WorldWideScience

Sample records for south coast air

  1. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  2. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District... in a August 15, 2012 letter from the South Coast Air Quality Management District regarding specific...

  3. 75 FR 61367 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  4. 77 FR 66780 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Control Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  5. 77 FR 74372 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... of South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. South Coast Air Quality Management District v. EPA...

  6. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing approval of a permitting rule submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The State is...

  7. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published... California submitted the ``South Coast Air Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the...

  8. 76 FR 70888 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Management District--SCAQMD) (1) Rule 1143, ``Consumer Paint Thinners & Multi-purpose Solvents...

  9. 76 FR 78829 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Reference (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District (1) Rule 2005, ``New Source Review for RECLAIM...

  10. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the...

  11. 76 FR 47074 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation... Submittal A. What rule did the State submit? We are approving South Coast Air Quality Management District...

  12. 78 FR 18853 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...) * * * (411) * * * (i) * * * (F) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 463, ``Organic Liquid...

  13. 76 FR 30896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... overwhelmingly formed as a secondary pollutant. (South Coast 2007 Air Quality Management Plan, page ES-9...

  14. 76 FR 41717 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Governor's Designee. (i) Incorporation by reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  15. 78 FR 59249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'s Designee. (i) Incorporation by Reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  16. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the jurisdiction...

  17. 78 FR 7703 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Proposed Rule... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... digesters. Rule 1127 was designed to implement the 2003 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) control measure...

  18. 76 FR 40303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of... designated nonattainment for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  19. 75 FR 32293 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... submit regulations that control the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS...

  20. 76 FR 54384 - California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9457-6] California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule... Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerned South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1143...

  1. 78 FR 37757 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Index rather than on 1-hour ozone forecasted values; (b) forecast criteria for allowing a...

  2. 78 FR 30768 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  3. 76 FR 41744 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9432-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  4. 75 FR 46880 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0503; FRL-9183-5] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  5. 76 FR 78871 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0897; FRL-9499-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  6. 78 FR 56639 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does...

  7. 77 FR 32398 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and...

  8. 77 FR 13495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  9. 76 FR 50128 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under...

  10. 78 FR 18244 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October...

  11. 75 FR 32353 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0276; FRL-9139-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  12. 77 FR 32483 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0236; FRL-9670-9] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  13. 75 FR 46845 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California..., this action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management...

  14. 76 FR 72142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  15. 75 FR 25775 - Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2009-0573; FRL-9146-5] Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  16. 78 FR 5305 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  17. 77 FR 58076 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Standards (NAAQS). The revisions to the primary and secondary Lead NAAQS were to provide increased...

  18. 77 FR 10430 - Revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State Implementation Plan, South... South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California SIP. This SIP revision... Coast Air Quality Management District New Source Review by Gerardo C. Rios, October 24, 1996 (TSD). \\2...

  19. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Air Pollutants in the South Coast Basin Using Low Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of small, portable, low-cost air sensors has encouraged a shift from traditional monitoring approaches for air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (SCAQMD) Air Quality ...

  20. 78 FR 18936 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0920; FRL-9779-1] Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the South...

  1. 76 FR 50891 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) AGENCY... sources, to achieve emissions reductions milestones, to attain and maintain ambient air quality standards... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  2. 77 FR 53773 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0236; FRL-9711-2] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) AGENCY... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  3. 77 FR 37359 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from chipping and grinding activities, and composting operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  4. Mass balance for lead in the California South Coast Air Basin: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankey, R.L.; Davidson, C.I.; McMichael, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    A mass balance for lead for the year 1989 in the South Coast Air Basin has inputs to the atmosphere of 600 ± 190 kg/day and outputs of 580 ± 160 kg/day, showing rough agreement. Stationary sources are responsible for only about 5% of the total lead emissions. The bulk of the lead is emitted from vehicles using leaded gasoline (37%) and unleaded gasoline (15%), as well as from resuspension of previously deposited lead on roads (43%). Over half of the total emitted lead deposits on roads and nearby soil, while about one-third is carried out of the basin by wind. A small amount, less than 10%, is deposited on surfaces throughout the basin. These percentages are approximately the same as those in a mass balance for the same region calculated for 1972, when lead emissions from leaded gasoline were about a factor of 70 greater than leaded gas emissions in 1989. When the lead emissions re used as inputs o a simple continuously stirred flow reactor model for the basin, reasonable, agreement is obtained between calculated and measured concentrations

  5. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, T.D.; Norbeck, J.M.; Smith, M.R.; Truex, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  6. 76 FR 69927 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Attainment Plan for 1997...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...). See TSD at Section II.A (referencing, inter alia, South Coast 2007 AQMP at Appendix III and 2007 State... these assertions, CBE states that: (1) A 2002 Harvard University modeling study \\11\\ concludes that... satisfy RACT/RACM requirements. \\11\\ Fiore, et al, Harvard University, Linking ozone pollution and climate...

  7. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  8. Impacts of electronically photo-excited NO2 on air pollution in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dabdub

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new path for hydroxyl radical formation via photo-excitation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and the reaction of photo-excited NO2 with water is evaluated using the UCI-CIT model for the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB. Two separate studies predict different reaction rates, which differ by nearly an order of magnitude, for the reaction of photo-excited NO2 with water. Impacts of this new chemical mechanism on ozone and particulate matter formation, while utilizing both reaction rates, are quantified by simulating two summer episodes. First, sensitivity simulations are conducted to evaluate the uncertainty in the rate of reaction of photo-excited NO2 with water reported in the literature. Results indicate that the addition of photo-excited NO2 chemistry increases peak 8-h average ozone and particulate matter concentrations. The importance of this new chemistry is then evaluated in the context of pollution control strategies. A series of simulations are conducted to generate isopleths for ozone and particulate matter concentrations, varying baseline nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions. Isopleths are obtained using 1987 emissions, to represent past conditions, and 2005, to represent current conditions in the SoCAB. Results show that the sensitivity of modeled pollutant control strategies due to photoexcitation decreases with the decrease in baseline emissions from 1987 to 2005. Results show that including NO2 photo-excitation, increases the sensitivity of ozone concentration with respect to changes in NOx emissions for both years. In particular, decreasing NOx emissions in 2005 when NO2 photo-excitation is included, while utilizing the higher reaction rate, leads to ozone relative reduction factors that are 15% lower than in a case without photo-excited NO2. This implies that photoexcitation increases the effectiveness in reducing ozone through NOx emissions reductions alone, which has implications for the

  9. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways.

  10. Comparison of emission inventory and ambient concentration ratios of CO, NMOG, and NOx in California South Coast Air Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, E.M.; Croes, B.E.; Bennett, C.L.; Lawson, D.R.; Lurmann, F.W.; Main, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the present study, the author performed a top-down validation of the reactive organic gas and carbon monoxide emission inventories for California's South Coast Air Basin by comparing speciation profiles for nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) and ratios of CO/NO x and NMOG/NO x derived from early-morning (0700 to 0800) ambient measurements taken during the 1987 Southern California Air Quality Study with the corresponding ratios and speciation profiles derived from day-specific, hourly, gridded emission inventories. Twenty separate comparisons were considered for each ratio, each representing a different combination of season, emission category, and spatial and temporal averaging of emissions. It was determined that the most appropriate comparison in summer was ambient pollutant ratios with ratios derived from morning on-road motrovehicle emission inventories, and in the fall, ambient ratios with ratios derived from overnight on-road motor vehicle emission inventories with some contribution from overnight stationary-source NO x emission inventories. From these comparisons, the ambient CO/CO x and NMOG/NO x ratios are about 1.5 and 2 to 2.5 times higher, respectively, than the corresponding inventory ratios. On the assumption that inventories of NO x emissions are reasonably correct, these results indicate that on-road motor vehicle CO and NMOG emissions are significantly underestimated. Comparisons of measured CO, NMOG, and NO x concentrations and CO/NO x and NMOG/NO x ratios with air quality model predictions obtained by the California Air Resources Board show similar differences

  11. Air quality impacts of distributed power generation in the South Coast Air Basin of California 1: Scenario development and modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. A.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Medrano, M.; Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Dabdub, D.

    Distributed generation (DG) is generally defined as the operation of many small stationary power generators throughout an urban air basin. Although DG has the potential to supply a significant portion of the increased power demands in California and the rest of the United States, it may lead to increased levels of in-basin pollutants and adversely impact urban air quality. This study focuses on two main objectives: (1) the systematic characterization of DG installation in urban air basins, and (2) the simulation of potential air quality impacts using a state-of-the-art three-dimensional computational model. A general and systematic approach is devised to construct five realistic and 21 spanning scenarios of DG implementation in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) of California. Realistic scenarios reflect an anticipated level of DG deployment in the SoCAB by the year 2010. Spanning scenarios are developed to determine the potential impacts of unexpected outcomes. Realistic implementations of DG in the SoCAB result in small differences in ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the basin compared to the baseline simulations. The baseline accounts for population increase, but does not consider any future emissions control measures. Model results for spanning implementations with extra high DG market penetration show that domain-wide ozone peak concentrations increase significantly. Also, air quality impacts of spanning implementations when DG operate during a 6-h period are larger than when the same amount of emissions are introduced during a 24-h period.

  12. 76 FR 57871 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Attainment Plan for 1997 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Automotive Repair (Smog Check improvements) and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (VOC... South Coast 2007 Ozone Plan. The District conducted public workshops, provided public comment periods... to the 2007 AQMP. See SCAQMD Governing Board Resolution 11-9. CARB conducted public workshops...

  13. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... disproportionately impacted or singled out for a reduction. A section 105 recipient must submit a final financial.... The recipient must provide evidence that the air program is not being singled out for a reduction or...

  14. The relative impacts of distributed and centralized generation of electricity on local air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Qiguo; Venkatram, Akula

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the air quality impact of using distributed generation (DG) to satisfy future growth in power demand in the South Coast Air Basin of Los Angeles, relative to the impact when the demand is met by expanding current central generation (CG) capacity. The impact of decreasing boiler emissions by capturing the waste heat from DGs is not examined. The air quality impacts of these two alternate scenarios are quantified in terms of hourly maximum ground-level and annually averaged primary NO x concentrations, which are estimated using AERMOD. This study focuses on the impact of primary emissions at source-receptor distances of tens of kilometers. We find that the shift to DGs has the potential for decreasing maximum hourly impacts of power generation in the vicinity of the DGs. The maximum hourly concentration is reduced from 25 to 6 ppb if DGs rather than CGs are used to generate power. However, the annually averaged concentrations are likely to be higher than for the scenario in which existing CGs are used to satisfy power demand growth. Future DG penetration will add an annual average of 0.1 ppb to the current basin average, 20 ppb, while expanding existing CGs will add 0.05 ppb. - Highlights: → NO x levels in the LA basin will change by shifting to distributed generation (DG). → Shifting to DG will reduce the maximum hourly concentration from 25 to 6 ppb. → DG will add 0.1 ppb versus 0.05 ppb for CG to the annual average of 20 ppb.

