularly European, countries in a similar situation.

  4. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia - Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study.

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (PCroatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden.

  5. Security Challenges in South-East Europe: A Croatian Perspective

    2016-06-10

    President Medvedev’s visit to Belgrade, Russia and Serbia signed further agreements in the field of education, sports , culture, parliamentary cooperation...metalworking, chemical and electrical industries, construction, tourism , and agriculture).203 On January 11, 2013 Russia and Serbia signed an agreement...recreational, rather than governmental and industrial.”209 Since the Montenegrin economy is based on tourism , the majority of Russian investment includes

  6. Population genetics of Thamnaconus hypargyreus (Tetraodontiformes: Monacanthidae) in the South China Sea.

    Li, Yufang; Chen, Guobao; Yu, Jie; Wu, Shuiqing; Xiong, Dan; Li, Xia; Cui, Ke; Li, Yongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of population structure is particularly important for long-term fisheries management and conservation. Lesser-spotted leatherjacket Thamnaconus hypargyreus is an economically important fish species in the South China Sea. Fish specimens (totally 158 individuals) used in this study were collected from five geographical locations in the north of the South China Sea and the southwestern Nansha Islands. The results were as follows: a total of 636 nucleotides of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of T. hypargyreus were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Both 103 mutations of nucleotide acids without inserting or deleting one and 91 haplotypes were found among the examined CR fragment. High haplotype diversity (0.9419 ± 0.0151) and nucleotide diversity (0.0095 ± 0.00506) relatively together with a recent and sudden population expansion which characterizes the genetic population structure of this species. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the fixation indices (Fst) of five groups showed that the genetic variance mainly came from individuals within groups, and there was no genetic differentiation between groups. The phylogenetic trees including maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) proved no phylogeographic differentiation structure in five groups. The mtDNA marker suggested the five groups should be genetic homogeneity, which implied T. hypargyreus in the north and southwest continental shelf of the South China Sea belongs to one population.

  7. Psychometric Characteristics of Croatian Version of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale

    Željko Rakošec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES has been developed through extensive and qualitative research. Numerous studies have confirmed the reliability and validity of the DSES among different populations. Most of the studies have shown association of the DSES with physical and psychological well-being. Purpose: The current study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the DSES in the Croatian population. Method: The 16-item scale was translated through standard translation/back-translation procedures. The scale was afterwards applied to a sample of 535 test subjects (49% men and 51% women, mean age 42.6 years. Results: The coefficient of reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.945 is very high. The coefficients of discriminant validity were satisfactory for 15 items, whereas only one item (14 has a coefficient of less than 0.30. The factor analysis after oblique rotation resulted in two related factors: the relationship with God and relationship with others. Using these two factors explained the 66.1% of the variance. Conclusion: Based on the data, it can be concluded that DSES has satisfactory psychometric characteristics and can be applied to the Croatian population, but its correlation with other religious and non-religious constructs should be verified in further research.

  8. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom.

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory Y H; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-04-25

    Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%). 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1%) (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean). Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD) 0.18), median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.848 to 1) and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18), median 1 (IQR 1 to 1). Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL) was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  9. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  10. ABO blood groups and psychiatric disorders: a Croatian study.

    Pisk, Sandra Vuk; Vuk, Tomislav; Ivezić, Ena; Jukić, Irena; Bingulac-Popović, Jasna; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-02-15

    The prevalence of ABO alleles is different in different populations, and many studies have shown a correlation between the occurrences of some diseases and different genotypes of ABO blood groups. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between psychiatric syndromes and ABO blood groups. This case-control study involved 156 psychiatric patients and 303 healthy, unrelated, voluntary blood donors. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood on a QIAcube device using a QIAamp DNA Blood mini QIAcube kit. ABO genotyping on five basic ABO alleles was performed using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. Compared with healthy subjects, a significantly higher proportion of psychiatric patients had AB blood group (χ 2 =9.359, df=3, p=0.025) and, accordingly, a significantly higher incidence of A1B genotype (χ 2 =8.226, df=3, p=0.042). The odds ratio showed that psychiatric disorders occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other blood groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of ABO blood groups among patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. Likewise, no correlations were found between ABO blood groups and other characteristics of the psychiatric patients (sex, psychiatric heredity, somatic comorbidity, suicidality). The results of this study support the hypothesis of an association between psychiatric disorders and ABO blood groups. The probability is that psychiatric disorders will occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other ABO blood groups in the Croatian population.

  11. Genetic affinities of the Siddis of South India: an emigrant population of East Africa.

    Gauniyal, Mansi; Chahal, S M S; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2008-06-01

    Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the African Siddis to Goa, India, as slaves about 500 years ago. Subsequently, the Siddis moved into the interior regions of the state of Karnataka, India, and have remained there ever since. Over time the Siddis have experienced considerable cultural changes because of their proximity to neighboring population groups. To understand the biological consequences of these changes, we studied the Siddis to determine the extent of genetic variation and the contributions from the African, European, and Indian ancestral populations. In the present study we typed the Siddis for 20 polymorphic serological, red cell, and Alu insertion-deletion loci. The overall pattern of phenotype (and genotype) distribution is in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Considering the ethnohistorical records and the availability of secondary-source genetic data, we used two data sets in the analysis: one comprising eight serological and red cell enzyme markers with eight population groups and another comprising six Alu insertion-deletion markers with seven tribal groups of South India. The dendrograms generated from these two data sets on the basis of genetic distance analysis between the selected populations of African, European, and Indian descent reveals that the Siddis are closer to the Africans than they are to the South Indian populations. Genetic admixture analysis using a dihybrid model (19 loci) and a trihybrid model (10 loci and 8 loci) shows that the predominant influence comes from the Africans, a lesser contribution from the South Indians, and a slight contribution from the Portuguese. Thus the original composition of the African genes among the Siddis has been diluted to some extent by the contribution from southern Indian population groups. There is no nonrandom association of alleles among a set of 10 genetic marker systems considered in the present study. The demonstration of genetic homogeneity of the Siddis

  12. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  13. Implications of the Croatian Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Strategy

    Lokner, V.; Levanat, I.

    2012-01-01

    Croatian Government approved its national Radioactive waste and Spent Fuel Strategy as a part of the accession process to EU in July 2009 enabling acquisition of adequate administrative capacity by the time of accession to properly implement and enforce the relevant legislation in all areas related to nuclear safety. Strategy was formulated in line with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. In particular, the strategy was approved to ensure that sufficient qualified staff and adequate financial services are available to support the safety of facilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management generated by Krsko NPP during their operating lifetime and from decommissioning. Following are statements from the Croatian strategy that are relevant for Croatian position regarding capacity building for storage and disposal of LILW and SF. To be able to fulfill the obligations assumed, Croatia needs to do the following (Strategy Section 3.3): reach an agreement with Slovenia by 2013 at the latest regarding the location of objects for storing LILW; should no such agreement be reached, Croatia is to initiate preparations for assuming its half of operational LILW and for third-country export thereof, or for storing the LILW on Croatian territory, whilst also gradually assuming the part of LILW created from decommissioning; reach an agreement with Slovenia by 2018 at the latest regarding the location of a common SF storage; should no such agreement be reached, initiate preparations for assuming a third-country export of SF, or for storing half of SF on Croatian territory. This paper discusses the Strategy aims in the light of noticeable delay of 2nd revision of the Program of NPP Krsko Decommissioning and SF andLILW Disposal, the status of the planned Slovenian national repository on Vrbina site and the prospects of its use for joint Croatian/Slovenian LILW disposal - all in the context of as yet

  14. Management support to e-business initiatives: The Croatian experience

    Mario Spremić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available After defining e-business and explaining why an evolutionary aspect of moving to e-business is required, the dimensions of e-business is defined with respect to differences between traditional business, partial, or pure e-business. Also, a model for moving to e-business is illustrated. The e-business evolving model is divided into six stages and represents an evolutionary aspect of migrating to e-business. Finally, the results of the research study on current practices in evolving e-business in the most successful Croatian companies are given. In this research, some aspects of business process innovation and e-business usage have been investigated (general e-business issues with levels of e-business usage, key objectives of participating in e-business, alignment of business strategy with e-business initiatives, initiation of e-business projects and e-business planning issues, especially e-business funding. The questionnaire was sent to 400 CEOs or CIOs in Croatian companies selected from the Register of the ‘400 Biggest’ Croatian companies which were ranked according to their 2001 annual revenue and which were most likely to represent the structure of the Croatian economy. Although they represent less than 1% of the total number of registered companies in Croatia, the sampled companies hold 73% of the equity capital of the whole Croatian economy, they contribute with 65% in the total Croatian economy’s export balance and they employ 37% of the total number of people employed in Croatia.

  15. Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia.

    Im, Eun-Soon; Pal, Jeremy S; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2017-08-01

    The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions. The most intense hazard from extreme future heat waves is concentrated around densely populated agricultural regions of the Ganges and Indus river basins. Climate change, without mitigation, presents a serious and unique risk in South Asia, a region inhabited by about one-fifth of the global human population, due to an unprecedented combination of severe natural hazard and acute vulnerability.

  16. Accounting System in Croatian Public Healthcare Organizations: an Empirical Analysis

    Davor VAŠIČEK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In considering the adequacy of adopting accruals and IPSASs, this paper tests the appropriateness of existing modified accrual accounting and financial reporting system in Croatian public healthcare sector. The paper indicates that accounting information system contains discrepancies and constraints in assuring true and fair view of organization’s financial position and performance. Our statistics confirms low level of cost and managerial accounting methods development, and external and internal financial reporting convergence.Having in mind its specificities, we argue that Croatian public healthcare sector represents a segmental accounting subsystem within the integral public sector accounting framework, where accruals implementation might prove justifiable.

  17. Croatian small islands – residential and/or leisure area

    Josip Faričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses modern geographic processes on Croatian small inhabited islands. For centuries, Croatian small islands have been continuously inhabited area characterized by different social and economic activities. However, in the last several decades, the islands have experienced a severe depopulation, and on the other hand, the interest for occasional use of that attractive insular space for recreational purposes increased. Consequently, the basic insular functions have changed, which, among other things, contributes to changes of insular landscape and to the changed role of small islands in regional socio-economic systems.

  18. Animal Ownership Among Vulnerable Populations in Regional South Australia: Implications for Natural Disaster Preparedness and Resilience.

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Trigg, Joshua; Smith, Bradley

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of animal ownership among populations likely to be at greater risk from disaster events within a bushfire context. To investigate the proportion of vulnerable community members keeping animals and the types of animals kept, as well as perceived risk of harm to pets, and their inclusion in bushfire survival planning. Statewide anonymous online survey in 2014 of adult South Australian animal owners threatened by bushfire in January 2014. Respondents were asked about animal ownership, their bushfire risk perception, and household survival planning. Descriptive statistics are presented for 5 groups considered likely to contribute to increased risk of harm for households: linguistically diverse, older adults, families with young children, physically frail, and self-identifying disabled, as well as individuals with mental health considerations. An opt-in purposively targeted sample of anonymous South Australians living in high fire-risk locations. Adult South Australian animal owners threatened or directly impacted by bushfire events, including individuals matching 1 of the 5 vulnerable groups. Self-reported details of animal ownership, perceived fire risk, survival planning, and vulnerability characteristics. Animal ownership was found to be more prevalent in these 5 populations than in the wider South Australian population. Perceived risk to pets was low to moderately low in these individuals. Variation was observed in the role of animals generally and pets specifically as motivators for preparing bushfire survival plans. Emergency services and associated agencies need to consider how the unique needs of vulnerable populations that keep animals, and their potential differences in risk perception, relate to their bushfire survival planning and preparedness requirements.

  19. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  20. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations

    Britt Ingrid Drögemöller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available TThe CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of approximately 600 bp of the 5’-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4*12, CYP3A4*15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4*1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations.

  1. Characterization of the genetic variation present in CYP3A4 in three South African populations.

    Drögemöller, Britt; Plummer, Marieth; Korkie, Lundi; Agenbag, Gloudi; Dunaiski, Anke; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Gebhardt, Stefan; Schneider, Nicol; Olckers, Antonel; Wright, Galen; Warnich, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is the most abundant human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and is regarded as the most important enzyme involved in drug metabolism. Inter-individual and inter-population variability in gene expression and enzyme activity are thought to be influenced, in part, by genetic variation. Although Southern African individuals have been shown to exhibit the highest levels of genetic diversity, they have been under-represented in pharmacogenetic research to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genetic variation within CYP3A4 in three South African population groups comprising of 29 Khoisan, 65 Xhosa and 65 Mixed Ancestry (MA) individuals. To identify known and novel CYP3A4 variants, 15 individuals were randomly selected from each of the population groups for bi-directional Sanger sequencing of ~600 bp of the 5'-upstream region and all thirteen exons including flanking intronic regions. Genetic variants detected were genotyped in the rest of the cohort. In total, 24 SNPs were detected, including CYP3A4(*)12, CYP3A4(*)15, and the reportedly functional CYP3A4(*)1B promoter polymorphism, as well as two novel non-synonymous variants. These putatively functional variants, p.R162W and p.Q200H, were present in two of the three populations and all three populations, respectively, and in silico analysis predicted that the former would damage the protein product. Furthermore, the three populations were shown to exhibit distinct genetic profiles. These results confirm that South African populations show unique patterns of variation in the genes encoding xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. This research suggests that population-specific genetic profiles for CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing genes would be essential to make full use of pharmacogenetics in Southern Africa. Further investigation is needed to determine if the identified genetic variants influence CYP3A4 metabolism phenotype in these populations.

  2. Movements of Croatian Labour Supply and Their Implications on Migration Flows

    Alka Obadić

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian labour market is characterised by a low degree of activity on the part of the population, a high unemployment rate, a pronounced problem with long-term unemployment and a high structural disproportion between supply and demand. Because of the relatively high share of the unofficial economy, there is a large difference between the administrative unemployment rate and that shown by surveys. Analysis of the situation on the Croatian labour market shows that significant structural issues still remained unsolved (such as inflexibility, mismatch between supply and demand with respect to profession and education, and similar. There is still very limited creation of new jobs. The employment rates of men and women and the employment of young people are among the lowest in comparison with the EU-27 and are far from attainment of the Lisbon objectives. The high rate of economic inactivity indicates the lack of utilisation of the existing work force potential. The conducted research shows that the continued advised needs for workers is 25 time higher than the annual number of approved work permits to foreigners from 1992 to 2006, while that number was negligible in 1991. Due to this situation, Croatia still has a very strict protectionist orientation towards employing foreigners, although the fact is that this situation will have to change very quickly with accession to the EU. It can be concluded that no major changes in migration flows or any significant shifts in em¬ployment and unemployment rates can be expected until the year 2010. Although opening the borders could mean, on the one hand, the possibility of increased emigration of the Croatian work force, the expectations are that such movements, nonetheless, will not occur. It is more likely that opening borders would be connected with greater mobility of workers, both from Croatia into other countries and from other countries towards Croatia.

  3. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  4. Radiation Protection of Patients in Croatian Legislative

    Novakovic, M.; Molnar, M.; Kozuh, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The value of radiological examinations has been established over the last 100 years by custom and practice. Problem often occurs when scientific initiatives affect usual philosophy and tradition. At present, to many X-ray examinations are performed which are not clinically justified. In some counties in Croatia there are about 1000 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. Whereas in others, as well as in developed countries, it is at the 500 - 600 level. There is still a need to know what is the desirable level of radiological practice. Subsidiary is often used as an excuse not to take any action at all. Criteria are needed for deciding on the optimum number for particular procedures like CT or the length of time for fluoroscopy. Europe has repeatedly been the scene for harmonised improvements in medical exposure through introduction of its Medical Exposure Directive (1997). To be in a line Croatian authorities issued Regulation on Patient Protection (1999) based on this Directive and ICRP Publication 73. This Regulation includes a number of issues which have potential to improve the safety and quality of medical use of ionising radiation. Introduced diagnostic dose reference values are related to clinical questions and radiographic techniques as recommended in European or similar guidelines. These are supplementary to clinical judgement on image quality. Quality assurance programmes should be in place and these should be audited. There should be inspections of X-ray departments by the competent authorities and there should be clinical evaluation of the outcomes of various radiological examinations. Equipment must be quality assured on a regular basis. It must be capable of producing satisfactory images within reference levels set down at national level. Every effort should be made to avoid high and unnecessary exposures.(author)

  5. Prevalence of radix entomolaris in mandibular permanent first molars: a study in a South Indian population.

    Chandra, Saurabh S; Chandra, Supriya; Shankar, Padmanabhan; Indira, Rajamani

    2011-09-01

    Anatomical racial variations are an acknowledged characteristic in permanent molars. Generally, mandibular first molars have 2 roots; however, the presence of a third root, radix entomolaris (RE), is a major anatomic variant among many population groups. This study evaluated the prevalence of permanent mandibular first molars featuring a distolingual root in a South Indian population. Five hundred patients of South Indian origin possessing bilateral mandibular first molars were selected. The radiographs of these patients were evaluated under optimal conditions. A total of 1000 mandibular first molars were screened and the incidence of 3-rooted mandibular first molars and the correlation between left and right side occurrence and between either gender was recorded. The prevalence of 3-rooted mandibular first molars was 18.6% of the patients examined and 13.3% of the teeth examined. There was no statistically significant difference between genders or side of occurrence (P > .05). The bilateral incidence of a symmetric distribution was 43.01%. RE is considered an Asiatic trait. The occurrence of this macrostructure in the South Indian population was 13.3%, which was lower than that of other patients of Mongoloid origin. The clinician must thoroughly examine the radiograph before initiation of endodontic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The analysis of the population economic activity and unemployment in the South Moravian region

    Jaroslava Hudečková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with analysis of the South Moravian region population economic activity and unemployment state and development. The analysis of the population economic activity and unemployment is a part of the demographic, social and economic population analysis. The unemployment is considered to be an unfavourable effect, but its low rate is a natural part of the market economy. The unemployment was from the general and registered unemployment rate in years 1995–2003 point of view evaluated. Some indicators of the South Moravian region were with the whole Czech Republic compared. The unemployment in the South Moravian region marked a negative development in mentioned period and in the year 2003 achieved value of 11.45%. The trend of the unemployment development was defined and also the seasonal character with the seasonal indexes was analysed. The highest unemployment was proved in winter months (January–March and least in May and June. There was proved the high dependency rate among the number of vacancies, the number of applicants for one vacancy and unemployment rate.

  7. Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population

    Katiboina Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A ( XPA G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 ( ERCC2 /Xeroderma pigmentosum group D ( XPD Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G ( XPG His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 ( XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis.

  8. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  9. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  10. Psychiatric hospital beds and prison populations in South America since 1990: does the Penrose hypothesis apply?

    Mundt, Adrian P; Chow, Winnie S; Arduino, Margarita; Barrionuevo, Hugo; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Girala, Nestor; Minoletti, Alberto; Mitkiewicz, Flávia; Rivera, Guillermo; Tavares, María; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    In 1939, English mathematician, geneticist, and psychiatrist Lionel Sharples Penrose hypothesized that the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds and the sizes of prison populations were inversely related; 75 years later, the question arises as to whether the hypothesis applies to recent developments in South America. To explore the possible association of changes in the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds with changes in the sizes of prison populations in South America since 1990. We searched primary sources for the numbers of psychiatric hospital beds in South American countries since 1990 (the year that the Latin American countries signed the Caracas Declaration) and compared these changes against the sizes of prison populations. The associations between the numbers of psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations were tested using fixed-effects regression of panel data. Economic variables were considered as covariates. Sufficiently reliable and complete data were obtained from 6 countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The numbers of psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations. Since 1990, the numbers of psychiatric beds decreased in all 6 countries (ranging from -2.0% to -71.9%), while the sizes of prison populations increased substantially (ranging from 16.1% to 273.0%). Panel data regression analysis across the 6 countries showed a significant inverse relationship between numbers of psychiatric beds and sizes of prison populations. On average, the removal of 1 bed was associated with 5.18 more prisoners (95% CI, 3.10-7.26; P = .001), which was reduced to 2.78 prisoners (95% CI, 2.59-2.97; P prison populations remained practically unchanged when income inequality was considered as a covariate (-4.28 [95% CI, -5.21 to -3.36]; P prison populations have increased against a background of strong economic growth. The changes appear to be associated because the numbers of beds decreased more extensively when and

  11. Ethno- medico - botanical studies of Badaga population In the Nilgiri district of Tamilnadu, South India

    Manikandan, P. N. Arul

    2008-01-01

    The study grains to explore ethno-medicobotany of Badaga population in the Nilgiri hills of Tamilnadu, South India. Ethno botanical field survey and personal discussion methods have been adopted in the collection of data. A list of 71 flowering plants belonging to 42 families, 67 genera and 70 species are employed by the Badaga popu-lation in their native system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. In reviewing ethnomedical information, data on folk herbal remedies and their various methods of applications for treating a wide range of ailments have been furnished. A brief description of plants, their habitat, family and local Badaga names are outlined here. PMID:22557279

  12. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in a rural population of south kerala - A pilot study

    V Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which continues to challenge the dental professional with its wide spectrum of clinical involvement. This pilot study attempts to evaluate the status of oral lichen planus in a rural population from South Kerala in order to obtain such data as prevalence, distribution according to age, gender, clinical types and site of lesion .A drop in the age group of male population presenting with lichen planus was a significant finding in our study. However, more elaborate epidemiologic studies are required to probe further into this finding.

  13. Governance, ‘sovereignty-state-territory triad’, human population migration and xenophobia in (South Africa

    Johannes Tsheola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to examine the association of the concept of governance of international relations and, by implication, human population migration, through the rigid practices of “sovereignty-state-territory triad” with the fomentation and exacerbation of societal stereotypes, attitudes and perceptions of xenophobia in Africa, in general, and South Africa, in particular. Ascriptions of the majority of population migration as “international” affirms the centrality of the operationalisation of the “sovereignty-state-territory triad” in understanding the fragmentary constructions of societal attitudes and perceptions of people resident in distinct geopolitical entities ascribed as national territories. State and non-state governance entrapments with this triad perpetuate societal stereotypes that are in concurrence with bordered-territories where populations described as citizens are stimulated to protect endowments and resources of the land against the perceived destruction associated with the conduct of the out-groups. Unsurprisingly, the theorisation of human population migration has equally been intricately involved with environmental conservation and securitisation of biodiversity that enables land dispossession of the vulnerable sections of the population through the Western economic narratives of “Peace Parks”. Simultaneously in Southern Africa, the concept of African Renaissance, inescapably embedded with “cooperation and conflict” at all scales, has offered a buzzword to be realised through “Peace Parks” that have evidently failed to deliver reaffirmation of African cultures, continental emancipation and democratisation. The preeminence of societal stereotypes, attitudes and perceptions of xenophobia and violent abuses of African immigrants in South Africa provides vivid illustrations of the inconsistencies and non-linearity of concepts such as African Renaissance and “Peace Parks”. This article asserts that

  14. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  15. [Infection by hepatitis virus among the indigenous populations of South America: a review of the problem].

    Echevarría, J M; Blitz-Dorfman, L; Pujot, F H

    1996-09-01

    After the report of the epidemic outbreak of delta hepatitis among the Yukpa amerindians in the early 80s, the viral hepatitis arose as an important health problem in all the Amerindian communities from the north of South America and the Amazonian Basin. Despite the few data available, the results obtained in different communities from Venezuela (Yukpa, Barí, Yanomami) have shown a high endemicity of hepatitis B and D virus infections and a significant prevalence of hepatitis E virus-specific antibody among their members. By contrast, the infection by hepatitis C virus, which is present in all the urban areas from South America, seems uncommon, or even absent among some Amerindian populations. At the moment, a satisfactory explanation for this findings has not yet been arised. However, it could be possible that the margination of these populations regarding the health care system has been keeping them free of an infection largely linked worldwide to iatrogeny. Vaccination of Amerindian populations against hepatitis B should be taken as a priority of the health care programs. Moreover, such programs should consider the iatrogenic transmission of the HCV as a matter of concern regarding such populations, since parenterally transmitted hepatitis viruses seems to spread quickly among their members once they are introduced, giving rise to serious health problems.

  16. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  17. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    Minette Karsten

    Full Text Available The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km, are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  18. Managing the Cash and Liquidity of the Croatian Budget

    Anto Bajo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal proposition this paper will endeavour to maintain is that the liquidity of the budget is not fully managed by the Ministry of Finance, which is why it is unable, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, to rein in and slow down the growth in short-term public debt. Only since 2001, thanks to institutional improvements, have the conditions been created in the Ministry of Finance for cash and liquidity management. Thus payments operations, previously in the hands of a government institution, were taken over by the banks; the financial operations of budgetary spending agencies were channelled via the Single Account of the Treasury; and government deposits were gradually transferred from numerous commercial banks to the Single Account of the Treasury in the Croatian National Bank and the state-owned Croatian Postal Bank. Unfortunately, however, the Ministry of Finance, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, still carries out no operation of cash and liquidity management within the government Treasury system, nor does it operate on the money market with its surplus budgetary resources. Because of this state of affairs, management of the cash and liquidity of the central government budget is within the purview of the commercial banks.

  19. Alcohol-Related Injuries among Eastern Croatian University Students

    Miskulin, Ivan; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Miskulin, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the alcohol consumption patterns and to identify the association of injury with excess drinking among Croatian students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 845 university students by the use of the WHO AUDIT questionnaire. A total of 39.9% of the university students reported some level of excess…

  20. Long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns

    Silvo Dajčman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze and compare the fractal structure of the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns. The presence of long memory components in asset returns provides evidence against the weak-form of stock market efficiency. The starting working hypothesis that there is no long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns is tested by applying the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS (1992 test, Lo’s (1991 modified rescaled range (R/S test, and the wavelet ordinary least squares (WOLS estimator of Jensen (1999. The research showed that the WOLS estimator may lead to different conclusions regarding long memory presence in the stock returns from the KPSS and unit root tests or Lo’s R/S test. Furthermore, it proved that the fractal structure of individual stock returns may be masked in aggregated stock market returns (i.e. in returns of stock index. The main finding of the paper is that both the Croatian stock index Crobex and individual stocks in this index exhibit long memory. Long memory is identified for some stocks in the Hungarian stock market as well, but not for the stock market index BUX. Based on the results of the long memory tests, it can be concluded that while the Hungarian stock market is weakform efficient, the Croatian stock market is not.

  1. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  2. Liquidity indicator for the Croatian economy – Factor analysis approach

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatian business surveys (BS are conducted in the manufacturing industry, retail trade and construction sector. In all of these sectors, manager´s assessments of liquidity are measured. The aim of the paper was to form a new composite liquidity indicator by including business survey liquidity measures from all three covered economic sectors in the Croatian economy mentioned above. In calculating the leading indicator, a factor analysis approach was used. However, this kind of indicator does not exist in a Croatia or in any other European economy. Furthermore, the issue of Croatian companies´ illiquidity is highly neglected in the literature. The empirical analysis consists of two parts. In the first part the new liquidity indicator was formed using factor analysis. One factor (representing the new liquidity indicator; LI was extracted out of the three liquidity variables in three economic sectors. This factor represents the new liquidity indicator. In the second part, econometric models were applied in order to investigate the forecasting properties of the new business survey liquidity indicator, when predicting the direction of changes in Croatian industrial production. The quarterly data used in the research covered the period from January 2000 to April 2013. Based on econometric analysis, it can be concluded that the LI is a leading indicator of Croatia’s industrial production with better forecasting properties then the standard liquidity indicators (formed in a manufacturing industry.

  3. Visual Presentation and Communication of Croatian Academic Websites

    Selthofer, Josipa

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the research is to analyse and compare visual identity elements of Croatian academic Websites with ones of European countries using Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions. The purpose of the research is to point to the influence a culture has on the design of Websites. Method: Graphical elements of university home pages…

  4. The Embodiment of Class in the Croatian VET School System

    Doolan, Karin; Lukic, Natalija; Bukovic, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the notion that schools embody social class in their structures and practices. We draw on Bourdieu's critical concept of "field" to describe the larger landscape of Croatian secondary schooling: a stratified system whose routes serve, and have served, to reinforce the maintenance of class (under)privilege. We…

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATE1 and MATE2 in South Indian population

    Gerard Marshall Raj

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Thus, the allele and genotype distributions of SLC47A1 and SLC47A2 gene polymorphisms were established in South Indian population and were found to be different from the frequencies of other ethnicities.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma polymorphism Pro12Ala in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS of South Indian Population

    Raichel Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism was supposed to be susceptible genes in PCOS. The present study demonstrated that there is a statistical difference between the distributions of PPAR gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism in South Indian Population.

  7. Croatian Oil and Gas Market - an Area of Contact Between Europe and Asia

    Dragicevic, T.

    2007-01-01

    Croatia - a regional energy hub, a catchword that has been adopted even by politicians, denotes a combination of favourable geographical position and use of this advantage as a mediator in providing transmission services for natural gas, oil and electricity between Europe and Asia, as well as between the north and the south of the European continent. However, although the idea of regional energy hub has gained support, it is still at a turning point and may take three different directions: 1. If timely activities are undertaken for the implementation of the LNG terminal project and connecting of the JANAF oil pipeline with PEOP and/or Druzba Adria, the realisation of energy hub is possible; 2. In case of further delays in implementing the LNG terminal project and Druzba Adria oil pipeline, we will lose the opportunity for participation in major European projects for twenty years at least; 3. A possible solution may be sought in takeover of individual energy activities by large foreign energy companies that show interest for the Croatian energy market. This last option is very likely due to considerable interest by Central and East European energy companies. In the eve of the expected EU accession, any resistance to takeover may be qualified as economic nationalism. Only large, powerful nations enjoy the privilege that their resistance to foreign domination is qualified as economic patriotism. Since the year 2000 when preparations for INA's privatization began, there were indications of interest and aspiration of the Russian oil companies to ensure presence in the Croatian market. In the meantime the Russian companies evolved their strategies of penetration on the flanks of the European market in the form of North Stream pipeline over the Baltic Sea and South Stream through the Black Sea and Turkey. So, the Republic of Croatia is on the crossroad: it can take a secondary role in other players' strategy, or it can pursue its own strategy based on growth and security

  8. Analysis of 12 X-STR loci in the population of south Croatia.

    Mršić, Gordan; Ozretić, Petar; Crnjac, Josip; Merkaš, Siniša; Račić, Ivana; Rožić, Sara; Sukser, Viktorija; Popović, Maja; Korolija, Marina

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess forensic pertinence of 12 short tandem repeats (STRs) on X-chromosome in south Croatia population. Investigator ® Argus X-12 kit was used to co-amplify 12 STR loci belonging to four linkage groups (LGs) on X-chromosome in 99 male and 98 female DNA samples of unrelated donors. PCR products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Population genetic and forensic parameters were calculated by the Arlequin and POPTREE2 software, and an on-line tool available at ChrX-STR.org. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was confirmed for all X-STR markers in female samples. Biallelic patterns at DXS10079 locus were detected in four male samples. Polymorphism information content for the most (DXS10135) and the least (DXS8378) informative markers was 0.9212 and 0.6347, respectively. In both male and female samples, combined power of discrimination exceeded 0.999999999. As confirmed by linkage disequilibrium test, significant association of marker pair DXS10074-DXS10079 (P = 0.0004) within LG2 and marker pair DXS10101-DXS10103 (P = 0.0003) within LG3 was found only in male samples. Number of observed haplotypes in our sample pool amounted 3.01, 7.53, 5 and 3.25% of the number of possible haplotypes for LG1, LG2, LG3 and LG4, respectively. According to haplotype diversity value of 0.9981, LG1 was the most informative. In comparison of south Croatia with 26 world populations, pair-wise [Formula: see text] values increase in parallel with geographical distance. Overall statistical assessment confirmed suitability of Investigator ® Argus X-12 kit for forensic casework in both identification and familial testing in the population of south Croatia.

  9. HIV/AIDS and Croatian migrant workers.

    Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina

    2006-12-01

    avert the potential for an increase in new HIV/AIDS cases. A coordinated, systematic campaign for HIV/AIDS prevention among Croatian migrant workers should focus on increasing peer communication about HIV/AIDS, especially among younger migrant workers, and on reducing the frequency of sexual risk taking.

  10. A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific.

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control.We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities.Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12'872 to 19'533 per site. In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. F ST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers were 0.14-0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (F ST = 0.16.Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high.

  11. Prevalence of Dermatoses in Tribal Population of Kalrayan Hill (South Arcot District

    C Mahalingam

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample survey was conducted to find out the prevalence of dermatoses among the tribal population of Kalrayan hill in South Arcot district who were recently found out .from the hidden spots of the hill. The prevalence of dermatoses was 40% among the 242 screened. Scabies had a prevalence of 22.7% and was more among the tribal s chool children put in huts, emphasizing the need for adequate shelter and health education. The low frequency of nutritional dermatoses 3.7% is attributed to the implementation of the noon-meal scheme. Surprising low prevalence rate for leprosy (1.7% in this highly endemic district of South Arcot needs further probing to find out some clues for protection from leprosy.

  12. Extent of linkage disequilibrium and effective population size in four South African Sanga cattle breeds

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD in livestock populations is essential to determine the minimum distance between markers required for effective coverage when conducting genome-wide association studies. This study evaluated the extent of LD, persistence of allelic phase and effective population size (Ne for four Sanga cattle breeds in South Africa including the Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47 and Bonsmara breeds (n=46, using Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29 as reference populations. We found that moderate LD extends up to inter-marker distances of 40-60 kb in Angus (0.21 and Holstein (0.21 and up to 100 kb in Afrikaner (0.20. This suggests that genomic selection and association studies performed within these breeds using an average inter-marker r2 ≥ 0.20 would require about 30,000 -50,000 SNPs. However, r2 ≥ 0.20 extended only up to 10-20 kb in the Nguni and Drakensberger and 20-40 kb in the Bonsmara indicating that 75,000 to 150,000 SNPs would be necessary for genome-wide association studies in these breeds. Correlation between alleles at contiguous loci indicated that phase was not strongly preserved between breeds. This suggests the need for breed-specific reference populations in which a much greater density of markers should be scored to identify breed specific haplotypes which may then be imputed into multi-breed commercial populations. Analysis of effective population size based on the extent of LD, revealed Ne=95 (Nguni, Ne=87 (Drakensberger, Ne=77 (Bonsmara and Ne=41 (Afrikaner. Results of this study form the basis for implementation of genomic selection programs in the Sanga breeds of South Africa.

  13. Caesarean Section Rates in South Africa: evidence of bias among different ‘population groups’

    MATSHIDZE, K. PATRICK; RICHTER, LINDA M.; ELLISON, GEORGE T. H.; LEVIN, JONATHAN B.; McINTYRE, JAMES A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ‘population group’ classification, as a specific instance of ‘racial’ categorization, on caesarean section rates in South Africa. Design Information on ‘population group’ classification (‘Black’, ‘Coloured’, ‘Indian’ or ‘White’, as defined under apartheid legislation) and place of delivery, together with basic obstetric, sociodemographic and perinatal data, were extracted from the birth notification forms of 5456 children who made up the birth cohort of the Birth to Ten longitudinal study. This cohort included all births that occurred to mothers resident in Soweto-Johannesburg during a 7-week period in 1990. Results After accounting for differences in maternal age, gravidity, birth weight and gestational age at delivery, the rate of caesarean sections at private facilities was more than twice that at public facilities. Although there were significant differences in the utilisation of private facilities by women from different ‘population groups’, there was an independent effect of ‘population group’ classification on caesarean section rates: caesarean section rates among women classified as ‘White’ and ‘Coloured’ were significantly higher (95% confidence intervals for odds ratios: 1.40-2.42 and 1.05-1.81, respectively) than among women classified as ‘Black’. Conclusion ‘Population group’ differences in caesarean section rates among South African women are not explained by differences in demographic risk factors for assisted delivery, nor by differences in access to private health care. Instead, the differences in section rates may reflect the effect of bias in clinical decision-making, and/or differences among women from different ‘population groups’ in their attitude towards assisted delivery, and their capacity to negotiate with clinicians. PMID:9673465

  14. A model of population dynamics of TB in a prison system and application to South Africa.

    Witbooi, Peter; Vyambwera, Sibaliwe Maku

    2017-11-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to spread in South African prisons in particular, as prisons are over-capacitated and have poor ventilation. The awaiting trial detainees are not screened on admission and are at high risk of getting infected with TB. We propose a compartmental model to describe the population dynamics of TB disease in prisons. Our model considers the inflow of susceptible, exposed and TB infectives into the prison population. Removal of individuals out of the prison population can be either by death or by being released from prison, as compared to a general population in which removal is only by death. We describe conditions, including non-inflow of infectives into the prison, which will ensure that TB can be eradicated from the prison population. The model is calibrated for the South African prison system, by using data in existing literature. The model can be used to make quantitative projections of TB prevalence and to measure the effect of interventions. Illustrative simulations in this regard are presented. The model can be used for other prison populations too, if data is available to calculate the model parameters. Various simulations generated with our model serve to illustrate how it can be utilized in making future projections of the levels of prevalence of TB, and to quantify the effect of interventions such as screening, treatment or reduction of transmission parameter values through improved living conditions for inmates. This makes it particularly useful as there are various targets set by the World Health Organization and by governments, for reduction of TB prevalence and ultimately its eradication. Towards eradication of TB from a prison system, the theorem on global stability of the disease-free state is a useful indicator.

  15. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  16. APPROACHES TO ICT TERMINOLOGY IN THE SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL REGISTER OF CROATIAN UNIVERSITY EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS

    Daniela Matić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes examples of ICT terminology sampled from Croatian university textbooks and educational materials published from the year 2001 to 2015 and recommended for undergraduate and graduate students at Croatian universities. The collection includes: Croatian calques; standalone neologisms and those followed by an English equivalent; translated English metaphorical expressions; hybrids without translations; orthographically, phonologically/phonetically and morphologically adapted Anglicisms and those which can be integrated into the Croatian standard without any adaptation; and multi-word Croatian equivalents with single-word English and with multi-word English equivalents. Some of the English expressions were italicized or bolded and some not. The aim of our analysis was to describe current practices in writing educational materials, to establish the nature of the university materials authors’ relation towards English and Croatian expressions, and to find out if there was some pattern in the use of Croatian and English ICT terms which the authors had followed. During the analysis, we observed a lack of consistent and systematic approach to the creation of materials, a shift from the norms of the standard Croatian language and resorting to non-adapted or slightly adapted English terms which seem to be often favored over the Croatian ones. We are of the opinion that corpus planning and better management of terminology, adaptation and integration processes within a more modern language policy framework could bring much needed stability to the Croatian scientific and pedagogical register.

  17. Evaluation of arch width variations among different skeletal patterns in South Indian population.

    Prasad, Mandava; Kannampallil, Senny Thomas; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cranial base can be taken as a reference line (SN) to determine the steepness of mandibular plane. Subjects with high mandibular plane angle tend to have a long face and one with low MP-SN angle has a shorter face. This study was done to investigate if dental arch widths correlated with vertical facial types and if there are any differences in arch widths between untreated male and female adults in South Indian population. Lateral cephalogram and dental casts were obtained from 180 untreated South Indian adults (90 males and 90 females) above 18 year old with no cross bite, minimal crowding and spacing. The angle between the anterior cranial base and the mandibular plane was measured on lateral cephalogram of each patient. Dental casts were used to obtain comprehensive dental measurements including maxillary and mandibular inter canine, inter premolar and inter molar widths, as well as amount of crowding or spacing. The results showed that male arch widths were significantly larger than those of females (P population. The results obtained in our study when compared with studies done in other population groups showed that there is difference in inter arch widths according to ethnicity and race. It was concluded that the dental arch width is associated with gender, race and vertical facial morphology. Thus using individualized arch wires according to each patient's pre treatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment.

  18. Analysis of the genetic ancestry of patients with oral clefts from South American admixed populations.

    Vieira-Machado, Camilla D; de Carvalho, Flavia M; Santana da Silva, Luiz C; Dos Santos, Sidney E; Martins, Claudia; Poletta, Fernando A; Mereb, Juan C; Vieira, Alexandre R; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M

    2016-08-01

    Increased susceptibility to cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (CL±P) has been observed in South America, as related to Amerindian ancestry, using epidemiological data, uniparental markers, and blood groups. In this study, it was evaluated whether this increased risk remains when Amerindian ancestry is estimated using autosomal markers and considered in the predictive model. Ancestry was estimated through genotyping 62 insertion and deletion (INDEL) markers in sample sets of patients with CL±P, patients with cleft palate (CP), and controls, from Patagonia in southern Argentina and Belém in northern Brazil. The Amerindian ancestry in patients from Patagonia with CL±P was greater than in controls although it did not reach statistical significance. The European ancestry in patients with CL±P from Belém and in patients with CP from Belém and Patagonia was higher than in controls and statistically significant for patients with CP who were from Belém. This high contribution of European genetic ancestry among patients with CP who were from Belém has not been previously observed in American populations. Our results do not corroborate the currently accepted risks for CL±P and CP estimated by epidemiological studies in the North American populations and probably reflect the higher admixture found in South American ethnic groups when compared with the same ethnic groups from the North American populations. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Prevalence of Catalase (-21 A/T Gene Variant in South Indian (Tamil Population

    A. Lourdhu Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is responsible for regulating reactive species levels. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphism in catalase gene may be associated with many diseases. The genotype of CAT (-21 A/T point mutation in promoter region of catalase gene was determined by polymerase chain based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in the DNA of 100 healthy volunteers. The frequency of CAT (-21 A/T gene polymorphism AA, AT, and TT genotypes was found to be 7, 23, and 70 percent, respectively. The mutant “T” allele frequency was found to be 0.82 among the south Indian (Tamil population. Chi square analysis showed that the study population lies within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The wild type genotype (AA was found to be very low (7% and the mutant genotype (AT/TT was found to be more prevalent (93% among the south Indian population. This suggests that the high prevalence of mutant genotype may increase the susceptibility to oxidative stress associated diseases.

  20. A diffusion based study of population dynamics: Prehistoric migrations into South Asia.

    Mayank N Vahia

    Full Text Available A diffusion equation has been used to study migration of early humans into the South Asian subcontinent. The diffusion equation is tempered by a set of parameters that account for geographical features like proximity to water resources, altitude, and flatness of land. The ensuing diffusion of populations is followed in time-dependent computer simulations carried out over a period of 10,000 YBP. The geographical parameters are determined from readily-available satellite data. The results of our computer simulations are compared to recent genetic data so as to better correlate the migratory patterns of various populations; they suggest that the initial populations started to coalesce around 4,000 YBP before the commencement of a period of relative geographical isolation of each population group. The period during which coalescence of populations occurred appears consistent with the established timeline associated with the Harappan civilization and also, with genetic admixing that recent genetic mapping data reveal. Our results may contribute to providing a timeline for the movement of prehistoric people. Most significantly, our results appear to suggest that the Ancestral Austro-Asiatic population entered the subcontinent through an easterly direction, potentially resolving a hitherto-contentious issue.

  1. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Michael J Dunn

    Full Text Available We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae, chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum, chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum. The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a

  2. Population Size and Decadal Trends of Three Penguin Species Nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands.

    Dunn, Michael J; Jackson, Jennifer A; Adlard, Stacey; Lynnes, Amanda S; Briggs, Dirk R; Fox, Derren; Waluda, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    We report long-term changes in population size of three species of sympatrically breeding pygoscelid penguins: Adélie (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarctica) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua ellsworthii) over a 38 year period at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, based on annual counts from selected colonies and decadal all-island systematic counts of occupied nests. Comparing total numbers of breeding pairs over the whole island from 1978/79 to 2015/16 revealed varying fortunes: gentoo penguin pairs increased by 255%, (3.5% per annum), chinstrap penguins declined by 68% (-3.6% per annum) and Adélie penguins declined by 42% (-1.5% per annum). The chinstrap population has declined steadily over the last four decades. In contrast, Adélie and gentoo penguins have experienced phases of population increase and decline. Annual surveys of selected chinstrap and Adélie colonies produced similar trends from those revealed by island-wide surveys, allowing total island population trends to be inferred relatively well. However, while the annual colony counts of chinstrap and Adélie penguins showed a trend consistent in direction with the results from all-island surveys, the magnitude of estimated population change was markedly different between colony wide and all island counts. Annual population patterns suggest that pair numbers in the study areas partly reflect immigration and emigration of nesting birds between different parts of the island. Breeding success for all three species remained broadly stable over time in the annually monitored colonies. Breeding success rates in gentoo and chinstrap penguins were strongly correlated, despite the differing trends in population size. This study shows the importance of effective, standardised monitoring to accurately determine long-term population trajectories. Our results indicate significant declines in the Adélie and chinstrap penguin populations at Signy Island over the last five decades, and a gradual

  3. Mortality and malnutrition among populations living in South Darfur, Sudan: results of 3 surveys, September 2004.

    Grandesso, Francesco; Sanderson, Frances; Kruijt, Jenneke; Koene, Ton; Brown, Vincent

    2005-03-23

    Mass violence against civilians in the west of Sudan has resulted in the displacement of more than 1.5 million people (25% of the population of the Darfur region). Most of these people are camped in 142 settlements. There has been increasing international concern about the health status of the displaced population. To perform rapid epidemiological assessments of mortality and nutritional status at 3 sites in South Darfur for relief efforts. In August and September 2004, mortality surveys were conducted among 137,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in 3 sites in South Darfur (Kass [n = 900 households], Kalma [n = 893 households], and Muhajiria [n = 900 households]). A nutritional survey was performed concomitantly among children aged 6 to 59 months using weight for height as an index of acute malnutrition (Kass [n = 894], Kalma [n = 888], and Muhajiria [n = 896]). A questionnaire detailing access to food and basic services was administered to a subset of households (n = 210 in each site). Crude and under 5-year mortality rates and nutritional status of IDPs in Kass, Kalma, and Muhajiria, South Darfur. Crude mortality rates, expressed as deaths per 10,000 per day, were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-4.1) in Kass, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3-2.7) in Kalma, and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.2-3.4) in Muhajiria. Under 5-year mortality rates were 5.9 (95% CI, 3.8-8.0) in Kass, 3.5 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7) in Kalma, and 1.0 (95% CI, 0.03-1.9) in Muhajiria. During the period of displacement covered by our survey in Muhajiria, violence was reported to be responsible for 72% of deaths, mainly among young men. Diarrheal disease was reported to cause between 25% and 47% of deaths in camp residents and mainly affected the youngest and oldest age groups. Acute malnutrition was common, affecting 14.1% of the target population in Kass, 23.6% in Kalma, and 10.7% in Muhajiria. This study provides epidemiological evidence of the high rates of mortality and malnutrition among the displaced population in

  4. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K. [Managlore Univ. (India). Dept. of Studies in Physics

    1995-12-31

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author).

  5. Internal exposure to the population of coastal Karnataka of South India from dietary intake

    Narayana, Y.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Karunakara, N.; Balakrishna, K.M.; Siddappa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic studies on radiation levels and radionuclide distribution in the environment of coastal Karnatak, located on the south west coast of India, was initiated to provide baseline data on background radiation levels for the future assessment of the impact of the nuclear and thermal power stations that are being set up in the region. The paper presents the concentration of the prominent natural and artificial radionuclides in vegetarian and non-vegetarian composite diet samples of the region. The internal exposures to the population of the region were estimated from the concentration of prominent radionuclides in total diet. The results are discussed in the light of literature values reported for other environments. (Author)

  6. Genetic spectrum of low density lipoprotein receptor gene variations in South Indian population.

    ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    Zandile J. Mchiza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  8. Issues regarding the delivery of early intervention psychiatric services to the South Asian population in England.

    Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.

  9. Croatian Capacity for Management of the NPP Krsko Radioactive Waste

    Levanat, Ivica; Lokner, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Together with Slovenia, Croatia is responsible for management of the NPP Krsko radioactive waste and spent fuel. So far, no firm agreement on specific solutions has been reached between the two countries. On the contrary, all activities related to revision and development of the joint Program of the NPP decommissioning and spent fuel and radioactive waste management were discontinued several years ago. Unless Slovenia and Croatia definitely agree on joint solutions in the meantime, Croatia will have to begin transfer of one half of the NPP Krsko spent fuel and radioactive waste into its territory in about nine years. Presently, however, Croatian capacities for such an undertaking are seriously inadequate in several respects, and they are not developing in any promising way. For no rational reason, this state of the Croatian capacities has been maintained (recently even deteriorating in some respects) for at least a decade, disregarding also for at least two years the explicit requirements of the EU Directive 2011/70/EURATOM aimed at establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. In fall of 2012, Fund for financing the NPP Krsko decommissioning and spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal was appointed as the Croatian expert organization for revision and development of the program of these same activities it had originally been supposed only to finance. In 2013 the Fund expanded its activities to a low-profile attempt at revitalization of the Croatian radioactive waste repository project, although the Fund is not yet properly capacitated for either of these tasks. The above is hardly in compliance with the Directive requirements, such as to establish 'a national legislative, regulatory and organisational framework' 'that allocates responsibility... between relevant competent bodies'. The lack of competent experts in the field appears to affect the quality of Croatian legislative

  10. A Comparative Rugoscopic Study of the Dentate and Edentulous Individuals in the South Indian Population

    Jagdish Prasad Rajguru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the rugae pattern in dentulous and edentulous patients and also evaluates the association of rugae pattern between males and females. Aims and Objectives. This study aims to investigate rugae patterns in dentulous and edentulous patients of both sexes in South Indian population and to find whether palatoscopy is a useful tool in human identification. Materials and Methods. Four hundred outpatients from Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were included in the study. The study group was equally divided between the sexes, which was further categorized into 100 dentulous and edentulous patients, respectively. Results. The edentulous male showed the highest mean of wavy pattern and total absence of circular pattern while the edentulous female group showed the highest mean of curved pattern and total absence of nonspecific pattern, while dentate population showed similar value as that of the overall population such as straight, wavy, and curved patterns. Conclusion. The present study concludes that there is similar rugae pattern of distribution between male and female dentate population while there is varied pattern between the sexes of edentulous population. However, the most predominant patterns were straight, wavy, and circular patterns.

  11. Genetic structure of South African Nguni (Zulu) sheep populations reveals admixture with exotic breeds.

    Selepe, Mokhethi Matthews; Ceccobelli, Simone; Lasagna, Emiliano; Kunene, Nokuthula Winfred

    2018-01-01

    The population of Zulu sheep is reported to have declined by 7.4% between 2007 and 2011 due to crossbreeding. There is insufficient information on the genetic diversity of the Zulu sheep populations in the different area of KwaZulu Natal where they are reared. The study investigated genetic variation and genetic structure within and among eight Zulu sheep populations using 26 microsatellite markers. In addition, Damara, Dorper and South African Merino breeds were included to assess the genetic relationship between these breeds and the Zulu sheep. The results showed that there is considerable genetic diversity among the Zulu sheep populations (expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.57 to 0.69) and the level of inbreeding was not remarkable. The structure analysis results revealed that Makhathini Research Station and UNIZULU research station share common genetic structure, while three populations (Nongoma, Ulundi and Nquthu) had some admixture with the exotic Dorper breed. Thus, there is a need for sustainable breeding and conservation programmes to control the gene flow, in order to stop possible genetic dilution of the Zulu sheep.

  12. Genetic structure of South African Nguni (Zulu sheep populations reveals admixture with exotic breeds.

    Mokhethi Matthews Selepe

    Full Text Available The population of Zulu sheep is reported to have declined by 7.4% between 2007 and 2011 due to crossbreeding. There is insufficient information on the genetic diversity of the Zulu sheep populations in the different area of KwaZulu Natal where they are reared. The study investigated genetic variation and genetic structure within and among eight Zulu sheep populations using 26 microsatellite markers. In addition, Damara, Dorper and South African Merino breeds were included to assess the genetic relationship between these breeds and the Zulu sheep. The results showed that there is considerable genetic diversity among the Zulu sheep populations (expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.57 to 0.69 and the level of inbreeding was not remarkable. The structure analysis results revealed that Makhathini Research Station and UNIZULU research station share common genetic structure, while three populations (Nongoma, Ulundi and Nquthu had some admixture with the exotic Dorper breed. Thus, there is a need for sustainable breeding and conservation programmes to control the gene flow, in order to stop possible genetic dilution of the Zulu sheep.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) alleles in the Quechua, a high altitude South American native population.

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-01-01

    Recently it was reported that an allelic variant of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly over-represented in a cohort of elite British mountaineers. It was proposed that this may be evidence for a specific genetic factor influencing the human capacity for physical performance. The implication that this allele could enhance performance at high altitude prompted us to determine its frequency in Quechua speaking natives living at altitudes greater than 3000m on the Andean Altiplano in South America. We found that the frequency of the putative performance allele in the Quechuas, although significantly higher than in Caucasians, was not different from lowland Native American populations. This observation suggests that, although the higher frequency of the 'performance allele' may have facilitated the migration of the ancestral Quechua to the highlands, the ACE insertion allele has not been subsequently selected for in this high altitude population.

  14. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Krishna Regmi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology: We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion: Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion: This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health

  15. Prevalence of Falls in an Urban Community-Dwelling Older Population of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Zimba Kalula, S; Ferreira, M; Swingler, G; Badri, M; Aihie Sayer, A

    2015-12-01

    Falls are a major cause of disability and mortality in older adults. Studies on falls in this population have mainly been conducted in high income countries, and scant attention has been given to the problem in low and middle income countries, including South Africa. The aim of the study was to establish a rate for falls in older adults in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey with a 12-month follow-up survey. Three purposively selected suburbs of Cape Town: Plumstead, Wynberg Central and Gugulethu. Eight hundred and thirty seven randomly sampled ambulant community-dwelling subjects aged ≥ 65 years grouped according to ethnicity in three sub-samples: black Africans, coloureds (people of mixed ancestry) and whites. Data were collected on socio-demographic and health characteristics, and history of falls using a structured questionnaire and a protocol for physical assessments and measurements. Of the total baseline (n=837) and follow-up (n=632) survey participants, 76.5% and 77.2 % were females with a mean (S.D) age of 74 years (6.4) and 75 years (6.2), respectively. Rates of 26.4% and 21.9% for falls and of 11% and 6.3% for recurrent falls, respectively, were calculated at baseline and follow-up. Fall rates differed by ethnic sub-sample at baseline: whites 42 %, coloureds 34.4% and black Africans 6.4 % (p=0.0005). Rates of 236, 406 and 354 falls per 1000 person years were calculated for men, women and both genders, respectively. Recurrent falls were more common in women than in men. Falls are a significant problem in older adults in South Africa. Effective management of falls and falls prevention strategies for older people in South Africa, need to be developed and implemented.

  16. Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa

    Bärnighausen Till W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KwaZulu-Natal is the South African province worst affected by HIV and the focus of early modeling studies investigating strategies of antiretroviral treatment (ART delivery. The reality of antiretroviral roll-out through primary care has differed from that anticipated and real world data are needed to inform the planning of further scaling up of services. We investigated the factors associated with uptake of antiretroviral treatment through a primary healthcare system in rural South Africa. Methods Detailed demographic, HIV surveillance and geographic information system (GIS data were used to estimate the proportion of HIV positive adults accessing antiretroviral treatment within northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the period from initiation of antiretroviral roll-out until the end of 2008. Demographic, spatial and socioeconomic factors influencing the likelihood of individuals accessing antiretroviral treatment were explored using multivariable analysis. Results Mean uptake of ART among HIV positive resident adults was 21.0% (95%CI 20.1-21.9. Uptake among HIV positive men (19.2% was slightly lower than women (21.8%, P = 0.011. An individual's likelihood of accessing ART was not associated with level of education, household assets or urban/rural locale. ART uptake was strongly negatively associated with distance from the nearest primary healthcare facility (aOR = 0.728 per square-root transformed km, 95%CI 0.658-0.963, P = 0.002. Conclusions Despite concerns about the equitable nature of antiretroviral treatment rollout, we find very few differences in ART uptake across a range of socio-demographic variables in a rural South African population. However, even when socio-demographic factors were taken into account, individuals living further away from primary healthcare clinics were still significantly less likely to be accessing ART

  17. Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc. or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1 that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology.

  18. Firearm and nonfirearm homicide in 5 South African cities: a retrospective population-based study.

    Matzopoulos, Richard G; Thompson, Mary Lou; Myers, Jonathan E

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of South Africa's Firearm Control Act (FCA), passed in 2000, on firearm homicide rates compared with rates of nonfirearm homicide across 5 South African cities from 2001 to 2005. We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 37 067 firearm and nonfirearm homicide cases. Generalized linear models helped estimate and compare time trends of firearm and nonfirearm homicides, adjusting for age, sex, race, day of week, city, year of death, and population size. There was a statistically significant decreasing trend regarding firearm homicides from 2001, with an adjusted year-on-year homicide rate ratio of 0.864 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.848, 0.880), representing a decrease of 13.6% per annum. The year-on-year decrease in nonfirearm homicide rates was also significant, but considerably lower at 0.976 (95% CI = 0.954, 0.997). Results suggest that 4585 (95% CI = 4427, 4723) lives were saved across 5 cities from 2001 to 2005 because of the FCA. Strength, timing and consistent decline suggest stricter gun control mediated by the FCA accounted for a significant decrease in homicide overall, and firearm homicide in particular, during the study period.

  19. Breast Cancer Epidemiology of the Working-Age Female Population Reveals Significant Implications for the South Korean Economy.

    Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Park, Won; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.

  20. Implementation and management of e-marketing in the Croatian publishing industry

    Gordana Dukić

    2010-07-01

    Croatian publishers have a web site. Respondents stated that their sites were mostly registered with the search engines and that they were regularly updated. There are also a significant number of companies offering on-line purchase of products. Although the proportion of companies using at least some form of e-marketing is rather large, simpler methods of advertising and establishing contact with customers are in the majority.On average, interviewed marketing staff evaluated their knowledge of e-marketing as good. Based on the obtained results, the authors have concluded that, with the exception of individual cases, Croatian publishers have not yet fully recognised the importance and possibilities of e-marketing. Arguing that there are numerous obstacles to its full implementation in the publishing business, respondents do not agree that thorough changes are needed in the way they conduct marketing activities, although they are increasingly using e-marketing in their operations. It is likely that this attitude is largely the result of their belief that Croatian population is insufficiently skilled in using information and communication technology and an opinion that e-marketing is not more efficient than traditional marketing. The authors have concluded that, in terms of characteristics used for their categorisation, marketing staff have a rather uniform attitude towards e-marketing.Research study whose results have been presented in this paper contributes to a better understanding of various aspects of the use of e-marketing in the publishing trade. As such, it can be used to improve e-marketing management, thereby improving overall performance, which represents its most important merit.

  1. Perspectives of Corporate Governance in Croatian Banking Sector

    Tea Golja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial market of any country firstly has to be “secure”, but although financial market is regulated and monitored, we were witnesses of bad examples (Island. So, globally all aspects of corporate governance became interesting: ownership; nature of activities; liquidity ratios, etc. The goal of this paper is to give perspectives of corporate governance in Croatian banking sector. The results of the research conducted in October 2010 are presented. The situation regarding corporate governance issues in banks is highlighted. According to the research in Croatian banks in the future corporate governance should give more attention to responsiveness; equity; efficiency and effectiveness; and on accountability. Mentioned principles are not clearly defined and recognizable. These will assure differentiation on market and trust of all stakeholders.

  2. Economic uncertainty and its impact on the Croatian economy

    Petar Soric

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify institutional (political and fiscal and non-institutional uncertainty (economic policy uncertainty, Economists’ recession index, natural disasters-related uncertainty, and several disagreement measures. The stated indicators are based on articles from highly popular Croatian news portals, the repository of law amendments (Narodne novine, and Business and Consumer Surveys. We also introduce a composite uncertainty indicator, obtained by the principal components method. The analysis of a structural VAR model of the Croatian economy (both with fixed and time-varying parameters has showed that a vast part of the analysed indicators are significant predictors of economic activity. It is demonstrated that their impact on industrial production is the strongest in the onset of a crisis. On the other hand, the influence of fiscal uncertainty exhibits just the opposite tendencies. It strengthens with the intensification of economic activity, which partially exculpates the possible utilization of fiscal expansion as a counter-crisis tool.

  3. Football and Memories of Croatian Fascism on Facebook

    Andersen, Tea Sindbæk

    2016-01-01

    On 19 November 2013, as Croatia’s national football team defeated Iceland and thus secured its participation in the World Championship, Croatian defender Josip Šimunić celebrated by leading a chant associated with the fascist Ustasha regime, known for its genocidal campaigns against Serbs, Jews...... and Roma in Croatia and Bosnia during the Second World War. As a result of his celebration, Šimunić was fined by Zagreb’s county court for inciting racist hatred and the International Football Association, FIFA, banned Šimunić from participating in 10 international matches including the World Championship...... of memory negotiation that took place on the Facebook page supporting Šimunić and on the petition webpage. Indeed, the Facebook page and its users vehemently contested both the official Croatian interpretation and that of the international football organization, trying instead to construct from below...

  4. Gender differences in Croatian consumer decision-making styles

    Ivan-Damir Anić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the applicability of the CSI instrument to measuring consumer decision-making styles in the Croatian environment. The analysis assesses the validity and the reliability of CSI scales and examines gender differences in consumer-decision making styles. Research results point to the existence of eight consumer characteristics and thus validate the applicability of CSI instrument in the Croatian environment. Our findings further indicate that there were gender differences on five factors of consumer-decision making styles (perfectionist, novelty-fashion consciousness, recreational-hedonistic consumer, impulsiveness, habitual shopping behavioral. No significant differences in consumer decision styles between men and women were found with regard to three factors (brand consciousness, price consciousness and confused by overabundant choice. The CSI measurement system may help practitioners to gain a better understanding of how to position their products and services more effectively.

  5. Croatian Energy Policy as Function of Regional Development and Employment

    Potocnik, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)

  6. Problems in the strategy implementation process in croatian companies

    Tomislav Radoš

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the problems in the strategy implementation process in Croatian companies based on the research conducted in Croatian companies in the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. Research results show that problems in the strategy implementation process occur with equal intensity, regardless of the company’s characteristics (size, age and life cycle of the industry. The key problems in the implementation process are: poor communication (information exchange between employees and organizational units responsible for the strategy implementation process, non-adjustment of organizational structure to suit the defined strategy, lack of clear definition of key tasks and activities of all participants in the implementation process, inadequate information system of control over the process of strategy implementation, lack of clearly defined operational plans and directions for strategy implementation, and lack of clearly defined responsibilities and authorities of key employees.

  7. The trend of dystopia in contemporary Croatian prose

    Igor Gajin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Croatian prose from 2010 to the present day, there has been an abundant series of novels with dystopian content that has introduced, so to speak, a new genre in the Croatian literary tradition, since in the diachrony of this national literature the dystopian themes have barely been represented. The paper intends to construe the cultural context of the cause of this phenomenon and point to the link in the structure of feelings formed by the processes of transition, globalization and neoliberal capitalism with the manifestation of the intensification of the dystopian genre as a motivated discursive manoeuvre by which social criticism is moved from the present “realistic prose” to “fantasy” imaginings of the future.

  8. Social participation and perceived depression among elderly population in South Africa

    Hao G

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gang Hao,1 Ghose Bishwajit,2 Shangfeng Tang,2 Changping Nie,1 Lu Ji,3 Rui Huang4 1Zunyi Medical and Pharmaceutical College, Zunyi, 2School of Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 3Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 4School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: There is a growing consensus regarding the influence of various psychosocial factors such as degree of social participation on health and disease outcomes, quality of life, and general well-being. Older individuals with diminished motor and physical functionality suffer a heightened risk of social exclusion and loneliness. Previous studies have demonstrated the association between social exclusion and loneliness with mental health among the older population. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether or not difficulty in social participation has any relationship with perceived depression among older individuals in South Africa. We collected cross-sectional data from the SAGE Well-Being of Older People Study 2010 on 422 men and women aged 50 years and above. Perceived depression and loss of interest in things (eg, personal relationships, hobbies during the last 12 months were used as outcome variables with difficulty in joining community activities, relationships/community participation, friendships, and visiting family/friends as the main explanatory variables. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-reported depression and the feeling of reduced interest in most things were respectively 51.9% and 43.8%. In the multivariate analysis, those who reported difficulty in joining community activities had respectively 64% (OR =1.639; 95% CI =1.081–2.583 and 69% (OR =1.685; 95% CI higher odds of depression and loss of interest in things compared with those who did not report any difficulty

  9. Genetic variations in the Dravidian population of South West coast of India: Implications in designing case-control studies.

    D'Cunha, Anitha; Pandit, Lekha; Malli, Chaithra

    2017-06-01

    Indian data have been largely missing from genome-wide databases that provide information on genetic variations in different populations. This hinders association studies for complex disorders in India. This study was aimed to determine whether the complex genetic structure and endogamy among Indians could potentially influence the design of case-control studies for autoimmune disorders in the south Indian population. A total of 12 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) related to genes associated with autoimmune disorders were genotyped in 370 healthy individuals belonging to six different caste groups in southern India. Allele frequencies were estimated; genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship within the various caste groups and other HapMap populations were ascertained. Allele frequencies for all genotyped SNVs did not vary significantly among the different groups studied. Wright's FSTwas 0.001 per cent among study population and 0.38 per cent when compared with Gujarati in Houston (GIH) population on HapMap data. The analysis of molecular variance results showed a 97 per cent variation attributable to differences within the study population and variation due to differences between castes. Phylogenetic analysis showed a separation of Dravidian population from other HapMap populations and particularly from GIH population. Despite the complex genetic origins of the Indian population, our study indicated a low level of genetic differentiation among Dravidian language-speaking people of south India. Case-control studies of association among Dravidians of south India may not require stratification based on language and caste.

  10. The Attitudes of Croatian Citizens toward Cultural Diversities

    Milan Mesić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on part of results of a representative national examination of Croatian citizens’ attitudes about cultural diversities in Croatian society. A field survey was conducted by using the personal interview method in the respondent’s household, within the framework of an omnibus research. By cultural diversities, the authors mean national and religious communities. In this respect, Croatia is culturally a heterogeneous political community like most countries of the contemporary world. Therefore, the relationship of its citizens to cultural and other diversities will become an increasingly important socio-political and scientific topic, and the authors hope that their research will help to sensitize the public in this regard. It was found, unexpectedly, that Croatian citizens in fact offer somewhat weaker “resistance to multicultural society” (as measured by Eurobarometer, since only 8 per cent in total said it was bad or very bad for the country. Namely, almost one in four (23 per cent Europeans did not agree with the statement that people of different ethnic or cultural backgrounds enrich their countries. Even in relation to the European Union, Croatian respondents expressed moderate optimism, because a fairly smaller number of them (42% from a comparative European average (48% believed that joining the European Union threatens national cultural identity. The impact or the lack of impact of socio-demographic characteristics of respondents coincides in part with similar trends in research, for example in the Netherlands. In this research, only three predictors of results on the scale of cultural exclusion turned out to be statistically significant: sex, degree of religiosity and national affiliation. In a great world comparative research project it was established that young people generally showed greater acceptance of cultural (and other diversities in their societies, and it should be pointed out that age did not act in

  11. Engineering Job Skills in Croatian Economy: Employers’ Perspective

    Nikša Dubreta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different actors, or stakeholders, are interested and want to participate in discussions and interventions related to the topic of skills as an important outcome of engineering education. In the Croatian context, the entire process is still predominantly internally driven and determined by academic evaluations while the involvement of the alumni and employers as external stakeholders is sporadic and under researched. Since Croatian employers are not sufficiently familiar with the levels and structures of reformed study programs, the main objective of this research was to assess to what extent the current and largely accepted set of engineering skills fit their expectations. By reviewing available literature, 36 key skills were identified and used in a questionnaire administrated to Croatian employers, resulting in 418 completed and usable responses. Results show that employers find every assessed skill as somewhat/extremely valuable. However, it is found that employers most valued skills related to the wider set of transferable skills with somewhat greater emphases on skills that reflect professionalism and work ethic. In general, it turned out that employers approach transferable skills in terms of their functionality. Mean comparison within subgroups has shown statistically significant differences with regard to respondent’s gender. In general, women fit the theorized dimensions more than their male counterparts, perhaps indicating that they understand all skills, and transferable skills in particular, more holistically than men. Finally, in order to understand the underlying structure of the explored items, exploratory factor analysis was employed, resulting in 8 clear dimensions suggesting engineering “employability skills” in the Croatian context.

  12. Regulation and Flexibility of the Croatian Labour Market

    Vedran Sosic

    2004-01-01

    The Croatian Labor Code was significantly reformed in 2003 as a result of extensive negotiations lasting about two years. Proponents of the reform emphasized the supposed rigidity of the labor market, resulting from restrictive employment protection legislation, as a main rationale for the reform. Critics believed that the labor market is much more flexible than often thought due to inadequate enforcement of legislation. This study aims to assess the level of labor market dynamics by construc...

  13. Upward Mobility Criteria from Croatian Women's Point of View

    Djula Borozan

    2006-01-01

    Little is generally known about the factors affecting the career advancement of women in the world of work. This is especially true for Croatia. Formally and legally, women should have equal opportunities for employment and advancement as their male counterparts have. However, in practice, situations are often different due to socio-cultural, support systems, self imposed barriers and the like. This paper examines factors facilitating and hindering career advancement from the Croatian women’s...

  14. Critical Mass in the Boardroom of Croatian Banks

    Kramaric Tomislava Pavic; Miletic Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of gender diversity in the boardroom of Croatian banks on their performance. Specifically, we deal with both management and supervisory boards. Moreover, based on critical mass theory, the authors try to find out what constitutes critical mass. Using a static panel analysis on a sample of all commercial banks that operated in the period 2002-2014, three models were estimated with return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and net interest margin (NIM)...

  15. Solidary Dimension of Bio-Ethical Challenges in Croatian Society

    MATULIĆ, Tonči

    2006-01-01

    This contribution investigates the solidary dimensions of bio-ethical challenges with special reflection on their situation and demands in Croatian society. The research unfolds in several stages. The introduction questions the state of today's cultural situation within which bio-ethical challenges emerge. In continuation, the paper investigates relations between social issues as a world notion and bio-ethical challenges that undoubtedly constitute a vital component of that issue. This is par...

  16. Psychosocial stress and strategies for managing adversity: measuring population resilience in New South Wales, Australia

    Jacobs Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations around the world are facing an increasing number of adversities such as the global financial crisis, terrorism, conflict, and climate change. The aim of this paper was to investigate self-reported strategies and sources of support used to get through "tough times" in an Australian context and to identify patterns of response in the general population and differences in potentially vulnerable subgroups. Methods Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of the New South Wales population in Australia. The final sample consisted of 3,995 New South Wales residents aged 16 years and above who responded to the question: "What are the things that get you through tough times?" Results Respondents provided brief comments that were coded into 14 main subject-area categories. The most frequently reported responses were family and self (52%; friends and neighbors (21%; use of positive emotional and philosophical strategies (17%, such as sense of humor, determination, and the belief that things would get better; and religious beliefs (11%. The responses of four population subgroups were compared, based on gender, household income, level of psychological distress, and whether a language other than English was spoken at home. Women reported greater use of friends and neighbors and religious or spiritual beliefs for support, whereas men reported greater use of drinking/smoking and financial supports. Those with lower incomes reported greater reliance on positive emotional and philosophical strategies and on religious or spiritual beliefs. Those with high levels of psychological distress reported greater use of leisure interests and hobbies, drinking/smoking, and less use of positive lifestyle strategies, such as adequate sleep, relaxation, or work/life balance. Those who spoke a language other than English at home were less likely to report relying on self or others (family/friends or positive emotional and

  17. Psychosocial stress and strategies for managing adversity: measuring population resilience in New South Wales, Australia.

    Taylor, Melanie; Barr, Margo; Stevens, Garry; Bryson-Taylor, Donald; Agho, Kingsley; Jacobs, Jennifer; Raphael, Beverley

    2010-10-14

    Populations around the world are facing an increasing number of adversities such as the global financial crisis, terrorism, conflict, and climate change. The aim of this paper was to investigate self-reported strategies and sources of support used to get through "tough times" in an Australian context and to identify patterns of response in the general population and differences in potentially vulnerable subgroups. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of the New South Wales population in Australia. The final sample consisted of 3,995 New South Wales residents aged 16 years and above who responded to the question: "What are the things that get you through tough times?" Respondents provided brief comments that were coded into 14 main subject-area categories. The most frequently reported responses were family and self (52%); friends and neighbors (21%); use of positive emotional and philosophical strategies (17%), such as sense of humor, determination, and the belief that things would get better; and religious beliefs (11%). The responses of four population subgroups were compared, based on gender, household income, level of psychological distress, and whether a language other than English was spoken at home. Women reported greater use of friends and neighbors and religious or spiritual beliefs for support, whereas men reported greater use of drinking/smoking and financial supports. Those with lower incomes reported greater reliance on positive emotional and philosophical strategies and on religious or spiritual beliefs. Those with high levels of psychological distress reported greater use of leisure interests and hobbies, drinking/smoking, and less use of positive lifestyle strategies, such as adequate sleep, relaxation, or work/life balance. Those who spoke a language other than English at home were less likely to report relying on self or others (family/friends) or positive emotional and philosophical strategies to get through tough times

  18. Drug use among youth and adults in a population-based survey in South Africa

    Karl Peltzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Illicit drug use is a growing public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of drug use and the sociodemographic and health characteristics that influence it among young and adult South Africans. Methods: Data based on the South African national population-based survey in 2012 for 26 453 individuals (52.0% women and 48.0% men aged 15 years and older were analysed. Past 3-month drug use was assessed with the ‘Alcohol, Smoking and Substance use Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST’. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between sociodemographic factors, health variables and any past 3-month drug use. Results: Overall, any past 3-month drug use was 4.4%, 7.9% among men and 1.3% among women. The proportion of past 3-month cannabis use was 4.0%, followed by sedatives or sleeping pills 0.4%, amphetamine-type stimulants 0.3%, cocaine 0.3%, opiates 0.3%, inhalants 0.2% and hallucinogens 0.1%. Among the nine South African provinces, any past 3-month drug use was the highest in the Western Cape (7.1%, followed by the Free State (6.3% and Northern Cape (5.2%. In adjusted, multivariable, logistic regression analysis among both men and women, younger age, being mixed race and hazardous or harmful alcohol use were associated with any past 3-month drug use. In addition, having been a victim of violent crime and sexual risk behaviour among men and having psychological distress among women were associated with any past 3-month drug use. Conclusion: An increase of any past 3-month drug use from 3.7% in 2008 to 4.4% in 2012 was observed in South Africa. Prevention and intervention activities targeting drug use, in particular in identified risk groups, need to be strengthened in South Africa.

  19. Marine conservation and accession: the future for the Croatian Adriatic.

    Mackelworth, Peter; Holcer, Draško; Jovanović, Jelena; Fortuna, Caterina

    2011-04-01

    The European Union (EU) is the world's largest trading bloc and the most influential supra-national organisation in the region. The EU has been the goal for many eastern European States, for Croatia accession remains a priority and underpins many of its national policies. However, entry into the EU requires certain commitments and concessions. In October 2003 the Croatian parliament declared an ecological and fisheries protection zone in the Adriatic. Under pressure the zone was suspended, finally entering into force in March 2008 exempting EU States. There are other marine conflicts between Croatia and the EU, particularly the contested maritime border with Slovenia, and the development of the Croatian fishing fleet in opposition to the Common Fisheries Policy. Conversely, attempts to harmonise Croatian Nature Protection with the EU Habitats Directive, facilitated by pre-accession funding, has galvanised conservation policy. Since 2005 two marine protected areas have been declared, significantly increasing the marine ecosystem under protection. Finally, the development of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive is the latest EU attempt to integrate environmental policy in the maritime realm. This will have an effect not only on member States but neighbouring countries. For marine nature protection to be effective in the region the Adriatic Sea needs to be viewed as a mutually important shared and limited resource not a bargaining chip. Negotiations of the EU and Croatia have been watched closely by the other Balkan States and precedents set in this case have the potential to affect EU expansion to the East.

  20. Asset allocation and regime switching on Croatian financial market

    Tihana Škrinjarić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for quite some time now that financial markets exhibit changes in regimes over time. A majority of the literature tends to support that financial markets undergo regimes of bull and bear markets. This characteristic should be modeled in a proper way as investors are always interested in beating the market: either by achieving better returns than others, or by minimizing their portfolio risks. There exist many mathematical and statistical models that are used as tools to achieve the mentioned goals. Introducing the regime switching methodology in existing models has proven to be facilitate achieving such goals. Therefore, the objective of this study is to utilize the regime switching methodology on the Croatian financial market to ascertain its usefulness for Croatian investors. Multivariate regime switching and non-switching models were estimated using daily data from the period 2 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. The assumption is that the investor is interested in stock and bond markets. The results from the MGARCH and regime switching MGARCH models are then compared in order to give answers as to whether the respective methodology applied to the Croatian market is useful and how it may benefit investors. Most of the results support the presumption of incorporating this particular methodology in financial modeling for the Croatia markets. This is the first research that applies the regime switching MGARCH methodology in Croatia (including the Balkan region, hence we expect that this will be a significant contribution to existing methodologies in literature.