  15. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  16. 77 FR 12673 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Attainment Plan for 1997 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ..., Douglas Ito, Chief, Air Quality and Transportation Planning Branch; California Air Resources Board... District determine compliance with the ``global commitment'' target, thus leaving them in a situation faced... plans, after consultation with the operators adopt ridership increase target for 1983-1987. Emission...

  17. Air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea, the Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei

    2016-06-01

    The air-sea exchange of gaseous mercury (mainly Hg(0)) in the tropical ocean is an important part of the global Hg biogeochemical cycle, but the related investigations are limited. In this study, we simultaneously measured Hg(0) concentrations in surface waters and overlaying air in the tropical coast (Luhuitou fringing reef) of the South China Sea (SCS), Hainan Island, China, for 13 days on January-February 2015. The purpose of this study was to explore the temporal variation of Hg(0) concentrations in air and surface waters, estimate the air-sea Hg(0) flux, and reveal their influencing factors in the tropical coastal environment. The mean concentrations (±SD) of Hg(0) in air and total Hg (THg) in waters were 2.34 ± 0.26 ng m(-3) and 1.40 ± 0.48 ng L(-1), respectively. Both Hg(0) concentrations in waters (53.7 ± 18.8 pg L(-1)) and Hg(0)/THg ratios (3.8 %) in this study were significantly higher than those of the open water of the SCS in winter. Hg(0) in waters usually exhibited a clear diurnal variation with increased concentrations in daytime and decreased concentrations in nighttime, especially in cloudless days with low wind speed. Linear regression analysis suggested that Hg(0) concentrations in waters were positively and significantly correlated to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (R (2) = 0.42, p sea Hg(0) fluxes were estimated to be 1.73 ± 1.25 ng m(-2) h(-1) with a large range between 0.01 and 6.06 ng m(-2) h(-1). The high variation of Hg(0) fluxes was mainly attributed to the greatly temporal variation of wind speed.

  18. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  19. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 1. Ozone formation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J; Revelle, Meghan K; Dabdub, Donald

    2004-02-01

    Metrics associated with ozone (O3) formation are investigated using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) three-dimensional air-quality model. Variables investigated include the O3 production rate (P(O3)), O3 production efficiency (OPE), and total reactivity (the sum of the reactivity of carbon monoxide (CO) and all organic gases that react with the hydroxyl radical). Calculations are spatially and temporally resolved; surface-level and vertically averaged results are shown for September 9, 1993 for three Southern California locations: Central Los Angeles, Azusa, and Riverside. Predictions indicate increasing surface-level O3 concentrations with distance downwind, in line with observations. Surface-level and vertically averaged P(O3) values peak during midday and are highest downwind; surface P(O3) values are greater than vertically averaged values. Surface OPEs generally are highest downwind and peak during midday in downwind locations. In contrast, peaks occur in early morning and late afternoon in the vertically averaged case. Vertically averaged OPEs tend to be greater than those for the surface. Total reactivities are highest in upwind surface locations and peak during rush hours; vertically averaged reactivities are smaller and tend to be more uniform temporally and spatially. Total reactivity has large contributions from CO, alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, unsubstituted monoaromatics, and secondary organics. Calculations using estimated emissions for 2010 result in decreases in P(O3) values and reactivities but increases in OPEs.

  20. 75 FR 71293 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of California; 2007 South Coast State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... formed in the atmosphere as a result of various chemical reactions from precursor emissions of nitrogen... quality modeling demonstration as meeting the requirements of the CAA and EPA guidance. EPA is proposing... 2. Air Quality Modeling in the South Coast 2007 AQMP 3. PM 2.5 Precursors Addressed in the South...

  1. 76 FR 41561 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; 2007 South Coast PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... formed in the atmosphere as a result of various chemical reactions from precursor emissions of nitrogen... the emissions inventories; air quality modeling; reasonably available control measures/reasonably... Quality Modeling in the South Coast 2007 AQMP 3. PM 2.5 Precursors Addressed in the South Coast 2007 AQMP...

  2. Tufa stromatolite ecosystems on the South African south coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the first description of living marine stromatolites along the South African east coast, new investigations along the south coast have revealed the occurrence of extensive fields of actively calcifying stromatolites. These stromatolites have been recorded at regular distances along a 200-km stretch of coastline, from Cape Recife in the east to the Storms River mouth in the west, with the highest density found between Schoenmakerskop and the Maitland River mouth. All active stromatolites are associated with freshwater seepage streams flowing from the dune cordon, which form rimstone dams and other accretions capable of retaining water in the supratidal platform. Resulting pools can reach a maximum depth of about 1 m and constitute a unique ecosystem in which freshwater and marine organisms alternate their dominance in response to vertical mixing and the balance between freshwater versus marine inflow. Although the factors controlling stromatolite growth are yet to be determined, nitrogen appears to be supplied mainly via the dune seeps. The epibenthic algal community within stromatolite pools is generally co-dominated by cyanobacteria and chlorophytes, with minimal diatom contribution.

  3. Deriving nearshore wave climate along South African coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed aspects of the highly interrelated study area of coastal safety and vulnerability, climate change and setback lines for South African coast. A medium resolution numerical wave analysis was undertaken, in the form...

  4. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase) over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, B.; Nissenson, P.; Meinardi, S.; Dabdub, D.; Sherwood Rowland, F.; Vancuren, R. A.; Pederson, J.; Diskin, G. S.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-03-01

    This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB), which includes much of Los Angeles (LA) County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg) in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO) enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr-1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr-1 for HFC-134a) using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  5. HFC-152a and HFC-134a emission estimates and characterization of CFCs, CFC replacements, and other halogenated solvents measured during the 2008 ARCTAS campaign (CARB phase over the South Coast Air Basin of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barletta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results from the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS study. Whole air samples were obtained on board research flights that flew over California during June 2008 and analyzed for selected volatile organic compounds, including several halogenated species. Samples collected over the South Coast Air Basin of California (SoCAB, which includes much of Los Angeles (LA County, were compared with samples from inflow air masses over the Pacific Ocean. The levels of many halocarbon species were enhanced significantly over the SoCAB, including compounds regulated by the Montreal Protocol and subsequent amendments. Emissions estimates of HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CH3CHF2; 0.82 ± 0.11 Gg and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CH2FCF3; 1.16 ± 0.22 Gg in LA County for 2008 were obtained using the observed HFC:carbon monoxide (CO enhancement ratio. Emission rates also were calculated for the SoCAB (1.60 ± 0.22 Gg yr−1 for HFC-152a and 2.12 ± 0.28 Gg yr−1 for HFC-134a and then extrapolated to the United States (32 ± 4 Gg yr−1 for HFC-152a and 43 ± 6 Gg yr−1 for HFC-134a using population data. In addition, emission rates of the two HFCs in LA County and SoCAB were calculated by a second method that utilizes air quality modeling. Emissions estimates obtained using both methods differ by less than 25% for the LA County and less than 45% for the SoCAB.

  6. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...

  7. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  8. Preliminary exploration of south Kanara coast of Karnataka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    The port along the South Kanara coast of Karnataka, India were explored. At the port Gangolli, submergence of a few houses and sea level changes at the light house have been observed which were attributed to the transgression of the sea during...

  9. Projected inundations on the South African coast by tsunami waves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical and recent evidence recorded along the South African coast suggests that five tsunami events have occurred since 1960. These were mostly associated with trigger mechanisms associated with sources of remote submarine seismicity along far-field subduction zones and local atmospheric disturbances ...

  10. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in ambient air in Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Batterman, S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an extensive ambient air quality monitoring program in Durban (eThekwini Municipality), South Africa, on Africa’s southeast coast. Following a multi stakeholder process coordinated by the Municipality Metropolitan Health...

  11. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    . An examination of the electron photomicrographs revealed several features of the chromite grains (Figure 5 c to f ). Grains display mechanical breaking such as con- choidal to sub-conchoidal fractures, V-shaped impact depressions and irregular cracks... . In this article we describe the occurrence, mineralogy, geochemistry, transport mechanisms, provenance and economic feasibility of the chromite deposit of south Maharashtra coast. Methodology Surficial and sub-surficial samples from various physi- ographic...

  12. Interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and synoptic type association

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and different synoptic types as well as selected teleconnections is explored. Synoptic circulation over the region is classified into different...

  13. Wind speed forecasting in the South Coast of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas, Erasmo [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Santiago Tapia No. 403, Centro (Mexico); Rivera, Wilfrido [Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 34, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Comparison of two techniques for wind speed forecasting in the South Coast of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico is presented in this paper. The Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) methods are applied to a time series conformed by 7 years of wind speed measurements. Six years were used in the formulation of the models and the last year was used to validate and compare the effectiveness of the generated prediction by the techniques mentioned above. Seasonal ARIMA models present a better sensitivity to the adjustment and prediction of the wind speed for this case in particular. Nevertheless, it was shown both developed models can be used to predict in a reasonable way, the monthly electricity production of the wind power stations in La Venta, Oaxaca, Mexico to support the operators of the Electric Utility Control Centre. (author)

  14. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  15. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  16. Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the south west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    upwelling in the southern regions off the East Coast of India. Vertical temperature and salinity structures north of Visakhapatnam show a predominant estuarine character and upwelling is not evident. In the northern regions, the flow is directed south...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, E.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    In vitro antimicrobial screening of nine marine sponges (Porifera) and two seaweeds, collected from south east coast of India, against selected clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi was conducted in this study. Methanolic extracts of all...

  18. Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5. Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Isopoda and. Decapoda. B. Kensley and C.D. Buxton. Port Elizabeth Museum, Port Elizabeth. Forty-six species of Crustacea from the shallow marine waters of the southern Cape coast are listed. Five new records for the area.

  19. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 h...

  20. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  1. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  2. Thermal responses of marine animals with reference to Kalpakkam Coast (South East Coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.

    2008-01-01

    Kalpakkam has been chosen as model coastal site to study the impact of thermal discharges on water qualities, benthic animals and fishes. The results of this study are expected to be valid for any given open coastal location on the east and west coast of India. The present study investigates, the impact of the elevated temperature due to thermal discharge on two groups of marine animals viz. Benthos (non-swimming bottom dwellers) and fishes

  3. maqualand coast on the west coast of South Africa, which covered a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    , Rondebosch 7701, South ... The selection was designed to ensure ... monitoring event, the primary space covered by sessile ...... the size of sexual maturity, rendering the mussel bed ..... spatial patterns of distribution of intertidal invertebrates.

  4. South-coast cyclone in Japan during El Niño-caused warm winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Amagai, Yuusuke; Hayasaki, Masamitsu

    2017-05-01

    La Niña conditions during boreal winter sometimes brings excessive snowfall in Japan, especially on the East Sea/Sea of Japan coastal and mountain areas through intensified northwesterly cold winds caused by La-Niña related atmospheric teleconnection. Meanwhile, snowfall events also increase in the Pacific coast area of Japan during the El Niño state due to extratropical cyclones passing along the south coast of Japan (hereafter referred to as South-coast cyclone). In the present study, we investigated year-to-year snowfall/rainfall variations based on meteorological station data and cyclone tracks identified by using the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis. The result clearly indicates increase of the South-coast cyclone during El Niño-developing winters, which is consistent with excessive snow-fall in the northern part of the Pacific coast. Strong subtropical jet hampers cyclogenesis due to less vertical interaction through the trapping of upper-level eddies. During El Niño-developing winters, the subtropical jet is weakened over East Asia, indicating dynamic linkage to increased cyclone frequency. In addition to this, both the deepening of the upper-tropospheric trough over East Asia and anomalous low-tropospheric northwest anticyclones extending from the Philippines toward Japan are also consistent with the enhancement of cyclogenesis over the East China Sea as well as warm winter in Japan.

  5. 76 FR 59155 - Notice of Availability of South Coast Draft Resource Management Plan Revision and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... policies and emphasis on the management of public lands and local land use planning; and new data that have... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAD06000, L16100000.DP0000] Notice of Availability of South Coast Draft Resource Management Plan Revision and Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

  6. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  7. Food habits of some deep-sea fish off South Africa's west coast. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of five species of eels and one species of spiny eel collected from the upper continental slope off the Cape west coast and Agulhas Bank, South Africa, are described. All are members of a defined demersal micro- or mesocarnivore feeding guild except Simenchelys parasitica, a scavenger. Two congrids ...

  8. Radiometric characteristics of heavy mineral deposits along the west coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdonald, W.G.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    During the last decade, exploration and mining of modern-Tertiary heavy mineral beach and raised beach sands along the west coast of South Africa has developed into a major industry. High resolution radiometric techniques have demonstrated their use as a quantitative indicator of total heavy mineral

  9. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure

  10. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure.

  11. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  12. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... tides, a natural phenomenon, are now common in many coastal waters. Various factors contribute to red tide formation such as insolation, wind, rain, salinity and nutrient input from land or by upwelling. Nitrogen and phosphorus are involved in phytoplank...

  13. Analysis of landscapes of the south coast in São Paulo State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Renê Lepiani; Oliveira, Regina Célia de

    2012-01-01

    The South Coast of São Paulo is structured in two main areas morphostructural: Atlantic Orogenic Belt and Cenozoic Sedimentary Basins. In this area are found various morphologies, that are in the form of trims topographic scarps, valleys carved, organization of major river network, the sharp convex tops in the Atlantic Forest domain extensive plain with the presence of unconsolidated deposits and important environmental systems, such as those related to mangroves. The landscape in which organ...

  14. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choudhary, R.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.

    -494 #02060313 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data RICHA CHOUDHARY 1 , R. GOWTHAMAN 2 AND V. SANIL KUMAR 2 1... years period. Gangavali river mouth has narrowed due to siltation. Significant changes in the geomorphic features like spit growth, braided island, creeks, tidal flat are observed near Kali and Gangavali river mouth. Keywords: Remote sensing...

  15. Gastroptychus Cavimurus sp. nov., a new Chirostylid (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from off the western coast of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the second cruise of the Japanese Research Vessel "Kaiyo Maru" to the western coast of South America in 1968-69, Dr. Osame Tabeta of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, then on the staff of the Kyushu University, collected a number of galatheids off the northern Peruvian coast. All of

  16. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  17. Assessment of wave energy potential along the south coast of Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingyang; Mayerle, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The south coast of Java Island has a great potential for wave energy. A long-term analysis of a 10-year wave dataset obtained from the ERA-Interim database is performed for preliminary wave energy assessment in this area, and it was seen that the annual median power is expected to exceed 20kW/m along the coast. A coastal wave model with an unstructured grid was run to reveal the wave conditions and to assess the wave energy potential along the coast in detail. The effect of swells and local wind on the wave conditions is investigated. Annual median wave power, water depth and distance from the coast are selected as criteria for the identification of suitable locations for wave energy conversion. Two zones within the study area emerge to be suitable for wave energy extraction. Swells from the southwest turned out to be the major source of wave energy and highest monthly median wave power reached about 33kW/m.

  18. Trace Gas Measurements Along the South Korean Coast Aboard the Jangmok During KOCOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Flynn, J. H., III

    2017-12-01

    The University of Houston deployed four instruments aboard the Jangmok during the KOrean Coastal water Ocean & Atmosphere (KOCOA) project to quantify O3, NOx, CO, and SO2 along the South Korea coast. The study explores influences of China pollution transport, estimation of the East Asia O3 background, comparisons with ground, ship, and airborne based measurements, and potential source regions along the coast. The Jangmok sailed from May 20 to June 5, 2016 from Ulsan on the east coast traversing along the southern coast to Bigeum in the west. The ship docked each night and measurements were collected only while the vessel was at sea. Sampling was divided into three profiles: anchored, drifting, and transits. Measurements while anchored and drifting provide good temporal data in a small area while transit data provide spatial coverage. The combination of sampling profiles give a better understanding of pollutants over the open water around southern Korea. A few case studies address pollutant transport from China, exploration of the relatively high East Asia O3 background, and coastal emissions along the Jangmok route and ports. The KOCOA project was conducted at the same time as the KORUS project, which provides a number of measurement platforms to compare observations. The Onnuri vessel was sailing as part of the KORUS-OC, while KORUS-AQ included a number of NIER monitoring sites and aircraft measurements. While a number of factors limited close proximity measurements with the other platforms, comparisons were explored where applicable.

  19. Identification of Surface Water Quality along the Coast of Sanya, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Zhen; Che, Zhi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) are utilized to identify the effects caused by human activities on water quality along the coast of Sanya, South China Sea. PCA and CA identify the seasonality of water quality (dry and wet seasons) and polluted status (polluted area). The seasonality of water quality is related to climate change and Southeast monsoons. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities (especially land input of pollutions). PCA reveals the characteristics underlying the generation of coastal water quality. The temporal and spatial variation of the trophic status along the coast of Sanya is governed by hydrodynamics and human activities. The results provide a novel typological understanding of seasonal trophic status in a shallow, tropical, open marine bay. PMID:25894980

  20. How Will Air Quality Change in South Asia by 2050?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Barth, Mary C.; Pfister, G. G.; Delle Monache, L.; Lamarque, J. F.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Tilmes, S.; Ghude, S. D.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Naja, M.; Walters, S.

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to unhealthy air causes millions of premature deaths and damages crops sufficient to feed a large portion of the South Asian population every year. However, little is known about how future air quality in South Asia will respond to changing human activities. Here we examine the combined effect of changes in climate and air pollutant emissions projected by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 and RCP6.0 on air quality of South Asia in 2050 using a state-of-the-science Nested Regional Climate model with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem). RCP8.5 and RCP6.0 are selected to represent scenarios of highest and lowest air pollution in South Asia by 2050. NRCM-Chem shows the ability to capture observed key features of variability in meteorological parameters, ozone and related gases, and aerosols. NRCM-Chem results show that surface ozone and particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter will increase significantly by midcentury in South Asia under the RCP8.5 but remain similar to present day under RCP6.0. No RCP suggest an improvement in air pollution in South Asia by midcentury. Under RCP8.5, the frequency of air pollution events is predicted to increase by 20-120 days per year in 2050 compared to the present-day conditions, with particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter predicted to breach the World Health Organization ambient air quality guidelines on an almost daily basis in many parts of South Asia. These results indicate that while the RCP scenarios project a global improvement in air quality, they generally result in degrading air quality in South Asia.

  1. Paleoseismic Records of 1762 and Similar Prior Earthquakes Along the South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Gurung, D.; Bastas-Hernandez, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Mustaque, S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Saha, P.

    2014-12-01

    The great 1762 Arakan earthquake caused subsidence and uplift along 700km of the Arakan coast, and is thought to derive from a huge megathrust rupture reaching northward onto the southeastern coast of Bangladesh. Paleoseismic investigations were conducted in that area to document effects of that and prior earthquakes. U/Th ages obtained from isochron analysis of uplifted dead coral heads of the Poritesspecies, collected along a south to north transect from the islands east coast reveal at least three growth interruptions caused by abrupt relative sea-level changes within the past 1300 years that we interpret to be associated with megathrust ruptures. The ages show distinct events approximately 250, 900 and 1300 years ago. The youngest of these events corresponds to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. The two prior events at ~1100 and 700 AD, suggest an average recurrence interval of 400-600 years. Along the coast of Teknaf, we mapped a ~2m uplifted terrace. Marine shells on top of the terrace dated with C-14 at 1695-1791 AD link the uplift to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. Based on this evidence and previous work (Wang et al., 2013 and Aung et al., 2008), we estimated the 1762 rupture to be at least 700 km long, from Chebuda Island to the Sitakund anticline encompassing the Teknaf Peninsula. Considering 14 mm/yr convergence rate and 400-600 yrs recurrence interval, this rupture zone has now accumulated elastic deformation to generate a M~8.4 earthquake, close to the M8.8 estimated by Cummins (2007) for the 1762 earthquake. Published recurrence intervals based on C-14 ages along the Myanmar coast ~90 km south of Bangladesh reveal three ruptures within the last 3400 years with an average recurrence interval of 1000-2000 years (Aung et al., 2008). While the 1762 rupture reached across both areas, some of the prior ruptures may be confined to one or the other of these areas, with a smaller magnitude. Our precise U-Th ages provide evidence of recurrence intervals of

  2. Paracas geoglyphs of the peruvian south coast: Cerro Lechuza and Cerro Pico

    OpenAIRE

    García Soto, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the manufacture of large found drawings on desert plains and hill slopes of the Peruvian south coast was at-tributed to the Nasca society. However, since the 1980s, it is known that this cultural manifestation is a tradition that wouldhave begun towards the 750 BC during the early part of the development of the Paracas culture. Paracas geoglyphs have beenreported from Pisco to the Rio Grande Basin of Nasca, particularly in the area of Palpa where the where they have identifiedm...

  3. Evidence of Early Cultures in the Palpa Valleys on the South coast of Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Reindel, Markus; Isla, Johny A.

    2012-01-01

    After the pioneering work of Julio C. Tello, Frédéric Engel and John H. Rowe on the Formative and Preceramic periods, few advances have been made in the investigation of early cultural developments on the south coast of Perú. This is especially true for the Río Grande de Nasca drainage, where there is a lack of data regarding early human occupation. The Nasca-Palpa Archaeological Project aims to reconstruct the human occupation of the Palpa valleys during all Prehispanic periods. In this arti...