  1. In search of a Croatian model of nursing education.

    Simunovic, Vladimir J; Zupanovic, Marija; Mihanovic, Frane; Zemunik, Tatijana; Bradaric, Nikola; Jankovic, Stipan

    2010-10-01

    To analyze the present status and ongoing reforms of nursing education in Europe, to compare it with the situation in Croatia, and to propose a new educational model that corresponds to the needs of the Croatian health care system. The literature on contemporary nursing education in Europe and North America was reviewed, together with European Commission directives and regulations, as well as pertinent World Health Organization documents. In addition, 20 recent annual reports from 2003-2009, submitted by national nursing associations to the Workgroup of European Nurse Researchers (WERN), were studied. After appraisal of current trends, the Working Group on Reform of Nursing Education drafted The Croatian Model for Education in Nursing and developed a three-cycle curriculum with syllabus. The proposed curriculum is radically different from traditional ones. Responding to modern demands, it focuses on outcomes (developing competencies) and is evidence-based. A new, Croatian concept of nursing education is presented that is concordant with reforms in nursing education in other European countries. It holds promise for making nursing education an integral part of a unified European system of higher education.

  2. Air transportation and tourism in the Croatian littoral

    Slaven Gašparović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse and explain the impact of air transportation on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral. The analysis was made by using the data collected from flight schedules and airport authorities. The data on frequency of lines and number of passengers were analysed in order to correlate the distribution of the number of passengers with the number of tourists during the year. In this case, the correlation between the number of passengers and the number of arrivals/number of overnight stays is observed. Data for the time period from 2008 till 2010 were analysed in more detail by dividing the passengers into four categories: full-service passengers, low-cost passengers, charter passengers and general aviation passengers. Major touristic markets are identified on the basis of the number of connections between European and Croatian littoral airports. The last part of the paper deals with the increasing impact of low-cost services on the development of tourism in the Croatian littoral region. This is due to the fact that low-cost carriers have accounted for a considerable part of air transport in the last few years.

  3. Interrelation of Lean and Green Management in Croatian Manufacturing Companies

    Miro Hegedić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to explore the link between lean and green management, reasons for their implementation, their effect throughout the whole life cycle, as well as the current state of use of lean tools, economic and environmental indicators in the context of Croatian manufacturing companies. A semi-structured interview was used in this research. As a result, the frequency of economic and environmental performance indicators and lean tools in Croatian companies has been defined, as well as the reasons for the implementation of lean management. Additionally, the understanding of the use of Life Cycle Assessment methods, environmental standards has been obtained and the integration of lean and green management in Croatian companies has been explored. Further on, results were compared to the similar study done in the UK. Finally, it can be concluded that the integration of lean and green management is not yet sufficiently present in manufacturing companies, although there are cases in which these two approaches are integrated, primarily in the process and food industry. It is for these reasons that in the integration of these two approaches lies great potential.

  4. Potential of waste heat in Croatian industrial sector

    Bišćan Davor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery in Croatian industry is of the highest significance regarding the national efforts towards energy efficiency improvements and climate protection. By recuperation of heat which would otherwise be wasted, the quantity of fossil fuels used for production of useful energy could be lowered thereby reducing the fuel costs and increasing the competitiveness of examined Croatian industries. Another effect of increased energy efficiency of industrial processes and plants is reduction of greenhouse gases i.e. the second important national goal required by the European Union (EU and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. Paper investigates and analyses the waste heat potential in Croatian industrial sector. Firstly, relevant industrial sectors with significant amount of waste heat are determined. Furthermore, significant companies in these sectors are selected with respect to main process characteristics, operation mode and estimated waste heat potential. Data collection of waste heat parameters (temperature, mass flow and composition is conducted. Current technologies used for waste heat utilization from different waste heat sources are pointed out. Considered facilities are compared with regard to amount of flue gas heat. Mechanisms for more efficient and more economic utilization of waste heat are proposed. [Acknoledgment. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the UNITY THROUGH KNOWLEDGE FUND (UKF of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia and the World Bank, under the Grant Agreement No. 89/11.

  5. Diversity of palatal rugae patterns and their reliability in sex discrimination in a South Indian population

    Sai Madhavi Nallamilli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aims: Array of palatal rugae in the realm of forensic odontology has been constantly explored owing to their individual uniqueness and resistance to postmortem procedures, while their scope in sex determination and racial profiling remains understated. In this context, the present study aimed to record the diversity of palatal rugae patterns in a South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among people who reported to the outpatient department of a dental institution. Sample comprised a total of 200 subjects divided into two groups of 100 each, based upon gender. Impressions of anterior maxilla were made of all the study subjects and casts obtained subsequently. Outline of palatal rugae pattern was traced on these models and the data computed. Z test and unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis and the probability value calculated. In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the accuracy of sex allocation. Results: The shape of rugae exhibited highly significant sex difference in the curved type, which was found to be higher in males, and in the wavy type which was higher in females, enabling sex differentiation using palatal rugae patterns. Logistic regression analysis predicted high power of sex allocation for males rather than females in the study population. Conclusion: This study highlighted the uniqueness and greater sex discrimination potential of curved shape of palatal rugae in categorizing males of South Indian population, substantiating their use in the identification of deceased, by relating the antemortem and postmortem dental records.

  6. Social participation and perceived depression among elderly population in South Africa.

    Hao, Gang; Bishwajit, Ghose; Tang, Shangfeng; Nie, Changping; Ji, Lu; Huang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing consensus regarding the influence of various psychosocial factors such as degree of social participation on health and disease outcomes, quality of life, and general well-being. Older individuals with diminished motor and physical functionality suffer a heightened risk of social exclusion and loneliness. Previous studies have demonstrated the association between social exclusion and loneliness with mental health among the older population. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether or not difficulty in social participation has any relationship with perceived depression among older individuals in South Africa. We collected cross-sectional data from the SAGE Well-Being of Older People Study 2010 on 422 men and women aged 50 years and above. Perceived depression and loss of interest in things (eg, personal relationships, hobbies) during the last 12 months were used as outcome variables with difficulty in joining community activities, relationships/community participation, friendships, and visiting family/friends as the main explanatory variables. Findings indicated that the prevalence of self-reported depression and the feeling of reduced interest in most things were respectively 51.9% and 43.8%. In the multivariate analysis, those who reported difficulty in joining community activities had respectively 64% (OR =1.639; 95% CI =1.081-2.583) and 69% (OR =1.685; 95% CI) higher odds of depression and loss of interest in things compared with those who did not report any difficulty. The study concludes that addressing the barriers to engaging in community activities may help minimize burden of depression among the elderly population in South Africa. Furthermore, large-scale studies are warranted to explore the social and structural barriers which constrain community participation among the elderly population.

  7. Differences in attitudes towards medication between population groups in the Durban Metropolitan Area of South Africa.

    Suleman, Fatima; Ally, Shabnam; Bayat, Samirah; Essack, Razia; Moodley, Renalda; Mtembu, Thobekile; Ramalingham, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Personal factors, especially attitude, have been implicated in the utilization of health care services, and in access to medical treatment. There is little information on the attitudes of the general public in South Africa towards medications and whether attitudes differ across population groups or among the different users of the health care system. This study aimed to determine the general attitude of a local population to medications, self-care orientation and health professional contact, and whether differences existed between age groups, gender and race groups. METHODS We carried out a randomized, cross-sectional quantitative study via telephonic questionnaire survey (adapted from a previous study) of a sample of 1132 telephone numbers. The setting was the Durban Metropolitan Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. KEY FINDINGS A total of 500 (44.2%) people responded. The majority had a positive attitude towards medication. An increase in age resulted in increased medication use. Females were more likely than males to use medication and seek professional health care (P = 0.0406). Most of the respondents (86.0%) were self-care-orientated and displayed moderate medication knowledge (46.2%). Some 295 (59.0%) of the 500 respondents had visited a pharmacy within the last 6 months. Conclusions Health care professionals can adopt an informed approach to address the needs of the population with regard to medication, by targeting groups more likely to use medication (females and the older age group). In addition, gaps in medication knowledge were identified which could be used for health-promotion interventions by health care workers.

  8. Phylogeography and Sex-Biased Dispersal across Riverine Manatee Populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America

    Satiz?bal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Duch?ne, Sebasti?n; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M.; Garc?a-D?vila, Carmen R.; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data sug...

  9. Effectively addressing the health needs of South Africa's population: the role of health professions education in the 21st century.

    van Heerden, B

    2012-11-22

    The causes of the poor health status of the South African population are probably multifactorial, but to be socially accountable we must ensure that the education and training of health professionals continue to be aligned with the population's health needs. The authors of a seminal report published in the Lancet in 2010 provide guidelines for the future training of health professionals. Since November 2010, this report, together with other guiding publications, informed a series of strategic initiatives undertaken by the Undergraduate Education and Training subcommittee of the Medical and Dental Professions Board of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). These initiatives seek to ensure alignment of the training of health professionals in South Africa (SA) with the health needs of the population and with international educational norms and standards. These initiatives are described and the role of the HPCSA in guiding the education and training of SA's health professionals is explored.

  10. A Panel of Ancestry Informative Markers for the Complex Five-Way Admixed South African Coloured Population

    Daya, Michelle; van der Merwe, Lize; Galal, Ushma; Möller, Marlo; Salie, Muneeb; Chimusa, Emile R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Henn, Brenna M.; Gignoux, Chris R.; Hoal, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Admixture is a well known confounder in genetic association studies. If genome-wide data is not available, as would be the case for candidate gene studies, ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are required in order to adjust for admixture. The predominant population group in the Western Cape, South Africa, is the admixed group known as the South African Coloured (SAC). A small set of AIMs that is optimized to distinguish between the five source populations of this population (African San, African non-San, European, South Asian, and East Asian) will enable researchers to cost-effectively reduce false-positive findings resulting from ignoring admixture in genetic association studies of the population. Using genome-wide data to find SNPs with large allele frequency differences between the source populations of the SAC, as quantified by Rosenberg et. al's -statistic, we developed a panel of AIMs by experimenting with various selection strategies. Subsets of different sizes were evaluated by measuring the correlation between ancestry proportions estimated by each AIM subset with ancestry proportions estimated using genome-wide data. We show that a panel of 96 AIMs can be used to assess ancestry proportions and to adjust for the confounding effect of the complex five-way admixture that occurred in the South African Coloured population. PMID:24376522

  11. Population Development of Several Species of Ants on the Cocoa Trees in South Sulawesi

    Fatahuddin Fatahuddin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of ants with different behavior have been found in cocoa plantations and their behavior is important to be considered because it might be correlated with the degree of protection of cocoa plant from cocoa pests. The aim of this research is to manipulate and to develop ants population in environment, so they are able to establish permanently in cocoa trees. This research was conducted in Papakaju Regions Luwu Regency in Juli to November 2009. In this study, 10 cocoa trees with ants were sampled (each species of ant in 10 cocoa trees. A control of 10 tree samples without ant was also taken. In order to assess the abundance of ant population, it was grouped based on scoring, which score 1 for less than 20 ants, score 2 for 21–50 ants, score 3 for 51–200 ants, score 4 for 201–1000 ants, and score 5 for more than 1000 per tree. The results indicated that average of population score of the three ants species reached the highest population for the Oecophylla. smaragdina with average score 4.85 (>1000 ants, Dolichoderus thoracicus, with average score 3.90 (> 200 ants and Crematogaster. difformis with average score 3.10 (>200 ants. This research indicated that three species of ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (weaver ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus (cocoa black ant and Crematogaster difformis (cracking ant. in farmer cocoa plantations in South Sulawesi giving better performance against major pests of cocoa in particular cocoa pod borer (CPB. Key words: Ant Population, Oecophylla smaragdina, Dolichoderus thoracicus, Crematogaster difformis, artificial nest, cocoa.

  12. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Campbell, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. Using satellite imagery and software to render these images is a cost effective way to investigate this growth. Also, using remotely sensed data and a GIS (geographic information system) package can address different issues that concern people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of my project is to observe land use change on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using Geographic Information Systems such as; ARCGis 9, ENVI, and Multispec, along with Landsat 4, 5, and 7 imagery over the past 20 years.

  13. Pathological features of oxalate nephrosis in a population of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in South Australia.

    Speight, K N; Boardman, W; Breed, W G; Taggart, D A; Woolford, L; Haynes, J I

    2013-03-01

    The wild and captive koala population of the Mt Lofty Ranges in South Australia has a high level of renal dysfunction in which crystals consistent with calcium oxalate have been observed in the kidneys. This study aimed to describe the pathological features of the renal disease in this population, confirm the composition of renal crystals as calcium oxalate, and determine whether any age or sex predispositions exist for this disease. A total of 51 koalas (28 wild rescues, 23 captive) were examined at necropsy, of which 28 (55%) were found to have gross and/or histological evidence of oxalate nephrosis. Histopathological features included intratubular and interstitial inflammation, tubule dilation, glomerular atrophy, tubule loss, and cortical fibrosis. Calcium oxalate crystals were demonstrated using a combination of polarization microscopy, alizarin red S staining, infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis with scanning electron microscopy. Uric acid and phosphate deposits were also shown to be present but were associated with minimal histopathological changes. No significant differences were found between the numbers of affected captive and wild rescued koalas; also, there were no sex or age predispositions identified, but it was found that oxalate nephrosis may affect koalas <2 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that oxalate nephrosis is a leading disease in this koala population. Possible causes of this disease are currently under investigation.

  14. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  15. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a rural primary care population in South Africa.

    Peltzer, K; Seakamela, M J; Manganye, L; Mamiane, K G; Motsei, M S; Mathebula, T T M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess trauma events experienced and PTSD among 250 consecutive rural primary clinic patients (all Black Africans, 24% male and 76% female; M age 31.1 yr., SD = 11.8; range 18-65 years) in South Africa using the Trauma History Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, interview administered. Results indicated that the mean number of traumatic events reported was 3.5 (SD = 2.9, range = 0-19) and was significantly higher among men (M= 4.9, SD = 3.5) than women (M = 3.0, SD = 2.6). Among the most frequently endorsed traumas among men were seeing someone seriously injured or killed (60%), serious accident (43.3%), and seeing dead bodies (43.3%), and among women natural disaster (mostly floods) (51.6%), news of a serious injury, life-threatening illness or unexpected death of someone close (31.1%), and seeing someone seriously injured or killed (30%). A current diagnosis of PTSD was found in 12.4% of the sample. Trauma incidence figures were high (M = 3.5) and were comparable with an urban Xhosa primary care population in South Africa (M = 3.8). A current indicative diagnosis of PTSD of 12.4% also compares with other studies; 19.9% among urban Xhosa primary care patients and 11.8% among American primary care patients.

  16. Reproductive and population parameters of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Colonello, J H; Cortés, F; Belleggia, M; Massa, A M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate reproductive and population parameters of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. In total, 2714 specimens (1616 males and 1098 females) were collected from surveys carried out using research vessels. Males ranged from 225 to 861 mm total length (LT ) and females from 235 to 925 mm LT . The size at maturity of females (651 mm) was significantly greater than that of males (565 mm). The maximum proportion of mature individuals (Pmax ) of the gestation ogive was 156 mm). The temporal and spatial co-occurrence of non-gravid adult females at different stages of ovarian development, as well as gravid females at all embryonic development stages would indicate that the female reproductive cycle in the south-western Atlantic Ocean is asynchronous. The results indicate that S. acanthias is susceptible to fishing pressure on account of its length at maturity, extended reproductive cycles and low fecundity. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Application of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) in a rural, Zulu speaking, adolescent population in South Africa

    Szabo, Christopher P; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken as part of an exploration of the potential risk for future eating disorders in the black female population of South Africa. Previous research has documented eating attitudes suggesting that such a risk exists in urban populations. A translated version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied in a Zulu speaking, rural population (n=361). A prevalence of 3% for abnormal eating attitudes was established. In keeping with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that the risk for developing an eating disorder in a rural population is somewhat lower. In this regard, there does appear to be an urban-rural divide, which may have implications for the prevention of the emergence of eating disorders in black, South African adolescents. However, the validity of the EAT-26 in this population is a consideration in interpreting the data. PMID:16633489

  18. Positive association of vitamin D receptor gene variations with multiple sclerosis in South East Iranian population.

    Narooie-Nejad, Mehrnaz; Moossavi, Maryam; Torkamanzehi, Adam; Moghtaderi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors postulated to play a role in MS susceptibility, the role of vitamin D is outstanding. Since the function of vitamin D receptor (VDR) represents the effect of vitamin D on the body and genetic variations in VDR gene may affect its function, we aim to highlight the association of two VDR gene polymorphisms with MS susceptibility. In current study, we recruited 113 MS patients and 122 healthy controls. TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) genetic variations in these two groups were evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. All genotype and allele frequencies in both variations showed association with the disease status. However, to find the definite connection between genetic variations in VDR gene and MS disease in a population of South East of Iran, more researches on gene structure and its function with regard to patients' conditions are required.

  19. Lifetime ultraviolet exposure estimates for selected population groups in south-east Queensland

    Parisi, A.V.; Meldrum, L.R.; Wong, J.C.F.; Fleming, R.A.; Aitken, J.

    1999-01-01

    The lifetime erythemal UV exposures received by selected population groups in south-east Queensland from birth up to an age of 55 years have been quantitatively estimated. A representative sample of teachers and other school workers received (64±22)x10 5 J m -2 to the neck compared with (4.1±1.4)x10 5 Jm -2 to the upper leg. A sample of indoor workers (bank officers, solicitors and psychologists) received approximately 2% less and a sample of outdoor workers (carpenters, tilers, electricians and labourers) received approximately 10% more to the neck than the school workers. These differences in erythemal UV exposures may influence the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. (author)

  20. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Young Adults: A Study From the South Australian Population-Based Registry.

    Vatandoust, Sina; Price, Timothy J; Ullah, Shahid; Roy, Amitesh C; Beeke, Carole; Young, Joanne P; Townsend, Amanda; Padbury, Robert; Roder, David; Karapetis, Christos S

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy. There is growing evidence that CRC incidence is increasing in the younger population. There is controversy surrounding the prognosis of young patients with CRC. In this study we reviewed Australian patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) who were younger than 40 years of age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic disease. To our knowledge this is the first study to focus on this age group with mCRC. This was a retrospective study using data from the South Australian Metastatic Colorectal Cancer database. We compared patient and disease characteristics, management approaches, and outcomes for age groups Young-onset mCRC patients, when defined as aged younger than 40 years, have equivalent survival compared with their older counterparts. This is despite differences in disease characteristics and management approach between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean Population.

    Eun Jin Woo

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  2. Risk factors for choledocholithiasis in a south Indian population: a case-control study.

    Chandran, Alexander Palapatti; Sivarajan, Ramya Ramakrishnan; Srinivas, Melpakkam; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2013-11-01

    To identify risk factors for common bile duct (CBD) stones in a south Indian population. Demographic characteristics and diet details were obtained from patients with isolated CBD stones (Gp I) and those with combined CBD and gallstones (Gp II) and age- and sex-matched controls. The risk factors were compared between the two groups. The demographic characteristics were similar between the two groups and matched controls. The significant risk factors for Gp I were infrequent consumption of green vegetable (odds ratio (OR), 2.3; p 3 times per week) of spices (OR, 2.8; p oil (p oil intake (251 + 105 vs. 292 + 89 mL; p CBD stones in both groups were associated with reduced intake of sugar and green vegetables. Our findings need to be validated in larger studies.

  3. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  4. Association of paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance in South Indian population.

    Gomathi, Panneerselvam; Iyer, Anandi Chandramouli; Murugan, Ponniah Senthil; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Raj, Nancy Bright Arul Joseph; Ganesan, Divya; Nallaperumal, Sivagnanam; Murugan, Maruthamuthu; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2018-04-15

    Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, paraoxonase-1(PON1) is reported to have an ability to reduce insulin resistance by promoting glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) expression in vitro. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PON1 is associated with variability in enzyme activity and concentration. Based on this we aimed to investigate the association of PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms with the risk of developing insulin resistance in adult South Indian population. Two hundred and eighty seven (287) Type 2 diabetes patients and 293 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All the study subjects were genotyped for PON1 (Q192R and L55M) missense polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) method. Fasting serum insulin level was measured by ELISA. The distribution of QR/RR and LM/MM genotypes were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes patients compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the R and M alleles were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes with an Odds Ratio of 1.68 (P  R genotypes were found to be significantly associated with higher BMI, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Further, the mutant allele or genotypes of PON1 L55M were associated with higher BMI, triglycerides, VLDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR among adult type 2 diabetes patients. PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms may play a crucial role in pathogenesis and susceptibility of insulin resistance thus leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-valuesdisability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with ‘full health’ and ‘being dead’ as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights. PMID:27606626

  6. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    Ock, Minsu; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study). With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS), and standard gamble (SG) were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE) were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-valuesdisability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights.

  7. Concurrent validation of two key health literacy instruments in a South Eastern European population.

    Toçi, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Sørensen, Kristine; Kamberi, Haxhi; Brand, Helmut

    2015-06-01

    Public health practice has come to increasing recognition of health promotion and the central role of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in achieving health promotion. Health literacy (HL) is an under-explored topic in South Eastern European countries. There are no HL reports from Albania to date. The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q) and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) in a population-based sample of adults in Albania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Tirana, Albania, including 239 individuals aged ≥ 18 years (61% women; 87% response). A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied twice (test and retest procedure after 2 weeks) including HLS-EU-Q and TOFHLA instruments. The internal consistency was high for both instruments (Cronbach's alpha for the test procedure was 0.92 for TOFHLA and 0.98 for HLS-EU-Q). Both tools exhibited a high stability over time (Spearman's rho: 0.88 for TOFHLA and 0.87 for HLS-EU). Mean values of both instruments were similar in men and women (mean score for TOFHLA: 76.0 vs. 76.5, P = 0.83; mean score for HLS-EU-Q: 32.2 vs. 32.6, P = 0.63). For both instruments, higher HL scores were significantly associated with younger age, higher educational and economic level and lower body mass index. Our study provides valuable novel evidence on concurrent validation of two major HL instruments in a South Eastern European population-based sample. Future studies should be conducted in order to confirm and expand our findings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence and disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population in South Korea.

    Jin Gu Yoon

    Full Text Available Adult seroprevalence of HAV is decreasing in developed countries including South Korea, due to general sanitation improvement. Although hepatitis A vaccination was introduced in South Korea more than 20 years ago, recent infection rates have not decreased. In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG, and estimate the national disease burden of acute hepatitis A in adult population.Seroprevalence data were collected from health promotion center of Korea University Guro Hospital, in Seoul, Korea from 2010 to 2014. Data from adults (≥20-years being tested for anti-HAV IgG were included. In addition, epidemiological and clinical data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2009 to 2013, were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS and the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS database. Data were stratified and compared by age groups.A total of 11,177 subjects were tested for anti-HAV IgG from 2010 to 2014. Age-related seroprevalence showed relatively low seropositivity in young adults. Incidence of acute hepatitis A was highest in 2009 and lowest in 2013. When categorized by age group, adults in their 20s and 30s had more HAV infections and related-admissions than older adults. However, ICU admission rate and average insurance-covered cost was high in older adults.The anti-HAV IgG seropositivity in Korean younger adult population was low while the incidence of acute hepatitis A was high, especially in the 20-39 aged. However, a substantial number of older adults were infected, and required more intensive procedures and incurred higher insurance-covered medical costs.

  9. Sickness absence indicating depressive symptoms of working population in South Korea.

    Shin, Cheolmin; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Jeon, Sang Won; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Yong-Ku; Patkar, Ashwin A; Han, Changsu

    2018-02-01

    Sickness absence has been regarded as an important indicator of workers' health and work productivity. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and sickness absence in workers of South Korea. We used nationwide cross-sectional survey data from 2889 individuals in the working population aged over 19 years in South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Those respondents who scored above 10 on PHQ-9 were regarded as having depressive symptoms. Sickness absence was considered a binary variable with an absence of at least 1 day in the past month. The survey instrument contained questions about sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, work-related factors, and chronic illnesses. Logistic regression models were used to find odds ratios and confidence intervals. The prevalence of sickness absence was found to be overall 4.6%. The adjusted odds ratio of sickness absence with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) was 3.63 (Confidence Interval: 2.13-6.20) after controlling of possible confounders. Compared to minimal depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 sickness absences were more significant. The sickness absence based on the memory of the respondent in this study may result in a recall bias. Incidence of at least 1 day of sickness absence per month increased the risk of depressive symptoms after controlling for the possible confounding factors in general working population. It may be necessary to consider strategies for assessing depression in the workers who take sick leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Health Information Behavior of the South Tyrolean Population: An Epidemiological Cross-Sectional Study].

    Vögele, Anna; Becker, Ulrich; Gögele, Anna; Schneider, Antonius; Engl, Adolf

    2018-06-04

    Investigation of the health information behavior, self-rated health, confidence in health issues and specific attitudes to health among the South Tyrolean population. Our study is an epidemiological cross-sectional study; data were collected via telephone interviews, using a questionnaire developed for this purpose that covered various aspects of information and health-related behavior. For the elaboration of the typology of the most distinctive stereotypes in terms of health information and health-related behavior, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. We assessed 504 correct telephone interviews. The majority of the respondents considered themselves health-conscious and preferred heterogeneous information media. The most used information media for health issues were mass media, i. e. newspapers or magazines and television or radio. The internet was used less as a source of information. Younger individuals assessed themselves to be healthier than older people, and older women aged 65 years or more were the most health-impaired group. Respondents had greatest confidence in their general practitioner, their own feeling or experience. Thus, in terms of health information and health behavior, the following four classes of people could be distinguished, namely "internet information elite", "robust fatalists", "stricken" and "health-conscious mainstreamers". Our results show that the South Tyrolean population has a high level of health consciousness and gathers health information from various media. The characterization of different patient typologies of information processing in combination with health-related behavior indicates that information about health and illness should be appropriately addressed to the respective stereotype. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Moderate climate signature in cranial anatomy of late holocene human populations from Southern South America.

    Paula Menéndez, Lumila

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied. The variation in shape and size of 361 crania was studied, registering 62 3D landmarks that capture shape and size variation in the face, cranial vault, and base. Mean, minimum, and maximum annual temperature, as well as mean annual precipitation, but also diet and altitude, were matched for each population sample. A PCA, as well as spatial statistical techniques, including kriging, regression, and multimodel inference were employed. The facial skeleton size presents a latitudinal pattern which is partially associated with temperature diversity. Both diet and altitude are the variables that mainly explain the skull shape variation, although mean annual temperature also plays a role. The association between climate factors and cranial variation is low to moderate, mean annual temperature explains almost 40% of the entire skull, facial skeleton and cranial vault shape variation, while annual precipitation and minimum annual temperature only contribute to the morphological variation when considered together with maximum annual temperature. The cranial base is the structure less associated with climate diversity. These results suggest that climate factors may have had a partial impact on the facial and vault shape, and therefore contributed moderately to the diversification of southern South American populations, while diet and altitude might have had a stronger impact. Therefore, cranial variation at the southern cone has been shaped both by random and nonrandom factors. Particularly, the

  12. Genetic structure of Quechua-speakers of the Central Andes and geographic patterns of gene frequencies in South Amerindian populations.

    Luiselli, D; Simoni, L; Tarazona-Santos, E; Pastor, S; Pettener, D

    2000-09-01

    A sample of 141 Quechua-speaking individuals of the population of Tayacaja, in the Peruvian Central Andes, was typed for the following 16 genetic systems: ABO, Rh, MNSs, P, Duffy, AcP1, EsD, GLOI, PGM1, AK, 6-PGD, Hp, Gc, Pi, C3, and Bf. The genetic structure of the population was analyzed in relation to the allele frequencies available for other South Amerindian populations, using a combination of multivariate and multivariable techniques. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed independently for 13 alleles to identify patterns of gene flow in South America as a whole and in more specific geographic regions. We found a longitudinal cline for the AcP1*a and EsD*1 alleles which we interpreted as the result of an ancient longitudinal expansion of a putative ancestral population of modern Amerindians. Monmonnier's algorithm, used to identify areas of sharp genetic discontinuity, suggested a clear east-west differentiation of native South American populations, which was confirmed by analysis of the distribution of genetic distances. We suggest that this pattern of genetic structures is the consequence of the independent peopling of western and eastern South America or to low levels of gene flow between these regions, related to different environmental and demographic histories. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Distribution control centers in the Croatian power system with particular consideration on ZAgreb distribution control center

    Cupin, N.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion about control of Croatian Power system in the view of forthcoming free electricity market did not included do far distribution level. With this article we would like to clarify the role of distribution control centers pointing out importance of Zagreb Distribution control center, with controls one third of Croatian (HEP) consumption. (author)

  14. Market Orientation in Managing Relationships with Multiple Constituencies of Croatian Higher Education

    Pavicic, Jurica; Alfirevic, Niksa; Mihanovic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, market orientation in Croatian higher education (HE) is discussed within the context of stakeholder-oriented management. Drawing on existing studies, the "classical" empirical model, describing the market orientation of generic nonprofit organisations, has been adapted to the contingencies of the Croatian HE sector.…

  15. A nationwide population-based study of low vision and blindness in South Korea.

    Park, Shin Hae; Lee, Ji Sung; Heo, Hwan; Suh, Young-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Sung Jin; Park, Song Hee; Baek, Seung-Hee

    2014-12-18

    To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of low vision and blindness in the Korean population. This cross-sectional, population-based study examined the ophthalmologic data of 22,135 Koreans aged ≥5 years from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010-2012). According to the World Health Organization criteria, blindness was defined as visual acuity (VA) less than 20/400 in the better-seeing eye, and low vision as VA of 20/60 or worse but 20/400 or better in the better-seeing eye. The prevalence rates were calculated from either presenting VA (PVA) or best-corrected VA (BCVA). Multivariate regression analysis was conducted for adults aged ≥20 years. The overall prevalence rates of PVA-defined low vision and blindness were 4.98% and 0.26%, respectively, and those of BCVA-defined low vision and blindness were 0.46% and 0.05%, respectively. Prevalence increased rapidly above the age of 70 years. For subjects aged ≥70 years, the population-weighted prevalence rates of low vision, based on PVA and BCVA, were 12.85% and 3.87%, respectively, and the corresponding rates of blindness were 0.49% and 0.42%, respectively. The presenting vision problems were significantly associated with age (younger adults or elderly subjects), female sex, low educational level, and lowest household income, whereas the best-corrected vision problems were associated with age ≥ 70 years, a low educational level, and rural residence. This population-based study provides useful information for planning optimal public eye health care services in South Korea. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Finding solid ground: law enforcement, key populations and their health and rights in South Africa.

    Scheibe, Andrew; Howell, Simon; Müller, Alexandra; Katumba, Munyaradzi; Langen, Bram; Artz, Lillian; Marks, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Sex workers, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and transgender people in South Africa frequently experience high levels of stigma, abuse and discrimination. Evidence suggests that such abuse is sometimes committed by police officers, meaning that those charged with protection are perpetrators. This reinforces cycles of violence, increases the risk of HIV infection, undermines HIV prevention and treatment interventions and violates the constitutional prescriptions that the police are mandated to protect. This paper explores how relationship building can create positive outcomes while taking into account the challenges associated with reforming police strategies in relation to key populations, and vice versa. We argue that relationships between law enforcement agencies and key populations need to be re-examined and reconstituted to enable appropriate responses and services. The antagonistic positioning, "othering" and blame assignment frequently seen in interactions between law enforcement officials and key populations can negatively influence both, albeit for different reasons. In addressing these concerns, we argue that mediation based on consensual dialogue is required, and can be harnessed through a process that highlights points of familiarity that are often shared, but not understood, by both parties. Rather than laying blame, we argue that substantive changes need to be owned and executed by all role-players, informed by a common language that is cognisant of differing perspectives. Relational approaches can be used to identify programmes that align goals that are part of law enforcement, human rights and public health despite not always being seen as such. Law enforcement champions and representatives of key populations need to be identified and supported to promote interventions that are mutually reinforcing, and address perceived differences by highlighting commonality. Creating opportunities to share experiences

  17. Natural characteristics of Croatian littoral area as a comparative advantage for nautical tourism development

    Srećko Favro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Having in mind Croatian littoral area with its unique attractive coast and islands, it can be said that nautical tourism is absolutely authentic and distinctly recognizable Croatian "tourist product". In spite of numerous comparative advantages, Croatian nautical tourism still has not taken the right place on the market of Mediterranean nautical tourism. Future development of nautical tourism with its complementary activities – nautical economy, should be considered as the driving force for social and economic development of Croatian coastal area and islands, and it should be correctly dimensioned in accordance with carrying capacity of the geographical basis and sustainable development principles. Adequate valorization of Croatia’s most important resources, coast and islands, based on sustainable development principles and long-term systematic actions would improve social and economic position of Croatian Adriatic area.

  18. Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET: A Cross-cultural Validation in Portuguese and Croatian Contexts

    Ana Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the adaptation and cross-cultural validation of the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET in the Portuguese and Croatian contexts, an Emotional Intelligence ability measure with 35 items, which assesses individual's ability to understand emotion. Based on Mayer and Salovey's (1997 theoretical framework of emotional intelligence, VET was originally developed in Croatian academic settings by Takšić, Harambašić and Velemir (2003. This study involved 1119 secondary school students, 682 Portuguese and 437 Croatian, attending different grades and courses. Overall, in both Croatian (original version and Portuguese (adapted version contexts, VET evidenced good psychometric properties particularly concerning sensibility, difficulty item analysis and reliability, although slightly better indicators were found in the Croatian original version. Moreover, cultural and gender differences were found, benefiting Portuguese students and girls.

  19. Environmental factors and population at risk of malaria in Nkomazi municipality, South Africa.

    Adeola, A M; Botai, O J; Olwoch, J M; Rautenbach, C J de W; Adisa, O M; Taiwo, O J; Kalumba, A M

    2016-05-01

    Nkomazi local municipality of South Africa is a high-risk malaria region with an incidence rate of about 500 cases per 100 000. We examined the influence of environmental factors on population (age group) at risk of malaria. r software was used to statistically analyse data. Using remote sensing technology, a Landsat 8 image of 4th October 2015 was classified using object-based classification and a 5-m resolution. Spot height data were used to generate a digital elevation model of the area. A total of 60 718 malaria cases were notified across 48 health facilities in Nkomazi municipality between January 1997 and August 2015. Malaria incidence was highly associated with irrigated land (P = 0.001), water body (P = 0.011) and altitude ≤400 m (P = 0.001). The multivariate model showed that with 10% increase in the extent of irrigated areas, malaria risk increased by almost 39% in the entire study area and by almost 44% in the 2-km buffer zone of selected villages. Malaria incidence is more pronounced in the economically active population aged 15-64 and in males. Both incidence and case fatality rate drastically declined over the study period. A predictive model based on environmental factors would be useful in the effort towards malaria elimination by fostering appropriate targeting of control measures and allocating of resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Alcohol use and its consequences in South India: views from a marginalised tribal population.

    Mohindra, K S; Narayana, D; Anushreedha, S S; Haddad, Slim

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol consumption in India is disproportionately higher among poorer and socially marginalised groups, notably Scheduled Tribes (STs). We lack an understanding of STs own views with regard to alcohol, which is important for implementing appropriate interventions. This study was undertaken with the Paniyas (a previously enslaved ST) in a rural community in Kerala, South India. The study, nested in a participatory poverty and health assessment (PPHA). PPHA aims to enable marginalized groups to define, describe, analyze, and express their own perceptions through a combination of qualitative methods and participatory approaches (e.g. participatory mapping and ranking exercises). We worked with 5 Paniya colonies between January and June 2008. Alcohol is viewed as a problem among the Paniyas who reported that consumption is increasing, notably among younger men. Alcohol is easily available in licensed shops and is produced illicitly in some colonies. There is evidence that local employers are using alcohol to attract Paniyas for work. Male alcohol consumption is associated with a range of social and economic consequences that are rooted in historical oppression and social discrimination. Future research should examine the views of alcohol use among a variety of marginalised groups in developing countries and the different policy options available for these populations. In addition, there is a need for studies that untangle the potential linkages between both historical and current exploitation of marginalized populations and alcohol use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dimensions of the South Oaks Gambling Screen in Finland: A cross-sectional population study.

    Salonen, Anne H; Rosenström, Tom; Edgren, Robert; Volberg, Rachel; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari

    2017-06-01

    The underlying structure of problematic gambling behaviors, such as those assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), remain unknown: Can problem gambling be assessed unidimensionally or should multiple qualitatively different dimensions be taken into account, and if so, what do these qualitative dimensions indicate? How significant are the deviations from unidimensionality in practice? A cross-sectional random sample of Finns aged 15-74 (n = 4,484) was drawn from the Population Information Registry and surveyed in 2011-2012. Analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models. Altogether, 14.9% of the population endorsed at least one of the 20 SOGS items, but nine items had low endorsement rates (≤ 0.2%). CFA and MIRT techniques suggested that individuals differed from each other in two positively correlated (r = 0.70) underlying dimensions: "impact on self primarily" and "impact on others also". This two-factor correlated-factors model can be reinterpreted as a bifactor model with one general gambling-problem factor and two specific factors with similar interpretation as in the correlated-factors model but with non-overlapping items. The two specific factors may provide clinically useful information without extra costs of assessment. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Elephant population growth in Kruger National Park, South Africa, under a landscape management approach

    Sam M. Ferreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks manage landscapes rather than numbers of elephants (Loxodonta africana to mitigate the effects that elephants may have on biodiversity, tourism and stakeholder conservation values associated with protected areas. This management philosophy imposes spatial variability of critical resources on elephants. Restoration of such ecological processes through less intensive management predicts a reduction in population growth rates from the eras of intensive management. We collated aerial survey data since 1995 and conducted an aerial total count using a helicopter observation platform during 2015. A minimum of 17 086 elephants were resident in the Kruger National Park (KNP in 2015, growing at 4.2% per annum over the last generation of elephants (i.e. 12 years, compared to 6.5% annual population growth noted during the intensive management era ending in 1994. This may come from responses of elephants to density and environmental factors manifested through reduced birth rates and increased mortality rates. Authorities should continue to evaluate the demographic responses of elephants to landscape scale interventions directed at restoring the limitation of spatial variance in resource distribution on elephant spatiotemporal dynamics and the consequences that may have for other conservation values. Conservation implications: Conservation managers should continue with surveying elephants in a way that allows the extraction of key variables. Such variables should focus on measures that reflect on how theory predicts elephants should respond to management interventions.

  3. Shared and unique components of human population structure and genome-wide signals of positive selection in South Asia.

    Metspalu, Mait; Romero, Irene Gallego; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Hudjashov, Georgi; Nelis, Mari; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Ene; Remm, Maido; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas

    2011-12-09

    South Asia harbors one of the highest levels genetic diversity in Eurasia, which could be interpreted as a result of its long-term large effective population size and of admixture during its complex demographic history. In contrast to Pakistani populations, populations of Indian origin have been underrepresented in previous genomic scans of positive selection and population structure. Here we report data for more than 600,000 SNP markers genotyped in 142 samples from 30 ethnic groups in India. Combining our results with other available genome-wide data, we show that Indian populations are characterized by two major ancestry components, one of which is spread at comparable frequency and haplotype diversity in populations of South and West Asia and the Caucasus. The second component is more restricted to South Asia and accounts for more than 50% of the ancestry in Indian populations. Haplotype diversity associated with these South Asian ancestry components is significantly higher than that of the components dominating the West Eurasian ancestry palette. Modeling of the observed haplotype diversities suggests that both Indian ancestry components are older than the purported Indo-Aryan invasion 3,500 YBP. Consistent with the results of pairwise genetic distances among world regions, Indians share more ancestry signals with West than with East Eurasians. However, compared to Pakistani populations, a higher proportion of their genes show regionally specific signals of high haplotype homozygosity. Among such candidates of positive selection in India are MSTN and DOK5, both of which have potential implications in lipid metabolism and the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Africanization of a feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) population in South Texas: does a decade make a difference?

    Rangel, Juliana; Giresi, Melissa; Pinto, M. Alice; Baum, Kristen A.; Rubink, William L.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The arrival to the United States of the Africanized honey bee, a hybrid between European subspecies and the African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata, is a remarkable model for the study of biological invasions. This immigration has created an opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of honey bee subspecies from African and European lineages in a feral population in South Texas. An 11?year survey of this population (1991?2001) showed that mitochondrial haplotype freq...

  5. Retrospective estimation of middle irradiation doses for population of south Ukraine from radionuclides of Chernobyl accidental release

    Grigor'jeva, L.Yi.; Grigor'jev, K.V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of retrospective definition of the radiation load to the population of south Ukraine the under abnormal condition Chernobyl release of radionuclide, executed from data of aerophare, spectrometry and dosimetric researches on territory Nikolaev, Odessa, Kirovograd areas and Autonomous Republic of Crimea, conducted by the Nikolaev research laboratory ''Larani'' in 1986 and in subsequent years are presented in the article.

  6. Qualification of Food Intake by the Roma Population in the Region of South Bohemia

    Lenka Sedova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a correlation study, aimed at quantifying the food intake of the Roma population in the South Bohemian Region. To achieve the goal, we applied the method of one-day dietary recall and frequency food analysis (non-standardized. The quantification was carried out by analysis in the Nutridan program. The study involved 302 Roma persons and 298 persons in the control group. Both groups had the same representation of males and females (50:50. The age categories of both sets differed; the average age of the Roma was lower (39.2 years (p < 0.001. The probands from the Roma population were chosen with the help of the snowball method through known respondents. The statistical analysis shows differences in nutritional estimate between the Roma population and the control sample. The Roma differ in their energy intake. Both groups showed lower intake of sugars, below 50% total energy intake (TEI and higher intake of fats, above 30% TEI. The respondents from both groups consume little fruits and vegetables, which may be connected with their low dietary fiber intake. In addition to the differences in the nutritional estimates, we recorded statistically significant differences in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.001, in age (p < 0.001, regular alimentation (p = 0 and demanding physical activities (p = 0. In spite of the fact our groups differed in age (the Roma are younger, it can be assumed that the obesity of the Roma may be caused by unbalanced alimentation and lack of physical activities.

  7. Prevalence of Deleterious Oral Habits and Oral Mucosal Lesions among Fishermen Population of Mahe, South India.

    Anzil, Ksa; Mathews, J; Sai, A G; Kiran, M; Kevin, S; Sunith, S

    2016-09-01

    Fishing is an occupation associated with uneven diet, strain, drunkenness, tobacco use, and deleterious habits. The physical state of laborers on a large scale will also be influenced by conditions at their work site. Oral mucosal lesions can occur as a result of infections, local shock or infuriation, systemic diseases, and uncontrolled usage of tobacco, betel quid, and alcohol. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of deleterious oral habits and oral mucosal lesions among fishermen population of Mahe, South India. The study population consists of 362 fishermen aged between 15 and 54. The questionnaire consisted of questions on personal data, and information related to the subjects' oral habits were collected by the interview. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form was designed for the assessment of oral mucosal lesions. Among the 362 fishermen, 266 (73.48%) were males and 96 (26.52%) were females. The overall prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and gutka chewing was found to be 24.3, 48.85, and 32.4% respectively. Smokeless tobacco (32.4%) was the most prevalent habit followed by smoking tobacco (24.3%). The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 14.9%. There is a statistically significant association between age groups and habits considered. Findings of the present study suggest that oral health condition of the fisherfolk community was relatively poor, with high habit prevalence and oral mucosal lesions. This epi-demiological study has provided baseline data to plan further research in this area. Low socioeconomic status, strenuous working hours, inadequate diet and nutrition intake, stress, and use of tobacco and alcohol act as contributing factors for ill health and oral diseases. It is a challenging population to the clinician to identify and treat them.

  8. Forensic performance of Investigator DIPplex indels genotyping kit in native, immigrant, and admixed populations in South Africa.

    Hefke, Gwynneth; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, Maria Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of binary markers in human individual identification is gaining ground in forensic genetics. We analyzed the polymorphisms from the first commercial indel kit Investigator DIPplex (Qiagen) in 512 individuals from Afrikaner, Indian, admixed Cape Colored, and the native Bantu Xhosa and Zulu origin in South Africa and evaluated forensic and population genetics parameters for their forensic application in South Africa. The levels of genetic diversity in population and forensic parameters in South Africa are similar to other published data, with lower diversity values for the native Bantu. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed in HLD97 in Indians, Admixed and Bantus, along with 6.83% null homozygotes in the Bantu populations. Sequencing of the flanking regions showed a previously reported transition G>A in rs17245568. Strong population structure was detected with Fst, AMOVA, and the Bayesian unsupervised clustering method in STRUCTURE. Therefore we evaluated the efficiency of individual assignments to population groups using the ancestral membership proportions from STRUCTURE and the Bayesian classification algorithm in Snipper App Suite. Both methods showed low cross-assignment error (0-4%) between Bantus and either Afrikaners or Indians. The differentiation between populations seems to be driven by four loci under positive selection pressure. Based on these results, we draw recommendations for the application of this kit in SA. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Gauging the threat: the first population estimate for white sharks in South Africa using photo identification and automated software.

    Alison V Towner

    Full Text Available South Africa is reputed to host the world's largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007-December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808-1008. This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species.

  10. CROATIAN ADULT SPOKEN LANGUAGE CORPUS (HrAL

    Jelena Kuvač Kraljević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in spoken-language corpora has increased over the past two decades leading to the development of new corpora and the discovery of new facets of spoken language. These types of corpora represent the most comprehensive data source about the language of ordinary speakers. Such corpora are based on spontaneous, unscripted speech defined by a variety of styles, registers and dialects. The aim of this paper is to present the Croatian Adult Spoken Language Corpus (HrAL, its structure and its possible applications in different linguistic subfields. HrAL was built by sampling spontaneous conversations among 617 speakers from all Croatian counties, and it comprises more than 250,000 tokens and more than 100,000 types. Data were collected during three time slots: from 2010 to 2012, from 2014 to 2015 and during 2016. HrAL is today available within TalkBank, a large database of spoken-language corpora covering different languages (https://talkbank.org, in the Conversational Analyses corpora within the subsection titled Conversational Banks. Data were transcribed, coded and segmented using the transcription format Codes for Human Analysis of Transcripts (CHAT and the Computerised Language Analysis (CLAN suite of programmes within the TalkBank toolkit. Speech streams were segmented into communication units (C-units based on syntactic criteria. Most transcripts were linked to their source audios. The TalkBank is public free, i.e. all data stored in it can be shared by the wider community in accordance with the basic rules of the TalkBank. HrAL provides information about spoken grammar and lexicon, discourse skills, error production and productivity in general. It may be useful for sociolinguistic research and studies of synchronic language changes in Croatian.

  11. Malignancy in scleroderma patients from south west England: a population-based cohort study.

    Siau, Keith

    2010-01-08

    The pathophysiological relationship between scleroderma and malignancy remains poorly understood. Although some previous studies have demonstrated an increased malignancy risk in patients with scleroderma, others have been inconclusive. We aimed to determine if patients with scleroderma had an increased risk of malignancy compared to an age- and sex-matched local South West England population, and if there were any important differences between scleroderma patients with and without malignancy. Methods of this study are as follows. Notes were obtained on all local scleroderma patients (n = 68) locally, and those diagnosed with malignancy verified by contacting each patient\\'s general practitioner. Expected malignancy figures were obtained from age- and sex-stratified regional prevalence data provided by the South West Cancer Intelligence Service registry. Among the patients, 22.1% with scleroderma were identified with concurrent malignancy. Affected sites were of the breast (n = 5), haematological system (n = 5), skin (n = 4), and unknown primary (n = 1). Overall, malignancy risk was found to be increased in scleroderma (RR = 3.15, 95% CI 1.77-5.20, p = 0.01). In particular, this risk was the highest for haematological malignancies (RR = 18.5, 95% CI 6-43, p = 0.03), especially for non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (RR = 25.8, 95% CI 5-75, p = 0.10). The majority of patients (86.7%) developed malignancy after the onset of scleroderma (mean = 6.9 years). Age of >70 and patients with limited scleroderma were significant risk factors for a patient with scleroderma to have a concurrent malignancy; however, no increased risk was found in patients with any particular pattern of organ involvement, cytotoxic usage or serology. To conclude, in this small patient cohort, we have found that scleroderma is associated with an increased risk of malignancy. This risk is statistically significant in patients with limited scleroderma. Patients who are elderly and those with limited disease

  12. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects

    Rambiritch V

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virendra Rambiritch,1 Poobalan Naidoo,2 Breminand Maharaj,1 Goonaseelan Pillai3 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2Department of Internal Medicine, RK Khan Regional Hospital, Chatsworth, South Africa; 3Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK of glibenclamide in poorly controlled South African type 2 diabetic subjects using noncompartmental and model-based methods. Methods: A total of 24 subjects with type 2 diabetes were administered increasing doses (0 mg/d, 2.5 mg/d, 5 mg/d, 10 mg/d, and 20 mg/d of glibenclamide daily at 2-week intervals. Plasma glibenclamide, glucose, and insulin determinations were performed. Blood sampling times were 0 minute, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes (post breakfast sampling and 240 minutes, 270 minutes, 300 minutes, 330 minutes, 360 minutes, and 420 minutes (post lunch sampling on days 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 for doses of 0 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.0 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg, respectively. Blood sampling was performed after the steady state was reached.  A total of 24 individuals in the data set contributed to a total of 841 observation records. The PK was analyzed using noncompartmental analysis methods, which were implemented in WinNonLin®, and population PK analysis using NONMEM®. Glibenclamide concentration data were log transformed prior to fitting. Results: A two-compartmental disposition model was selected after evaluating one-, two-, and three-compartmental models to describe the time course of glibenclamide plasma concentration data. The one-compartment model adequately described the data; however, the two-compartment model provided a better fit. The three-compartment model failed to achieve successful convergence. A more complex model, to account for enterohepatic recirculation that was observed in the data, was unsuccessful. Conclusion: In South African diabetic subjects, glibenclamide demonstrates linear PK and was best

  13. Managing the Cash and Liquidity of the Croatian Budget

    Anto Bajo

    2005-01-01

    The principal proposition this paper will endeavour to maintain is that the liquidity of the budget is not fully managed by the Ministry of Finance, which is why it is unable, in collaboration with the Croatian National Bank, to rein in and slow down the growth in short-term public debt. Only since 2001, thanks to institutional improvements, have the conditions been created in the Ministry of Finance for cash and liquidity management. Thus payments operations, previously in the hands of a gov...

  14. Successful competitive strategies of large Croatian and Slovenian enterprises

    Marin Buble

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research report, the authors identify and analyze the successful samples of strategic behaviour of large Croatian and Slovenian enterprises, as well as their similarities and dissimilarities. The research has encompassed the levels of corporate and business strategy (i.e. the strategy of a diversified firm and its strategic business units/areas, as well as the analysis of strategic performance and sources of competitive advantage. The research consists of two parts: the theoretical foundation for the analysis of the successful patterns of strategic behaviour and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected during the research project.

  15. The history of Croatian Trauma Society - a brief overview.

    Bakota, B; Vlahovic, T; Staresinic, M; Dobric, I; Civaric, T

    2013-09-01

    Croatian Trauma Society (CTS) has a 51 year of history and tradition. This article represents a brief overview from the times when it was founded, June 30, 1961, until the present time. It tells us about the idea how, where and when the "Section for Traumatology" was founded, its activities and influence not only to promote patient trauma care but initiation of other societies dealing with traumatized patients as well, including the evolution of the CTS itself. The authors thank to all the contributors that made this article possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Great Bravery of Croatian Soldier by Giuseppe Maria Mitelli

    Daniel Premerl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the iconography of two etchings with Croatian subject matter made by the Bolognese etcher Giuseppe Maria Mitelli in 1684. In the focus is the etching Great Bravery of Croatian soldier (Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. The author concludes, interpreting the explanatory text below the etching, that it depicts an event of the so-called Great Turkish War (1683-1699. The depicted hero belonged to the Croatian Regiment commanded by general James Leslie, and the depicted heroic act occurred, in all probability, during the battle of Virovitica in 1684. Also, the author points out to a model for Mitelli's etching as well as to the literary image of the simultaneous decapitation of both a horseman and a horse in the Croatian literature. In the same year, Mitelli also made the portrait of the Zagreb bishop and the politician Martin Borković. The existence of both etchings is associated with the Illyrian-Hungarian College in Bologna, governed by the Zagreb cathedral Chapter. L'articolo indaga l'iconografia di due incisioni con soggetto croato realizzate dall'incisore bolognese Giuseppe Maria Mitelli nel 1684. Il focus del saggio è l'incisione Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. Interpretando il testo esplicativo sotto l'acquaforte, l'autore ritiene che essa raffiguri un evento della cosiddetta Grande Guerra Turca (1683-1699. L'eroe raffigurato apparteneva al reggimento croato comandato dal generale James Leslie e l'atto eroico raffigurato avvenne, con ogni probabilità, durante la battaglia di Virovitica nel 1684. L'autore individua inoltre un modello per l'incisione di Mitelli e un riferimento a una fonte nella letteratura croata ove compare la decapitazione simultanea di un cavaliere e di un cavallo. Nello stesso anno Mitelli fece anche il ritratto del vescovo di Zagabria e del politico Martin Borković. L'esistenza di entrambe le acqueforti è associata al Collegio illirico-ungarico di Bologna, governato dal Capitolo della

  17. ON THE LANGUAGE OF THE OLDEST CROATIAN ETIQUETTE BOOK

    Boris Kuzmić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the language of the oldest Croatian etiquette text called Regule roditelov i drugeh starešeh and Regule dvorjanstva, a text translated and adapted from, probably, several templates of the contemporary European etiquette books, which was part of the book Duhovno zercalo published in 1742, and an integral part of the catechetical manual Škola Kristuševa, published in 1744. The oldest Croatian etiquette book was written by the most prolific Kajkavian writer of the 18th century, a Jesuit Juraj Mulih (1694–1754. Mulih studied in Trnava; from 1727 until his death he worked as a popular missionary in northern and central Croatia and among Croats in Hungary (usually based in Zagreb, then in Požega, Varaždin, Soprony, Pecs and Petrovaradin. He visited several towns and parishes on the so-called penitential mission. He wrote more than thirty works of spiritual content (catechisms, prayer books, hymn books and manuals for various confraternities in three dialects – Kajkavian, Štokavian Ikavian and Čakavian (the Burgenland Croats. He was the author of the first Croatian etiquette book (Regule dvorjanstva and the first Kajkavian primer (Abecevica, 1746. His major works include: Business Apostolic (1742, School of Christ (1744, Heavenly Food (1748, Spiritual Easter Egg (1754. The analyzed text shows faithfulness to the Kajkavian Croatian language on all linguistic levels. In comparison to the earlier Kajkavian writers, such as Vramec, Pergošić or Habdelić, the author rarely reaches for phonological and morphological instruments more typical of Štokavian-Čakavian texts. The results of the literary linguistic analysis presented here will help those researchers who question the authorship of some of Mulih’s works. To remove any doubt, it is necessary to first examine the language, or at least the phonological and morphological characteristics, of the works signed by Mulih, for which it has been confirmed that they were

  18. Aspects of Integration and Adaptation of Croatian Immigrants in Chile

    Marina Perić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The emigration of Croats to Chile was a part of transoceanic migration that occurred at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Croatia at the time was within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. The most important area of emigration was Dalmatia, especially the island of Brač. Emigration went on without organisation, with no emigration policy or legislative framework. The main routes of emigration to Chile were to its northern parts (Antofagasta and Tarapaca and southern parts (the province Magallanes. In the new social milieu, in the immigration country – i.e. Chile, Croatian immigrants passed through various processes of integration and adaptation. The openness of Chilean society and politics to cultural pluralism gave them the opportunity to freely express themselves and their ethnicity. On the other hand, Chilean laws did not permit dual citizenship, and thus the children of the immigrants automatically became Chileans. Croatian immigrants at first nurtured a mechanical type of solidarity, since their migration was a chain development and they lived in groups of relatives and friends. After they assured for themselves the material necessities of life, they began to establish societies and were recognized from the outside as an immigrant group, distinct from other such groups. With time social stratification developed among them. They lived in communion with many other immigrant groups. They were attracted to all Slavic immigrant groups and they also have good relations with Chileans. Mixed marriages, mostly with Chileans, quickened the process of assimilation and brought about the almost total disappearance of the Croatian language. This paper is based on research, until the present, made by Croatian and Chilean authors into the historical sources and newspaper articles analysing the process of integration of immigrants on three social levels: within Chilean society, within their own immigrant groups and in regard to

  19. National healthcare information system in Croatian primary care: the foundation for improvement of quality and efficiency in patient care

    Darko Gvozdanovi_

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of patient care, while at the same time keeping up with the pace of increased needs of the population for healthcare services that directly impacts on the cost of care delivery processes, the Republic of Croatia, under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, has formed a strategy and campaign for national public healthcare system reform. The strategy is very comprehensive and addresses all niches of care delivery processes; it is founded on the enterprise information systems that will aim to support end-to-end business processes in the healthcare domain. Two major requirements are in focus: (1 to provide efficient healthcare-related data management in support of decision-making processes; (2 to support a continuous process of healthcare resource spending optimisation. The first project is the Integrated Healthcare Information System (IHCIS on the primary care level; this encompasses the integration of all primary point-of-care facilities and subjects with the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance and Croatian National Institute of Public Health. In years to come, IHCIS will serve as the main integration platform for connecting all other stakeholders and levels of health care (that is, hospitals, pharmacies, laboratories into a single enterprise healthcare network. This article gives an overview of Croatian public healthcare system strategy aims and goals, and focuses on properties and characteristics of the primary care project implementation that started in 2003; it achieved a major milestone in early 2007 - the official grand opening of the project with 350 GPs already fully connected to the integrated healthcare information infrastructure based on the IHCIS solution.

  20. Estimation of Disability Weights in the General Population of South Korea Using a Paired Comparison.

    Minsu Ock

    Full Text Available We estimated the disability weights in the South Korean population by using a paired comparison-only model wherein 'full health' and 'being dead' were included as anchor points, without resorting to a cardinal method, such as person trade-off. The study was conducted via 2 types of survey: a household survey involving computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and a web-based survey (similar to that of the GBD 2010 disability weight study. With regard to the valuation methods, paired comparison, visual analogue scale (VAS, and standard gamble (SG were used in the household survey, whereas paired comparison and population health equivalence (PHE were used in the web-based survey. Accordingly, we described a total of 258 health states, with 'full health' and 'being dead' designated as anchor points. In the analysis, 4 models were considered: a paired comparison-only model; hybrid model between paired comparison and PHE; VAS model; and SG model. A total of 2,728 and 3,188 individuals participated in the household and web-based survey, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the disability weights of health states between the GBD 2010 study and the current models were 0.802 for Model 2, 0.796 for Model 1, 0.681 for Model 3, and 0.574 for Model 4 (all P-values<0.001. The discrimination of values according to health state severity was most suitable in Model 1. Based on these results, the paired comparison-only model was selected as the best model for estimating disability weights in South Korea, and for maintaining simplicity in the analysis. Thus, disability weights can be more easily estimated by using paired comparison alone, with 'full health' and 'being dead' as one of the health states. As noted in our study, we believe that additional evidence regarding the universality of disability weight can be observed by using a simplified methodology of estimating disability weights.

  1. Morphology of Sigmoid Colon in South Indian Population: A Cadaveric Study.

    Michael, Stelin Agnes; Rabi, Suganthy

    2015-08-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a common etiological factor in acute large bowel obstruction. The increased length of sigmoid colon is attributed as one of the causes of sigmoid volvulus. The aim of this study was to find the morphology of sigmoid colon in South Indian population using cadavers. The present study was performed with 31 cadavers used for teaching purpose. The sigmoid colon was classified into classical, long-narrow and long- broad types by their disposition in the abdominal cavity. The sigmoid loop's relation to pelvic brim was also observed and grouped as pelvic and suprapelvic in position. The length of sigmoid colon along the mesenteric and antimesenteric border, height and width of sigmoid mesocolon in relation to the pelvic brim and the root of mesentery were measured in the study. The study showed that the majority of the sigmoid colons fell into the classical type (47.6%). The sigmoid colon in pelvic position was significantly more prevalent. The mean length of sigmoid colon was 15.2 ± 4.4cm and 19.2 ± 6cm considering the pelvic brim and root of mesentery as reference points of measurement respectively. The mean length along antimesenteric border was 22.3 ± 7.9cm and 25 ± 8.7cm along the same reference points. The mean length of mesocolon height was 6.5 ± 3cm with reference to pelvic brim and 7.3 ± 3cm with reference to root of Sigmoid mesocolon respectively. The mean width of mesocolon was 7.4 ± 3cm (pelvic brim) and 8 ± 2cm (root of Sigmoid mesocolon) There was a positive correlation of sigmoid colon length with the height of the mesocolon. The gender analysis showed that males had statistically significant longer sigmoid colon and mesocolon. This study documents that the South Indian population has a more classical type of sigmoid colon and that the anatomical dimensions of sigmoid colon and its mesocolon is significantly longer in males.

  2. Reduction of in utero lead exposures in South African populations: Positive impact of unleaded petrol.

    Halina B Röllin

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb has been shown to have negative and irreversible health impacts on foetal and early childhood development, affecting morbidity and mortality in adulthood. This study aimed to assess in utero Pb exposure, examine birth outcomes, and identify confounding factors in the large cohort of South African population, following the legislated removal of Pb from petrol.Lead was measured in the maternal blood, urine and cord blood using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The statistical analyses included Spearman's correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis rank tests and multivariate linear regression.Overall, the geometric mean (GM of Pb in maternal blood (PbB was 1.32 μg/dL (n = 640; 95% CI, 1.24-1.40. In the subset cohort, the GM of paired maternal PbB and cord blood (PbC was 1.73 μg/dL (n = 350; 95% CI, 1.60-1.86 and 1.26 μg/dL (n = 317; 95% CI, 1.18-1.35, respectively with a positive correlation between the log PbB and the log PbC (rho = 0.65, p = <0.001. Birth outcomes showed geographical differences in the gestational age (p<0.001, birth length (p = 0.028 and head circumference (p<0.001, Apgar score at 5 min (p<0.001 and parity (p<0.002. In female neonates, a positive association was found between PbC and head circumference (rho = 0.243; p<0.016. The maternal PbB levels were positively correlated with race, educational status, water sources, cooking fuels and use of pesticides at home.This study has demonstrated not only the positive impact that the introduction of unleaded petrol and lead-free paint has had on in utero exposure to Pb in South Africa, but has also contributed new data on the topic, in a region where such data and scientific investigations in this field are lacking. Future research should evaluate if similar effects can be detected in young children and the adult population.

  3. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) in Northeastern Asia and population substructure in South Korea.

    Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Park, Sun-Kyung; Obolenskaya, Ekaterina V; Dokuchaev, Nikolay E; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Choi, Tae-Young; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang

    2008-12-31

    Twenty-five chipmunk species occur in the world, of which only the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus, inhabits Asia. To investigate mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of the Siberian chipmunk in northeastern Asia, we examined mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) from 3 countries. Analyses of 41 individuals from South Korea and 33 individuals from Russia and northeast China resulted in 37 haplotypes and 27 haplotypes, respectively. There were no shared haplotypes between South Korea and Russia--northeast China. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis showed 2 major maternal lineages for haplotypes, referred to as the S and R lineages. Haplotype grouping in each cluster was nearly coincident with its geographic affinity. In particular, 3 distinct groups were found that mostly clustered in the northern, central and southern parts of South Korea. Nucleotide diversity of the S lineage was twice that of lineage R. The divergence between S and R lineages was estimated to be 2.98-0.98 Myr. During the ice age, there may have been at least 2 refuges in South Korea and Russia--northeast China. The sequence variation between the S and R lineages was 11.3% (K2P), which is indicative of specific recognition in rodents. These results suggest that T. sibiricus from South Korea could be considered a separate species. However, additional information, such as details of distribution, nuclear genes data or morphology, is required to strengthen this hypothesis.

  4. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Elops machnata (Forskal Populations in South East and West Coasts of India Using RAPD Markers

    Vellaichamy RAMANADEVI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to study the genetic diversity of four Elops machnata populations in South India. Elops machnata is considered as a least concern species (LC, categorized by the International Union for Conservation and Nature (IUCN. The population trends are currently stable in Indian Ocean, Eastern Africa, but are unknown throughout the rest of its expansive range, especially in Indian estuaries. Among the ten RAPD primers tested, eight primers got amplified and gave scorable bands. In total, 119 scorable bands were observed in all populations. The overall observed and effective number of alleles was found to be 2.000 ± 0.000 and 1.5307 ± 0.2503 respectively for the entire population. The overall polymorphic loci were 61.00% and the overall gene flow among the four populations was predicted to 0.1032. The genetic distance and geographic distance between the four populations showed a positive correlation. The highest genetic similarity (0.6824 was found between Parangipettai and Muthupettai population, which reflected the geographical relationship between them. Tow main clusters were obtained based on UPGMA dendrogram. This study proves that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate E. machnata populations in South Indian coastal waters.

  5. Population increase and environmental deterioration correspond with microlithic innovations in South Asia ca. 35,000 years ago.

    Petraglia, Michael; Clarkson, Christopher; Boivin, Nicole; Haslam, Michael; Korisettar, Ravi; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Ditchfield, Peter; Fuller, Dorian; James, Hannah; Jones, Sacha; Kivisild, Toomas; Koshy, Jinu; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Metspalu, Mait; Roberts, Richard; Arnold, Lee

    2009-07-28

    Genetic studies of South Asia's population history have led to postulations of a significant and early population expansion in the subcontinent, dating to sometime in the Late Pleistocene. We evaluate this argument, based on new mtDNA analyses, and find evidence for significant demographic transition in the subcontinent, dating to 35-28 ka. We then examine the paleoenvironmental and, particularly, archaeological records for this time period and note that this putative demographic event coincides with a period of ecological and technological change in South Asia. We document the development of a new diminutive stone blade (microlithic) technology beginning at 35-30 ka, the first time that the precocity of this transition has been recognized across the subcontinent. We argue that the transition to microlithic technology may relate to changes in subsistence practices, as increasingly large and probably fragmented populations exploited resources in contracting favorable ecological zones just before the onset of full glacial conditions.

  6. Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus) in South America.

    Satizábal, Paula; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Duchêne, Sebastián; Caicedo-Herrera, Dalila; Perea-Sicchar, Carlos M; García-Dávila, Carmen R; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana J

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.

  7. A study of cranial variations based on craniometric indices in a South Indian population.

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Gupta, Anadi; Acharya, Jenash

    2014-09-01

    Human skull has been the most extensively studied bone for establishing the taxonomies at evolutionary levels. Crania are also the most commonly used skeletal elements in population studies because they are known to be more genetically driven and less affected by environmental factors. The craniofacial indices are considered as clinical anthropometric parameters used in the investigation of craniofacial skeletal deformities and brain development. The present research is an attempt to study the cranial indices in the South Indian population. The sample for the study included 118 dry adult crania. All the osteometric measurements were taken using standard anthropometric instruments, and 3 indices, namely, cranial index, orbital index (OI), and index of foreman magnum (FMI), were calculated. Cranial index is calculated as (maximum cranial breadth / maximum cranial length) × 100, OI as (orbital height / orbital breadth) × 100, and FMI as (transverse diameter / anteroposterior diameter) × 100. The crania were further classified based on these indices. The cranial index ranged between 66.67 and 85.71 (mean, 78.57 [SD, 4.11]), the OI ranged between 68.89 and 102.63 (mean, 84.23 [SD, 6.64]), and the FMI ranged between 68.57 and 96.88 (mean, 79.71 [SD, 6.98]). Cranial index did not show any significant correlation with the OI (r = -0.162, P = 0.081) or the FMI (r = -0.045, P = 0.626). A statistically significant correlation was, however, observed between OI and FMI (r = -0.232, P = 0.012). The current study developed population-specific classification of crania using cranial indices. This craniometric baseline data pertaining to the craniofacial indices may be useful in presurgical planning and the postsurgical evaluation. It may also assist the forensic anthropologists in the categorization of human skulls, which may be an important component in identification of highly decomposed dead bodies and skeletal remains. More such studies need to be conducted to understand the

  8. Hypertension management in a population of older adults in rural South Africa.

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Reiger, Sheridan; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; Wade, Alisha; Bärnighausen, Till W; Salomon, Joshua; Tollman, Stephen; Gaziano, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Assess awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, as an indication of its management, in rural South Africa, especially regarding modifiers of these variables. A population-representative sample of adults aged at least 40 years residing in the rural Agincourt subdistrict (Mpumalanga Province) covered by a long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance system was recruited. In-person interviews, physical exams, and dried blood spots were collected. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates were assessed. A regression model was built to identify predictors of those outcomes. The mean age of the 2884 hypertensive participants was 64.1 ± 12.7 years. Hypertension awareness rate was 64.4%, treatment among those aware was 89.3 and 45.8% of those treated were controlled. Considering aware and unaware hypertensives, treatment rate was 49.7% and control 22.8%. In the multivariable regression model, awareness was predicted by female sex, age at least 60 years, higher social economic status, prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), nonimmigrant status, literacy, and physical limitation. Improved control among those treated was predicted by age at least 60 years. Blood pressure control among all hypertensive study participants was predicted by female sex, being HIV-negative, age at least 60 years, nonimmigrant status, and prior CVD. High rates of awareness and treatment of hypertension as well as good levels of control were found in this population, probably explained by the long-term surveillance program conducted in the area. Considering the predictors of hypertension management, particular attention should be given to men, residents younger than 60 years, immigrants, and study participants without CVD as these characteristics were predictors of poor outcome.

  9. A STUDY ON TIBIAL TORSION IN ADULT DRY TIBIA OF EAST AND SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Jami Sagar Prusti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rotational deformities of the lower limbs are very common. There is increasing evidence that abnormal torsion in the tibia is associated with severe knee and ankle arthritis. Primary knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability in older persons. Varus or valgus alignment increases the risk of osteoarthritis. Coexistence of tibial torsional deformity may increase the risk further. Variability in the tibial torsion has been reported and is due to the torsional forces applied on tibia during development. The aim of the study is to estimate the angle of tibial torsion on both sides and both sexes. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of tibial torsion in the East and South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 100 dry adult unpaired human tibia, i.e. 50 male and 50 female bones. The measurements were recorded and statistically analysed using Student’s unpaired t-test using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (free trial version. RESULTS Out of the 100 tibia undertaken, mean value of tibial torsion angle obtained is 25.8°. In males, it is 23.68° and in females it is about 27.86°. Statistical analysis revealed significant greater average angle of tibial torsion in female bones. The angle of the right-sided bones was more and this was statistically significant. CONCLUSION The gender variation for the angle could be the result of the difference in lifestyle in day-to-day activities. The knowledge of the angle in a population could be helpful in understanding the incidence of pathogenesis related to gait and knee osteoarthritis and in view of reconstructive surgeries in orthopaedic practice.

  10. Population density of mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) on fruit orchards in south Baghdad

    Khalaf, M. Z.; Shbar, A. K.; Naher, F. H.; Jabo, N. F.; Abdulhamza, B. H.; Abod, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years the mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata distributed in the orchards of central Iraq and caused highly economic losses. This study was conducted in orchards in South Baghdad during 2009 and 2010 and made field survey of the insect in four types of orchards (Citrus, Apricot, Figs and Citrus and A mixture of fruit trees) and used for this purpose tephri traps supplied with Q-Lure and dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP). The present preliminary study has shown that the Mediterranean fruit fly C.capitata has a year round presence in fruit orchards in central Iraq and reached its highest numerical density of the pest in citrus orchards during November and December were 345 and 363 insect / Trap per month in citrus orchards and the least numerical density during of January and February while the highest numerical density of the insect in orchards of orchards of apricot in Mrch 2010, Figs and Citrus in August 2009 and a Mixture of fruit trees in November 2009 were 45, 116, 311 Insect/ trap per month respectively. The population density of the pest was highest beginning 2010 compared with 2009 , but the high temperature degree (46 - o 5 2) in August 2010 caused a decrease in population density of this pest. C.capitata caused highly economic losses in citrus reaching 68, 71, 82% of the Mandarin, Kaki, Apricot fruits respectively. Currently in Iraq no control method to reduce the economic losses caused by this pest except the use of pesticides GF-120. Therefore, results of this study could be of benefit for orcharch owners when applying an integrated program for controlling fruit fly pests. (Author)

  11. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study.

    Priyadharshini, K Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B; Mohanbabu, V; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-05-01

    To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization.

  12. Chandra Detection of an Evolved Population of Young Stars in Serpens South

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Gutermuth, R.; Bourke, T. L.

    2018-06-01

    We present a Chandra study of the deeply embedded Serpens South star-forming region, examining cluster structure and disk properties at the earliest stages. In total, 152 X-ray sources are detected. Combined with Spitzer and 2MASS photometry, 66 X-ray sources are reliably matched to an IR counterpart. We identify 21 class I, 6 flat spectrum, 16 class II, and 18 class III young stars; 5 were unclassified. Eighteen sources were variable in X-rays, 8 exhibiting flare-like emission and one source being periodic. The cluster’s X-ray luminosity distance was estimated: the best match was to the nearer distance of 260 pc for the front of the Aquila Rift complex. The ratio of N H to A K is found to be ∼0.68 × 1022, similar to that measured in other young low-mass regions, but lower than that measured in the interstellar medium and high-mass clusters (∼(1.6–2) × 1022). We find that the spatial distribution closely follows that of the dense filament from which the stars have formed, with the class II population still strongly associated with the filament. There are four subclusters in the field, with three forming knots in the filament, and a fourth to the west, which may not be associated but may be contributing to the distributed class III population. A high percentage of diskless class IIIs (upper limit 30% of classified X-ray sources) in such a young cluster could indicate that processing of disks is influenced by the cluster environment and is not solely dependent on timescale.

  13. Nomenclature and Terminology of Organic Chemistry. I. Sixty Years of Croatian Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

    Rapić, V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and development of the Croatian nomenclature of organic chemistry from the publication of the first translation of international nomenclature recommendations to the present age. In the Introduction, trivial, common, systematic (rational, and semisystematic names are defined, and the etymology and meaning of terms nomenclature and terminology are clarified.At the beginning of the central part of this article, attention is focused on the need to create our national nomenclature. The very first such project, initiated by the Croatian Chemical Society (CCS, was the translation of the Geneva (1892 and Lie`ge rules (1930 published in 1954. In 1979 comprehensive general IUPAC rules appeared, and the Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers (CSCE in two volumes printed the Croatian edition of this important document, known as the Blue Book, in 1985 and 1988. A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (1993 expanded the main principles and rules from the Blue Book, and introduced a higher degree of organic nomenclature systematization. The Croatian translation of the Guide was published in 2002. In the last six decades, almost fifty translations of international rules have been issued, and almost all of them represented the official recommendations of the CCS/CSCE. Finally, the nomenclature in the translations of five comprehensive textbooks fororganic chemistry is analysed.In conclusion, readers are informed that the Croatian version of IUPAC rules is applied in our secondary school and university education, in Croatian encyclopaedism and mass media, as well.

  14. [Publications in the Croatian medical journals by doctoral candidates at University of Zagreb School of Medicine].

    Sember, Marijan; Petrak, Jelka

    2014-01-01

    By searching Medline/PubMed bibliographic database we collected data on publications of two groups of PhD candidates who earned their PhD degrees at University of Zagreb Medical School in 2000 and 2010. We identifed their publications in the Croatian medical journals and separately in the Croatian language. First group of PhD candidates (y 2000) published in the Croatian journals 34% of all published papers, with a share of 29% in the Croatian language. Another group (y 2010) published in the Croatian journals 44% of all published papers in which the number of papers published in the Croatian journals in English language grow significantly (5% vs. 31%). The number of papers published in the Croatian language decreased to 13%. Our results agreed with the global decreasing trend of the number of medical papers in non-English languages. The importance of mother-tongue in the medical education and health care may have influence on preserving scientific communication in non-English medical journals.

  15. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    Geeta Maruti Doodamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female of age 18-30 years, with Angle′s class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton′s analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton′s ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.

  16. Morphometric study of tensor of vastus intermedius in South Indian population.

    Veeramani, Raveendranath; Gnanasekaran, Dhivyalakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Tensor of vastus intermedius is a newly discovered muscle located between vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of tensor of vastus intermedius, specifically to provide data pertaining to the attachments, innervations, variation in the types and its morphometry in South Indian population. The tensor of vastus intermedius was studied in thirty six cadaveric lower limbs using macrodissection techniques. The origin of the muscle was from upper part of intertrochanteric line and anterior part of greater trochanter of femur inserted to medial aspect of upper border of patella. The muscle was classified into four types based on the origin and also the aponeurosis course with independent type (type 1) being common. The mean and standard deviation of the length of tensor of vastus intermedius and aponeurosis were 145.40±37.55 mm and 193.55±42.32 mm, respectively. The results of the study suggest that tensor of vastus intermedius is variable and the information provided regarding the attachments, types and quantitative data will contribute to the existing knowledge of the muscle.

  17. Development of fish populations in seismostrsss conditions of the south of Russia

    P. V. Lyushvin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades communications between reproduction of many food fishes and traditionally considered factors are lost, is unpredictable time recessions food are observed. The purpose of thepresent work to show, that in the seismo-seas of the south of Russia where there is a unloading litosheric fluids, seismo factors often are defining in reproduction fishes. Earthquakes lead to shortterm unloadings on breaks of an earth's crust through the made active volcanos and griffins of hundreds tons litosheric waters and km³ gases (metane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, radon, etc.. Presence of some of these fluids even in midget concentration (less than 0.1-1 ml/½ causes destruction young fishes, infringement of reproductive functions due to what the food base crabs grows, and after their reproduction and extraction. Landslide reductions of fish populations in current decade it is caused by passage of a maximum of century cyclicity of earthquakes.