  4. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  5. A preliminary study of paleotsunami deposit along the south coast of East Java: Pacitan-Banyuwangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anugrah, Suci D.; Istiyanati; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan

    2015-01-01

    Along the southern coast of East Java Indonesia, at a number of localities, it can be identified and attempted to assign the age of tsunami deposit. Laboratory analyses were conducted also to support this study such as Granulometry, Paleontology and radiometric dating analysis. The presence of tsunami 1994 deposit in the area of Pancer, Lampon, Prigi and Grajagan was found, as a result of 7.8 Magnitude Banyuwangi Earthquake. The radiometric dating analysis also identified some paleotsunami deposit of about 1921 and 1930 in the area of Prigi and Teleng. This paleotsunami is assumed to have a correlation with an earthquake in the south of Java at the same time. An outcrop in the Prigi and Teleng strongly convinced the fact of an earthquake generated tsunami in the south of Java in the year of about 1921 and 1930

  6. A preliminary study of paleotsunami deposit along the south coast of East Java: Pacitan-Banyuwangi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anugrah, Suci D.; Istiyanati [Tsunami Mitigation Division - Meteorogical Climatologycal and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan [Geology Department, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology - Bandung Institute of Technolog, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Along the southern coast of East Java Indonesia, at a number of localities, it can be identified and attempted to assign the age of tsunami deposit. Laboratory analyses were conducted also to support this study such as Granulometry, Paleontology and radiometric dating analysis. The presence of tsunami 1994 deposit in the area of Pancer, Lampon, Prigi and Grajagan was found, as a result of 7.8 Magnitude Banyuwangi Earthquake. The radiometric dating analysis also identified some paleotsunami deposit of about 1921 and 1930 in the area of Prigi and Teleng. This paleotsunami is assumed to have a correlation with an earthquake in the south of Java at the same time. An outcrop in the Prigi and Teleng strongly convinced the fact of an earthquake generated tsunami in the south of Java in the year of about 1921 and 1930.

  7. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  8. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  9. Linking the basement geology along the Africa-South America coasts in the South Atlantic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Sláma, Jiří; Košler, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 280, July (2016), s. 221-230 ISSN 0301-9268 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Gondwana reconstruction * South Atlantic Ocean * Plate tectonics * Kaoko Belt * Dom Feliciano Belt Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2016

  10. The south-east coast of South Africa is characterized by its high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    fisheries management in South Africa has been ex- tended to include shellfish obtained for subsistence purposes. Because human resources for law enforce- ment are limited, and in keeping with international trends, authorities are promoting partnerships with local communities and seeking sustainable harvesting practices ...

  11. A synoptic decomposition of rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewers: Alice Favre afavre@csag.uct.ac.za Expert in cut-off lows occurring over South Africa Chris Reason chris.reason@uct.ac.za Expert in southern Africa climate variability Michael Pook mike.pook@csiro.au Expert in developing synoptic climatology...

  12. Landscape fragmentation in South Coast Renosterveld, South Africa, in relation to rainfall and topography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kemper, J

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available be identified on the basis of irreplaceability (presence of unique attributes; contribution to achiev- ing a reservation goal) and on actual and potential threats (Pressey et al. 1996). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank William Bond, Steven Higgins, Richard Hobbs, John... Ludwig and Chris Margules for com- menting on earlier versions of this manuscript. CSIR, South Africa and the Pew Charitable Trust are thanked for funding this project. REFERENCES Computer Centre for Water Research (1996) Computer Centre for Water...

  13. Vegetation and flora of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve, lower North Coast of New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, S. J.; Wilson, R.; Maryott-Brown, K.

    2015-01-01

    The vegetation of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve on the lower North Coast of New South Wales has been classified and mapped from aerial photography at a scale of 1:25,000. The plant communities so identified are described in terms of their composition and distribution within Booti Booti NP and Yahoo NR. The plant communities are also discussed in terms of their distribution elsewhere in south-eastern Australia, with particular emphasis given to the NSW North Coast where co...

  14. Marine Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment for Domestic Army, Air Force, and Coast Guard Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robi J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-24

    NREL/DOE undertook a study for the US Army, Coast Guard and Air Force to investigate the potential for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices to meet the energy load at coastal bases in the future as MHK technology evolves. A wide range of data from tidal and wave, environmental, shipping, etc. databases were used to screen the DOD bases. A series of scoring algorithms were developed to facilitate site review to lead to eventual down select for more detailed, site specific bathymetric tidal resource evaluation. The Army's Camp Edwards, MA and the Coast Guard's Training Center Cape May, NJ (TRACEN Cape May) were selected and the Georgia Institute of Technology performed the analyses. An NREL/DOE MHK team visited the bases to further discuss with the base personnel MHK technology's potential for providing power to the bases in the future and frame the potential impact to existing power systems.

  15. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source

  16. Wave-power potential along the coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfredi, N.W. (Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC), La Plata (Argentina) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)); Pousa, J.L. (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, UNLP, La Plata (Argentina)); Mazio, C.A.; Dragani, W.C. (Servicio de Hidrografia Naval, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Oceanografia)

    1992-11-01

    The coast of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, has been studied to determine the wave-power potential. Using wave data (4 yr) from accelerometers, pressure sensors (1 yr) and a visual observation program (10 yr), the wave-power density was calculated at five locations. The annual average increases southwards, ranging between 2.3 kW/m at Mar de Ajo and 7.5 kW/m at Puerto Quequen. Annual averages of maximum wave power give 69 and 61.3 kW/m for Punta Medanos and Puerto Quequen, respectively. (Author).

  17. Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii infection) in the New South Wales mid-north coast, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Shobini; Bannan, Aiveen M; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ralph, Anna P

    2012-05-21

    To determine the geographical, epidemiological and clinical features of sporotrichosis (a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii) in the New South Wales mid-north coast. We undertook a retrospective case review of S. schenckii infections that occurred during the period 2000-2010. Microbiology laboratory staff and medical practitioners in the NSW mid-north coast were contacted to identify cases through database searches and clinical data collection. Thirty-one cases of S. schenckii infection were identified. Twenty-one occurred in males, the mean age of patients was 59 years, and all cases with data available involved cutaneous disease affecting the limbs (multiple lesions in 18 of 20 cases). Despite an impression of temporal clustering (eight cases in 1 year), this was not statistically significant (P = 0.3). Most cases occurred in months with higher rainfall (13 of 14 cases with data available). Inoculating events included injuries in gardens, in bushland and on farms, and possible bites. Symptom duration before correct diagnosis ranged from 4 to 30 weeks (median, 8 weeks; data available for 15 cases), unnecessary antibacterial therapy was common (13 of 19 cases with data available), and morbidity occurred in the form of recurrence (three cases) and mild itraconazole-induced hepatotoxicity (two cases). In all cases with recorded treatment details, the patients received itraconazole, and the median duration of itraconazole treatment was 24 weeks. These data highlight that health providers on the NSW mid-north coast should consider sporotrichosis when patients present with characteristic lesions after an inoculating injury sustained from or contaminated by decaying vegetation. The risk may be higher in older people and in wetter months. Fungal culture to confirm the diagnosis needs to be specifically requested. In contrast to outbreaks reported from other states, the epidemiological pattern in NSW appears most consistent with sporadic occurrence

  18. Hydrographic data report: south coast of Puerto Rico, 1973--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Asencio, R.

    1975-01-01

    The hydrographic data included in this report were collected as part of a site selection survey to provide basic oceanographic data to assist the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority (PRWRA) in determining the best locations for additional electrical power generating facilities on the island, both nuclear and fossil fuel. This report includes data from two sites and an offshore transect between the sites. The Punta Verraco site, PVE, is on the west side of Guayanilla Bay and the Cabo Mala Pascua site, CMP, is located on the southeast corner of the island. Data were also collected seaward from Jobos Bay, OJB, to determine the effects of the open sea on nearshore oceanographic parameter characteristics. The two south coast sites are about 90 kilometers apart. The offshore Jobos Bay transect was made about 25 kilometers west of Cabo Mala Pascua. (auth)

  19. From The Mountain To The Sea: Exchange Between The South-Central Highlands And The South Coast During The Early Horizon Period

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence of the exchange of obsidian and cinnabar, highly coveted resources that traveled in prehistoric Peru from the south-central highlands to the Paracas culture area. The evidence for exchange of these materials is compared with evidence of cultural exchange between the coast and the south-central highlands, focusing on ceramic materials uncovered from excavations at the archaeological site Atalla, located in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. The article argues t...

  20. Glauconitic deposits at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm, Denmark dated to the Cambrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Bromley, Richard Granville; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bioturbated, glauconitic siltstones and sandstones are overlain by presumed Upper Triassic deposits at coastal exposures at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm. These glauconitic deposits have not previously been dated. A 40Ar-39Ar dating of the glaucony gives an age of 493 ± 2 Ma suggesting ...... of Rusophycus Hall, 1852, probably trilobite trace fossils, are also represented....

  1. 77 FR 5781 - Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the Air Space Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Final Environmental Impact Statement ACTION: Notice of... signed the ROD for the Airspace Training Initiative Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina Final...

  2. Fogwater Chemistry and Air Quality in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommalapati, R. R.; Raja, S.; Ravikrishna, R.; Murugesan, K.; Collett, J. L.; Valsaraj, K.

    2007-05-01

    The presence of fog water in polluted atmosphere can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The study of interactions between fog water and atmospheric gases and aerosols are very important in understanding the atmospheric fate of the pollutants. In this Study several air samples and fogwater samples were collected in the heavily industrialized area of Gulf Coast corridor( Houston, TX and Baton Rouge, LA). A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected, comprising of nine fog events in Baton Rouge (Nov 2004 to Feb 2005) and two fog events in Houston (Feb, 2006), during the fog sampling campaigns. These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved carbon, major inorganic ions, organic acids, and aromatics, aldehydes, VOCs, and linear alkanes organic compounds. Fogwater samples collected in Houston show clear influence of marine and anthropogenic environment, while Baton Rouge samples reveal a relatively less polluted environment. Also, a time series observation of air samples indicated that fog event at the monitoring site impacted the air concentrations of the pollutants. This is attributed to presence of surface active organic matter in fog water.

  3. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  4. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  5. Air-water CO2 evasion from US East Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildas Laruelle, Goulven; Goossens, Nicolas; Arndt, Sandra; Cai, Wei-Jun; Regnier, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the first regional-scale assessment of estuarine CO2 evasion along the US East Coast (25-45° N). The focus is on 42 tidal estuaries, which together drain a catchment of 697 000 km2 or 76 % of the total area within this latitudinal band. The approach is based on the Carbon-Generic Estuary Model (C-GEM) that allows the simulation of hydrodynamics, transport, and biogeochemistry for a wide range of estuarine systems using readily available geometric parameters and global databases of seasonal climatic, hydraulic, and riverine biogeochemical information. Our simulations, performed using conditions representative of the year 2000, suggest that, together, US East Coast estuaries emit 1.9 Tg C yr-1 in the form of CO2, which corresponds to about 40 % of the carbon inputs from rivers, marshes, and mangroves. Carbon removal within estuaries results from a combination of physical (outgassing of supersaturated riverine waters) and biogeochemical processes (net heterotrophy and nitrification). The CO2 evasion and its underlying drivers show important variations across individual systems, but reveal a clear latitudinal pattern characterized by a decrease in the relative importance of physical over biogeochemical processes along a north-south gradient. Finally, the results reveal that the ratio of estuarine surface area to the river discharge, S/Q (which has a scale of per meter discharged water per year), could be used as a predictor of the estuarine carbon processing in future regional- and global-scale assessments.