  18. Palmaris Longus Muscle in the South Indian Population – A Cadaveric Study

    Lydia S. Quadros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palmaris longus, one of the superficial flexor muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm is the most variable muscle of the upper limb. Purpose: To note the variations of palmaris longus for tendon grafts. Methods: Forty formalin-fixed upper limb specimens of South Indian population were dissected to note the variations of Palmaris longus muscle. Results: Out of the forty upper limb specimens, two variants of the palmaris longus were noted. In one specimen, a reversed palmaris longus was noted. It had a long tendinous origin with a muscle belly and a short flat tendon at insertion. The tendon inserted partly into the flexor retinaculum and partly into palmar aponeurosis. In another specimen, apart from the normal palmaris longus muscle, an additional smaller muscle was noted. It was the Palmaris profundus. This muscle took origin in the form of a tendon from the middle of the shaft of the radius, continued as a muscle belly and then terminated as a tendon which later inserted into the flexor retinaculum, close to the tendon of palmaris longus muscle. At its insertion, the superficial palmar branch of radial artery hooked it. The anterior interosseous nerve supplied the Palmaris profundus. Conclusion: These variations are worthy to be noted for tendon grafts.

  19. Radio-morphometric Analysis of Sella Turcica in the South Indian Population: A Digital Cephalometric Study

    Ch. Sai Kiran

    2017-06-01

    Results: A higher percentage of both males (70.0% and females (67.7% were presented with normal sella. The second best sella presentation was the shallow sella in males (16.2%. The mean antero-posterior diameter was significantly higher in females (12.25 mm than males (11.74 mm. The mean depth of sella turcica was greater in females (8.08 mm than males (7.68mm. Discriminant function analysis was done with gender as a grouping variable and antero-posterior dimensions and sella depth as independent variables. The formula obtained was D = 0.452 (x +0.295(y-7.753. (Where “D” is the discriminant score “x” is antero-posterior diameter of sella “y” is sella depth.The present study revealed an overall accuracy rate of58.1% in identifying correct gender using sella measurements. Conclusion: The present study was the first of its kind in the South Indian population and has presented results that justify the use of sella turcica for sex determination.

  20. Replication Study of Polymorphisms Associated With Brain Arteriovenous Malformation in a Population From South of Brazil.

    Franciscatto, André Cerutti; Ludwig, Fernanda S; Matte, Ursula S; Mota, Simone; Stefani, Marco A

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this study was to reproducibly determine if any of the polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility to brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) or the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) presentation. We recruited 63 BAVM patients and 96 controls. The polymorphisms selected for evaluation were apolipoprotein E (APOE), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF 238G>A - rs361525), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B 511C>T - rs16944 and IL1B -31T>C - rs1143627), activin-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 IVS3-35A>G - rs2071219), endoglin (ENG 207G>A - rs11545664), and interleukin 6 (IL6 174G>C - rs1800795). In the single analysis, we observed statistically significant differences in the allele distributions for IL1B -31T>C (rs1143627) between the BAVM patients and control subjects (P = 0.02). There was a trend toward significance for the association between the IL1B 511C>T (rs16944) allele and BAVM risk (P = 0.07). In further logistic regression analysis, no polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of BAVM. No polymorphisms were associated with hemorrhage presentation according to both single and multivariable analyses. In our sample from a south Brazil population, we found no association between the risks of BAVM and ICH presentation with any of the selected polymorphisms.

  1. Epidemiology of Oral Lichen Planus in a Cohort of South Indian Population: A Retrospective Study

    Varghese, Soma Susan; George, Giju Baby; Sarojini, Sreenivasan Bargavan; Vinod, Sankar; Mathew, Philips; Mathew, Deepu George; Sebastian, Joseph; George, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Dysplastic OLP has an altered cytogenic profile and can progress into oral squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology of OLP is well-described in several relatively large series from various geographic locations, whereas such series from southern India is rare. The aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiology of OLP in a cohort of South Indian population. Methods: All the case data records of 29,606 patients who visited Mar Baselios Dental College and Hospital, Kerala, India from 2014 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. For data review, 122 patients of OLP were selected Estimated were type, number, and location of lesions, clinical manifestation, age of the patient, gender, onset and duration of lesion, stressful life style, habits, skin involvement and associated systemic illness, and presence/absence of dysplasia. Results: When the distribution of OLP among the gender was considered, we found more prevalence in females than males. Fifty-seven percent of patients were associated with stressful lifestyle. Reticular lichen planus was the most common clinical subtype found. Bilateral buccal mucosal was the common site, when the distribution of sites of OLP were compared (P lichen planus lesions. Conclusions: OLP patients had high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions and 5% of OLP lesions showed anaplasia. Long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the recurrence, prognosis, and malignant transformation of OLP. PMID:27051650

  2. Single Fuel Concept for Croatian Army Ground Vehicles

    Robert Spudić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available During the process of approaching the European associationsand NATO the Republic of Croatia has accepted the singlefuel concept for all ground vehicles of the Croatian Army.Croatia has also undertaken to insure that all aircraft, motorvehicles and equipment with turbo-engines or with pressurizedfuel injection, for participation in NATO and PfP led operationscan • operate using the kerosene-based aviation fuel(NATO F-34. The paper gives a brief overview and the resultsof the earned out activities in the Armed Forces of the Republicof Croatia, the expected behaviour of the motor vehicle andpossible delays caused by the use of kerosene fuel (NATOF-34 as fuel for motor vehicles. The paper also gives the advantagesand the drawbacks of the single fuel concept. By acquiringnew data in the Croatian Armed Forces and experienceexchange with other nations about the method of using fuelF-34, the development of the technologies of engine manufacturingand its vital parts or by introducing new standards in theproductjon of fuels and additives new knowledge will certainlybe acquired for providing logistics support in the area of operations,and its final implementation will be a big step forward forthe Republic of Croatia towards Europe and NATO.

  3. Models for predicting the inflectional paradigm of Croatian words

    Jan Šnajder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis is a prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks. For inflectionally rich languages such as Croatian, morphological analysis typically relies on a morphological lexicon, which lists the lemmas and their paradigms. However, a real-life morphological analyzer must also be able to handle properly the out-of-vocabulary words. We address the task of predicting the correct inflectional paradigm of unknown Croatian words. We frame this as a supervised machine learning problem: we train a classifier to predict whether a candidate lemma-paradigm pair is correct based on a number of string- and corpus-based features. The candidate lemma-paradigm pairs are generated using a handcrafted morphology grammar. Our aim is to examine the machine learning aspect of the problem: we test a comprehensive set of features and evaluate the classification accuracy using different feature subsets. We show that satisfactory classification accuracy (92% can be achieved with SVM using a combination of string- and corpus-based features. On a per word basis, the F1-score is 53% and accuracy is 70%, which outperforms a frequency-based baseline by a wide margin. We discuss a number of possible directions for future research.

  4. The Croatian Strategy of European Integration 2000-2005

    Mario Sošić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2000, the European Council established that Croatia fulfi lled the conditions for acquiring the status of potential candidate for membership in the European Union.Thereafter, the integration process aimed at the candidature for, and subsequent full membership in the EU has been the fundamental Croatian “governmental strategy” and foreign policy goal, developing with “diff erent speeds” and diff erent levels of success towards the fi nal expected goal. Research is focused on the identifi cation and description of actions of the major foreign and internal actors in the process (Croatian governments and the European Union, as well as on the assessment of the achieved results of their interaction in the sixyear period under observation. The empirically studied phenomenon is analysed through the theoretical approach of actor-based institutionalism and the game theory model. The result of analysis shows a comparative advantage of the management of Ivo Sanader’s single-party government (2003-2005 in contrast to the coalition government of Ivica Račan (2000-2003 with respect to their achievement and level of success in managing the process of European integration.The European Union’s contribution and quality of support to that process are ambiguous and complex, in keeping with its structure and politics.

  5. Tax expenditures and the efficiency of Croatian value added tax

    Petar Sopek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of value added taxation in Croatia along with main changes in relevant legislation and to estimate total amount of tax expenditures. Results show that the proportion of tax expenditures in GDP in Croatia in 2010 amounted to less than 4%, a proportion lower than in any of the EU new member states, as well as almost twice as low as the EU-27 average. It can be concluded that the Croatian value added taxation system is efficient in this way, as was additionally shown by an analysis according to which Croatia in 2010 had better efficiency indicators than all the observed EU member states. The Croatian VAT system is mainly harmonized with EU directives, but abolition of the zero rate is still expected; this will increase government revenue by approximately 0.4-0.8% of GDP, depending on a chosen scenario. It has been suggested that a detailed analysis of the overall value added taxation system should be initiated, with the aim of optimizing cost-benefits. The main focus should be placed on the determination of the optimal VAT registration threshold, the costs and benefits of the introduced reliefs and exemptions in the tax system and the potential effects of the repeal of the zero rate.

  6. A Common Opinion on Croatian Journalists Tested by PR Profesionals

    Ana Sušić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Journalists in Croatia do not enjoy formidable reputation among the public due to the beliefs that their writing is, inter alia, biased, inclined to sensationalism and manipulation, and that they lack analytical skills (see also Kanižaj and Skoko, 2010; Jokoš and Kanižaj, 2012. The aim of this research is to verify how journalistic work and journalistic profession in Croatia is perceived by corporate sector PR professionals who cooperate with them on a daily basis. Using the method of in-depth interviews conducted with eight PR professionals, the reputation of Croatian journalists has been put to the test. The research revealed that the interviewed PR professionals perceive Croatian journalists mostly as superficial and biased reporters who search for sensation rather than the truth. However, it turned out that the interviewees do not percieve journalists as being envious, irresponsible or corruptible. They even demonstrated true understanding of the difficulties that journalists encounter, especially in the context of the economic crisis.

  7. Croatian Radiation Protection Association: From Yugoslavia to Europe

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the fifty years of organised radiation protection activities at the area known as f ormer Yugoslavia , the professional activities and achievements in this field are presented in this paper. Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA, www.hdzz.hr) was founded in 1979. In 1992 it became a regular member of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). The main activities of CRPA members are: scientific research, participation in professional committees, intense cooperation in professional and scientific matters with the IRPA, other international bodies and Croatian scientific and professional societies, and related administrative work. CRPA members continue to provide advice and assistance to authorities, professional societies and individuals within their fields of expertise. Nine national symposia of CRPA with international participation were organized since 1991. All presentations were published as full papers in the Proceedings. CRPA participated in the organization of all IRPA Regional Congresses in Central Europe from 1993 (Obergurgl, Austria) till 2007 (Brasov, Romania). In 2001 CRPA hosted IRPA Regional Congress in Dubrovnik, Croatia. Members of CRPA are taking part in the organization of IRPA international congresses and in the work of IRPA General Assembly. CRPA has been actively involved in the informal meetings of European radiation protection societies since 2004 and organized their 6th meeting in Zagreb in 2009.(author)

  8. Identity, football and Croatian national team members from the diaspora

    Komar Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author briefly presents his fieldwork results, with an emphasis on studying the relationship between football and the construction of children’s, grandson’s and great-grandson’s national identities in first-generation Croatian migrants. Specifically, the research focuses on Croatian national football team members from the diaspora who rather choose to play for their “imagined homeland” than the national team of their country of birth. If we agree that one of sport’s functions is, among other things, to act as a mechanism of national solidarity - promoting the sense of identity and unity - football proves to be an ideal field for studying the symbolic dimensions of ethnicity, discursive shaping of identity and practices trough which athletic (and national loyalty is manifested. Through the coding of interview transcripts, organizing data into categories and analyzing conducted interviews, the author examines the dynamic relationship between expressing national identity and personal choices of the individual as to which national team he should join.

  9. Transparency report delay and disclosure by Croatian audit firms

    Marko Čular

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate transparency report (TR disclosure and determinants of TR delay, using Croatian listed companies and audit firms who audited Croatian listed companies in 2015. TR disclosure is measured using the TR index whereas the TR delay is measured as the number of days between the financial year-end and the publication date of the TR by an audit firms. We first analyzed the position and difference between audit firm indicators and types of audit firm using the following: number of certified auditors, number of employees, average net salary, total revenue, net profit, net working capital, total assets, total capital and financial ratio. Second, we used the TR index to determine the existence of TR elements and whether the audit firm made a disclosure. Finally, we used multiple regressions for modelling the TR delay as a function of the following variables: number of certified auditors, number of audits per year, return on assets and the TR index. Our results indicate that based on the TR index only 32% audit firms are transparent. Furthermore, the TR delay is shorter when audit firms have a greater number of certified auditors and a higher TR index, i.e. when audit firms incorporate more elements into the TR.

  10. Radioactivity And Nuclear Themes In Croatian Popular Culture

    Franic, Z.; Franic, S.

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture refers to the entirety of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, behaviours, ways of communication, cultural and artistic products, (visual, auditory, written, etc.) as well as other phenomena in the real or virtual world within mainstream culture. Heavily influenced by mass media, this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of society. In the so-called atomic age, which corresponds to the cold war period, stylistic coloration and application of the concepts of radiation that have persisted in everyday life to this day can be classified into four main groups of radiological-nuclear themes: monsters and mutants associated with radiation, nuclear accidents, nuclear terrorism and nuclear optimism. This paper discusses some examples relating to radioactivity, radiation and nuclear topics in Croatian popular culture, with special reference to the mass media, including some Internet portals. In Croatian mass media, like in other cultures, radiation and nuclear metaphors symbolize something scary and completely incomprehensible. However, further systematic research would be needed to analyse and explain all of the stereotypes in more detail. Results would be useful in creating a more effective way for informing the general public about the effects and use of radiation and nuclear technology, which is expected to play a far greater role in solving numerous problems dealing with energy supply, medicine, etc. in the near future. It should be noted that nowadays the collective public fears shift from radiation to other global threats such as climate change, genetically modified organisms, global terrorism and others. (author).

  11. Differentiation of car rental services in the Croatian market

    Karolina Karlo Marijanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of service companies focus on service differentiation nowadays. The companies that manage to deliver superior service are winners and may serve as an example of how the growth of services has changed business. The first part of the paper presents an analysis of the Croatian car rental services market. The theoretical part of the paper provides an insight into the characteristics of services in general, followed by an overview of the characteristics and features of the companies operating in the local market. The second part of the paper deals with the work of Porter and his three generic strategies, and with his differentiation strategy in particular. Subsequently, all possibilities of differentiation strategies that are appropriate to the car rental services are analyzed. Beside global recession, the Croatian market is currently also struggling with huge competition and companies cannot generate profit without continuous differentiation of all elements of service. In the third chapter the following hypothesis is set: By a continuous differentiation of all elements of the services marketing mix small businesses can compete with large international companies. Acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis is shown by the research conducted among users of the specific service. Its results fully confirm the set hypothesis. The fact that, despite global recession, the majority of respondents believes the survival of small- and medium-sized companies which continuously differentiate their business activities to be unquestionable is indeed encouraging.

  12. The Benefits of the ABC Method Application in Croatian Companies

    Dubravka Pekanov-Starčević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New business environment has changed the structure and behaviour of company costs. The changes are primarily reflected in the increasing share of overhead costs in the total costs. Given that competitiveness is reflected in the unit product cost, the exact determination of unit costs by cost drivers, primarily the precise allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers, have become crucial to the survival of companies in a turbulent market environment. The biggest problem in determining the exact product costs is incorrect allocation of overhead costs to cost drivers. In the 1980s, a new method of allocating overhead costs was developed – activity-based costing (ABC method. Advocates of this method claim that it allows a more accurate determination of product costs and identification and elimination of activities that do not add value to the company, thereby reducing costs and increasing profits, and ultimately creating and sustaining a competitive advantage. Using a sample of Croatian companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange, we investigated to which extent they applied activity-based costing; its benefits to the cost management system, and which factors influenced the application of this methodology. This study provides a new insight into the development of cost management systems in Croatian companies.

  13. E-book perception of Croatian students

    Boris Badurina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to try to answer the question of students’ perception of e-book considering different forms of e-books students might have experience with. Questions of defining the e-book and attitudes toward e-book are considered separately. Research conducted by online questionnaire on student population show that the experience that students have with e-books mainly consists of pdf versions of printed books. Devices used for reading e-books are mainly desktop computers or laptops or in smaller degree tablets. E-readers are almost not used at all since the ownership of the e-readers among students is almost non-existent. That level of e-book experience influences students’ definition of e-book. Students mainly consider an e-book to be electronic version of printed book that is read on a computer. Considering the content that student mostly read on e-books it’s mainly scientific literature or exam materials. Fiction is almost exclusively read on paper. Given the choice of type of book students would in both cases rather chose paper, although in case of scientific literature and exam materials they are more open to e-books. Factor analysis was used to analyse characteristic that students recognize in e-books and result show three independent factors: Usefulness and practicality, Reading experience and Accessibility. Usefulness and practicality and accessibility was rated positively and reading experience negatively. These results are expected considering that students mostly read e-books on computers and not on dedicated reading devices.

  14. ANGLICISMS IN THE ECONOMIC TERMINOLOGY OF THE CROATIAN LANGUAGE AND THE STANDARD LANGUAGE NORM

    Branka Drljača

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard language norm fulfils two basic requirements: stability of language and its development. The former covers replacing of foreign terms with Croatian equivalents or at least their adaptation according to the rules of the Croatian language. The latter implies fulfilling new lexical needs. The economic power of the United States of America is reflected in the influence of the English language on term-formation in Croatian. Acceptance of lexical innovations is primarily gained due to the language of the media.

  15. Application of hydrogen energy in the tourism development strategy of the croatian islands

    Vujcic, R. [Brodosplit-Institute, Split (Croatia); Josopovic, Z. [Chroatian Chamber of Economy, County Chamber Split, Split (Croatia); Matejcic, F. [The County of Split and Dalmatia, Split (Croatia)

    1998-07-01

    Croatian islands represent the most valuable resources of Croatian tourism. The recently adopted Development Strategy of the Croatian Tourism Sector contains the basic terms of reference for the formulation of a quality island tourism development concept. For such a development program it is imperative to establish new, environmentally compatible power system suitable to ensure sufficient quantities of high quality power. One of the viable possibilities to ensure sufficient quantity of quality power is a hydrogen power system based on renewable energy sources (solar and/or wind energy). 9 refs.

  16. Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population

    Vijaya Lingam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI 12.4% to 14.6% and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5% had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - odds ratio (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%, rural residence (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5% were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics ( P < 0.001, men ( P = 0.02 and literates ( P < 0.001. In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001 and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination ( P < 0.001 were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery

  17. Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in the general population of Karnataka state, south India

    Banandur Pradeep

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, general population surveys (GPS were carried out between 2006 and 2008 in Belgaum (northern, Bellary (mid-state and Mysore (southern districts of Karnataka state, south India. Data from these three surveys were analysed to understand heterogeneity in HIV risk. Methods Outcome variables were the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Independent variables included age, district, place of residence, along with socio-demographic, medical and behavioural characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression was undertaken to identify characteristics associated with HIV and differences between districts, incorporating survey statistics to consider weights and cluster effects. Results The participation rate was 79.0% for the interview and 72.5% for providing a blood or urine sample that was tested for HIV. Belgaum had the highest overall HIV (1.43% and Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2 (16.93% prevalence, and the lowest prevalence of curable STIs. In Belgaum, the HIV epidemic is predominantly rural, and among women. In Bellary, the epidemic is predominantly in urban areas and among men, and HIV prevalence was 1.18%. Mysore had the lowest prevalence of HIV (0.80% and HSV-2 (10.89% and the highest prevalence of curable STIs. Higher HIV prevalence among men was associated with increasing age (p25-29years=11.22,95%CI:1.42-88.74, AOR30-34years=13.13,95%CI:1.67-103.19 and AOR35-39years=11.33,95%CI:1.32-96.83, having more than one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=4.61,95%CI:1.26-16.91 and having ever used a condom (AOR=3.32,95%CI:1.38-7.99. Having a dissolved marriage (being widowed/divorced/separated was the strongest predictor (AOR=10.98,95%CI: 5.35-22.57 of HIV among women. Being a muslim woman was associated with lower HIV prevalence (AOR=0.27,95%CI:0.08-0.87. Conclusion The HIV epidemic in Karnataka shows considerable heterogeneity

  18. Contrasting patterns of Y-chromosome variation in South Siberian populations from Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions.

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina A; Wozniak, Marcin; Dambueva, Irina; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Luzina, Faina; Miścicka-Sliwka, Danuta; Zakharov, Ilia

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic history of autochthonous South Siberian populations and to estimate the contribution of distinct patrilineages to their gene pools, we have analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal binary markers (YAP, RPS4Y(711), SRY-8299, M89, M201, M52, M170, 12f2, M9, M20, 92R7, SRY-1532, DYS199, M173, M17, Tat, and LLY22 g) in a total sample of 1,358 males from 14 ethnic groups of Siberia (Altaians-Kizhi, Teleuts, Shors, Tuvinians, Todjins, Tofalars, Sojots, Khakassians, Buryats, Evenks), Central/Eastern Asia (Mongolians and Koreans) and Eastern Europe (Kalmyks and Russians). Based on both, the distribution pattern of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and results on AMOVA analysis we observed the statistically significant genetic differentiation between the populations of Baikal and Altai-Sayan regions. We suggest that these regional differences can be best explained by different contribution of Central/Eastern Asian and Eastern European paternal lineages into gene pools of modern South Siberians. The population of the Baikal region demonstrates the prevalence of Central/Eastern Asian lineages, whereas in the populations of Altai and Sayan regions the highest paternal contribution resulted from Eastern European descent is revealed. Yet, our data on Y-chromosome STRs variation demonstrate the clear differences between the South Siberian and Eastern European R1a1-lineages with the evolutionary ages compatible with divergence time between these two regional groups.

  19. Thermodynamics of imidacloprid sorption in Croatian soils

    Milin, Čedomila; Broznic, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Neonicotinoids are increasingly replacing the organophosphate and methylcarbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors which are losing their effectiveness because of selection for resistant pest populations. Imidacloprid is the most important neonicotinoid with low soil persistence, high insecticidal potency and relatively low mammalian toxicity. In Croatia, imidacloprid is most commonly used in olive growing areas, including Istria and Kvarner islands, as an effective means of olive fruit fly infestation control. Sorption-desorption behavior of imidacloprid in six soils collected from five coastal regions in Croatia at 20, 30 and 40°C was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. Isothermal data were applied to Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equation, and the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔG°, ΔS° were calculated. The sorption isotherm curves were of non-linear and may be classified as L-type suggesting a relatively high sorption capacity for imidacloprid. Our results showed that the KFsor values decreased for all the tested soils as the temperature increases, indicating that the temperature strongly influence the sorption. Values of ΔG° were negative (-4.65 to -2.00 kJ/mol) indicating that at all experimental temperatures the interactions of imidacloprid with soils were spontaneous process. The negative and small ΔH° values (-19.79 to -8.89 kJ/mol) were in the range of weak forces, such as H-bonds, consistent with interactions and par¬titioning of the imidacloprid molecules into soil organic matter. The ΔS° values followed the range of -57.12 to -14.51 J/molK, suggesting that imidacloprid molecules lose entropy during transition from the solution phase to soil surface. It was found that imidacloprid desorption from soil was concentration and temperature dependent, i.e. at lower imidacloprid concentrations and temperature, lower desorption percentage occurred. Desorption studies revealed that hysteretic behavior under different temperature

  20. Human leukocyte antigen class I (A, B and C) allele and haplotype variation in a South African Mixed ancestry population.

    Loubser, Shayne; Paximadis, Maria; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    South Africa has a large (∼53million), ethnically diverse population (black African, Caucasian, Indian/Asian and Mixed ancestry) and a high disease burden (particularly HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The Mixed ancestry population constitutes ∼9% of the total population and was established ∼365years ago in the Western Cape region through interracial mixing of black Africans, Europeans and Asians. Admixed populations present unique opportunities to identify genetic factors involved in disease susceptibility. Since HLA genes are important mediators of host immunity, we investigated HLA-A, -B and -C allele and haplotype diversity in 50 healthy, unrelated individuals recruited from the Mixed ancestry population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Diversity and effective population size of four horse breeds from microsatellite DNA markers in South-Central Mexico

    J. F. Vázquez-Armijo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central region of Mexico has experienced a sizeable introduction of purebred horses for recreational aims. A study was designed to assess effective population sizes and genetic diversity and to verify the genetic integrity of four horse breeds. Using a 12-microsatellite panel, Quarter Horse, Azteca, Thoroughbred and Creole (CRL horses were sampled and analysed for diversity and genetic structure. Genetic diversity parameters showed high numbers of heterozygous horses but small effective population sizes in all breeds. Population structure results suggested some degree of admixture of CRL with the other reference breeds. The highly informative microsatellite panel allowed the verification of diversity in introduced horse populations and the confirmation of small effective population sizes, which suggests a risk for future breed integrity.

  2. The association of ABO blood groups with extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian patients suffering from chronic coronary artery disease.

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Carević, Vedran; Radić, Mislav; Fabijanić, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study was to: 1) examine the relationship between ABO blood groups and extent of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), 2) compare ABO blood groups distribution in CAD patients and general population, 3) examine possible differences in traditional risk factors frequency in CAD patients with different ABO blood groups. In the 646 chronic CAD patients (72.4% males) coronary angiograms were scored by quantitative assessment using multiple angiographic scoring system, Traditional risk factors were self reported or measured by standard methods. ABO blood distribution of patients was compared with group of 651 healthy blood donors (74.6% males). Among all ABO blood group patients there was no significant difference between the extent of coronary atherosclerosis with regard to all the three scoring systems: number of affected coronary arteries (P = 0.857), Gensini score (P = 0.818), and number of segments narrowed > 50% (P = 0.781). There was no significant difference in ABO blood group distribution between CAD patients and healthy blood donors. Among CAD patients, men with blood group AB were significantly younger than their pairs with non-AB blood groups (P = 0.008). Among CAD patients with AB blood group, males groups (P = 0.003). No association between ABO blood groups and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian CAD patients is observed. Observation that AB blood group might possibly identify Croatian males at risk to develop the premature CAD has to be tested in larger cohort of patients.

  3. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectan...

  4. Population genetic structure of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans in the south and east of the Iberian Peninsula.

    María Inmaculada Manrique-Poyato

    Full Text Available The grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans subsp. plorans harbors a very widespread polymorphism for supernumerary (B chromosomes which appear to have arisen recently. These chromosomes behave as genomic parasites because they are harmful for the individuals carrying them and show meiotic drive in the initial stages of population invasion. The rapid increase in B chromosome frequency at intrapopulation level is thus granted by meiotic drive, but its spread among populations most likely depends on interpopulation gene flow. We analyze here the population genetic structure in 10 natural populations from two regions (in the south and east of the Iberian Peninsula. The southern populations were coastal whereas the eastern ones were inland populations located at 260-655 m altitude. The analysis of 97 ISSR markers revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations (average G(ST = 0.129, and the Structure software and AMOVA indicated a significant genetic differentiation between southern and eastern populations. There was also significant isolation by distance (IBD between populations. Remarkably, these results were roughly similar to those found when only the markers showing low or no dropout were included, suggesting that allelic dropout had negligible effects on population genetic analysis. We conclude that high gene flow helped this parasitic B chromosome to spread through most of the geographical range of the subspecies E. plorans plorans.

  5. Fragile X founder effect and distribution of CGG repeats among the mentally retarded population of Andalusia, South Spain

    Yolanda de Diego

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. We investigated the prevalence of the Fragile X syndrome in the population with mental retardation of unknown etiology in Andalusia, South Spain. We analyzed 322 unrelated patients (280 males and 42 females, and found a fragile X syndrome frequency of 6.5%. Among the non-fragile X chromosomes, the 29 CGG repeat was the most common allele. At the linked microsatellite DXS548 locus, we found a new allele which we called "allele 10" (17 CA. Similar to other south European populations, allele 2 (25 CA at the DXS548 locus and the fragile X allele were in linkage disequilibrium supporting the idea of a common founder chromosome predisposing to the CGG expansion.

  6. Tobacco smoking is associated with psychotic experiences in the general population of South London.

    Bhavsar, V; Jauhar, S; Murray, R M; Hotopf, M; Hatch, S L; McNeill, A; Boydell, J; MacCabe, J H

    2018-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and psychosis remains unexplained, but could relate to causal effects in both directions, confounding by socioeconomic factors, such as ethnicity, or use of other substances, including cannabis. Few studies have evaluated the association between cigarettes and psychotic experiences (PEs) in diverse, inner-city populations, or relationships with number of cigarettes consumed. We assessed associations and dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and PEs in a cross-sectional survey of household residents (n = 1680) in South East London, using logistic regression to adjust for cannabis use, other illicit substances, and socioeconomic factors, including ethnicity. We found association between any PEs and daily cigarette smoking, which remained following adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, cannabis and use of illicit stimulant drugs (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.15). Fully adjusted estimates for the association, and with number of PEs, increased with number of cigarettes smoked daily, implying a dose-response effect (p = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Odds of reporting any PEs in ex-smokers were similar to never-smokers. In this diverse epidemiological sample, association between smoking and PEs was not explained by confounders such as cannabis or illicit drugs. Daily cigarette consumption showed a dose-response relationship with the odds of reporting PEs, and of reporting a greater number of PEs. There was no difference in odds of reporting PEs between ex-smokers and never-smokers, raising the possibility that the increase in PEs associated with smoking may be reversible.

  7. Diagnosis of common hemoglobinopathies among South East Asian population using capillary isoelectric focusing system.

    Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S

    2017-02-01

    We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Spectacles use in a rural population in the state of Telangana in South India.

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Kunuku, Eswararao; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2017-06-01

    Uncorrected refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment. To assess the prevalence and patterns of spectacles use among those aged ≥40 years in the South Indian state of Telangana. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, in which 6150 people were enumerated from 123 clusters in the two districts of Telangana state (Adilabad and Mahbubnagar) using a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology. Participants were visited in their households and presenting visual acuity (VA) was assessed in all cases followed by pinhole VA if presenting VA was worse than 6/12. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the current and previous spectacles use, type of spectacles, and details of the spectacles provider. Stata statistical software version 12. Among 5881 participants examined, 53.7% were women, and 82% had no formal education. The prevalence of current spectacles use was 28.8% (95% confidence interval: 27.6-30.0). On applying multiple logistic regression analysis, spectacles use was significantly associated with older age groups, female gender, higher levels of education, and residing in Adilabad district. Bifocals were the most commonly used type of spectacles (56.3%), and private eye clinics (70.3%) were the leading service providers. The spectacles coverage was 53.6%. We reported on prevalence and patterns of spectacles use using a large representative sample and a high response rate. More than half of those who may benefit from spectacles were using them, suggestive of a reasonable primary eye care coverage in the two districts studied.

  9. Prevalence and etiological profile of short stature among school children in a South Indian population

    Kumaravel Velayutham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Short stature (SS is a common pediatric problem and it might be the first sign of underlying illness. Studies documenting the burden and etiological profile of SS are scarce from India and are mostly limited to data obtained from referral centers. Due to the lack of large-scale, community-based studies utilizing a standard protocol, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and etiological profile of SS in school children of a South Indian district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 4–16 years from 23 schools in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, underwent anthropometric measurements and height was plotted in Khadilkar et al. growth chart. The cause of SS was assessed using clinical and laboratory evaluations in assigned children with a height less than third centile. Results: A total of 15644 children belonging to 23 schools were evaluated, and 448 (2.86% children had SS. Etiological evaluation was further performed in 87 randomly assigned children, and it is identified that familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS in the study population (66.67%. Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency were the two most common pathological causes of SS seen in 12 (13.79% and 8 (9.20% children, respectively. Malnutrition was the cause of SS in 6 (6.9% children and cardiac disorders, psychogenic SS, and skeletal dysplasia were other identified causes of SS in the study. Interpretation and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of SS in school children was 2.86% and familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS. As a significant percentage of children with SS had correctable causes, monitoring growth with a standard growth chart should be mandatory in all schools.

  10. Cannabis use and abuse correlates in a homogenous South African schizophrenia population

    Liezl Koen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, and it has been identified as a correlate in schizophrenia samples for poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes in many international studies. The object of this retrospective study was to identify the prevalence of cannabis use/abuse and the demographic and clinical correlates therefor in a large homogeneous South African schizophrenia population. Methods. As part of a large genetic study, 547 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected and each participant underwent a urinary drug screen. Use/abuse of cannabis was defined as using cannabis more than 21 times in a single year. Subjects with and without cannabis use/abuse were statistically compared. Results. Significant differences between the two groups were found in terms of gender, marital status, age of onset of schizophrenia, number of hospitalisations and relapses, alcohol abuse, smoking, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS scores for hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behaviour and formal thought disorder, and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS score for avolition/apathy. Conclusion. The prevalence of cannabis use/abuse in this study was high, and our findings were comparable with those of previous international studies. Abuse/use started mainly in the teenage years, was more prevalent among males than females, and was associated with negative overall outcomes. There was also a positive correlation between cannabis and nicotine and alcohol use/abuse. Determination of cannabis abuse based solely on history was found to be reliable, and urine cannabis testing appeared to be of limited value in routine management of this group of schizophrenic patients.

  11. JOSIP KOZARAC IN CROATIAN CHILDREN’S LITERATURE

    Berislav Majhut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Josip Kozarac (1858–1906 is considered to be one of the most important Slavonian and Croatian writers of Realism. However, the beginnings of his literary work written for children are seldom mentioned and even less frequently studied. Indeed, a few remarks about that part of Kozarac’s literary work disagree on which stories belong to The Tales of Grandfather Niko (Priče djeda Nike. Such an attitude towards what constitutes the corpus of Kozarac’s work under this title is closely linked to the issue of the affiliation of these stories to children’s literature. This study attempts to provide answers to two intertwined questions: first, do Priče djeda Nike (The Tales of Grandfather Niko belong to children’s literature and second, what is the exact scope of the work known as Priče djeda Nike? Having established that Priče djeda Nike undoubtedly belong to children’s literature, we will try to find their place in the history of Croatian children’s literature. We will argue that this work represents a transitory form of narration between, on the one hand, moralistic stories (which we find in the very popular translations of the stories by German authors Christoph Schmid and Franz Hoffmann and their Croatian epigones and, on the other, entrepreneurship narratives by Davorin Trstenjak, U radu je spas (Labor Will Save Us from 1885 and Dragoslav Heiligstein, Zlatne ruke (Golden Hands from 1930, which paved the way for socially engaged realistic novels, such as Mato Lovrak’s Vlak u snijegu (A Train in the Snow published in 1933 and Družba Pere Kvržice (Pero Kvržica’s Gang published in 1933, and Josip Pavičić’s Poletarci, published in 1937. The study will show that the number of stories published in the first monographic edition of Priče djeda Nike is different from the number of stories published in Pučke novine. The study also analyzes which stories Kozarac himself considered as those belonging to Priče djeda Nike.

  12. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations

    Garland, E.C.; Goldizen, A.W.; Lilley, M.S.; Rekdahl, M.L.; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, R.; Hauser, N.D.; Poole, M.M.; Robbins, J.; Noad, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of inf...

  13. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Severity: A Population-Based Study of Chinese and South Asian Patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Newman, Alice M; Zaheer, Juveria; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99.7%). Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the association between ethnicity and 4 measures of disease severity: involuntary admissions, aggressive behaviors, and the number and frequency of positive symptoms (ie, hallucinations, command hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thought process) (Positive Symptoms Scale, Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health [RAI-MH]). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, immigration status, and discharge diagnosis, Chinese patients had greater odds of involuntary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.64-1.95) and exhibiting severe aggressive behaviors (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51) and ≥ 3 positive symptoms (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56) compared to the general population. South Asian ethnicity was also an independent predictor of most illness severity measures. The association between Chinese ethnicity and illness severity was consistent across sex, diagnostic and immigrant categories, and first-episode hospitalization. Chinese and South Asian ethnicities are independent predictors of illness severity at hospital presentation. Understanding the role of patient, family, and health system factors in determining the threshold for hospitalization is an important future step in informing culturally specific care for these large and growing populations worldwide. © Copyright 2016 Physicians

  14. Retrospective estimation of middle irraiation doses for population of south Ukraine from radionuclides of Chernobyl accidental release

    L. I. Grygorieva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of retrospective definition of the radiation load to the population of south Ukraine the under abnormal condition Chernobyl release of radionuclide, executed from data of aerophare, spectrometry and dosimetric researches on territory Nikolaev, Odessa, Kirovograd areas and Autonomous Republic of Crimea, conducted by the Nikolaev research laboratory “Larani” in 1986 and in subsequent years are presented in the article.

  15. A STUDY ON FEMORAL ANTEVERSION IN ADULT DRY FEMORA OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Sushma Korukonda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA is an important parameter for diagnosis of gait abnormality in children, risk of various congenital and acquired orthopaedic disorders as well as corrective osteotomy and hip arthroplasty. Femoral anteversion is the lateral rotation of the neck of the femur to the long axis of its shaft. Variability in FNA has been reported and is due to torsional forces applied on femur during development. The aim of this study was to estimate the angle of anteversion of femur in both genders on both sides. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of FNA in South Indian population, in particular, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 70 dried adult unpaired human femora, i.e. 48 male and 22 female bones. The Kingsley Olmsted 1 method was used for the study and the data was analysed. Statistical analysis - Statistical analysis was done using student unpaired ‘t’ test. The data was analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (Free Trial Version. RESULTS Out of the 70 femora undertaken, mean value of FNA obtained in male is 15.95, 14.1 on right and 17.8 on left sides and in female it is 19.2, 21.8 on right and 16.6 on left side. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05 greater average anteversion in female bones and right-left variations being greater on the left side. CONCLUSION In the present study, the mean FNA was 17.8 deg. There was a gender variation for the FNA values in the population studied with females showing higher value than the male with a statistically significant difference. The reason for the difference obtained could be the small sample size of female femora due to the rarity of the donated female bodies. The value was higher on the left side than the right; 50% of the femora had the range of 16 - 25 deg of FNA. The overall mean of femoral anteversion determined is very much different from the studies in various regions in India.

  16. Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    1998-01-01

    New Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection is in a final stage of genesis. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute and the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. Responsibilities include all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Papers from the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association are presented in seven sessions: 1. General Topics of Interest for Radiation Protection 2. Biological Effects of Radiation 3. Radioactive Waste Management 4. Radioecology 5. Dosimetry and Instrumentation 6. Radiation Protection in Medicine 7. Radon

  17. Molecular diversity and population structure of the forage grass Hemarthria compressa (Poaceae) in south China based on SRAP markers.

    Huang, L-K; Zhang, X-Q; Xie, W-G; Zhang, J; Cheng, L; Yan, H D

    2012-08-16

    Hemarthria compressa is one of the most important and widely utilized forage crops in south China, owing to its high forage yield and capability of adaptation to hot and humid conditions. We examined the population structure and genetic variation within and among 12 populations of H. compressa in south China using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. High genetic diversity was found in these samples [percentage polymorphic bands (PPB) = 82.21%, Shannon's diversity index (I) = 0.352]. However, there was relatively low level of genetic diversity at the population level (PPB = 29.17%, I = 0.155). A high degree of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on other measures and molecular markers (Nei's genetic diversity analysis: G(ST) = 54.19%; AMOVA analysis: F(ST) = 53.35%). The SRAP markers were found to be more efficient than ISSR markers for evaluating population diversity. Based on these findings, we propose changes in sampling strategies for appraising and utilizing the genetic resources of this species.

  18. Integral Indicator of Ecological Footprint for Croatian Power Plants

    Strijov, V.; Granic, G.; Juric, Z.; Jelavic, B.; Antesevic Maricic, S.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the methodology of construction of the Integral Indicator for Croatian Thermal Power Plants and Combined Heat and Power Plants. The Integral Indicator is necessary to compare Power Plants selected according to a certain criterion. The criterion of the Ecological Footprint is chosen. The following features of the Power Plants are used: generated electricity and heat; consumed coal and liquid fuel; sulphur content in fuel; emitted CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and particles. To construct the Integral Indicator the linear model is used. The model parameters are tuned by the Principal Component Analysis algorithm. The constructed Integral Indicator is compared with several others, such as Pareto-Optimal Slicing Indicator and Metric Indicator. The Integral Indicator keeps as much information about features of the Power Plants as possible; it is simple and robust.(author).

  19. Croatian Experience in Road Traffic Noise Management - Concrete Noise Barriers

    Ahac Saša

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of concrete noise barrier application in several EU countries and in Croatia. It describes a process of introducing different noise protection solutions on Croatian market in the phase of intensive motorway construction in recent years. Namely, an extensive motorway network has been constructed in Croatia in the last 10 years. Following the process of motorway construction, noise protection walls have also been erected. Usage of different building materials and installation processes as well as variations in building expenditures has led to a comparative analysis of several types of noise protection solutions (expanded clay, wood fibre including a new eco-innovative product RUCONBAR, which incorporates rubber granules from recycled waste tyres to form a porous noise absorptive layer.

  20. Upwards Intensifiers in the English, German and Croatian Language

    Anita Pavić Pintarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the upwards intensifiers (adverbs of intensifying in the English, German and Croatian language. Intensity as an important human cognitive category, and language expressivity is differently treated in grammars and dictionaries of all three languages, especially with respect to different degrees of intensity. In this paper we argue that it is possible to model a typology of upwards adverb intensifiers in the three languages, according to their morphosyntactic and semantic aspects. When it comes to intensifiers, it is necessary to describe which collocates are modified by intensifiers and which semantic fields the collocates belong to. The results of the corpus analysis based on Harry Potter novels show that all the three languages express the category of the upwards intensity in the same way: the number of intensifiers is similar, the collocates mostly belong to the same semantic fields and word classes, they have similar syntactic functions.

  1. Croatian-Hungarian cooperation on the Danube river radioactivity measurements

    Lulic, S.; Vancsura, P.

    2003-01-01

    Danube river radioactivity measurements on the border profile Mohac-Batina have been performed since the beginning of 1978 with varying frequency of sampling. Thus, in the period before nuclear power plant Paks started to work joint croatian-hungarian sampling at the border profile was taking place four times a year; the obtained results of measured radioactivity levels were used to assess radioactivity background data. From the start of nuclear power plant Paks running until Chernobyl reactor accident (April 1986) sampling was performed six times a year. After the Chernobyl accident, samples have been taken every month. Since decreased Chernobyl reactor accident influence was estimated until present samples have been taken six times a year. On the Danube river border profile the concentration activity of gamma radionuclides has been determined in water samples (filtered water and suspended matter), and in fish, sediment and Danube river algae samples. (authors)

  2. THE MORPHOSYNTAX AND PRAGMATICS OF CROATIAN FEMALE NAMES

    Branko Kuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the morphosyntactic properties of female names and the ways in which female first names and surnames are used, as well as on adjectives derived from them in the Croatian language. The collected examples indicate that independent use of female surnames, compared to the independent use of male surnames, demonstrates a great degree of variability because their use has still not been standardized. Due to the fact that female surnames are highly marked when compared to the majority of nouns that can undergo declension, female surnames are frequently modified by word formation procedures, even though this is in stark contrast with the norm. Female surnames that can undergo declension are also used in highly formal contexts due to pragmatic and morphosyntactic reasons.

  3. Evaluation of risk management status for Croatian logistic operators

    Diana BOŽIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding organisational risks makes possible to control them and to change them into organisational strengths. Being known as “measure of uncertainty” in the business process, the risk is the uncertainty of achieving the organizational objectives. It may involve positive or negative consequences. There is a level of uncertainty in every supply chain while operating transportation and warehousing, positioning on the market, developing customer support, reducing cycle times or cutting costs. Therefore, the risk assessment should be one of the main tasks for any supply chain management team. It is required to develop formal risk assessment procedures, to identify the potential impacts to the supply chain operations and to develop a set of contingency plans to mitigate risks. This paper deals with supply chain risk assessment methodology, outlining the present risk management status of Croatian logistic operators.

  4. Serbo-Croatian. SC-15A. Part 3. Advanced Grammar and Syntax,

    1983-09-01

    Skolska, Knjiga Zagreb, 1979, helped me write this textbook on advanced Serbo-Croatian grammar and syntax. I am indebted to the above colleagues for...student to read, write , and speak Serbo-Croatian in a grammatically and stylistically correct manner. Perfective verbs, as we already know, may indicate...umakli (sigurno biste zelefi umaci). Pucao bi nam u lecra (mogao/ ielt -c bi nam pucati u leda). The C I. examples clearly connote desire, while the C II

  5. Esperanto (s)en perspektivo? Croatian Esperantists on the International Language Esperanto

    Puškar, Krunoslav

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is to date no significant number of sociological studies dealing with the Esperanto movement, and there are even fewer sociolinguistic explorations of the whole Esperanto phenomenon. Concentrating on the Croatian Esperanto movement, we conducted an extensive study of Croatian Esperantists? attitudes towards the structure of Esperanto, and their perception of the Esperanto movement and the overall Esperanto phenomenon - aspects still conspicuously missing in recent Espe...

  6. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa.

    Gita Ramjee

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002-2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old, unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole.

  7. Tapering Practices of Croatian Open-Class Powerlifting Champions.

    Grgic, Jozo; Mikulic, Pavle

    2017-09-01

    Grgic, J and Mikulic, P. Tapering practices of Croatian open-class powerlifting champions. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2371-2378, 2017-The aim of this study was to explore tapering practices among 10 Croatian open-class powerlifting champions (mean ± SD: age 29.2 ± 3.2 years; Wilks coefficient 355.1 ± 54.8). The athletes were interviewed about their tapering practices using a semi-structured interview after which the audio content was transcribed. The athletes reported decreasing training volume during the taper by 50.5 ± 11.7% using a step type or an exponential type of taper with a fast decay. Training intensity was maintained or increased during the taper, and it reached its highest values 8 ± 3 days before the competition. Training frequency was reduced or maintained during the taper. The final week included a reduction in training frequency by 47.9 ± 17.5% with the last training session performed 3 ± 1 days before the competition. The participants typically stated that the main reasons for conducting the taper were maintaining strength and reducing the amount of fatigue. They also stated that (a) the taper was structured identically for the squat, bench press, and the deadlift; (b) the training during the taper was highly specific, the assistance exercises were removed, and the same equipment was used as during competition; (c) the source of information for tapering was their coach, and training fluctuated based on the coach's feedback; and (d) nutrition, foam rolling, static stretching, and massage were all given extra attention during the taper. These results may aid athletes and coaches in strength sports in terms of the optimization of tapering variables.

  8. Correlation between social responsibility and efficient performance in Croatian enterprises

    Neda Vitezić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to establish if there is a correlation between efficiency and socially responsible business performance in Croatian enterprises. The research is based on the hypothesis that higher corporate efficiency affects social responsibility development in enterprises and vice versa, that socially more responsible corporate performance have a positive effect on efficiency. In their research, many authors have proved the correlation between social responsibility and financial performance, reputation of the enterprise and added value. Cases from transition countries, which transferred to market economy and focused on socially responsible management and sustainability, have not been the subject of research. The social responsibility concept implies balance between economic, ecological and social goals, which means distribution of assets on several actors, so it may be predicted that more efficient enterprises will sooner accept the sustainability concept and act more responsibly. Except for theoretical social responsibility hypothesis, the initial point in the empirical section is dynamic analysis of business activities of Croatian entrepreneurs in the period between 1993 and 2010, on the basis of which a sample of enterprises was chosen, which submit transparent reports on social responsibility. The main result obtained by univariate analysis confirms that socially more responsible enterprises have better financial results, i.e. they are more efficient, and also have better reputation. The research also had limitations in relation to qualitative determination of the social responsibility impact on efficiency. The conclusion is derived that there is a causal relationship between efficiency and social responsibility, i.e. higher efficiency level enables higher allocation of resources with the purpose of socially more responsible corporate performance and vice versa; socially responsible corporate performance have an impact on

  9. Population genomic structure and linkage disequilibrium analysis of South African goat breeds using genome-wide SNP data.

    Mdladla, K; Dzomba, E F; Huson, H J; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-08-01

    The sustainability of goat farming in marginal areas of southern Africa depends on local breeds that are adapted to specific agro-ecological conditions. Unimproved non-descript goats are the main genetic resources used for the development of commercial meat-type breeds of South Africa. Little is known about genetic diversity and the genetics of adaptation of these indigenous goat populations. This study investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and breed relations, linkage disequilibrium, effective population size and persistence of gametic phase in goat populations of South Africa. Three locally developed meat-type breeds of the Boer (n = 33), Savanna (n = 31), Kalahari Red (n = 40), a feral breed of Tankwa (n = 25) and unimproved non-descript village ecotypes (n = 110) from four goat-producing provinces of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West were assessed using the Illumina Goat 50K SNP Bead Chip assay. The proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies >0.05 ranged from 84.22% in the Tankwa to 97.58% in the Xhosa ecotype, with a mean of 0.32 ± 0.13 across populations. Principal components analysis, admixture and pairwise FST identified Tankwa as a genetically distinct population and supported clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. Genome-wide FST identified 101 markers potentially under positive selection in the Tankwa. Average linkage disequilibrium was highest in the Tankwa (r(2)  = 0.25 ± 0.26) and lowest in the village ecotypes (r(2) range = 0.09 ± 0.12 to 0.11 ± 0.14). We observed an effective population size of 100 kb with the exception of those in Savanna and Tswana populations. This study highlights the high level of genetic diversity in South African indigenous goats as well as the utility of the genome-wide SNP marker panels in genetic studies of these populations. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Umbilical Cord Management and Stump Care in Normal Childbirth in Slovenian and Croatian Maternity Hospitals.

    Mivšek, Ana Polona; Petročnik, Petra; Skubic, Metka; Škodič Zakšek, Teja; Jug Došler, Anita

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to investigate first-care procedures for the newborn's umbilical cord at maternity hospitals in Slovenia and Croatia. The study was based on an empirical survey research approach and quantitative research paradigms and included all Slovenian (n=14) and all Croatian (n=35) maternity hospitals. Leaders of midwifery team of 14 Slovenian and 35 Croatian labor wards were invited to participate. The study was conducted in 2013, with 67% of Slovenian and 66% of Croatian maternity hospitals having responded. A causal and non-experimental method of empirical research was used. The research instrument was a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used on data analysis. The independence hypothesis was tested with the χ2-test or Kullback 2Î-test. A vast ma-jority of study wards employed delayed umbilical cord clamping, i.e. clamping the cord after pulsa-tion had ceased. Only 10% of Slovenian in comparison with 36.4% of Croatian maternity hospitals practiced dry cord care. Others applied disinfectant on the cord, in Slovenia most frequently 6% po-tassium permanganate, and in Croatia a combination of octenidine and phenoxyethanol. Most Croa-tian -maternity wards (95.7%) still covered the stump, while it was not regular practice in Slovenia. The authors estimate that the prevailing Slovenian and Croatian practices in regard to cord clamping are in accordance with the evidence, while improvements could be made regarding stump care, since dry cord care is the recommended method.

  11. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985-2010.

    Jeon, Sun Y; Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K

    2016-04-23

    In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies-suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation.

  12. The effectiveness of structured exercise in the south Asian population with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Albalawi, Hani; Coulter, Elaine; Ghouri, Nazim; Paul, Lorna

    2017-11-01

    The impact of exercise interventions on south Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), who have a higher T2DM incidence rate compared to other ethnic groups, is inconclusive. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of exercise interventions in south Asians with T2DM. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2017 for controlled trials investigating the impact of exercise interventions on south Asian adults with T2DM. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Eighteen trials examining the effect of aerobic, resistance, balance or combined exercise programs met the eligibility criteria. All types of exercise were associated with improvements in glycemic control, blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, muscle strength, functional mobility, quality of life or neuropathy progression. The majority of included studies were of poor methodological quality. Few studies compared different types or dose of exercise. In conclusion, this review supports the benefits of exercise for south Asians with T2DM, although it was not possible to identify the most effective exercise prescription. Further studies of good methodological quality are required to determine the most effective dosage and type of exercise to manage T2DM in this population.

  13. Croatian Pilgrimages to Loreto from the 5000 Documents of the "Croatian Maritime Regesta" in the 18th Century - vol. I

    Zrinka Podhraški Čizmek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small part of the pilgrimages undertaken by Croats during the 18th century across the Adriatic Sea to Loreto. The pilgrimages are described as a sui generis phenomenon of all human and religious societies. The history of the Catholic pilgrimage is analyzed through the perspective of common roots with Judaism and Islam, and the subsequent differentiation from other Christian confessions. Relations of the Croats with overseas territories since the 14th century are described, as well as their settlement in the hinterland of Ancona: Recanati and Loreto. The story of the Shrine of the Our Lady of Loreto is presented, the ties with the Croats settled there, and the foundation of a special seminary for Croats in 1580: the Illyrian College. During the review of the 4,890 documentary sources of volume I of the Croatian Maritime Regesta, a smaller segment of sources was found from the State Archive of Venice on the subject of pilgrimages. These sources list 44 pilgrimages from various locations on the Croatian coast. The types of ships they traveled on, the origin of the passengers, their number, organization in groups, the time of pilgrimage and the time of the year in which they occurred are analyzed. The most numerous pilgrims are from Lošinj (Lussino, followed by Cres (Cherso, Dugi Otok (Isola Lunga, Rovinj (Rovigno, Labin (Albona, Korčula (Curzola, Zadar (Zara and Vis (Lissa.This work is a contribution to the study of the links between the two sides of the Adriatic in the 18th century, which requires further publication and analysis of documentary sources.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in native South American Atlantic coast populations of smooth shelled mussels: hybridization with invasive European Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Trucco, María I; Wenne, Roman

    2018-02-22

    Throughout the world, harvesting of mussels Mytilus spp. is based on the exploitation of natural populations and aquaculture. Aquaculture activities include transfers of spat and live adult mussels between various geographic locations, which may result in large-scale changes in the world distribution of Mytilus taxa. Mytilus taxa are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish. In spite of much research on taxonomy, evolution and geographic distribution, the native Mytilus taxa of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly understood. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to clarify the taxonomic status of populations of smooth shelled mussels from the Pacific coast of South America. In this paper, we used a set of SNPs to characterize, for the first time, populations of smooth shelled mussels Mytilus from the Atlantic coast of South America. Mytilus spp. samples were collected from eastern South America. Six reference samples from the Northern Hemisphere were used: Mytilus edulis from USA and Northern Ireland, Mytilus trossulus from Canada, and Mytilus galloprovincialis from Spain and Italy. Two other reference samples from the Southern Hemisphere were included: M. galloprovincialis from New Zealand and Mytilus chilensis from Chile. Fifty-five SNPs were successfully genotyped, of which 51 were polymorphic. Population genetic analyses using the STRUCTURE program revealed the clustering of eight populations from Argentina (Mytilus platensis) and the clustering of the sample from Ushuaia with M. chilensis from Chile. All individuals in the Puerto Madryn (Argentina) sample were identified as M. platensis × M. galloprovincialis F2 (88.89%) hybrids, except one that was classified as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. No F1 hybrids were observed. We demonstrate that M. platensis (or Mytilus edulis platensis) and M. chilensis are distinct native taxa in South America, which indicates that the evolutionary histories of Mytilus taxa along the

  15. An Alternative Policy Proposal for the Provinces Populated by the Malay Ethnonationality in the South of Thailand

    Otto F. von Feigenblatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a public policy analysis of governance in the provinces populated by the Malay ethnonationality in the South of Thailand. Important stakeholders are identified as well as important sociopolitical environmental factors. The final sections of the paper present a proposal for a new governance structure for the Muslim South of Thailand taking into consideration the social, cultural, and economic context as well as the wellbeing and right to self-determination of the local population. This study concludes that considerable economic, political, and social opportunities for development are being lost in the South of Thailand due to misguided governance policies. --- Dieser Artikel stellt eine politische Analyse von Governance in den von der nationalen Minderheit der Malaien bewohnten Provinzen in Südthailand vor. Zunächst werden zentrale InteressensvertreterInnen und soziopolitische Faktoren identifiziert. Anschließend diskutiert der Autor einen Vorschlag für eine neue Governancestruktur, die soziale, kulturelle und wirtschaftliche Kontexte ebenso beachtet wie die Bedürfnisse und das Recht zur Selbstbestimmung der lokalen Bevölkerung. Der Beitrag konkludiert, dass beträchtliche Möglichkeiten zur wirtschaftlichen, politischen und sozialen Entwicklung aufgrund von fehlgeleiteten Politiken ausgelassen wurden.

  16. A mosaic genetic structure of the human population living in the South Baltic region during the Iron Age.

    Stolarek, Ireneusz; Juras, Anna; Handschuh, Luiza; Marcinkowska-Swojak, Malgorzata; Philips, Anna; Zenczak, Michal; Dębski, Artur; Kóčka-Krenz, Hanna; Piontek, Janusz; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2018-02-06

    Despite the increase in our knowledge about the factors that shaped the genetic structure of the human population in Europe, the demographic processes that occurred during and after the Early Bronze Age (EBA) in Central-East Europe remain unclear. To fill the gap, we isolated and sequenced DNAs of 60 individuals from Kowalewko, a bi-ritual cemetery of the Iron Age (IA) Wielbark culture, located between the Oder and Vistula rivers (Kow-OVIA population). The collected data revealed high genetic diversity of Kow-OVIA, suggesting that it was not a small isolated population. Analyses of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and genetic distances performed for Kow-OVIA and other ancient European populations showed that Kow-OVIA was most closely linked to the Jutland Iron Age (JIA) population. However, the relationship of both populations to the preceding Late Neolithic (LN) and EBA populations were different. We found that this phenomenon is most likely the consequence of the distinct genetic history observed for Kow-OVIA women and men. Females were related to the Early-Middle Neolithic farmers, whereas males were related to JIA and LN Bell Beakers. In general, our findings disclose the mechanisms that could underlie the formation of the local genetic substructures in the South Baltic region during the IA.

  17. Population aging from 1950 to 2010 in seventeen transitional countries in the wider region of South Eastern Europe

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Population aging has profoundly reshaped demographic landscapes in all South Eastern European (SEE countries. The aim of this study was to provide a thorough comparative inter-country assessment on the speed of population aging in the entire SEE region for the period 1950-2010. Methods: Descriptive observational analysis of long-term trends on core primary and composite indicators of population aging across seventeen countries of the wider SEE region, with panel data sets at a national level. Results: During the past six decades, the entire SEE region has experienced a rapid increase in the median age (from 25.2 years in 1950 to 37.9 years in 2010, with a simultaneous fall of fertility rates for two children per woman (from 3.55 children per each childbearing woman in 1950 to 1.49 in 2010, coupled with significant rise in the population of elderly citizens. The speed of population aging has vastly accelerated (with a 2.5 fold increase over the past three decades. The percentage of individuals over 65 years has doubled from 7% in 1950 to 14% in 2010. Conclusion: Complex national strategies are needed to cope with the shrinking labour force coupled with the growing proportion of the older population. With all likelihood, population aging will further accelerate in the near future. This profound long-term demographic transition will threaten financial sustainability of current health systems in all SEE countries.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Eleutheronema rhadinum in the East and South China Seas revealed in mitochondrial COI sequences

    Sun, Xinxu; Xu, Dongdong; Lou, Bao; Zhang, Tao; Xin, Jian; Guo, Yaoshi; Ma, Shilei

    2013-11-01

    Eleutheronema rhadinum is a potential commercial fisheries species and is subject to intense exploitation in China. Knowledge on the population structure of E. rhadinum in Chinese coastal waters, which is important for sustainable exploitation and proper resource management, is lacking. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of E. rhadinum were evaluated using a 564-base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 76 specimens were collected from three localities around the East (Qidong and Zhoushan) and South China Seas (Zhuhai). Among these individuals, nine polymorphic sites were detected and 11 distinct haplotypes were defined. High levels of haplotype diversity ( h =0.759±0.035) and low levels of nucleotide diversity ( π= 0.001 98±0.003 26) were observed in these populations. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 96.72% of the genetic variation occurred within the populations, whereas 3.28% occurred among populations. No significant genealogical branches or clusters were recognized on the neighbor-joining tree. Intra-group variation among populations was significant ( φ st=0.032 85, PTests of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution suggest that E. rhadinum may have experienced a population expansion. The present study provides basic information for the conservation and sustainable exploitation of this species.

  19. Prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma in an urban south Indian population and comparison with a rural population. The Chennai Glaucoma Study.

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Baskaran, M; Arvind, Hemamalini; Raju, Prema; Ramesh, S Ve; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine

    2008-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an urban population and compare the same with that of our published rural population data in southern India. Population-based cross-sectional study. Four thousand eight hundred subjects 40 years or older were selected using a multistage random cluster sampling procedure in Chennai city. Three thousand eight hundred fifty (80.2%) subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, pachymetry, optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Glaucoma was diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification. The distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) was obtained from the right eye of the 2532 subjects with normal suprathreshold visual fields. Mean IOP was 16.17+/-3.74 mmHg (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles, 24 mmHg and 30 mmHg). The mean VCDR was 0.43+/-0.17 (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles, 0.7 and 0.8). One hundred thirty-five (64 men, 71 women) subjects had POAG (3.51%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-4.0). Primary open-angle glaucoma subjects (58.4+/-11.3 years) were older (P or =40-year-old south Indian urban population was 3.51%, higher than that of the rural population. The prevalence increased with age, and >90% were not aware of the disease.

  20. Population dynamics of bowfin in a south Georgia reservoir: latitudinal comparisons of population structure, growth, and mortality

    Porter, Nicholas J.; Bonvechio, Timothy F.; McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the population dynamics of bowfin (Amia calva) in Lake Lindsay Grace, Georgia, and to compare those dynamics to other bowfin populations. Relative abundance of bowfin sampled in 2010 in Lake Lindsay Grace was low and variable (mean±SD; 2.7±4.7 fish per hour of electrofishing). Total length (TL) of bowfin collected in Lake Lindsay Grace varied from 233–683 mm. Age of bowfin in Lake Lindsay Grace varied from 0–5 yr. Total annual mortality (A) was estimated at 68%. Both sexes appeared to be fully mature by age 2 with gonadosomatic index values above 8 for females and close to 1 for males. The majority of females were older, longer, and heavier than males. Bowfin in Lake Lindsay Grace had fast growth up to age 4 and higher total annual mortality than the other populations examined in this study. A chi-square test indicated that size structure of bowfin from Lake Lindsay Grace was different than those of a Louisiana population and two bowfin populations from the upper Mississippi River. To further assess bowfin size structure, we proposed standard length (i.e., TL) categories: stock (200 mm, 8 inches), quality (350 mm, 14 inches), preferred (460 mm, 18 inches), memorable (560 mm, 22, inches), and trophy (710 mm, 28 inches). Because our knowledge of bowfin ecology is limited, additional understanding of bowfin population dynamics provides important insight that can be used in management of bowfin across their distribution.

  1. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in a rural population in South-Western Uganda: a community based survey.

    Gershim Asiki

    Full Text Available The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa.In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27. The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher education or high BMI.Low HDL-C prevalence in this relatively young rural population is high whereas high TC prevalence is low. The consequences of dyslipidaemia in African populations remain unclear and prospective follow-up is required.

  2. The neglected context: The growing impact of modernity on the South African population and its spiritual, economic and ecological consequences

    Klaus N�rnberger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanity seems to be drifting like a rudderless raft towards a cataract. The main factors are the growth of the human population, the escalation of material expectations, the exploding discrepancies between affluent and marginalised population groups and the impact of these growth processes on the natural environment. The modern claim to mastery, ownership and entitlement and its spectacular successes has led to unprecedented power without a concomitant growth in responsibility. In spiritual and cultural terms, modernity undermines all traditional certainties, values and constraints. The South African population is engulfed in a messy transition from African traditionalist, to modern and postmodern assumptions. The most reticent citizens are the least competitive and the most marginalised. The Christian faith, rooted as it is in tradition and geared to spiritual concerns, is no match for the power of the modern mindset. To regain its redemptive relevance, it needs fundamental reconceptualisations. The article closes with a few starting points for such a project.

  3. Dietary acculturation among the South-Asian Surinamese population in the Netherlands: the HELIUS study.

    Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; Seidell, Jacob C

    2017-08-01

    To test Koctürk's model of dietary change among South-Asian Surinamese in the Netherlands. The model categorizes foods into staple, complementary and accessory foods and postulates that dietary change after migration begins with accessory foods while foods associated with ethnic identity (staple foods) change at a slower rate. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study. Dietary intake was assessed with an FFQ. Acculturation was based on social contacts and sense of belonging and was translated into four strategies of acculturation: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Other indicators of acculturation included residence duration, age at migration and migration generation status. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1456) and South-Asian Surinamese origin (n 968). Across all acculturation strategies, South-Asian Surinamese participants reported significantly higher intakes of rice (staple food) and chicken (complementary food) and significantly lower intakes of red meat and vegetables (complementary foods) and cookies and sweets (accessory food) than Dutch participants. Men, second-generation and assimilated South-Asian Surinamese were inclined towards Dutch foods such as potato, pasta and red meat. Accessory foods like fruits showed variation across acculturation strategies. Consistent with the Koctürk model, the intake of staple foods was stable among South-Asian Surinamese irrespective of acculturation strategy while the intake of accessory foods like fruit varied. Contrary to expectations, South-Asian Surinamese showed consistently high intakes of complementary foods like chicken and fish irrespective of acculturation strategy. Public health practitioners should take into consideration the complex and dynamic nature of dietary acculturation.

  4. Modeled connectivity of Acropora millepora populations from reefs of the Spratly Islands and the greater South China Sea

    Dorman, Jeffrey G.; Castruccio, Frederic S.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Kleypas, Joan A.; Powell, Thomas M.

    2016-03-01

    The Spratly Island archipelago is a remote network of coral reefs and islands in the South China Sea that is a likely source of coral larvae to the greater region, but about which little is known. Using a particle-tracking model driven by oceanographic data from the Coral Triangle region, we simulated both spring and fall spawning events of Acropora millepora, a common coral species, over a 46-yr period (1960-2005). Simulated population biology of A. millepora included the acquisition and loss of competency, settlement over appropriate benthic habitat, and mortality based on experimental data. The simulations aimed to provide insights into the connectivity of reefs within the Spratly Islands, the settlement of larvae on reefs of the greater South China Sea, and the potential dispersal range of reef organisms from the Spratly Islands. Results suggest that (1) the Spratly Islands may be a significant source of A. millepora larvae for the Palawan reefs (Philippines) and some of the most isolated reefs of the South China Sea; and (2) the relatively isolated western Spratly Islands have limited source reefs supplying them with larvae and fewer of their larvae successfully settling on other reefs. Examination of particle dispersal without biology (settlement and mortality) suggests that larval connectivity is possible throughout the South China Sea and into the Coral Triangle region. Strong differences in the spring versus fall larval connectivity and dispersal highlight the need for a greater understanding of spawning dynamics of the region. This study confirms that the Spratly Islands are likely an important source of larvae for the South China Sea and Coral Triangle region.

  5. Prevalence, risk factors and impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a population-based study in South China.

    Chen, Minhu; Xiong, Lishou; Chen, Huixin; Xu, Angao; He, Longjun; Hu, Pinjin

    2005-07-01

    There are few data on the epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South China. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of GERD symptoms in South China and to evaluate the impact on health-related quality of life. A face-to-face interview was carried out in South China using a validated Chinese version of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire to assess the prevalence of GERD symptoms. A randomly clustered sampling of permanent inhabitants aged 18 to 90 years was carried out under stratification of urban and suburban areas. The impact of GERD symptoms on health-related quality of life was evaluated using the Chinese version of SF-36. A total of 3338 residents (1468 M, 1870 F) were investigated. Mean age of the responders was 42.6 +/- 16.4 years; response rate was 95%. The prevalence of heartburn and/or acid eructation occurring at least weekly was 6.2%. The age- and gender-adjusted point prevalence of GERD symptoms in South China is 2.3% (95% CI, 1.8%, 2.8%) according to the definition in this study. There was no difference in prevalence between male (2.6%) and female (2.4%) subjects and there was no significant association between age and prevalence of GERD symptoms. Divorced/widowed/separated subjects (OR 4.61; 95% CI, 2.15%, 9.89%) and subjects with a heavy burden of work (OR 3.43, 95% CI, 1.72%, 6.84%) were significantly more likely to report GERD symptoms. As compared with the general population, subjects with GERD symptoms experienced considerable impairment in quality of life. The prevalence of GERD symptoms in South China was much lower than that reported in Western countries. GERD had a negative impact on quality of life.

  6. Radioactivity of fission products in cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea

    Franic, Z.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater from roofs etc. with fission products have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium.After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr were detected again, cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated 90 Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the mean residence time of 90 Sr in cistern waters being order of magnitude several years was similar to that calculated for fallout.Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, S r mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time.Therefore, the pre-Chernobyl) and the post-Chernobyl mean residence times of 90 Sr in cistern waters reflect the mechanism by which strontium was released to the atmosphere. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 90 Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be a few per cent of the dose from natural background radiation. (authors)

  7. 210Pb and 210Po Determination in Bottled Water Available on the Croatian Market

    Rogic, M.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Benedik, Lj.; Strok, M.

    2011-01-01

    An alpha emitting radionuclide 210Po and beta emitting radionuclide 210Pb are decay products of 238U. Due to their nuclear properties they are considered as radionuclides with the highest radiotoxicity and contribute significantly to the internal dose to the population received by drinking water. For radiological impact assessment 210Pb and 210Po must be measured routinely and accurately, with low detection limits. The aim of our study was determination of activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in bottled drinking and mineral waters available on Croatian market. For their determination a procedure for their simultaneous separation from the water samples was used. After addition of 209Po tracer and lead carrier, radionuclides were preconcentrated from large volume by MnO 2 and their separation from interfering elements by Sr resin was done. 210Po source for alpha-particle spectrometric measurement was prepared by selfdeposition on silver disc, while lead was precipitated as lead sulphate and the beta activity of its daughter 210Bi was counted on a beta proportional counter. The results obtained show that values for activity concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in all examined waters are in accordance with allowed activity concentration according to the European Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom and Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, published by WHO in 2006. (author)

  8. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2010: series of public opinion surveys.

    Radin, Dagmar; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Benkovic, Vanesa

    2011-10-15

    To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking.

  9. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2009: series of public opinion surveys

    Radin, Dagmar; Džakula, Aleksandar; Benković, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. Methods The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Results Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Conclusion Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking. PMID:21990075

  10. Towards sustainable fishery management for skates in South America: The genetic population structure of Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma (Chondrichthyes, Rajiformes in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    Carolina Vargas-Caro

    Full Text Available The longnose skates (Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma are the main component of the elasmobranch fisheries in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Both species are considered to be a single stock by the fishery management in Chile however, little is known about the level of demographic connectivity within the fishery. In this study, we used a genetic variation (560 bp of the control region of the mitochondrial genome and ten microsatellite loci to explore population connectivity at five locations along the Chilean coast. Analysis of Z. chilensis populations revealed significant genetic structure among off-shore locations (San Antonio, Valdivia, two locations in the Chiloé Interior Sea (Puerto Montt and Aysén and Punta Arenas in southern Chile. For example, mtDNA haplotype diversity was similar across off-shore locations and Punta Arenas (h = 0.46-0.50, it was significantly different to those in the Chiloé Interior Sea (h = 0.08. These results raise concerns about the long-term survival of the species within the interior sea, as population resilience will rely almost exclusively on self-recruitment. In contrast, little evidence of genetic structure was found for D. trachyderma. Our results provide evidence for three management units for Z. chilensis, and we recommend that separate management arrangements are required for each of these units. However, there is no evidence to discriminate the extant population of Dipturus trachyderma as separate management units. The lack of genetic population subdivision for D. trachyderma appears to correspond with their higher dispersal ability and more offshore habitat preference.

  11. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  12. Distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature in an aged population in South China.

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Weirong

    2016-05-01

    Ocular biometry is important for preoperative assessment in cataract and anterior segment surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate normative ocular biometric parameters and their associations in an older Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional observational study. From 2013 to 2014, we recruited inhabitants aged 50 years or older in Guangzhou, China. Among 1,117 participants in the study, data from 1,015 phakic right eyes were used for analyses. Ocular parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (K) were measured using an IOL Master. The mean AL, ACD, and K were 23.48 mm [95 % confidence interval (CI), 23.40-23.55], 3.03 mm (CI, 3.01-3.05), and 44.20 mm (CI, 44.11-44.29), respectively. A mean reduction in ACD with age was observed (P = 0.002) in male subjects but not in female subjects (P = 0.558). Male subjects had significantly longer ALs (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P population in South China. The AL in this Chinese cohort was greater than that observed in the Singaporean Chinese but smaller than that observed in Malaysia and for Caucasians. The Chinese have a shallower ACD than some other racial groups. Age and sex were the most consistent predictors of ocular biometry in the older population from South China.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA including Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47, Bonsmara (n=44, Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29. Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR, expected heterozygosity (He and inbreeding coefficient (f. Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei’s genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE. Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner to 1.73 (Nguni. Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He=0.24 and the Drakensberger cattle (He=0.30 had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of South African cattle breeds.

  14. [Knowledge of the general population about hypertension and diabetes mellitus in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Katchunga, P B; Malanda, B; Mweze, M C; Dupont, B; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Kashongwe, Z; Kabinda, J M; Buysschaert, M

    2012-04-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country in a post-conflict period, high priority cannot be given to non-communicable diseases other than to emergencies. This certainly involves inadequacy in raising awareness for prevention of these diseases. To evaluate the level of knowledge of the Congolese general population on hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Responses to a questionnaire from 3% of the general population aged 15 and older in the city of Bukavu and two rural areas: Hombo and Walungu (South Kivu, eastern DRC), recruited after stratification by ward in the city of Bukavu and a group of prone villages were expected. The questions focused on identification, testing, causes, complications and treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Of the 7770 respondents, screening for hypertension and diabetes mellitus affected only 14.9% and 7.3% of subjects respectively. Knowledge of these two conditions was generally low in the general population, although better in the subgroups of patients and those with higher socioeconomic level (Pknowledge (Pknowledge about hypertension and diabetes mellitus and their testing in South Kivu is low. It is imperative that the Congolese government includes non-communicable diseases in its priorities of the millennium. Similarly, the WHO should actively contribute to screening for them in low-income countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  16. Phylogeography and sex-biased dispersal across riverine manatee populations (Trichechus inunguis and Trichechus manatus in South America.

    Paula Satizábal

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments.

  17. Why do we need to integrate population genetics into South African ...

    South Africa is home to a wide variety of marine flora and fauna distributed over at least three biogeographic provinces. Currently, 9% of the coastline is protected by 'no-take' marine protected areas (MPAs), but the distribution of MPAs is uneven between regions. This paper argues that in order for an MPA network to be ...

  18. Multilocus genotypes indicate differentiation among Puccinia psidii populations from South America and Hawaii

    R. N. Graca; A. C. Alfenas; A. L. Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; T. L. Peever; P. G. Cannon; J. Y. Uchida; C. Y. Kadooka; R. D. Hauff

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia psidii is the cause of rust disease of many host species in the Myrtaceae family, including guava (Psidium spp.), eucalypt (Eucalyptus spp.), rose apple (Syzygium jambos), and 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha). First reported in 1884 on guava in Brazil, the rust has since been detected in South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay,...

  19. Vigorous dynamics underlie a stable population of the endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia in Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia.

    Koustubh Sharma

    Full Text Available Population monitoring programmes and estimation of vital rates are key to understanding the mechanisms of population growth, decline or stability, and are important for effective conservation action. We report, for the first time, the population trends and vital rates of the endangered snow leopard based on camera trapping over four years in the Tost Mountains, South Gobi, Mongolia. We used robust design multi-season mark-recapture analysis to estimate the trends in abundance, sex ratio, survival probability and the probability of temporary emigration and immigration for adult and young snow leopards. The snow leopard population remained constant over most of the study period, with no apparent growth (λ = 1.08+-0.25. Comparison of model results with the "known population" of radio-collared snow leopards suggested high accuracy in our estimates. Although seemingly stable, vigorous underlying dynamics were evident in this population, with the adult sex ratio shifting from being male-biased to female-biased (1.67 to 0.38 males per female during the study. Adult survival probability was 0.82 (SE+-0.08 and that of young was 0.83 (SE+-0.15 and 0.77 (SE +-0.2 respectively, before and after the age of 2 years. Young snow leopards showed a high probability of temporary emigration and immigration (0.6, SE +-0.19 and 0.68, SE +-0.32 before and after the age of 2 years though not the adults (0.02 SE+-0.07. While the current female-bias in the population and the number of cubs born each year seemingly render the study population safe, the vigorous dynamics suggests that the situation can change quickly. The reduction in the proportion of male snow leopards may be indicative of continuing anthropogenic pressures. Our work reiterates the importance of monitoring both the abundance and population dynamics of species for effective conservation.

  20. Environmental challenges for the sustainable development in the Croatian North Adriatic littoral region = Okoljski izzivi trajnostnega razvoja v hrvaškem delu Severnega Jadrana

    Mladen Maradin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geographical aspects of sustainable development in a part of theNorth Adriatic region in the Republic of Croatia. This sensitive region is confronted withproblems of space management, water supply, waste management, transportation and energy,especially during the tourist season because of the pressure on infrastructure in the coastalregion where there is a great concentration of population and tourist capacities. Anotherenvironmental problem is the oil transportation by a pipeline which is planned to be built inthe frames of Russian-Croatian project Družba-Adria.

  1. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M

    2017-01-01

    focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. Methods: We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four...... budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes...... and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs....

  2. Cercospora zeina from Maize in South Africa Exhibits High Genetic Diversity and Lack of Regional Population Differentiation.