  6. Pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane A; Iaria, Sebastião T; Gelli, Dilma S; Rivera, Irma N G

    2007-08-01

    Oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from June 1998 to March 1999, in the Cananéia estuary, on the south coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. Aeromonas spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (MPN) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. The presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and fecal coliforms counts were determined in oysters and in water samples too. Sixty percent of water samples contained fecal coliforms ranging from 200 CFU/100 ml and 100%, 30%, 20% and 10% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Aeromonas, and V. vulnificus in 5 l of water samples, respectively. In oyster samples, the fecal coliforms concentration ranged from or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g in 40% of untreated and from oyster samples and their concentration varied from 3.6 to > or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g. For the untreated oyster samples 80%, 70%, and 10% were positive for V. vulnificus (oyster samples 60%, 30%, and 0% of them contained the same bacteria, respectively. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., P. shigelloides, and V. cholerae O1 were not detected in any of the samples. Fecal indicators did not correlate with Vibrio presence (p>0.05), although the isolation of Aeromonas species had a positive correlation (p = 0.017). The results showed no correlation between temperature, salinity, and bacteria (p > 0.05). The comparison between bacterial concentration in treated and untreated oyster samples, showed that only Aeromonas was higher in untreated oyster samples (p = 0.039). This study contributes toward creating a more global understanding of food-borne bacterial pathogens. The presence and concentration of viable bacterial hazards in oysters and water surrounding areas was determined for the first time

  7. Impacts of Central American Fires on Ozone Air Quality along the US Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Wang, Y.; Estes, M. J.; Lei, R.; Talbot, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning in Central America is associated with agriculture activities and occurs regularly during April and May every year. Satellite observations have documented frequent transport of wildfire smoke from Mexico and Central America to the southern US, causing haze and exceedance of fine particle matter. However, the impacts of those fires on surface ozone in the US are poorly understood. This study uses both observations and modeling to examine the effects of the springtime Central America fire emissions on surface ozone over the Gulf coastal regions over a long-term time period (2002-2015). Passive tracer simulation in the nested-grid version of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model over North America is used to identify the days when Central American fire plumes reached the US Gulf Coast. During the identified fire-impact days, Central American fires are estimated to result in an average of 9 ppbv enhancement of regional background ozone over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) region. Satellite-observed distributions of AOD and CO are used to examine the transport pathways and effects of those fires on atmospheric composition. Finally, we integrate satellite observations, ground measurements, and modeling to quantify the impact of Central American fires on springtime ozone air quality along the US Gulf Coast in terms of both long-term (2002-2015) mean and extreme cases.

  8. Acoustic impedance properties of seafloor sediments off the coast of Southeastern Hainan, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhengyu; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jingqiang; Zheng, Xufeng; Yan, Wen; Tian, Yuhang; Luo, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Geoacoustic parameters are essential inputs to sediment wave propagation theories and are vital to underwater acoustic environment and explorations of the sea bottom. In this study, 21 seafloor sediment samples were collected off the coast of southeastern Hainan in the South China Sea. The sound speed was measured using a portable WSD-3 digital sonic instrument and the coaxial differential distance measurement method. Based on the measured sound speed and physical properties, the acoustic impedance and the pore-water-independent index of impedance (IOI) were calculated in this study. Similar to the sound speed, the IOI values are closely related to the sediment physical properties and change gradually from the northwest to the southeast. The relations between IOI and physical properties were studied and compared to the relations between the sound speed and physical properties. IOI is better correlated to physical properties than sound speed. This study also uses an error norm method to analyze the sensitivity of IOI to the physical parameters in the double-parameter equations and finds that the most influential physical parameters are as follows: wet bulk density > porosity > clay content > mean particle size.

  9. Presence of stratospheric humidity in the ozone column depletion on the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M. Luis; Gutierrez, O. Luis; Morales, S. Luis; Universidad de Chile, Santiago; Torres, C. Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western coast of South America has been previously explained, based on the existence of winds in the area of the depletion, which cause compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, the presence of humidity and methane transported by these winds to the stratosphere where the ozone depletion is present gives evidence that these compounds also participate in the depletion of the ozone layer. These two compounds, humidity and methane, are analysed during the ozone depletion of January, 1998. It is observed that when humidity presents fluctuations, ozone has fluctuations too. A maximum of humidity corresponds to a minimum of ozone, but there is a shift in altitude between them. This shift is observed in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and corresponds to approximately 500 m. It is important to point out that during this event El Nino was present and the sources of methane are the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean. The data for this study was obtained from NASA and HALOE

  10. Natural radioactivity measurements in beach sand along the South East coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, B.S.; Vijayakumar, B.; Ravi, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sand was carried out along the south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India, The activity concentrations of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in beach sand ranged from 2 to 2,762 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 236 Bq.kg"-"1, 7 to 30,872 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 2,300 Bqkg"-"1 and 6.0 to 890 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 85 Bqkg"-"1, respectively. The Radium Equivalent Activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were assessed and compared with world average values. The results indicate that the absorbed dose rates range from 10 to 20506 nGyh"-"1 with mean value of 1545 nGy.h"-"1. The annual effective dose range between 0.01 and 25.15 mSvy"-"1, with the mean value of 1.90 mSvy"-"1. (author)

  11. Hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Puerto Rico, 2010–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2016-01-15

    In 1958, the U.S. Geological Survey began documenting hydrologic conditions, including groundwater levels, groundwater withdrawals for agricultural irrigation and public water supply, and water quality, in the South Coast aquifer, Puerto Rico. This information has improved the understanding of the water resources of the region. The hydrologic data indicate that (1) groundwater levels declined as much as 40 feet in the Salinas area and 11 feet in the Guayama area during 2012–14; (2) groundwater withdrawals for agricultural irrigation increased from 6.0 to 10.5 million gallons per day, or 75 percent, from 2010 to 2012; and (3) total groundwater withdrawals decreased from 29.3 to 23.8 million gallons per day from 2010 to 2014. The quantity and quality of water in the aquifer is primarily affected by variations in aquifer recharge as a result of changing rainfall or modes of irrigation; however, the spatial patterns and magnitude of water withdrawals for all uses have a secondary impact on the quantity and quality of water in the aquifer.

  12. Decadal trends in beach morphology on the east coast of South Africa and likely causative factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandy shorelines are dynamic with constant changes that can cause hazards in developed areas. The causes of change may be either natural or anthropogenic. This paper evaluates evidence for shoreline changes and their causative factors using a case study on the east coast of South Africa. Beach morphology trends were found to be location-specific, but overall the beaches show a receding trend. It was hypothesized that wave, tide, sea level and wind trends as well as anthropogenic influences are causative factors, and their contributions to shoreline changes were evaluated. Maximum significant wave heights, average wave direction, peak period and storm event frequencies all show weak increasing trends, but only the increases in peak period and wave direction are statistically significant. The chronic beach erosion cannot be attributed to wave climate changes since they are still too small to explain the observations. Instead, the impacts of sea level rise and reductions in the supply of beach sediments are suggested as the main causative factors. The analysis also identifies a trend in the frequency of severe erosion events due to storms that coincide with a 4.5-yr extreme tide cycle, which demonstrates the potential impact of future sea level rise.

  13. Two new marine Gastrotricha from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2015-01-12

    The study is part of a larger research programme aimed at shedding light on the gastrotrich communities of the subtropical east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In previous papers, faunistic and preliminary taxonomic data on marine and freshwater gastrotrichs found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, were reported. Here two new interesting marine macrodasyidan species in the families Dactylopodolidae and Thaumastodermatidae are described based on observations carried out on living specimens and using differential interference contrast microscopy. The two novel species are named in honor of two great South African icons recently deceased: Nadine Gordimer and Nelson Mandela. Dactylopodola nadine sp. n. is the third species in the genus to bear red eye-spots; it can easily be distinguished from the closely-related red-eyed D. baltica and D. roscovita by its smaller size (Total length = 230 μm vs 275 μm vs 450 μm, respectively) and the lower number of adhesive tubes of the anterior, lateral and posterior series (on each side: 3, 4 and 4 vs 5, 6 and 8 vs 2, 9 and 12-15). Pseudostomella mandela sp. n. is a fairly large species (up to 481 μm in length), with a cuticular covering made up of tetrancres and relatively long caudal pedicles (up to 44 μm in length ). The most evident autoapomorphic trait of the new species is the presence of 7 pairs of 'cirrata' tubes, two emerging in a lateral position along the pharyngeal region and five from the dorsolateral sides of the trunk. Additional relevant taxonomic characters include: 4 tubes of the anterior series, 11 tubes of the ventrolateral series and 3 tubes of the posterior series per side, 5 papillae on the dorsal margin and 6 papillae on the ventral margin of the oral palps. The high number of putative new species discovered among the South African gastrotrich fauna during our relatively short survey, highlights the relevance of this region with regard to the diversity of this group and stresses once again

  14. Distribution and enrichment of 210Po and 210Pb in the environment of Mangalore, South West coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, V.; Rajashekara, K.M.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb in soil samples of Mangalore South west coast of India. The soil samples collected from the region were analyzed for 210 Po and 210 Pb activity using radiochemical analytical techniques to understand the distribution and enrichment of those radionuclides. The 210 Po activity in soil in the environment of Mangalore varies from 1.5 Bq kg -1 to 26.9 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 12.6 Bq kg -1 and that of 210 Pb varies in the range 7.6 Bq kg -1 to 67.5 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 38.9 Bq kg -1 . The mean 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio observed was 0.3 and it shows that the radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb are not in equilibrium and the accumulation of 210 Pb in soil is more compared to 210 Po. A good correlation exists between the activities of 210 Po and 210 Pb with correlation coefficient r = 0.7. The absorbed gamma dose in the environment of the region varies from 39.4 nGy h -1 to 78.8 nGy h -1 with a mean value of 48.2 nGy h -1 . The results of the systematic studies on the distribution and enrichment of 210 Po and 210 Pb and the absorbed gamma dose rate in air are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Beach Sediments From Aden Coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Zahran, A.M.; A ASSUBAIHI, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of natural gamma emitting 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K radionuclides in beach sediments along Aden coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen has been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometric technique. The mean activity concentrations of measured radionuclides were compared with other literature values. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index and representative level index were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values.

  16. Assessment of proposals related to oil spill risk for the south coast of Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to quantify the present and future risks of oil pollution in Canadian waters off the south coast of Newfoundland due to marine traffic transiting this area. The study methodology included as assessment of the key components of risk, such as the probability of an oil spill occurring and the consequences of the spill should it occur. Key elements that were identified were stakeholder consultation; oil spill frequency; environmental impact assessment; risk results; area specific factors; and future trends. One of the key findings was that the most probable area for a spill was in inner Placentia Bay. Local and regional interests in the area resulted in 25 proposals for spill prevention, response and research. This paper provided a background discussion for each proposal and where relevant, a description of the status quo, and a rationale for implementing, or not implementing the proposal. Proposals for spill prevention consisted of strategies for vessel traffic; vessel instrumentation; use of double hulls; aerial surveillance program; control enforcement; additional radar monitoring; pilotage for long harbours; and escort and rescue tugs. Proposals for spill response consisted of designating places of refuge; location of response equipment; additional response capability; response time standards; designating waste handling sites; bird rescue and rehabilitation; testing of equipment cascading; training of fishermen for first response; and first responder equipment. Oil spill research proposals consisted of research on ecosystem effects; research on response priorities; representative oil spill scenarios; and emergency management plans. General category proposals were also submitted, and dealt primarily with independent oversight committees; consultations with pilots; and occurrence of mystery spills and bilge dumps. 1 tab.

  17. Ecology of megabenthic bivalve communities from sandy beaches on the south coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Rufino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of 75 megabenthic bivalve species found on the south coast of Portugal (from Vila Real to Sagres were studied based on the information provided by seasonal bivalve surveys from 2000 to 2007 (8600 hauls, simultaneously using a razor shell dredge and a clam dredge. Of the 75 species identified, 36 occurred less than 30 times, and thus were considered rare in the area. The remaining 39 bivalves were analysed according to their occurrence, bathymetric distribution, geographic preferences, seasonal preferences, burying-depth, beach exposure and river mouth proximity. All species belonging to the Pharidae and Solenidae families (razor shells and most Tellinidae were significantly more frequent in the razor shell dredge (indicating deeper burying in the sediment, whilst the families Cardiidae and Donacidae were significantly more frequent in the clam dredge (indicating that these species are probably closer to the sediment surface. As for the season, most bivalve species occurred similarly in both seasons (19 sp; 49%, but a large proportion were more abundant during the autumn surveys (17 sp., 44%, whereas only three species were commoner during the spring surveys. Most species belonging to the families Cardiidae and Mactridae were commoner in the autumn surveys. The spatial distribution differed between species and cluster analysis identified four communities with greater geographic affinity. Species belonging to the family Cardiidae were preferably found in the western part (WB and the eastern part (S of the study area, whereas the families Donacidae, Mactridae and Tellinidae occurred mainly in the central area (EB and the eastern (S coastal sectors. Overall, shallower species (modal depth at 3-6 m showed greater occurrences and abundances than the deeper ones, and the depth pattern observed did not change between seasons. Donacidae and Mactridae (except Mactra glauca were represented essentially by shallow species, whereas

  18. Redescription of Hanleya brachyplax (Polyplacophora, Hanleyidae from the south-southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Jardim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 is described in detail. The species occurs off the southeastern and south coast of Brazil (São Paulo and Santa Catarina states in depths from 250 to 408 m. It differs from its congeners in having uniform white valves; wide intermediate valves; the tail valve with straight profile in the antemucronal area, and a concave postmucronal surface; and a cream-colored girdle, covered by non-articulated spines. An anatomical investigation was also performed, showing the main muscle groups; the presence of gills in the posterior third of the pallial groove; auricle with six orifices; a very flat kidney, restricted to the posterior half of the animal; and a simple esophageal region. The odontophore has a single pair of long cartilages. The buccal musculature is also described.Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 é descrita em detalhes. A espécie ocorre entre as costas Sul e Sudeste do Brasil (Estados de São Paulo e Santa Catarina em profundidades de 250 a 408 m. Se diferenciando das espécies do mesmo gênero por apresentar valvas uniformemente brancas; valvas intermediarias largas; valva anal com a região antemucronal reta e região postmucronal suavemente concava; cinturão creme, revestido de espinhos não articulados. Um estudo anatômico foi realizado, evidenciando os principais grupos musculares; restrição dos filamentos branquiais à região posterior da cavidade palial; aurículas com seis orifícios; rim achatado e restrito a porção posterior do animal; região esofágica simples. O odontóforo composto por um par de cartilagens simples. Musculatura da massa bucal é também descrita.

  19. Deagrarianisation and forest revegetation in a biodiversity hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shackleton

    Full Text Available Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa's Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape.

  20. Deagrarianisation and forest revegetation in a biodiversity hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shackleton

    Full Text Available Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa's Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990 s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape.

  1. Deagrarianisation and Forest Revegetation in a Biodiversity Hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Ross; Shackleton, Charlie; Shackleton, Sheona; Gambiza, James

    2013-01-01

    Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa’s Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape. PMID:24155911

  2. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  3. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  4. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  5. Longshore-transport model for South Indian and Sri Lankan Coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; RamaRaju, V.S.

    stream_size 17 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Ocean_Eng_116_408.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Waterway_Port_Coast_Ocean_Eng_116_408.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  6. Dinoflagellate cyst distribution in recent sediments along the south-east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narale, D.D.; Patil, J.S.; Anil, A

    sediment) as compared to sub-tropical and temperate regions, but it is on a par with tropical regions, including the west coast of India Comparison of the cyst assemblage along the Indian coast revealed a smaller number of potentially harmful and red...

  7. Markov chain analysis of the rainfall patterns of five geographical locations in the south eastern coast of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Tettey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study develops an objective rainfall pattern assessment through Markov chain analysis using daily rainfall data from 1980 to 2010, a period of 30 years, for five cities or towns along the south eastern coastal belt of Ghana; Cape Coast, Accra, Akuse, Akatsi and Keta. Transition matrices were computed for each town and each month using the conditional probability of rain or no rain on a particular day given that it rained or did not rain on the previous day. The steady state transition matrices and the steady state probability vectors were also computed for each town and each month. It was found that, the rainy or dry season pattern observed using the monthly steady state rainfall vectors tended to reflect the monthly rainfall time series trajectory. Overall, the probability of rain on any day was low to average: Keta 0.227, Akuse 0.382, Accra 0.467, Cape Coast, 0.50 and Akatsi 0.50. In particular, for Accra, the rainy season was observed to be in the months of May to June and September to October. We also determined that the probability of rainfall generally tended to increase from east to west along the south eastern coast of Ghana.

  8. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  9. Larval development of Etropus longimanus (Paralichthyidae and Symphurus trewavasae (Cynoglossidae off the Buenos Aires coast, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Derisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of Etropus longimanus and Symphurus trewavasae (Pleuronectiformes off the Buenos Aires coast was described. Both species have an elongated body; however, as the total length of Etropus longimanus larvae increased, their body became deeper. In Symphurus trewavasae the intestine was noticeably coiled. In E. longimanus the notochord flexion started at 3.9 mm and was completed at 5.0 mm standard length (SL. Vertebral formation began in larvae with a 4.6 mm SL and the definitive number of vertebrae (34-39 was observed in larvae of 4.8 mm SL. The dorsal fin had two elongated rays and the pelvic fins had only one. In Symphurus trewavasae the notochord flexion began at 5.9 mm and was completed at 8.0 mm SL. Migration of the right eye was completed in the metamorphic stage at 10.5 mm SL. Vertebral column ossification finished in flexion larvae of 6-7 mm SL, with a total number of 48-50 vertebrae. Four elongated rays of similar length were observed on the dorsal fin.

  10. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  11. Cadmium concentrations in franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei from south brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Dorneles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Franciscana dolphins were used as source of information on the bioavailability of cadmium in the neritic waters off South Brazilian Coast. Liver samples obtained from 44 individuals incidentally captured off Rio Grande do Sul State were analyzed by electrothermal AAS. Cadmium concentrations, age, total weight and length of the analyzed dolphins varied between 39 and 4144 µg.kg-1 (wet weight, one and five years, 17.5 and 49.2 kg, and between 105.3 and 156.8 cm, respectively. Concerning hepatic cadmium concentrations of franciscanas, there was no significant difference between data raised by the present study and information from literature, regarding Rio de Janeiro State. The low cadmium concentrations observed may be attributed to the fact that loliginid squids constitute the main cephalopod prey for franciscanas. This study corroborates investigations on cadmium levels in Brazilian squids and strengthened the hypothesis that cephalopods of Loliginidae Family do not constitute important vectors of the transfer of cadmium to cetaceans.Franciscanas foram utilizadas como fonte de informação sobre a biodisponibilidade de cádmio em águas neríticas da Costa Sul do Brasil. Amostras de fígado, obtidas de 44 indivíduos capturados acidentalmente ao largo da costa do Rio Grande do Sul, foram analisadas através de EAA eletrotérmica. Concentrações de cádmio, idade, peso e comprimento totais dos golfinhos analisados variaram entre 39 e 4144 µg.kg-1 (peso úmido, um e cinco anos, 17,5 e 49,2 kg, e entre 105,3 e 156,8 cm, respectivamente. Em relação às concentrações hepáticas de cádmio em franciscanas, não houve diferença significativa entre os dados gerados pelo presente estudo e informação proveniente da literatura, referente ao Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As baixas concentrações de cádmio observadas podem ser atribuídas ao fato de as lulas da Família Loliginidae constituírem a principal presa para franciscanas, dentre os cefal

  12. Plutonium and americium in air on the coasts of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playford, K.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of artificial radionuclides in air, deposition and seawater were carried out at coastal and inland locations in Cumbria, south-west Scotland, Northern Ireland and North Wales. The measurements were undertaken to determine the distribution of artificial radionuclides in the coastal environment attributable to discharges from Sellafield and to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the increased radionuclide concentration in the marine aerosol and their subsequent transfer to land. A number of different sampling methods were used and the contribution each method could make to the understanding of the marine aerosol was assessed. Measurements of the size distribution of the marine aerosol was also undertaken. The measurements demonstrated that the actinide concentrations measured in the air and deposition at coastal locations could be related to near shore sea water concentrations, but that no direct proportionality existed. It was also determined that a significant proportion of the material transferred from sea to land was associated with larger particulate present in the marine aerosol during conditions of above average onshore winds. (author)

  13. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AIR STATION CAPE COD BOURNE, MASSACHUSETTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John K. Steckel Jr

    2004-06-30

    This report covers the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant, installed by PPL Spectrum, Inc. (PPL) under contract with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), Research and Development Center (RDC). The fuel cell was installed at Air Station Cape Cod in Bourne, MA. The project had the support of the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Keyspan Energy. PPL selected FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) and its fuel cell model DFC{reg_sign}300 for the contract. Grant contributions were finalized and a contract between PPL and the USCG for the manufacture, installation, and first year's maintenance of the fuel cell was executed on September 24, 2001. As the prime contractor, PPL was responsible for all facets of the project. All the work was completed by PPL through various subcontracts, including the primary subcontract with FCE for the manufacture, delivery, and installation of the fuel cell. The manufacturing and design phases proceeded in a relatively timely manner for the first half of the project. However, during latter stages of manufacture and fuel cell testing, a variety of issues were encountered that ultimately resulted in several delivery delays, and a number of contract modifications. Final installation and field testing was completed in April and May 2003. Final acceptance of the fuel cell was completed on May 16, 2003. The fuel cell has operated successfully for more than one year. The unit achieved an availability rate of 96%, which exceeded expectations. The capacity factor was limited because the unit was set at 155 kW (versus a nameplate of 250 kW) due to the interconnection with the electric utility. There were 18 shutdowns during the first year and most were brief. The ability of this plant to operate in the island mode improved availability by 3 to 4%. Events that would normally be shutdowns were simply island mode events. The mean time between failure was calculated at 239 hours, or slightly