    Muller, Mischa F; Barnes, Irene; Kunene, Ncobile T; Crampton, Bridget G; Bluhm, Burton H; Phillips, Sonia M; Olivier, Nicholas A; Berger, Dave K

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is one of the leading maize-producing countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 1980s, Cercospora zeina, a causal agent of gray leaf spot of maize, has become endemic in South Africa, and is responsible for substantial yield reductions. To assess genetic diversity and population structure of C. zeina in South Africa, 369 isolates were collected from commercial maize farms in three provinces (KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, and North West). These isolates were evaluated with 14 microsatellite markers and species-specific mating type markers that were designed from draft genome sequences of C. zeina isolates from Africa (CMW 25467) and the United States (USPA-4). Sixty alleles were identified across 14 loci, and gene diversity values within each province ranged from 0.18 to 0.35. High levels of gene flow were observed (Nm = 5.51), and in a few cases, identical multilocus haplotypes were found in different provinces. Overall, 242 unique multilocus haplotypes were identified with a low clonal fraction of 34%. No distinct population clusters were identified using STRUCTURE, principal coordinate analysis, or Weir's theta θ statistic. The lack of population differentiation was supported by analysis of molecular variance tests, which indicated that only 2% of the variation was attributed to variability between populations from each province. Mating type ratios of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs from 335 isolates were not significantly different from a 1:1 ratio in all provinces, which provided evidence for sexual reproduction. The draft genome of C. zeina CMW 25467 exhibited a complete genomic copy of the MAT1-1 idiomorph as well as exonic fragments of MAT genes from both idiomorphs. The high level of gene diversity, shared haplotypes at different geographical locations within South Africa, and presence of both MAT idiomorphs at all sites indicates widespread dispersal of C. zeina between maize fields in the country as well as evidence for sexual recombination. The

  3. Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-5L: South Australian population norms.

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Currow, David C; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2016-09-20

    Although a five level version of the widely-used EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument has been developed, population norms are not yet available for Australia to inform the future valuation of health in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to estimate HrQOL normative values for the EQ-5D-5L preference-based measure in a large, randomly selected, community sample in South Australia. The EQ-5D-5L instrument was included in the 2013 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey, an interviewer-administered, face-to-face, cross-sectional survey. Respondents rated their level of impairment across dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) and global health rating on a visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Utility scores were derived using the newly-developed UK general population-based algorithm and relationships between utility and EQ-VAS scores and socio-demographic factors were also explored using multivariate regression analyses. Ultimately, 2,908 adults participated in the survey (63.4 % participation rate). The mean utility and EQ-VAS scores were 0.91 (95 CI 0.90, 0.91) and 78.55 (95 % CI 77.95, 79.15), respectively. Almost half of respondents reported no problems across all dimensions (42.8 %), whereas only 7.2 % rated their health >90 on the EQ-VAS (100 = the best health you can imagine). Younger age, male gender, longer duration of education, higher annual household income, employment and marriage/de facto relationships were all independent, statistically significant predictors of better health status (p measured with the EQ-VAS. Only age and employment status were associated with higher utility scores, indicating fundamental differences between these measures of health status. This is the first Australian study to apply the EQ-5D-5L in a large, community sample. Overall, findings are consistent with EQ-5D-5L utility and VAS scores reported for other countries and indicate that the majority of South

  4. Towards a population information network for the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN POPIN).

    Feliciano, G D

    1982-04-01

    ASEAN POPIN was inspired by the work of various international organizations in developing or strengthening capabilities of countries to share population information, and nurtured by the recognition by ASEAN heads of population programs that population information is essential to policy making and program development. Population information has been made a focal point of ASEAN country population programs in various ways, and there has been some attempt to coordinate a sharing of information. Some form of informal network exists in each country among producers, channellers and users of population information. With a view toward strengthening these within and later among the countries, an ASEAN POPIN project was agreed upon in 1979 and a draft proposal developed. The proposal was approved after a series of meetings with ASEAN population program heads. Objectives and expectations of the program, plan of work, strategy of implementation, and past and current activities of the project are briefly summarized and areas of concern and needs discussed.

  5. Genetic structure in contemporary south Tyrolean isolated populations revealed by analysis of Y-chromosome, mtDNA, and Alu polymorphisms.

    Pichler, Irene; Mueller, Jakob C; Stefanov, Stefan A; De Grandi, Alessandro; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Pinggera, Gerd K; Mayr, Agnes; Ogriseg, Martin; Ploner, Franz; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2006-08-01

    Most of the inhabitants of South Tyrol in the eastern Italian Alps can be considered isolated populations because of their physical separation by mountain barriers and their sociocultural heritage. We analyzed the genetic structure of South Tyrolean populations using three types of genetic markers: Y-chromosome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and autosomal Alu markers. Using random samples taken from the populations of Val Venosta, Val Pusteria, Val Isarco, Val Badia, and Val Gardena, we calculated genetic diversity within and among the populations. Microsatellite diversity and unique event polymorphism diversity (on the Y chromosome) were substantially lower in the Ladin-speaking population of Val Badia compared to the neighboring German-speaking populations. In contrast, the genetic diversity of mtDNA haplotypes was lowest for the upper Val Venosta and Val Pusteria. These data suggest a low effective population size, or little admixture, for the gene pool of the Ladin-speaking population from Val Badia. Interestingly, this is more pronounced for Ladin males than for Ladin females. For the pattern of genetic Alu variation, both Ladin samples (Val Gardena and Val Badia) are among the samples with the lowest diversity. An admixture analysis of one German-speaking valley (Val Venosta) indicates a relatively high genetic contribution of Ladin origin. The reduced genetic diversity and a high genetic differentiation in the Rhaetoroman- and German-speaking South Tyrolean populations may constitute an important basis for future medical genetic research and gene mapping studies in South Tyrol.

  6. Influence of Port Policy on the Development of Croatian Container Ports

    Čedomir Dundović

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the port development throughoutthe world from the aspect of economical, transport and portpolicy and their mutual impact on commerce and efficiency ofports. By examining such relations in the context of developmentof the Croatian container ports, it is possible to define reasonsfor lagging behind of Croatian ports compared to theworld movements.The main reason for the negative trend of development ofCroatian container ports lies in the non-existence of adequatemeasures of transport, maritime and port policy. Analysis ofstatistics over the past decade and comparison of structure andvolume of the general cargo traffic in the Rijeka port and theneighbouring ports in the area of North Adriatic are both showingsignificant size discrepancy and uncompetitiveness of theCroatian port. Disturbances that have brought to such a situationresult from inadequate port policy and non-harmonisedactivities between various modes of transport.In order to overcome such situation, the authors suggest determiningof clear tasks, goals and measures of the port policythat have to be undertaken so that the Croatian policy could becompatible with the main aspects, development tendencies andmeasures of theE U port policy.

  7. Centuries-Long Trends in the Linguistic Integration of Croatian Society

    Amir Kapetanović

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the history of the Croatian language, particularly the paths of the gradual linguistic integration of all Croats and the development of the standard language (based upon the Štokavian dialect within Croatian society, whose members have spoken three dialects (Čakavian, Štokavian, Kajkavian since the Middle Ages. Because of the multidialectal situation (all three dialects played an important role in the history of the Croatian language, linguistic integration was a complex process. The use of the Croatian language before national integrality in the 19th century may look complicated and disunified, but this article attempts to show the old connections between different dialectal areas and the realization of two the main conceptions of the construction of Croatian superdialectal (literary expression in linguistic history: a literary language with a single-dialect basis (but with multi-dialectal infiltration within the superstructure and a literary (hybrid type of language based upon at least two dialects.

  8. Model suggests potential for Porites coral population recovery after removal of anthropogenic disturbance (Luhuitou, Hainan, South China Sea).

    Zhao, Meixia; Riegl, Bernhard; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Qiaomin; Liu, Guohui; Yang, Hongqiang; Yan, Hongqiang

    2016-09-13

    Population models are important for resource management and can inform about potential trajectories useful for planning purposes, even with incomplete monitoring data. From size frequency data on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, South China Sea, a matrix population model of massive corals (Porites lutea) was developed and trajectories over 100 years under no disturbance and random disturbances were projected. The model reflects a largely open population of Porites lutea, with low local recruitment and preponderance of imported recruitment. Under no further disturbance, the population of Porites lutea will grow and its size structure will change from predominance of small size classes to large size classes. Therewith, total Porites cover will increase. Even under random disturbances every 10 to 20 years, the Porites population could remain viable, albeit at lower space cover. The models suggest recovery at Luhuitou following the removal of chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Extending the area of coral reef reserves to protect the open coral community and the path of connectivity is advisable and imperative for the conservation of Hainan's coral reefs.

  9. Model suggests potential for Porites coral population recovery after removal of anthropogenic disturbance (Luhuitou, Hainan, South China Sea)

    Zhao, Meixia; Riegl, Bernhard; Yu, Kefu; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Qiaomin; Liu, Guohui; Yang, Hongqiang; Yan, Hongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Population models are important for resource management and can inform about potential trajectories useful for planning purposes, even with incomplete monitoring data. From size frequency data on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, South China Sea, a matrix population model of massive corals (Porites lutea) was developed and trajectories over 100 years under no disturbance and random disturbances were projected. The model reflects a largely open population of Porites lutea, with low local recruitment and preponderance of imported recruitment. Under no further disturbance, the population of Porites lutea will grow and its size structure will change from predominance of small size classes to large size classes. Therewith, total Porites cover will increase. Even under random disturbances every 10 to 20 years, the Porites population could remain viable, albeit at lower space cover. The models suggest recovery at Luhuitou following the removal of chronic anthropogenic disturbance. Extending the area of coral reef reserves to protect the open coral community and the path of connectivity is advisable and imperative for the conservation of Hainan’s coral reefs.

  10. Census and vaccination coverage of owned dog populations in four resource-limited rural communities, Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    Conan, Anne; Geerdes, Joy A C; Akerele, Oluyemisi A; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Knobel, Darryn

    2017-09-22

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0-3 months excluded) among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% - 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah). For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16) to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.

  11. Association analysis of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the RELN gene with autism in the South African population

    Sharma, Jyoti Rajan

    2013-02-01

    Background: Autism (MIM209850) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a triad of impairments, namely impairment in social interaction, impaired communication skills, and restrictive and repetitive behavior. A number of family and twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors play a pivotal role in the etiology of autistic disorder. Various reports of reduced levels of reelin protein in the brain and plasma in autistic patients highlighted the role of the reelin gene (RELN) in autism. There is no such published study on the South African (SA) population. Aims: The aim of the present study was to find the genetic association of intronic rs736707 and exonic rs362691 (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] of the RELN gene) with autism in a SA population. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from cheek cell swabs from autistic (136) as well as control (208) subjects. The TaqMan ® Real-Time polymerase chain reaction and genotyping assay was utilized to determine the genotypes. Results: A significant association of SNP rs736707, but not for SNP rs362691, with autism in the SA population is observed. Conclusion: There might be a possible role of RELN in autism, especially for SA populations. The present study represents the first report on genetic association studies on the RELN gene in the SA population. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  12. CROATIAN WINE SECTOR IN THE LIGHT OF THE EU ACCESSION

    Jasna Čačić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The accession process of The Republic of Croatia towards the membership in the European Union demands preparation and adjustment of the whole economy including agriculture. Wine sector, as one of the most complex agriculture sectors regarding European legislation framework, is finding itself on the point of rapid changes. The wine producers as well as the state have to adjust themselves to the new rules and to the new legal framework. The paper has analysed the current situation in the Croatian wine sector, explored the need for establishment of an institution that could help producers in wine marketing as well as the role of the government. According to the survey 73.6% wine producers sell their wine exclusively on the domestic market and 26.4% producers sell it on both domestic and international market. The results have indicated that 53.6% of the producers expect wine sale difficulties after Croatia enters the EU. According to the producers’ opinion the government should establish the institution that could help producers in marketing and consulting activities.

  13. Is Yessotoxin the Main Phycotoxin in Croatian Waters?

    Živana Ninčević Gladan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether yessotoxin (YTX is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP events in Croatian waters, three different methods were combined: a modified mouse bioassay (MBA that discriminates YTX from other DSP toxins, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Among 453 samples of mussels and seawater analyzed in 2007, 10 samples were DSP positive. Results obtained by the modified MBA method revealed that most of the samples were positive for YTX, with the exception of samples from Lim Bay (LB 1 The ELISA method also identified the presence of YTX in these samples. DSP toxin profiles showed the presence of okadaic acid (OA in three, and YTX in four out of nine samples that were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The phytoplankton community structure pattern revealed Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein Dodge, which was present in the water prior to and/or during toxicity events at low concentrations (80 to 1440 cells L-1, as a potential YTX producing species. It is proposed that L. polyedrum cells accumulated in mussels and the subsequently observed toxicity may be related to metabolism after ingestion, resulting in carboxy YTX as the major analog in the mussel.

  14. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  15. Subsidies in Croatian agriculture and adjustment to the EU

    Ramona Franić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available After the Croatian independence and re-adoption of the free trade principles, in political debates agriculture got the role of one of the basic pillar in economic development. There is intention to protect domestic agriculture against much more developed western European agriculture and to support its competitiveness, respecting at the same time the requirements of the international trade agreements asking for decreasing domestic protection. The reform of agricultural price policy started in 1988, due to the trade policy reform within the requirements imposed by the membership in the World Trade Organization. Recent changes from 2003 tend to simplify the system of agricultural support and to equalize the level of incentives. Together with existing production subsidies, new models of income support, capital investments and rural development are introduced. The reform predicts harmonization of domestic agricultural policy measures with those conducted or should be conducted in the EU. It means the shift from the old way of supporting European agricultural markets, toward incentives for European farmer, in the way that in total support prevails income, and not production support.

  16. Risk factors for bruxism among Croatian navy employees.

    Alajbeg, I Z; Zuvela, A; Tarle, Z

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between bruxism, and sociodemographic parameters, symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), personality and war experience among Croatian navy employees. The sample included 1092 subjects, aged 20-60 years (mean age 37·06 ± 7·85). An individual's bruxism status was based on clinical oral examination and participants' report of bruxism. Subjects with bruxism index values ≥ 90th percentile were included in severe bruxism group (n = 111), and those with scores below 90th percentile were labelled as negligible bruxism group (n = 981). No differences were found in gender distribution between the two groups. The proportion of military personnel presenting with bruxism is double the proportion of administrative employees with bruxism. A total of 23·34% subjects in negligible bruxism group and 48·65% in severe bruxism group participated in the war. Subjects in severe bruxism group presented more TMD-related signs and symptoms than those in negligible bruxism group. Higher prevalence of neuroticism and psychoticism was found in severe bruxism group. According to logistic regression, the probability of severe bruxism was significantly associated with marital status [Odds ratio (OR) 6·859, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·869-12·158 P bruxism than non-smokers. Subjects who participated in war were more represented in severe bruxism group. Further studies, including other potential risk factors, are required to clarify these relationships. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. CAN FOOD BE A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF CROATIAN TOURISM?

    Mirna Leko Šimić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in is one of the most efficient and competitive industries in Croatia. According to the Croatian National Bank (2015, with an income of 7.4 billion Euros in 2014, it contributes 17.2% to the national GDP. From the marketing point of view, it is one of the most crucial images of Croatia internationally. However, for decades tourism in Croatia was marked as “3S” (sun, sand and sea. This means that its competitiveness was based primarily on natural resources. Apart from price differentiation, such positioning has removed the characteristics that differentiate it from other Mediterranean destinations and has resulted in the existing problems of high seasonality, low ROI, low value added, etc. The major goal of this paper is to analyse the opportunity of increasing the tourism value added by developing food tourism as a special tourist product of Croatia. The research is in line with the goals of the national tourism development strategy which emphasizes the need to create value added to the national economy by valorisation and protection of available resources, market repositioning and new identity creation as well as enabling additional market opportunities for local products. Food tourism perfectly matches these goals. A pilot research of supply (hotels and restaurants, local tourist associations, souvenir shops and demand (foreign tourists was conducted and potential for such development was identified. The gaps in attitudes and opinions between supply and demand of food tourism is analysed and discussed and appropriate marketing activities are suggested.

  18. Critical Mass in the Boardroom of Croatian Banks

    Kramaric Tomislava Pavic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of gender diversity in the boardroom of Croatian banks on their performance. Specifically, we deal with both management and supervisory boards. Moreover, based on critical mass theory, the authors try to find out what constitutes critical mass. Using a static panel analysis on a sample of all commercial banks that operated in the period 2002-2014, three models were estimated with return on assets (ROA, return on equity (ROE and net interest margin (NIM as dependent variables. Board structure variables include gender of the chairperson, size of the board, share of women on the board and four dummy variables constructed on critical mass theory, specifically uniform group, skewed group, tilted group and balanced group. Other controls employed in the model include capital adequacy, the growth rate of assets at the bank level, ownership, age and a crisis dummy. The main finding is that when a critical mass of 20%-40% of women on the management board has been reached, bank performance improves.

  19. Skin health and safety at work in Croatian hairdressing apprentices.

    Samardžić, Tea; Varnai, Veda Marija; Bakotić, Marija; Babić, Željka; Brans, Richard; Cvijetić Avdagić, Selma; Štampar Šmaguc, Darinka; Kovačević, Iva; Macan, Jelena

    2016-07-01

    The risk of developing occupational skin disease (OSD) is high in hairdressers, but may differ between countries. To evaluate safety at work measures, and the prevalence and severity of skin symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL), among Croatian hairdressing apprentices. Data on self-reported skin symptoms, safety measures and QoL were collected for 101 final-year apprentices. The presence and severity of skin lesions were assessed with the Osnabrueck Hand Eczema Severity Index (OHSI). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured on the forearm and hand. Ninety-one percent of apprentices reported wearing gloves while dyeing hair, 45% while rinsing hair dyes, and 4% while washing hair. A history of skin symptoms was found in 35% of apprentices, and a history of dry hands in 37%. Skin changes were clinically observed in 40% of apprentices, most frequently erythema, infiltration, and desquamation. The OHSI score ranged from 0 to 6. Only washing hands >20 times per day was positively associated with TEWL. A history of skin symptoms negatively correlated with self-esteem, and social and mental functioning, and positively with anxiety and depression. The results indicate the need for the continuation of efforts to establish effective primary preventive programmes for OSDs at national and EU levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Aspartic acid racemization in dentin of the third molar for age estimation of the Chaoshan population in South China.

    Chen, Shisheng; Lv, Yanyi; Wang, Dian; Yu, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    Aspartic acid racemization in teeth has been increasingly used to estimate chronological age with a considerably high accuracy in forensic practice. The Chaoshan population in South China is relatively isolated in geography, and has specific lifestyle and dietary inhibits. It is still unknown whether this method is suitable for this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between chronological age and the d/l aspartic acid ratio in dentin in the third molar tooth of the Chaoshan population. Fifty-eight non-carious third molar teeth (31 mandibles and 27 maxillae), from 58 living individuals of known age (24 males and 34 females), were retrieved. Dentin was extracted from these teeth. The d- and l-aspartic acids in dentins were separated and detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Linear regression was performed between the d/l aspartic acid ratio of dentins and chronological age. Results showed that the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.969, and the mean absolute error (MAE) was 2.19 years, its standard deviation (SD) was ±1.53 years, indicating excellent correlation. There was no significant difference in racemization rates of dentin between sexes (P=0.113, F=2.6), or between mandibles and maxillae (P=0.964, F=0.000). Results indicate that the ratio of the d and l forms of aspartic acid of dentins, in the third molar, is closely correlated with chronological age, special lifestyle do no obviously affect the accuracy of the age estimations by aspartic acid racemization of the dentin in the third molar and that aspartic acid racemization in the third molar dentin can be used as an accurate method to estimate chronological age in the Chaoshan population in South China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) on a local population of Euphorbia bothae in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa

    Luske, B.L.; Mertens, T.; Lent, P.C.; Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) feed extensively on a local population of Euphorbia bothae. Maintaining the endangered black rhinoceros and the protected E. bothae population are both conservation priorities of the reserve. Therefore, the

  3. Incidence and Clinical Outcomes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in South Korea, 2011-2014: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Han, Minkyung; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Sohee; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in East Asia; however, population-based data from this region are lacking. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study to examine the incidence and disease course of IBD in South Korea. Using the National Health Insurance claims data, we collected data on patients diagnosed with IBD [10,049 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 5595 with Crohn's disease (CD)] from 2011 to 2014. During the study period, the average annual incidence of UC was 5.0 per 10 5 , while that of CD was 2.8 per 10 5 . Among patients with UC, the cumulative rates of surgery 1 and 4 years after diagnosis were 1.0 and 2.0%; those among patients with CD were 9.0 and 13.9%, respectively. The 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of moderate- to high-dose corticosteroid use were, respectively, 26.6 and 45.2% among patients with UC, and 29.9 and 50.8% among those with CD. Similarly, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates of immunomodulator use were 14.1 and 26.4% among patients with UC, and 58.3 and 76.1% among those with CD, respectively. With regard to biologic use, the 1- and 4-year cumulative rates were 3.0 and 9.0% among patients with UC, and 11.1 and 31.7% among those with CD, respectively. The recent incidence of IBD in South Korea has been the highest in East Asia. Patients who had been diagnosed recently with IBD showed lower rates of surgery and higher rates of immunomodulator and biologic use compared to those reported ever in South Korea.

  4. South Polar Skua breeding populations in the Ross Sea assessed from demonstrated relationship with Adélie Penguin numbers

    Wilson, Deborah J.; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Greene, Terry C.; Whitehead, Amy L.; Dugger, Catherine; Karl, Brian J.; Barringer, James R. F.; McGarry, Roger; Pollard, Annie M.; Ainley, David G.

    2017-01-01

    In the Ross Sea region, most South Polar Skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki) nest near Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies, preying and scavenging on fish, penguins, and other carrion. To derive a relationship to predict skua numbers from better-quantified penguin numbers, we used distance sampling to estimate breeding skua numbers within 1000 m of 5 penguin nesting locations (Cape Crozier, Cape Royds, and 3 Cape Bird locations) on Ross Island in 3 consecutive years. Estimated numbers of skua breeding pairs were highest at Cape Crozier (270,000 penguin pairs; 1099 and 1347 skua pairs in 2 respective years) and lowest at Cape Royds (3000 penguin pairs; 45 skua pairs). The log–log linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) between pairs of skuas and penguins was highly significant, and most historical estimates of skua and penguin numbers in the Ross Sea were within 95 % prediction intervals of the regression. Applying our regression model to current Adélie Penguin colony sizes at 23 western Ross Sea locations predicted that 4635 pairs of skuas now breed within 1000 m of penguin colonies in the Ross Island metapopulation (including Beaufort Island) and northern Victoria Land. We estimate, using published skua estimates for elsewhere in Antarctica, that the Ross Sea South Polar Skua population comprises ~50 % of the world total, although this may be an overestimate because of incomplete data elsewhere. To improve predictions and enable measurement of future skua population change, we recommend additional South Polar Skua surveys using consistent distance-sampling methods at penguin colonies of a range of sizes.

  5. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in Central and South American populations.

    Jara, Lilian; Morales, Sebastian; de Mayo, Tomas; Gonzalez-Hormazabal, Patricio; Carrasco, Valentina; Godoy, Raul

    2017-10-06

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. A major advance in the understanding of the genetic etiology of BC was the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes, which are considered high-penetrance BC genes. In non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, disease susceptibility may be explained of a small number of mutations in BRCA1/2 and a much higher proportion of mutations in ethnicity-specific moderate- and/or low-penetrance genes. In Central and South American populations, studied have focused on analyzing the distribution and prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations and other susceptibility genes that are scarce in Latin America as compared to North America, Europe, Australia, and Israel. Thus, the aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenic BRCA variants and other BC susceptibility genes. We conducted a comprehensive review of 47 studies from 12 countries in Central and South America published between 2002 and 2017 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of mutations and pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 and other BC susceptibility genes. The studies on BRCA1/2 mutations screened a total of 5956 individuals, and studies on susceptibility genes analyzed a combined sample size of 11,578 individuals. To date, a total of 190 different BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations in Central and South American populations have been reported in the literature. Pathogenic mutations or variants that increase BC risk have been reported in the following genes or genomic regions: ATM, BARD1, CHECK2, FGFR2, GSTM1, MAP3K1, MTHFR, PALB2, RAD51, TOX3, TP53, XRCC1, and 2q35.

  6. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study.

    Tyler Hyungtaek Rim

    Full Text Available Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC. The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60-79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period.

  7. A pharmacogenetic study of CD4 recovery in response to HIV antiretroviral therapy in two South African population groups.

    Parathyras, John; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann-Rebello, Renate; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Venter, Mauritz; Warnich, Louise

    2009-05-01

    South Africa, like many other Southern African countries, has one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world and many individuals consequently receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, knowledge regarding (i) the prevalence of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pharmacologically relevant genes, and (ii) variance in pharmacotherapy both within and between different populations and ethnic groups is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether selected polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP2B6 and CYP3A4) and the multidrug-resistance 1 (ABCB1) gene underlie altered antiretroviral (ARV) drug response in two South African populations. DNA samples from 182 HIV-positive individuals of Mixed-Ancestry and Xhosa ethnicity on ART were genotyped for the A-392G SNP in CYP3A4, the G516T and A785G SNPs in CYP2B6, and the T-129C, C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T SNPs in ABCB1. Univariate two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing revealed no apparent effect of ethnicity on immune recovery (in terms of CD4-cell count) in response to ART. Univariate one-way ANOVA testing revealed a discernible effect of genotype on immune recovery in the cases of the T-129C (P=0.03) and G2677A (P<0.01) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene. This study serves as a basis for better understanding and possible prediction of pharmacogenetic risk profiles and drug response in individuals and ethnic groups in South Africa.

  8. Clinical epidemiology of long-term suicide risk in a nationwide population-based cohort study in South Korea.

    Lee, Hyewon; Myung, Woojae; Lee, Chunsoo; Choi, Junbae; Kim, Ho; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a large range of clinical factors on the long-term risk of suicide in the general population of South Korea. We analyzed the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) database in South Korea. A total of 300,232 individuals were followed for up to 12 years. We obtained information on demographic variables (age and sex), lifestyle variables (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and exercise), psychiatric and physical disorders, laboratory examination results and physical examination findings. We conducted a competing risk survival analysis to estimate the risk of completed suicide. 725 individuals (241/100,000) died by suicide in the follow-up period. After Bonferroni correction, we found a significant suicide risk associated with 6 variables: Parkinson's disease, depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (inverted association), elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels, male gender and age. Before Bonferroni correction, variables such as cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, psychotic disorder, other psychiatric disorder, benzodiazepine use and higher fasting glucose showed some significant association. In addition, body mass index and height were inversely related to completed suicide before Bonferroni correction. However, only the 6 variables listed above were robust predictors of suicide in the fully adjusted analyses with multiple test correction. Common medical conditions had no clear influence on suicide. Diverse clinical factors influenced the long-term risk of completed suicide in this general population sample. Comprehensive assessment of these risk factors will facilitate more focused suicide surveillance measures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Molecular and genealogical evidence for a founder effect in Fanconi anemia families of the Afrikaner population of South Africa

    Tipping, A. J.; Pearson, T.; Morgan, N. V.; Gibson, R. A.; Kuyt, L. P.; Havenga, C.; Gluckman, E.; Joenje, H.; de Ravel, T.; Jansen, S.; Mathew, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder associated with progressive aplastic anemia, congenital abnormalities, and cancer. FA has a very high incidence in the Afrikaner population of South Africa, possibly due to a founder effect. Previously we observed allelic association between polymorphic markers flanking the FA group A gene (FANCA) and disease chromosomes in Afrikaners. We genotyped 26 FA families with microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphic markers and detected five FANCA haplotypes. Mutation scanning of the FANCA gene revealed association of these haplotypes with four different mutations. The most common was an intragenic deletion of exons 12–31, accounting for 60% of FA chromosomes in 46 unrelated Afrikaner FA patients, while two other mutations accounted for an additional 20%. Screening for these mutations in the European populations ancestral to the Afrikaners detected one patient from the Western Ruhr region of Germany who was heterozygous for the major deletion. The mutation was associated with the same unique FANCA haplotype as in Afrikaner patients. Genealogical investigation of 12 Afrikaner families with FA revealed that all were descended from a French Huguenot couple who arrived at the Cape on June 5, 1688, whereas mutation analysis showed that the carriers of the major mutation were descendants of this same couple. The molecular and genealogical evidence is consistent with transmission of the major mutation to Western Germany and the Cape near the end of the 17th century, confirming the existence of a founder effect for FA in South Africa. PMID:11344308

  10. Psychometric properties of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form in a South African population.

    Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2017-04-01

    The Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short-Form (SPSI-R:SF) has been used in several countries to identify problem-solving deficits among clinical and general populations in order to guide cognitive-behavioural interventions. Yet, very few studies have evaluated its psychometric properties. Three language versions of the questionnaire were administered to a general population sample comprising 1000 participants (771 English-, 178 Afrikaans- and 101 Xhosa-speakers). Of these participants, 210 were randomly selected to establish test-retest reliability (70 in each language). Principal component analysis was performed to examine the applicability of the factor structure of the original questionnaire to the South African data. Supplementary psychometric analyses were performed, including internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Collectively, results provide initial evidence of the reliability and validity of the SPSI-R:SF for the assessment of problem solving deficits in South Africa. Further studies that explore how the Afrikaans language version of the SPSI-R:SF can be improved and that establish the predictive validity of scores on the SPSI-R:SF are needed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Africanization of a feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) population in South Texas: does a decade make a difference?

    Rangel, Juliana; Giresi, Melissa; Pinto, Maria Alice; Baum, Kristen A; Rubink, William L; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, John Spencer

    2016-04-01

    The arrival to the United States of the Africanized honey bee, a hybrid between European subspecies and the African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata, is a remarkable model for the study of biological invasions. This immigration has created an opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of honey bee subspecies from African and European lineages in a feral population in South Texas. An 11-year survey of this population (1991-2001) showed that mitochondrial haplotype frequencies changed drastically over time from a resident population of eastern and western European maternal ancestry, to a population dominated by the African haplotype. A subsequent study of the nuclear genome showed that the Africanization process included bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honey bees, giving rise to a new panmictic mixture of A. m. scutellata- and European-derived genes. In this study, we examined gene flow patterns in the same population 23 years after the first hybridization event occurred. We found 28 active colonies inhabiting 92 tree cavities surveyed in a 5.14 km(2) area, resulting in a colony density of 5.4 colonies/km(2). Of these 28 colonies, 25 were of A. m. scutellata maternal ancestry, and three were of western European maternal ancestry. No colonies of eastern European maternal ancestry were detected, although they were present in the earlier samples. Nuclear DNA revealed little change in the introgression of A. m. scutellata-derived genes into the population compared to previous surveys. Our results suggest this feral population remains an admixed swarm with continued low levels of European ancestry and a greater presence of African-derived mitochondrial genetic composition.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    Sannapaneni Krishnaiah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sannapaneni Krishnaiah1,2,3, Marmamula Srinivas1,2,3, Rohit C Khanna1,2, Gullapalli N Rao1,2,31L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 2International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 3Vision CRC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293 for this study.Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ≥40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < −0.5 D 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1, high-myopia (SE < −5.0 D 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2, hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7, astigmatism (cylinder < −0.5 D 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2, and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1. The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001. There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001. Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95 and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49. The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia.Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously

  13. Population structure analyses of Staphylococcus aureus at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, reveals a diverse population, a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and unique local methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones

    Oosthuysen, W. F.; Orth, H.; Lombard, C. J.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    Studies reporting on the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in South Africa have focused only on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study describes the population structure of S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from patients at Tygerberg

  14. The influence of outsourcing on achieving business goals in large Croatian companies

    Ivica Parlov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a research conducted in large Croatian companies that intended to connect and establish eventual influences between the usage of outsourcing and achieving business goals in those companies. It was also meant to establish if (and in which segments outsourcing was being used in large Croatian companies, what were the main reasons for its use, if it was conducted according to specific plans and with tracking of achieved results, if expectations that surveyed companies had about outsourcing were met, and what are the future possibilities and perspectives of those companies regarding outsourcing. Many other useful data regarding outsourcing and goal achievement were also collected and linked together in order to establish eventual influences of outsourcing on the effectiveness of making business in large Croatian companies.

  15. LITERARY LANGUAGE AS A SIGN. SEMIOTIC CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CROATIAN LANGUAGE IN THE CULTURAL SYSTEM

    Maciej Czerwiński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the question of the existence of the Croatian literary language in the semiotic space, i.e. the system of culture, is taken into consideration. In order to affirm the idea of the justification of the very term Croatian language, and thus acceptance of the thesis of the existence of such a language, this argumentation is directed towards theoretical investigation in the semiotic field. There is an attempt to envisage that discussions in the post-Yugoslav linguistics are not the problem, conventionally speaking, ‘ontological’ but ‘epistemological’. Thus, it is not important the question whether the Croatian language or any other language, e.g. Montenegrin, exists but rather the following question: what does it mean that literary language exists or does not exist?

  16. Analysis of the Financial Support by the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports to Croatian Scientific Journals

    Macan, B.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports (MSES provides financial support for publishing scientific and scientific/professional journals . The journals should satisfy the following conditions: regular publishing, coherence with the “Notes for editing primary scientific publications”, inclusion in at least one international bibliographic database relevant for the specific scientific field, review procedure, existence of a web page with at least basic information about the journal and a table of contents of the latest issue. The MSES also provides financial help for publishing journals dedicated to promoting science, which is awarded by special decision of the Commission for publishing.2In the year 2007, the MSES financially supported 220 Croatian scientific, scientific/professional journals, and journals for the promotion of science from the fields of humanities, natural, technical, biotechnical, social, biomedical and health care sciences with 15 million Croatian kunas in total.5 More than 50 % of the supported journals are from humanities and social sciences, while only 20 of the titles (9 % belong to biotechnical journals (Fig. 1. Distribution of financial support by scientific fields is similar (Fig. 2. The average financial support is HRK 68,181.82 per journal.The highest average amount per journal is given to journals from biomedical and health care sciences (HRK 83,758.42, while the lowest support is given to humanities journals (HRK54,138.20 (Fig. 3.If we divide the amount of MSES financial support in 2007 into 5 classes, each class being HRK 50,000 , it is obvious that the majority of journals (122 titles or 55.45 % was supported with less than HRK 50,000; about a quarter of the journals with an amount between HRK 50,000 and HRK 100,000; and 11 journals with more than HRK 200,000 (Fig. 4.In order to compare the criteria for scientific advancement (papers published in journals covered by Thomson Scientific databases is given

  17. Risk factors for mortality in a south Indian population on generic antiretroviral therapy.

    Rupali, Priscilla; Mannam, Sam; Bella, Annie; John, Lydia; Rajkumar, S; Clarence, Peace; Pulimood, Susanne A; Samuel, Prasanna; Karthik, Rajiv; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Mathai, Dilip

    2012-12-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs from low-income countries utilizing standardized ART regimens, simplified approaches to clinical decision making and basic lab monitoring have reported high mortality rates. We determined the risk factors for mortality among HIV-infected adults following the initiation of ART from a single center in south India. ART-naive HIV-infected south Indian adults attending the Infectious Diseases clinic in a 2000-bed academic medical center in south India who were initiated on ART (generic, fixed-dose combinations) as per the national guidelines were followed up. Cases (32 patients who died) were compared with age and sex matched controls. Eight-hundred and twenty-two patients were started on ART from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008. The cumulative mortality was 6.8% (56/822). Among the cases mean age was 44 years, 18% were women and mean CD4 counts was 107 cells/microl. Among the controls mean age was 41 years, 18% were women and mean CD4 counts were 113 cells/microl. Stavudine based ART was predominant 62.5% in the cases vs 37.5% in the controls, followed by zidovudine based therapy in 31.2% of cases and 43.7% in the controls. Tenofovir based therapy was used in 6.2% of cases vs 18.7% in the controls. The commonest causes of death were drug toxicity 19%, advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 37%, Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) in 16%, non AIDS related deaths in 22% and malignancies 6%. In a univariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count ART (p=0.001) were significantly associated with mortality. The mortality among our patients was comparable to that reported from other low-income countries. Earlier initiation of ART may reduce the high mortality rates observed.

  18. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors among the urban elderly population in Hyderabad metropolitan city, South India.

    Suryanarayana, Palla; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Sai Santhosh, Vadakattu; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Lakshmi Rajkumar, Pondey; Prasad, Undrajavarapu; Raju, Banavath Bhoja; Shivakeseva, Kommula; Divya Shoshanni, Kondru; Seshacharyulu, Madabushi; Geddam, Jagjeevan Babu; Prasanthi, Prabhakaran Sobhana; Ananthan, Rajendran

    2018-03-01

    Deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with various health conditions. However, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and factors associated with VDD are not well studied, especially among the urban elderly population of India. To assess the prevalence of VDD and its associated factors among the urban free-living elderly population in Hyderabad. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 298 urban elderly (≥60 years) by adapting a random sampling procedure. Demographic particulars were collected. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded using standard equipment. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D] were estimated in plasma samples. The mean ± SE plasma vitamin D and the prevalence of VDD among the urban elderly population were 19.3 ± 0.54 (ng/ml) and 56.3%, respectively. The prevalence of VDD was significantly associated with education, high body mass index (BMI), hypertension (HT) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed HT as a significant predictor of vitamin D deficiency and the risk of VDD was double among the elderly with hypertension. The prevalence of VDD was high among the urban elderly population in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. High BMI, MS, HT and education are significant associated factors of VDD.

  20. Population genetic relationships between Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties occurring sympatrically and allopatrically in different ecosystems in south-east Brazil.

    Cavallari, Marcelo Mattos; Gimenes, Marcos Aparecido; Billot, Claire; Torres, Roseli Buzanelli; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Species delimitation can be problematic, and recently diverged taxa are sometimes viewed as the extremes of a species' continuum in response to environmental conditions. Using population genetic approaches, this study assessed the relationship between two Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties, which occur sympatrically and allopatrically in the landscape of south-east Brazil, where intermediate types are also found. In total, 376 individuals from nine populations in four different ecosystems were sampled, and nine microsatellite markers were used to assess the relative effects of the ecosystems and varieties on the distribution of genetic diversity among populations of this species. As a by-product of this study, several PCR products with more than two alleles were observed. The possibility that extra bands represent non-specific amplification or PCR artefacts was discarded by sequencing a sample of these bands. We suggest that (partial) genome duplication in C. sylvestris most probably explains this phenomenon, which may be a key factor in the differentiation of the two taxa, as it was markedly more frequent in one of the varieties. AMOVA indicated that approx. 22 % of the total genetic diversity was found between the two varieties. Bayesian analysis identified varieties and ecosystems as evolutionary units, rather than the individual populations sampled. The results are in agreement with field observations and support the recognition of two varieties, as well as documenting the occurrence of hybridization between them.