  14. Analysis of Temporal Change Taking Place at the Coastline and Coastal Area of the South Coast of the Marmara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyra KURT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the fact that determining the temporal change at the coastline is highly significant in maintaining sustainable coastal development plans, this study focuses on the temporal coastline change in the south coasts of the Marmara Sea, which is one of the seas where coastal use and change are the most obvious. Therefore, old and new coastlines have been determined by using Landsat TM images with 30m resolution from the years 1984, 2003 and 2011 as well as colorful orthophotographs of the year 2008 with 0,45 cm resolution. Geometrical confirmation of satellite images were effectuated by using software and techniques of Erdas Imagine 10 and ArcGis 10 and then the coastal analyses from the obtained coastlines and land examinations have been conducted. According to the result of the study, an area of 5,76 km² have been filled between Çanakkale-Çardak and Yalova within 27 years of time between the years 1984 and 2011. The study also reached a conclusion that mining sand was effectuated in an area of 1,15 km² and thus the coast was pulled back. The line that was 521 km in 1984 reached 560 km in 2011. The most obvious coastal change was seen to be in the coasts of Yalova, Gemlik, Mudanya and Bandırma. The coastal bend, located in Lapseki, Gönen, Karacabey and in the south of Kapıdağ Peninsula, still remains to be a natural coastline. Even though irregular settlements in the coastal areas of cities cut off people’s contact with the sea, the solution of filling the coasts was found for the purpose of recreating green spaces in the interest of the public. However, the coastal areas, which have sensitive ecological features, face with pressures of tourism and urban-based developments due to these landfills in the coasts. Therefore, coastal landfills in the southern coasts of the Marmara Sea gradually destroy the natural coastal spaces and the coastline also lost its original appearance. The population growth and pressures on using the land in

  15. Transport of terrigenous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affected by the coastal upwelling in the northwestern coast of South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Wang, Xinhong

    2017-10-01

    Coastal upwelling prevails in the coast of Hainan Island, the northern South China Sea (SCS) during summer. We studied the influences of the upwelling on the horizontal and vertical transport of terrigenous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs in dissolved and suspended particulate phase of water samples were determined in the upper (depth  10 m). PAH levels decreased sharply from inshore to offshore to open sea. The results showed that terrestrial input was the main source of coastal PAHs. Perylene, an important indicator of land plant-derived PAH, showed the significant correlation with PAHs (p sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in native South American Atlantic coast populations of smooth shelled mussels: hybridization with invasive European Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Trucco, María I; Wenne, Roman

    2018-02-22

    Throughout the world, harvesting of mussels Mytilus spp. is based on the exploitation of natural populations and aquaculture. Aquaculture activities include transfers of spat and live adult mussels between various geographic locations, which may result in large-scale changes in the world distribution of Mytilus taxa. Mytilus taxa are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish. In spite of much research on taxonomy, evolution and geographic distribution, the native Mytilus taxa of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly understood. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to clarify the taxonomic status of populations of smooth shelled mussels from the Pacific coast of South America. In this paper, we used a set of SNPs to characterize, for the first time, populations of smooth shelled mussels Mytilus from the Atlantic coast of South America. Mytilus spp. samples were collected from eastern South America. Six reference samples from the Northern Hemisphere were used: Mytilus edulis from USA and Northern Ireland, Mytilus trossulus from Canada, and Mytilus galloprovincialis from Spain and Italy. Two other reference samples from the Southern Hemisphere were included: M. galloprovincialis from New Zealand and Mytilus chilensis from Chile. Fifty-five SNPs were successfully genotyped, of which 51 were polymorphic. Population genetic analyses using the STRUCTURE program revealed the clustering of eight populations from Argentina (Mytilus platensis) and the clustering of the sample from Ushuaia with M. chilensis from Chile. All individuals in the Puerto Madryn (Argentina) sample were identified as M. platensis × M. galloprovincialis F2 (88.89%) hybrids, except one that was classified as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. No F1 hybrids were observed. We demonstrate that M. platensis (or Mytilus edulis platensis) and M. chilensis are distinct native taxa in South America, which indicates that the evolutionary histories of Mytilus taxa along the

  17. The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

    1999-07-01

    Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages.

  18. 78 FR 37741 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Contingency Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... deliver: Marty Robin, Office of Air Planning (AIR- 2), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 9, 75... INFORMATION CONTACT: Doris Lo, Air Planning Office (AIR-2), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9... statute precludes a State from implementing such measures before they are triggered. See, e.g., LEAN v...

  19. Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Changes in Air Pollution Along the Gulf Coast Observed During BRACE: A Case Study of the Land-Sea Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, D.; Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.

    2003-12-01

    NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. One objective of the aircraft flights was to investigate the role of the sea breeze circulation in determining patterns of nutrient deposition and pollutant loads in the Tampa Bay watershed. Results will be presented from a May 8 flight designed to investigate the effect of the sea breeze recirculation upon Tampa's air quality. The Twin Otter took off at 1425 UTC and after performing a spiral ascent over the Sydney ground site, proceeded to fly north, at 200 feet above mean sea level (MSL) just off the Gulf coast, west of St. Petersburg. Back trajectory analysis suggested the dominance of a northerly rotation in the sea breeze; thus, air sampled over the Gulf passed some hours earlier to the south of the Tampa metropolitan area, in an area largely devoid of major pollution sources, before being advected eastward in the afternoon return flow. Ozone levels in this air mass ranged from 40 to 50 ppbv. Farther north the Twin Otter encountered the advected urban plume from Tampa, displaced to the north by the combination of southeasterly sea breeze flow and westerly return flow, and tracked this plume inland. Ozone levels quickly jumped to 60 ppbv, and increased to as high as 90 ppbv as photochemical processing continued in the advected plume. Nitric acid levels, which approached 4 ppbv in the aged urban air at the coast, dropped rapidly to as low as 1 ppbv inland. A final flight leg to the east of downtown Tampa encountered fresh anthropogenic pollution from the afternoon rush hour; ozone was rapidly produced in the

  1. Investigation of Absorption Cooling Application Powered by Solar Energy in the South Coast Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgoren M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an absorption system using ammonia-water (NH3-H2O solution has been theoretically examined in order to meet the cooling need of a detached building having 150 m2 floor area for Antalya, Mersin and Mugla provinces in Turkey. Hourly dynamic cooling load capacities of the building were determined by using Radiant Time Series (RTS method in the chosen cities. For the analysis, hourly average meteorological data such as atmospheric air temperature and solar radiation belonging to the years 1998-2008 are used for performance prediction of the proposed system. Thermodynamic relations for each component of absorption cooling system is explained and coefficients of performance of the system are calculated. The maximum daily total radiation data were calculated as 7173 W/m2day on July 15, 7277 W/m2 day on July 19 and 7231 W/m2day on July 19 for Mersin, Antalya and Mugla, respectively on the 23° toward to south oriented panels from horizontal surface. The generator operating temperatures are considered between 90-130°C and the best result for 110°C is found the optimum degree for maximum coefficient of performance (COP values at the highest solar radiation occurred time during the considered days for each province. The COP values varies between 0.521 and 0.530 for the provinces. In addition, absorber and condenser capacities and thermal efficiency for the absorption cooling system were calculated. The necessary evacuated tube collector area for the different provinces were found in the range of 45 m2 to 47 m2. It is shown that although the initial investment cost is higher for the proposed absorption cooling system, it is economically feasible because of its lower annual operation costs and can successfully be operated for the considered provinces.

  2. New records of xanthid crabs Atergatis roseus (Rüppell, 1830 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura from Iraqi coast, south of Basrah city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khassaf Al-Khafaji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the The Brachyuran crab Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830, were collected for first times from Iraqi coast, south Al-Faw, Basrah city, Iraq, in coast of northwest of Arabian Gulf. Morphological features and distribution pattern of this species are highlighted and a figure is provided. The material was mostly collected from the shallow subtidal and intertidal areas using trawl net and hand.

  3. Mine Ventilation System Variable Resistance Regulate Air Quantity Economy and Its Impacts on Artisanal Mine in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouame Kouame Arthur Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The artisanal gold mining is one of the major illegal activities in Ivory Coast. Thousands of indigents and foreigners including men, women and children are involved in this dangerous activity. Contracting contagious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and multiple lung diseases are commonplace on the artisanal mining sites due to air pollution. For this reason, the differential analysis, research mine ventilation system by changing the working windage adjustment for air flow of the economy, identifies factors, obtained discriminant variable resistance air volume control economic quantitative criteria for underground actual situation of joint variable resistance method and economic variable resistance than the concept of the development of effective mine ventilation system to improve air quantity adjusting rheostat economical way. The findings of this study can help lead to better safety practices in mining in order to improve the health and safety of the miners who are involved in artisanal mining activities in Ivory Coast and other mining sites over the world.

  4. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... in rural areas and the expected boom in West Coast tourism, it is evident that ... systems have been erected in the Canary Islands, Peru, Ecuador and the Sultanate of .... As is the case in the Namib (Olivier, 1992, 1995), high.

  5. Distribution and abundance of macrobenthic polychaetes along the South Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Musale, A.S.; Desai, D.V.

    and Capitella capitata the deposit feeders and indicators of organic pollution suggesting the sampled area is organically rich. Polychaete abundance was found to be higher along the west coast and was attributed to loose texture of sediment due to high sand...

  6. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-01-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bolmon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  7. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-07-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bomon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  8. A longshore sediment transport estimation for the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, B.U.; Chandramohan, P.

    in Tamilnadu, and the Maharashtra Coast experience negligible annual net transport. The direction of annual net transport along the east coast is towards north and along the west coast towards south except at south Gujarat Coast...