  1. Implementation of the Third Energy Package and Renewable Energy Sources on Croatian Liberalised Market

    Toljan, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Croatian Third Energy Package was adopted in 2012 and its implementation in the previous period until today has accelerated changes in all areas of Croatian energy sector. The content of The EU's Third Energy Package was made in two directives and three regulations. Directives are implemented into national legislation of EU Member States (they choose the methods). Regulations are implemented directly in the entire EU. The main goal is to establish a unique electricity and gas market with market prices (or lower) and high safety and public service standards. Croatia began with incentives for generation from renewable energy sources in 2004 and by the end of this year, the first contract in that system (wind power plant Ravne on Pag island) will end. The question that presents itself is where and how will the owner sell electricity from now on. Current market suppliers as well as the new organisation in Croatian energy sector, Croatian Power Exchange, are both realistic options. Balancing market led by Croatian TSO is becoming bigger and participates in the business because of the higher amount of installed power connected to the power grid (mostly wind power plants). Can Croatian Transmission Operator still guarantee safe operational planning as before (the last blackout happened 10 years ago)? The existing electricity and gas market design doesn't satisfy its participants any more so an adjustment to new facts of a free market is necessary (power exchange, no more stimulations for renewable sources). What changes should be made in legislation so that the free market can develop and be harmonised with the European market? Decarbonization and digitalisation are a base of European energy policy but they are still waiting for a wider and stronger application in Croatia, is the current legislation enough? With these analysis the paper contributes to the learnings about the implementation of The Third Energy Package in Croatia and a unique energy policy in the EU.(author).

  2. The role of hip and chest radiographs in osteoporotic evaluation among south Indian women population: a comparative scenario with DXA.

    Kumar, D Ashok; Anburajan, M

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is recognized as a worldwide skeletal disorder problem. In India, the older as well as postmenopausal women population suffering from osteoporotic fractures has been a common issue. Bone mineral density measurements gauged by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. (1) To evaluate osteoporosis in south Indian women by radiogrammetric method in a comparative perspective with DXA. (2) To assess the capability of KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula in the prediction of total hip bone mineral density (T.BMD) with estimated Hologic T.BMD. In this cross-sectional design, 56 south Indian women were evaluated. These women were randomly selected from a health camp. The patients with secondary bone diseases were excluded. The standard protocol was followed in acquiring BMD of the right proximal femur by DPX Prodigy (DXA Scanner, GE-Lunar Corp., USA). The measured Lunar Total hip BMD was converted into estimated Hologic Total hip BMD. In addition, the studied population underwent chest and hip radiographic measurements. Combined cortical thickness of clavicle has been used in KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula to predict T.BMD and compared with estimated Hologic T.BMD by DXA. The correlation coefficients exhibited high significance. The combined cortical thickness of clavicle and femur shaft of total studied population was strongly correlated with DXA femur T.BMD measurements (r = 0.87, P < 0.01 and r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and it is also having strong correlation with low bone mass group (r = 0.87, P < 0.01 and r = 0.67, P < 0.01) KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula shows significant correlation with estimated Hologic T.BMD (r = 0.88, P < 0.01) in total studied population. The empirical formula was identified as better tool for predicting osteoporosis in total population and old-aged population with a sensitivity (88.8 and 95.6 %), specificity (89.6 and 90.9 %), positive predictive value (88.8 and 95.6 %) and negative

  3. Multiplexed SNP Typing of Ancient DNA Clarifies the Origin of Andaman mtDNA Haplogroups amongst South Asian Tribal Populations

    Endicott, Phillip; Metspalu, Mait; Stringer, Chris; Macaulay, Vincent; Cooper, Alan; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of errors in genetic data sets is of growing concern, particularly in population genetics where whole genome mtDNA sequence data is coming under increased scrutiny. Multiplexed PCR reactions, combined with SNP typing, are currently under-exploited in this context, but have the potential to genotype whole populations rapidly and accurately, significantly reducing the amount of errors appearing in published data sets. To show the sensitivity of this technique for screening mtDNA genomic sequence data, 20 historic samples of the enigmatic Andaman Islanders and 12 modern samples from three Indian tribal populations (Chenchu, Lambadi and Lodha) were genotyped for 20 coding region sites after provisional haplogroup assignment with control region sequences. The genotype data from the historic samples significantly revise the topologies for the Andaman M31 and M32 mtDNA lineages by rectifying conflicts in published data sets. The new Indian data extend the distribution of the M31a lineage to South Asia, challenging previous interpretations of mtDNA phylogeography. This genetic connection between the ancestors of the Andamanese and South Asian tribal groups ∼30 kya has important implications for the debate concerning migration routes and settlement patterns of humans leaving Africa during the late Pleistocene, and indicates the need for more detailed genotyping strategies. The methodology serves as a low-cost, high-throughput model for the production and authentication of data from modern or ancient DNA, and demonstrates the value of museum collections as important records of human genetic diversity. PMID:17218991

  4. Association of tinnitus and hearing loss in otological disorders: a decade-long epidemiological study in a South Indian population

    Santoshi Kumari Manche

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Tinnitus is a common disorder that occurs frequently across all strata of population and has an important health concern. Tinnitus is often associated with different forms of hearing loss of varying severity. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the association of tinnitus with hearing loss in various otological disorders of a South Indian population. Methods: A total of 3255 subjects referred to the MAA ENT Hospital, Hyderabad, from 2004 to 2014, affected with various otological diseases have been included in the present cross-sectional study. Diagnosis of the diseases was confirmed by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT specialist using detailed medical and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and binary logistic regression. Results: Tinnitus was observed in 29.3% (956 of the total study subjects that showed an increased prevalence in greater than 40 years of age. There was a significant increase in risk of tinnitus with middle (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.02-3.16 and inner (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.65-5.45 inner ear diseases. It was noted that 96.9% (n = 927 of the tinnitus subjects was associated with hearing loss. Otitis media (60.9%, presbycusis (16.6% and otosclerosis (14.3% are the very common otological disorders leading to tinnitus. Tinnitus was significantly associated with higher degree of hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM subjects. Conclusion: The present study could identify the most prevalent otological risk factors leading to development of tinnitus with hearing loss in a South Indian population.

  5. Commentary: the importance of Medicaid expansion for criminal justice populations in the south.

    Zaller, Nickolas D; Cloud, David H; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Martino, Sarah; Bouvier, Benjamin; Brockmann, Brad

    2017-12-01

    Though the full implications of a Trump presidency for ongoing health care and criminal justice reform efforts remain uncertain, whatever policy changes are made will be particularly salient for the South, which experiences the highest incarceration rates, highest uninsured rates, and worst health outcomes in the United States. The passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 was a watershed event and many states have taken advantage of opportunities created by the ACA to expand healthcare coverage to their poorest residents, and to develop partnerships between health and justice systems. Yet to date, only four have taken advantage of the benefits of healthcare reform. Expanding Medicaid would provide Southern states with the opportunity to significantly impact health outcomes for criminal justice-involved individuals. In the context of an uncertain policy landscape, we suggest the use of three strategies, focusing on advancing incremental change while safeguarding existing gains, rebranding Medicaid as a local or statewide initiative, and linking Medicaid expansion to criminal justice reform, in order to implement Medicaid expansion across the South.

  6. Land Reform in the Republic of South Africa: Social Justice or Populism?

    Żukowski Arkadiusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper land reform in South African political discourse will be investigated, especially the process of its politicization. How the topic of land reform is used by political forces, especially the ruling party; the African National Congress and current President Jacob Zuma. Does the Republic of South Africa take a populist turn on land reform or is it some kind of social justice after the suppression of the apartheid era and decades before? The political disputes and decisions will be analysed in confrontations with the fundamentals and values of a democratic state as a guarantee of property rights, private ownership and free market principles (dilemma of the problem of willing buyer - willing seller. It will be necessary to present the historical background of land problem in the RSA. The problem will be investigated in connection with the socio-economic situation of the RSA. The study will also tackle the problem of social and economic inequality from the perspective of politics. In the paper, a mix of primary and secondary research methods of data collection and analysing will be used. Theoretical framework will be based on assumptions of political discourse and the paradigm of “classic” land reform.

  7. Influence of UV and blue-light sun radiation to developing of age-related macular degeneration on Croatian Island Rab

    Vojnikovic, Bozo; Coklo, Miran; Ranogajec-Komor, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Croatian island Rab has one of the highest solar radiation in geographical area of Europe. The aim of this clinical trial was to estimate correlation between incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the exposure to sunlight in different population on island Rab. In the first group agriculturists and fishermen were collected, in the second group members of the urban population were involved. 1753 individuals were investigated. The age in this population was between 40 and 73 years. The incidence of AMD in the first group was 19% while in the urban population only 2% showed AMD. It can be concluded that a very significant incidence exists between chronic exposure to sunlight and appearance of age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  8. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae).

    Pometti, Carolina; Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees.

  9. COMMUNICATION AND GRAMMATICALIZATION. THE CASE OF (CROATIAN DEMONSTRATIVES

    Maja Brala-Vukanović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the role that shared reference plays in communication and, relatedly, on the way in which communicative needs drive the formation and development of grammatical categories. The system used to illustrate and analyse the theoretical positions addressed in the paper is that of Croatian demonstratives, a three-way paradigm which – it is claimed – helps us identify the cognitive elements underlying the anchoring of shared reference. In the first part of the paper we explore the pointing gesture from the perspectives of developmental psychology, language acquisition and that of cognitive and linguistic universals. We observe that communicative pointing is a universal communicative device found in all cultures which serves to refer, locate in space or indicate direction of motion. In fact, pointing has been recognized as one of the earliest and most common mechanisms for establishing joint reference. Next, we explore the possible ways in which communicative pointing might have influenced the formation of ‘pointing words’ i.e. demonstratives. A continuum of referential devices is identified: from direct pointing with gesture, direct (pronominal pointing, via referentiality through (adjectival and adverbial modification, all the way to discoursal pointing. We investigate the communicative sequence that takes us from the pointing gesture to various types of ‘pointing words’ (see Diessel, 2006, by exploring the underlying linguistic and, possibly, cognitive universal elements and domains. In final analysis the identified sequence is put into relation with the referential (identificational, via the modificational (qualificational, to the predicative (informative segments of language.

  10. Croatian Recommendations for Dialysis of HIV-Positive Patients

    Gulin Marijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection may be associated with renal impairment since about 0.4% of all HIV-positive patients develop end-stage renal disease. The share of patients with HIV infection in hemodialysis centers throughout the world ranges from 0.3% to as high as 38%. In Croatia, renal replacement therapy was needed by 1% of all the HIV-positive patients from 1985 until the end of 2014. Healthcare professionals (HP should be aware of the risks of occupational exposure to blood-borne infections in their daily work. Performing dialysis in HIV-positive patients increases the risk of exposure to HIV during the extracorporeal circulation of the infected blood. However, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP with effective antiretroviral drugs significantly reduces the risk of infection after occupational exposure. On behalf of the Croatian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, the authors of this paper have proposed recommendations for the management of HIVpositive patients on dialysis, which aim to prevent the transmission of HIV among patients and HPs. The important recommendations include the following: 1. when the need arises, it is necessary to provide HIV-positive patients with dialysis in the vicinity of their place of residence. 2. HIV-positive patients should be dialyzed with a separate hemodialysis machine in an isolated area. Alternatively, they can be dialyzed in an area for the hemodialysis of HCV-positive and/or HBVpositive patients. 3. Specialized and trained personnel should be provided during the hemodialysis procedure, together with strict compliance with the standard precautions for the prevention of blood-borne infections. 4. There should be a good and prompt cooperation with the National Referral Center for HIV infection.

  11. Social capital and physical activity among Croatian high school students.

    Novak, D; Doubova, S V; Kawachi, I

    2016-06-01

    To examine factors associated with regular physical activity in Croatian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013/14 school year. A survey was conducted among 33 high schools in Zagreb City, Croatia. Participants were students aged 17-18 years. The dependent variables were regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall physical activity measured by the short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and defined as 60 min or more of daily physical activity. The independent variables included family, neighborhood, and high school social capital. Other study covariates included: socio-economic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and nutritional status. The associations between physical activity and social capital variables were assessed separately for boys and girls through multiple logistic regression and inverse probability weighting in order to correct for missing data bias. A total of 1689 boys and 1739 girls responded to the survey. A higher percentage of boys reported performing regular vigorous and moderate physical activity (59.4%) and overall physical activity (83.4%), comparing with the girls (35.4% and 70%, respectively). For boys, high family social capital and high informal social control were associated with increased odds of regular MVPA (1.49, 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90 and 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.56, respectively), compared to those with low social capital. For girls, high informal social control was associated with regular overall physical activity (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.76). High social capital is associated with regular MVPA in boys and regular overall activity in girls. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for promotion of physical activity in youth. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE CATEGORY OF COUNTABILITY IN THE CROATIAN LANGUAGE

    Marija Znika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the category of countability as a category established on the lexical meaning of nouns. The lexical meaning of nouns can be dually structured, in a unit and mass forms, relative to the opposition one ≠ many. The category of countability has its content and expression. The content of the category of countability consists of the feature [± countable], and its marker [+ countable] and [- countable]. A noun is countable if its content can be conceived as a unit opposed to mass (table, apple. A noun is uncoutable if its content cannot be perceived as a unit that could be opposed to mass (water, sugar. The expression of the category of countability depends on its content. In the Croatian language the category of countability has its expression in the grammatical category of number and its grammems: singular and plural. These two grammems are formally, and frequently accentually, distinctive from the majority of nouns. The analysis focuses on the meaning of nouns, while their expression is considered as a possible indicator of semantic relationships the category of countability is based on. The paper analyses pluralia tantum and singularia tantum, and their different status countability-wise. It points out the possibility of semantic recategorization of nouns and thus demonstrates a dynamic quality of the category of countability. It also analyses the process of appelativisation (eponomisation of personal names, and the process of appelative deappelativisation. It shows the relationship between the category of countability and the category of definiteness, when definiteness is expressed by an adjectival aspect.

  13. Spanning National Borders: Split Lives of Croatian Migrant Families

    Jasna Čapo Žmegač

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the ethnographic approach, the article describes three modalities of family arrangements practiced by Croatian migrants in Germany over the past thirty years. In all three, family members were divided between two localities in physical space, which were situated in different states – Croatia or Bosnia-Herzegovina and Germany: in one case only the father was a migrant while his wife and children stayed in the native country; in another the couple left for Germany leaving the child in Croatia; in the third the couple lived with some of their children in Germany while other children were living in Croatia. Some of these families were dispersed across international borders during the entire life and migration course (thirty years or more, while some experienced shorter or longer periods of separation followed by reunion of all or some family members, who crossed borders in one or another direction. It follows from this presentation that, rather than being a temporary phase aimed at reintegration of the family at a higher economic level, bilocality, viewed from a diachronic perspective, is a more or less continuous family arrangement and a way of life of migrant families. The question remains open as to whether transnational families are units in which emotional ties and closeness between its members are maintained. The data might point in this direction but might also lead to a hypothesis that, precisely because it is dispersed across long distances, the family needs to construct its unity (emotional if not physical and therefore narratively presents itself as integrated and reconfigured.

  14. Comparison of Fitness Levels between Croatian and Lithuanian Students

    Dario Novak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and compare the level of individual anthropological characteristics of children in Croatia and Lithuania. The study examined height, weight, BMI and flexibility, explosive power and muscle endurance. The study included a total of 11,258 participants from two different countries. Of the total sample, 8,289 participants were from Croatia between ages 11 and 14 (mean age 12,5±1.5, of which 4,032 were male and 4,157 were female students. The other 2,969 participants were from Lithuania, also in the age range of 11-14 years (mean age 12,4±1.6, of which 1,504 participants were male and 1,456 females. During the 2009-10 school year, reserachers conducted measurements on students at different schools across Croatia. The same battery of tests was conducted in Lithuania during the same year. The results showed that the Croatian students have a higher body-mass, have higher BMI values and score better on tests of flexibility. Lithuanian students achieved better results in the repetitive strength test. Boys are taller, heavier and had higher BMI values as well as achieved better results in tests of explosive power and muscle endurance, while girls were more flexibile. Boys from Lithuania scored highest in all tests except in flexibility compared to boys in Croatia. Girls from Lithuania are thinner, have lower BMI and achieve better results in repetitive test of strength than girls in Croatia. Age was shown as a significant factor in the increase in all tested variables.

  15. ACTIVE BRIBERY IN CROATIAN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LAW

    Mijo Galiot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to writing about the history of punishment, it is always linked with critically re-thinking and better understanding of the contemporary system of punishment, as a result of its long historical development. In such a way, „contemporary criminal law cannot be seen as a result of an effort made by a certain nation or in a certain epoch“. „Permanently faced with social changes, in its long historical development, criminal law has been modifying its fundamental principles and categories, by building new institutes and instruments, in order to become less cruel and more human, but not less efficient than in earlier stages of its development, characterized by rudeness, cruelty and exemplarity of its sanctions. Although it is not easy to answer the question, if there is the measure, in which social understanding of punishment and its purpose, determines the civilizational level in the society, there is no doubt about the fact that civilizational and legal point of view towards punishment derives from a waste range of factors: general, cultural, sociological, psychological, religious, political and other factors that should be taken altogether in their historical dimension. The genesis of criminal law is linked with the moment of establishing the public authorities and the state. According to different criteria, it is possible to introduce different periodization of criminal law. When it comes to the historical criterion, there can be made a historical division into periods of ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary criminal law (punishment, which periods should not be taken as absolutely inseparable. The point of this paper is to present a review and development of punishing active bribery in the Croatian medieval and modern law.

  16. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  17. Ancestry dynamics in a South American population: The impact of gene flow and preferential mating.

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2017-07-01

    European ancestry in many populations in Latin America at autosomal loci is often higher than that from X-linked loci indicating more European male ancestry and more Amerindian female ancestry. Generally, this has been attributed to more European male gene flow but could also result from an advantage to European mating or reproductive success. Population genetic models were developed to investigate the dynamics of gene flow and mating or reproductive success. Using estimates of autosomal and X-chromosome European ancestry, the amount of male gene flow or mating or reproductive advantage for Europeans, or those with European ancestry, was estimated. In a population from Antioquia, Colombia with an estimated 79% European autosomal ancestry and an estimated 69% European X-chromosome ancestry, about 15% male gene flow from Europe or about 20% mating or reproductive advantage of Europeans over Amerindians resulted in these levels of European ancestry in the contemporary population. Combinations of gene flow and mating advantage were nearly additive in their impact. Gene flow, mating advantage, or a combination of both factors, are consistent with observed levels of European ancestry in a Latin American population. This approach provides a general methodology to determine the levels of gene flow and mating differences that can explain the observed contemporary differences in ancestry from autosomes and X-chromosomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Large herbivore population performance and climate in a South African semi-arid savanna

    Armin H. Seydack

    2012-02-01

    Interpretation according to a climate–vegetation response model suggested that acclimation of forage plants to increasing temperature had resulted in temperature-enhanced plant productivity, initially increasing food availability and supporting transient synchronous increases in population abundance of both blue wildebeest and zebra, and selective grazers. As acclimation of plants to concurrently rising minimum (nocturnal temperature (Tmin took effect, adjustments in metabolic functionality occurred involving accelerated growth activity at the cost of storage-based metabolism. Growth-linked nitrogen dilution and reduced carbon-nutrient quality of forage then resulted in phases of subsequently declining herbivore populations. Over the long term (1910–2010, progressive plant functionality shifts towards accelerated metabolic growth rather than storage priority occurred in response to Tmin rising faster than maximum temperature (Tmax, thereby cumulatively compromising the carbon-nutrient quality of forage, a key resource for selective grazers. The results of analyses thus revealed consistency between herbivore population trends and levels of forage quantity and quality congruent with expected plant metabolic responses to climate effects. Thus, according to the climate-vegetation response model, climate effects were implicated as the ultimate cause of large herbivore population performance in space and over time. Conservation implications: In its broadest sense, the objective of this study was to contribute towards the enhanced understanding of landscape-scale functioning of savanna systems with regard to the interplay between climate, vegetation and herbivore population dynamics.

  19. Seahorse (Hippocampinae) population fluctuations in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, south Portugal.

    Correia, M; Caldwell, I R; Koldewey, H J; Andrade, J P; Palma, J

    2015-09-01

    Comparisons of three sets of surveys in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal, over a 13 year period (2001-2002, 2008-2009 and 2010-2013) revealed significant population fluctuations in at least one of the two seahorse (Hippocampinae) species living there, and that those fluctuations were potentially associated with habitat changes in the lagoon. After a significant decline between the first two survey periods (2001-2002 v. 2008-2009), long-snouted seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus populations increased significantly between 2008-2009 surveys and new 2010-2013 surveys. There were no significant differences in H. guttulatus populations between the 2001-2002 and 2010-2013 surveys. In contrast, there were no significant differences in short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus densities among the 16 sites surveyed throughout the three sampling periods, although the ability to detect any change was hampered by the low densities of this species in all time periods. Fluctuations in H. guttulatus densities were positively correlated with the percentage of holdfast coverage, but with none of the other environmental variables tested. These results highlight the importance of holdfast availability in maintaining stable seahorse populations. While population fluctuations are certainly more promising than a consistent downward decline, such extreme fluctuations observed for seahorses in the Ria Formosa Lagoon could still leave these two species vulnerable to any additional stressors, particularly during low density periods. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. History of the Blue Duiker Cephalophus monticola population in the Tsitsikamma forests, Republic of South Africa

    R.J.M Crawford

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue duiker Cephalophus monticola appear to have been historically plentiful in indigenous forests of the southern Cape, Republic of South Africa. There was a marked decline in their abundance during the late 1940's, a prolonged dry period in which caracal Felis caracal became more frequently observed. Numbers of blue duiker remained low throughout the 1950's and 1960's in spite of an apparent reduction in numbers of caracal. Following the proclamation of the Tsitsikamma National Parks in 1964 and strict control of poaching and access by dogs, numbers of blue duiker increased markedly from the mid 1970's. Only four sightings of blue duiker were recorded during a two-year period in the mid 1960's, whereas for an equivalent time interval in the early 1980's there were 651 sightings representing at @ least 49 individuals.

  1. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

    Engin Meriç

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  2. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  3. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa.

    Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Barriers to accessing eye care services among visually impaired populations in rural Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Kovai Vilas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To understand the reasons why people in rural south India with visual impairment arising from various ocular diseases do not seek eye care. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,573 persons above the age of 15 were interviewed and examined in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh covering the districts of Adilabad, West Godavari and Mahaboobnagar. A pre-tested structured questionnaire on barriers to eye care was administered by trained field investigators. Results: Of the eligible subjects, 1234 (22.1%, N=5573 presented with distant visual acuity < 20/60 or equivalent visual field loss in the better eye. Of these, 898 (72.7%, N=1234 subjects had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision citing personal, economic and social reasons. The analysis also showed that the odds of seeking treatment was significantly higher for literates [odds ratio (OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.38 to 2.65], for those who would be defined as blind by visual acuity category (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.90 and for those with cataract and other causes of visual impairment (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.03. Barriers to seeking treatment among those who had not sought treatment despite noticing a decrease in vision over the past five years were personal in 52% of the respondents, economic in 37% and social in 21%. Conclusion: Routine planning for eye care services in rural areas of India must address the barriers to eye care perceived by communities to increase the utilization of services.

  5. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa.

    Chandran, Thoovakkunon Moorkoth; Berkvens, Dirk; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Colebunders, Robert; Williams, Brian Gerard; Speybroeck, Niko

    2012-05-28

    This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables 'ever used condom' and 'ever refused condom'. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by 'knowledge of correct use of condom', condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. 'Perceived need' for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one's HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and improving skills for correct use. They should also incorporate

  6. Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in population with special needs in South India

    R Muppa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Malocclusion plays an important role in the overall oral health of an individual because it is associated with periodontal disease, temporomandibular disorders and may be complicated by an individual′s disparity. Careful attention to malocclusion in children with special needs leads to a considerable improvement in the quality-of-life. The objective of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with determinant factors in individuals with special needs in South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 844 individuals with special needs and their mothers at eleven institutions in South India. Data were collected based on the questionnaire given to the mothers and dental examination carried out on the children. The nutritive and non-nutritive oral habits were obtained from the reports of the mothers. Clinical examination recorded the following: Class I, Class II, Class III, anterior crowding, anterior spacing, deep bite, open bite, and anterior cross bite. Statistical analyses of data were performed using Chi-square test. Results: Results at the end of the study revealed anterior crowding in 27.37% of the total sample size, deep bite in 20.5%, Class I in 14.34%, anterior spacing in 12.9%, Class II in 9.95%, Class III in 5.33%, anterior cross bite in 4.98% and open bite in 4.62%. Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in individuals with special needs is associated with the type of disability and it is more in males than females. Mentally disabled individuals had higher frequencies of all types the malocclusion. Prevalence of anterior crowding was higher compared to other types of malocclusion followed by deep bite.

  7. Dynamic of arbuscular mycorrhizal population on Amazon forest from the south Colombia

    Pena Vanegas, Clara P

    2001-01-01

    This work compared changes occurred on the number of arbuscular mycorrhizal spores at three mature forests and three regenerative forests, before and after clear-cutting. Results suggest that it is possible to predict the quantity of arbuscular mycorrhizal inocule after clear-cutting if initial number and type of forests is known before. A model to explain these changes shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal depletion on mature forests is about 70% after clear-cutting. Survival mycorrhizal populations colonize regenerative forests. Then, if a clear-cutting occurs on regenerative forests, arbuscular mycorrhizal populations will decrease on 35%, being less drastic that it occurred on mature forests

  8. The analysis of pulmonary diseases among the population, exposed to irradiation in the South Ural

    Kosenko, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The results of epidemiological analysis of mortality from pulmonary diseases and lung cancer among the population, exposed to radiation due to in 1957 accident and after the radiation products contamination of the Techa river. The dose of radiation equal to 0.2-127 cZv hasn't changed the mortality from pulmonary diseases and lung cancer in this group of patients. But there is a tendency in the morbidity of bronchial asthma among population living on the territory, cocomitated by radiation to increase

  9. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  10. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  11. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  12. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  13. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  14. Genetic Structure and Hierarchical Population Divergence History of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China

    Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species’ evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST = 0.073; G′ST = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species’ more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study. PMID:24498039

  15. Census and vaccination coverage of owned dog populations in four resource-limited rural communities, Mpumalanga province, South Africa

    Anne Conan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs (Canis familiaris are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0–3 months excluded among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% – 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah. For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16 to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.

  16. Experiences in Developing and Implementing Health Clubs to Reduce Hypertension Risk among Adults in a South African Population in Transition

    Thandi R. Puoane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs are increasing substantially as a cause of death and disability in all strata of the South African society, particularly among the urbanised poor. Hypertension is a risk factor for many of these diseases and becoming a burden in a growing population in a Cape Town township, Khayelitsha. To alleviate healthcare demands at clinics in this area, a health club was initiated and community health workers (CHWs were trained to empower community members about NCDs and create public awareness. After training, a health club was initiated. Three months after initiation of the health club, 76 participants had been recruited of whom 22 were regular attenders. New members joined the health club weekly. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken, and various hypertension topics were covered at the club meetings which included healthy behaviours, such as the benefits of being physically active and eating healthy. Nutrition education sessions based on the South African food-based dietary guidelines were also held. Consequent to the initial group that was established, two more clubs were formed in the area. Health clubs are sustainable and culturally appropriate when facilitated by local people who have an insight and deeper understanding of the culture and environment of the people they serve.

  17. The Incidence of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers in Betel Quid-Chewing Populations in South Myanmar Rural Areas.

    Mizukawa, Nobuyoshi; Swe Swe Win; Zaw Moe Thein; Moe Thida Htwe; Yoshioka, Yohsuke; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Iida, Seiji; Myo Khin; Okada, Shigeru; Than Sein

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer is a very common disease in South and Southeast Asia. Betel quid (BQ)- chewing and tobaccosmoking habits are etiological factors for oral cancer patients in these regions. We conducted an oral cancer screening in BQ-chewing endemic rural areas in South Myanmar for the early detection of oral cancer in BQ-chewing and smoking individuals. We examined 105 subjects who were at high risk of oral cancer due to their oral habits (BQ users and/or smokers). Three carcinoma cases were detected, and there were 8 dysplasia cases. The carcinoma detection rate was 2.9%, and the carcinoma and precancerous lesion detection rate was 10.5%. In Myanmar, oral cancer screening has been conducted sporadically on a voluntary basis, and nationwide surveys have never been performed. There are also few reports of oral cancer screening for high-risk groups among the general population in Myanmar. Our present findings highlight the need for further screening and surveys. Education on betel quid chewing- and tobacco- related oral diseases and screening for the early detection of oral cancer are of the utmost importance in the control and prevention of oral cancer.

  18. Chronic periodontitis prevalence and the inflammatory burden in a sample population from South India.

    Balaji, S K; Lavu, Vamsi; Rao, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent oral diseases in the world. Apart from repercussions in the oral cavity, there is evidence that periodontitis contributes to systemic damage in chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in a sample urban population (<18 years) in Tamil Nadu and to estimate the inflammatory burden posed by chronic periodontitis by calculating the periodontal inflammatory surface area. This was a population-based study and cross-sectional design. A total of 1000 individuals (<18 years) were selected and screened for their periodontal status, oral hygiene status (OHI), and the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) in an outreach center located in Chennai, India. The proportion of individuals with different periodontal states (health, gingivitis, and periodontitis) was determined. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of the individual risk factors such as habits (tobacco use), systemic conditions (diabetes), and oral hygiene maintenance on periodontitis prevalence in the sample population. A high prevalence of periodontal disease was observed in the study population (42.3%). Among the urban participants, age, cigarette smoking, pan chewing, decayed, missing, and filled teeth scores, OHI scores, and PISA scores were found to be significantly associated with periodontitis (P < 0.05). Periodontitis prevalence appears to be high even in areas with adequate access to oral health care and an inflammatory burden risk exists in a definitive manner.

  19. Do social grants contribute to the jobless population growth in the former South African homelands?

    Geyer, H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available migration. A possible reason could be the high level of dependency on social grants in the former homelands. The article analyses population growth rates, economic growth rates and the ratio of social grant recipients within former homeland settlements...

  20. Proceedings of the 14. forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy: Its reality and outlook - World - Europe - Croatia

    Granic, G.; Jelavic, B.

    2005-01-01

    This year the Croatian Energy Society is organizing its 14. Forum. For this occasion we chose the topic Energy perspectives today and tomorrow, World-Europe-Croatia, which in recent years is increasingly in the focus of interest not only of energy experts but of broad public as well. Namely, the end of the 20. and beginning of the 21st century saw the changes that, in many ways, influenced the energy market development. Views on the future and energy supply stability as they were in the era of divisions (free and communist world, developed and undeveloped world) must be substantially and urgently changed, because the geopolitical landscape of the world has been changing as well as development dynamics of countries and parts of continents. For Europe (Croatia included), which has deficit of primary energy sources and depends on energy import, reliability, availability security and economy of imported energy are key assumptions of sustainable economic and ecological development. The Forum shall discuss the following issues, which strongly influence or will influence the energy perspectives in the next 50 years: Reserves and potentials (size, geo-allocation of resources, transport possibilities, renewable sources); Technologies (exploitation, production, transport, distribution, consumption: appliances, consumers, and processes); Economic development and energy demand (development levels, richness and poverty, price of energy and social influence, energy efficiency); Environmental protection (Kyoto Protocol, legislation, economic capacities, nuclear energy); Energy trade liberalization (market development, restructuring, common legislation, privatization); Security of supply (local, European and global level); Population growth; Political changes and conflicts, military conflicts, terrorism. World Energy Council (WEC) initiated work on global study on energy development: Energy Scenario to 2050. The energy community around the world is equally interested in this study

  1. Substance use and misuse in the Croatian Army Special Forces: prevalence and influencing factors

    Damir Sekulic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In addition to being a serious health-hazard, substance-use-and-misuse (SUM in military forces negatively infl uences physical fi tness and army readiness. The aim of this study was to defi ne the prevalence of SUM, which includes cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and multiple SUM (i.e. practice of daily smoking and harmful alcohol drinking, and factors infl uencing SUM in the Croatian Special Army Forces (SAF. Materials and Methods: We studied 73 SAF members. A self-administered validated questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic and military-professionrelated data, and SUM factors. The associations between studied variables were established by the Chi2 test, and forward conditional logistic regression (FCLR. Results: With less than 40% of daily smokers, smoking was within expected values. Almost 80% of the examinees reported no binge drinking, while 54% reported harmful drinking according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifi cation Test scale. Paternity and education level were negatively associated with daily smoking, while higher incidence of daily smoking was found for privates and those who practiced harmful drinking (all at p < 0.05. The FCLR demonstrated a higher risk of harmful alcohol consumption for younger commissioned offi cers (OR for military rank = 5.54, 95% CI: 2.19-13.99; OR for age = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76-0.95. Conclusion: Although SUM incidence was not alarming compared to the overall population and the previously reported military data, additional efforts are necessary in order to decrease cigarette consumption. The study showed that protective/risk structure of the substance misuse in the military should be investigated specifi cally with regard to particular military services, corps, and socio-cultural environment.

  2. Distribution of Pyrethroid Resistant Populations of Triatoma infestans in the Southern Cone of South America.

    Marinely Bustamante Gomez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies published during the last 15 years showed the occurrence of insecticide resistance in Triatoma infestans populations. The different toxicological profiles and mechanisms of resistance to insecticides is due to a genetic base and environmental factors, being the insecticide selective pressure the best studied among the last factors. The studies on insecticide resistance on T. infestans did not consider the effect of environmental factors that may influence the distribution of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study aims at studying the association between the spatial distribution of pyrethroid resistant populations of T. infestans and environmental variables.A total of 24 articles reporting on studies that evaluated the susceptibility to pyrethroids of 222 field-collected T. infestans populations were compiled. The relationship between resistance occurrence (according to different criteria with environmental variables was studied using a generalized linear model. The lethal dose that kills 50% of the evaluated population (LD50 showed a strong linear relationship with the corresponding resistance ratio (RR50. The statistical descriptive analysis of showed that the frequency distribution of the Log (LD50 is bimodal, suggesting the existence of two statistical groups. A significant model including 5 environmental variables shows the geographic distribution of high and low LD50 groups with a particular concentration of the highest LD50 populations over the region identified as the putative center of dispersion of T. infestans.The occurrence of these two groups concentrated over a particular region that coincides with the area where populations of the intermediate cytogenetic group were found might reflect the spatial heterogeneity of the genetic variability of T. infestans, that seems to be the cause of the insecticide resistance in the area, even on sylvatic populations of T. infestans

  3. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  4. Perceptions of community participation and health gain in a community project for the South Asian population: a qualitative study.

    Bandesha, G; Litva, A

    2005-09-01

    The new public health rejects old individualist attempts at improving health and embraces community-based approaches in reducing health inequalities. Primary Care Trusts in England face the challenge of converting community participation in health into reality. This study explores differences in perception of participation between lay and professional stakeholders of a community health project for a South Asian population in Greater Manchester. In-depth interviews and focus groups were used to explore the views of professional and lay stakeholders. All data were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed for emerging themes using a qualitative framework. Professionals talked of working in partnership with the community but lay stakeholders did not feel that they had control over the project. There were problems in engaging the community and local health professionals in the project. Lack of cultural awareness hampered participation in the project. There was agreement that the project improved the self-confidence of participants and created a more informed population. However, there was little support for claims of improvements in social cohesion and changes in lifestyle directly as a result of the project. Converting the rhetoric of community participation in health into reality is a greater challenge than was envisaged by policy makers. Marginalized communities may not be willing participants and issues of language and cultural sensitivity are important. Project outcomes need to be agreed to ensure projects are evaluated appropriately. Projects with South Asian communities should not be seen to be dealing with all 'ethnic health' issues without addressing changes in statutory organizations and other wider social determinants of health.

  5. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Complications of Supernumerary Teeth in Nonsyndromic Pediatric Population of South India: A Clinical and Radiographic Study.

    Syriac, Gibi; Joseph, Elizabeth; Rupesh, S; Philip, John; Cherian, Sunu Alice; Mathew, Josey

    2017-11-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the presence of more number of teeth over the normal dental formula and may occur in permanent as well as early mixed dentition. This study determined the prevalence, characteristics, and complications caused by supernumerary teeth in nonsyndromic South Indian pediatric population. Characteristics of supernumerary teeth determined by clinical and radiographic examination were recorded. The age, sex, number of supernumerary teeth, eruption status, morphology, position, orientation, and complications (if any) associated with supernumerary teeth were recorded for each patient who had supernumerary teeth. The data collected were statistically analyzed. Supernumerary teeth were detected in 45 subjects (1.1%), of which 34 (75.6%) were male and 11 (24.4%) were female. There was no association between the number of supernumerary teeth and the gender of the patient. The total number of supernumerary teeth among the affected 45 patients was 54. The average number of supernumerary teeth per person was 1.2. The number of supernumerary teeth was one in 35 cases, two in 8 cases, and 3 in 1 case. Of the 45 patients, 8 patients with supernumerary teeth were in deciduous dentition stage, 29 patients were in mixed dentition stage, and 8 patients were in permanent dentition stage. Most supernumerary teeth presented in the anterior maxilla. Morphologically, conical-shaped supernumerary teeth were the most common finding. 68.5% of supernumerary teeth presented with straight orientation and inverted orientation was seen in 24.1%. Complications seen in patients with supernumerary teeth were delayed or noneruption of adjacent tooth malposition or rotation of adjacent teeth, diastema formation, and formation of dentigerous cyst. Supernumerary teeth have an incidence of 1.1% in South Indian population and can cause many complications that can harm the developing occlusion. Knowledge about supernumerary teeth may help the dentist in early diagnosis and early

  6. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  7. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  8. Disruption of Rhino Demography by Poachers May Lead to Population Declines in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Sam M Ferreira

    Full Text Available The onslaught on the World's rhinoceroses continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. When losses due to poaching exceed birth rates, declining rhino populations result. We used previously published estimates and growth rates for black rhinos (2008 and white rhinos (2010 together with known poaching trends at the time to predict population sizes and poaching rates in Kruger National Park, South Africa for 2013. Kruger is a stronghold for the south-eastern black rhino and southern white rhino. Counting rhinos on 878 blocks 3x3 km in size using helicopters, estimating availability bias and collating observer and detectability biases allowed estimates using the Jolly's estimator. The exponential escalation in number of rhinos poached per day appears to have slowed. The black rhino estimate of 414 individuals (95% confidence interval: 343-487 was lower than the predicted 835 individuals (95% CI: 754-956. The white rhino estimate of 8,968 individuals (95% CI: 8,394-9,564 overlapped with the predicted 9,417 individuals (95% CI: 7,698-11,183. Density- and rainfall-dependent responses in birth- and death rates of white rhinos provide opportunities to offset anticipated poaching effects through removals of rhinos from high density areas to increase birth and survival rates. Biological management of rhinos, however, need complimentary management of the poaching threat as present poaching trends predict detectable declines in white rhino abundances by 2018. Strategic responses such as anti-poaching that protect supply from illegal harvesting, reducing demand, and increasing supply commonly require crime network disruption as a first step complimented by providing options for alternative economies in areas abutting protected areas.