  9. Seasonal and spatial distributions of dinoflgellates in relation to environmental factors along the north and south coasts of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Rekik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates in relation to environmental factors in north (restored and south (not yet restored coasts of Sfax. Methods: The present study was conducted during the year of 2010 and 2011 at 12 stations for evaluation of the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates and abiotic parameters. Results: Results revealed a striking difference between the two coasts regarding pH with strong acidification of seawater in the south, which may be caused by industrial activity. Suspended matter was more in the north than in the south, which may be reasonably attributed to the recently added soil that has not yet fully stabilised. Inverted microscopy analysis of dinoflagellates showed 35 and 28 taxa in the north and south coasts of Sfax, respectively. Dinoflagellates developed in association with an important proliferation of common species like Gymnodinium sp., Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum micans. Two distinct associations of dinoflagellates species were identified: a north association involving an important abundance of Peridinium sp. and Protoperidinium sp., and a south assemblage concerning mainly Prorocentum triestinum. Chlorophyll a concentrations on the north [(2.48 ± 2.12 mg/L] and south [(4.95 ± 6.60 mg/L] coasts of Sfax were not correlated with dinoflagellates abundance, probably explained by the fact that an important number of dinoflagellates species are deprived of chloroplasts. The highest heterotrophic dinoflagellates mean abundance was recorded in south Sfax coast (1.64 × 102 cells/L during summer. Conclusions: This study shows that environmental variables were in relation with the dinoflagellates community composition which exhibited clear variations over the study area.

  10. Clinico-epidemiologic Study on Marine Envenomations and Injuries in South Iran, Persian Gulf Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Scorpionfish attacks are the common cause of marine animal exposures in south Iran and should be taken seriously. Men at young ages are the victims of this environmental and occupational hazard.

  11. Impacts of South East Biomass Burning on local air quality in South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-man Yeung, Irene; Fat Lam, Yun; Eniolu Morakinyo, Tobi

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of carbon monoxide and particulate matter, which is not only contribute to the local air pollution, but also regional air pollution. This study investigated the impacts of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia (SEA) as well as its contribution to the local air pollution in East and South China Sea, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Three years (2012 - 2014) of the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian-Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) with particles dispersion analyses using NCEP (Final) Operational Global Analysis data (FNL) data (2012 - 2014) were analyzed to track down all possible long-range transport from SEA with a sinking motion that worsened the surface air quality (tropospheric downwash from the free troposphere). The major sources of SEA biomass burning emissions were first identified using high fire emissions from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), followed by the HYSPLIT backward trajectory dispersion modeling analysis. The analyses were compared with the local observation data from Tai Mo Shan (1,000 msl) and Tap Mun (60 msl) in Hong Kong, as well as the data from Lulin mountain (2,600 msl) in Taiwan, to assess the possible impacts of SEA biomass burning on local air quality. The correlation between long-range transport events from the particles dispersion results and locally observed air quality data indicated that the background concentrations of ozone, PM2.5 and PM10 at the surface stations were enhanced by 12 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 7 μg/m3, respectively, while the long-range transport contributed to enhancements of 4 μg/m3, 4 μg/m3 and 8 μg/m3 for O3, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively at the lower free atmosphere.

  12. Photochemical and other air pollutants in South Holland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posthumus, A.C.

    1975-01-01

    This year at fifteen places, regularly distributed over the industrial area west of Rotterdam, indicator plants for air pollution were again set out in the open. Tulip, gladiolus and freesia, indicators for HF, all demonstrated the same two sites to have maximum HF concentration. Spinach, an indicator for O/sub 3//SO/sub 2/, showed maximum injury in April and May and more south of the New Waterway than north of it. Medicago sativa, a plant species rather sensitive for SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, showed little damage, and the reaction of petunia indicated a possible effect of ethylene only in a few cases. The photochemical air pollutant PAN caused in a few cases as well a slight injury to the indicator plants Urtica urens and Poa annua. The frequency of the injury to tobacco Bel W3 by O/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ was maximum during some periods in summer and autumn. This year again the effect of air pollution on growth and yield of tulips, tobacco and tomato plants was studied at six sites at the mouth of the Rhine with filtered and unfiltered greenhouses. The climatic conditions in these greenhouses were completely alike. Tulips in all the unfiltered greenhouses showed twice as heavy leaf injury as those in the filtered greenhouses. Tobacco plants had a higher average fresh and dry weight in the filtered greenhouses than in the unfiltered ones. The same usually held for tomato plants and also for the number of fruits and the average fresh and dry weight of tomato fruits.

  13. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.

  14. Seasonal and spatial variations of marine litter on the south-eastern Black Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Yahya; Seyhan, Kadir

    2017-07-15

    The south-eastern Black Sea coast in Turkey was evaluated for marine litter composition and density covering nine beaches during four seasons. The marine litter (>2cm in size), was collected from the coast and categorized into material and usage categories. The data analysis showed that plastic was the most abundant litter (≥61.65%) by count and weight followed by styrofoam and fabric. The marine litter density ranged from 0.03 to 0.58 with a mean (±SD) of 0.16±0.02 items/m 2 by count. Based on weight, it varied between 0.44 and 14.74g/m 2 with 3.35±1.63. The east side had a higher marine litter density than the west side with significant differences between beaches. The variations due to different seasons were not significant for any beach. The results of this study should provide baseline information about the coastal marine pollution and will assist the mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

    The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain P8-1 Isolated from Wild Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) Feces on the South Coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichula, Janira; Campos, Fabricio Souza; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Pieta, Luiza; Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Tavares, Maurício; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains have a ubiquitous nature that allows them to survive in different niches. Studies involving enterococci isolated from marine animals are scarce. Therefore, in this study, we report the complete genome sequence of E. faecalis strain P8-1 isolated from feces of a Magellanic penguin on the south coast of Brazil. PMID:26769928

  17. Longshore sediment transport along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Coast. Maharashtra Coast and the part between Pondicherry and Point Calimere in Tamilnadu, show negligible order of annual net transport. Annual net transport along the east coast is in north and along the west coast in south but for South Gujarat Coast....

  18. Post-tsunami relocation of fisher settlements in South Asia: evidence from the Coromandel Coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten; de Klerk, Leo; van der Plaat, Felice; Ravesteijn, Jorik; Angel, Dominique; Arendsen, Hendrik; van Dijk, Tom; de Hoog, Iris; van Koolwijk, Ant; Tuijtel, Stijn; Zuurendonk, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The tsunami that struck the coasts of India on 26 December 2004 resulted in the large-scale destruction of fisher habitations. The post-tsunami rehabilitation effort in Tamil Nadu was directed towards relocating fisher settlements in the interior. This paper discusses the outcomes of a study on the social effects of relocation in a sample of nine communities along the Coromandel Coast. It concludes that, although the participation of fishing communities in house design and in allocation procedures has been limited, many fisher households are satisfied with the quality of the facilities. The distance of the new settlements to the shore, however, is regarded as an impediment to engaging in the fishing profession, and many fishers are actually moving back to their old locations. This raises questions as to the direction of coastal zone policy in India, as well as to the weight accorded to safety (and other coastal development interests) vis-à-vis the livelihood needs of fishers. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  19. Origin of Amazon mudbanks along the northeastern coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.A.; Lee, M.T.; Ogston, A.S.; Aller, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic profiles, sediment cores, and water column measurements were collected along the northeastern coast of Brazil to examine the origin of mudbanks in the Amazon coastal mud belt. These 10-60-km-long, shore-attached features previously had been observed to migrate along the 1200 km coast of the Guianas in response to wave forcing. CHIRP (3.5 kHz) seismic profiles of the shoreface and inner shelf located two mudbanks updrift of the previous eastern limit in French Guiana. 210Pb geochronology shows that these two banks are migrating to the northwest over a relict mud surface in 5-20 m water depth. The mudbanks are 3-4 m thick and are translating over a modern shoreface mud wedge deposited by previous mudbank passage in Amazon freshwater discharge on the shelf and by proximity to the Cassipore River estuary. Seasonal and decadal periods of sediment supply and starvation in this area likely are controlled by variations in northwest trade wind intensity. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Early life history of pomatomus saltatrix off the East coast of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beckley, LE

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available and Agulhas Current waters from 29°S to 34°S located P. saltatrix larvae only in the shelf waters off KwaZulu-Natal has been conducted. Sampling of fish eggs in the inshore shelf waters 60 km south of Durban on a regular basis has confirmed spawning of P...

  1. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  2. Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahead of print) [http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/acer.12033] (accessed 19 March 2013). 6. Croxford J, Viljoen D. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the Western Cape. S Afr Med J. 1999;89(9):962-965. 7. South African Revenue Services. Excise duties and levies 2012. http://www.sars.gov.za/home.asp?pid=483.

  3. Through the ‘Thick and Thin’ of farming on the Wild Coast, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shackleton, Sheona E.; Hebinck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This contribution critically engages with the academic debate on de-agrarianisation which has gained common ground in political economy perspectives of agrarian change in South Africa. De-agrarianisation represents long-term processes of occupational adjustment, income-earning reorientation, social

  4. Change in air temperature over Sudan and South Sudan with time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual mean air temperature for Sudan and South Sudan for the three periods 1900-1940, 1961- 1990 and 1981-2010 for 12 stations was analyzed with objectives of studying changes in air temperature over the area during the last century and also to study the linkages between mean, maximum and minimum air ...

  5. The South African Air Force, 1920–2012: A Review of its History and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uvp

    Allies' Desert Air Force to gain air supremacy in this war zone. The SAAF ..... In 1973, a few women joined the SAAF, and during the next year, three air ..... reputation. After many years of .... The South African airfreight company, SAFAIR, at one.

  6. Strandings of cetaceans and sea turtles in the Alboran Sea and Strait of Gibraltar: a long–time glimpse of the north coast (Spain and the south coast (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo–Nieto, E.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 species of cetaceans and three species of marine turtles were found in this study. Data were collected by eight independent and self-regulated stranding networks, providing information about 1,198 marine mammal (10 odontocetii, three mysticetii and one phocidae and 574 sea turtle stranding events between 1991 and 2008. Trends in the strandings were analysed in relation to species composition and abundance, and their geographic and seasonal distribution. The most abundant species recorded were the striped dolphin and the loggerhead turtle. Some of the strandings, such as the humpback whale, harbour porpoise, hooded seal and olive ridley turtle, were considered ‘rare’ because their distribution did not match the pattern of the study. When the north and south coasts in the study area were compared, pilot whales stranded more frequently in the north, while delphinid species stranded more in the south coast, and loggerhead turtles stranded more frequently in the north while leatherback turtles stranded more in south coast.

  7. Mapping of coastal landforms and volumetric change analysis in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaliraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal landforms along the south west coast of Kanyakumari have undergone remarkable change in terms of shape and disposition due to both natural and anthropogenic interference. An attempt is made here to map the coastal landforms along the coast using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Spatial data sources, such as, topographical map published by Survey of India, Landsat ETM+ (30 m image, IKONOS image (0.82 m, SRTM and ASTER DEM datasets have been comprehensively analyzed for extracting coastal landforms. Change detection methods, such as, (i topographical change detection, (ii cross-shore profile analysis, (iii Geomorphic Change Detection (GCD using DEM of Difference (DoD were adopted for assessment of volumetric changes of coastal landforms for the period between 2000 and 2011. The GCD analysis uses ASTER and SRTM DEM datasets by resampling them into common scale (pixel size using pixel-by-pixel based Wavelet Transform and Pan-Sharpening techniques in ERDAS Imagine software. Volumetric changes of coastal landforms were validated with data derived from GPS-based field survey. Coastal landform units were mapped based on process of their evolution such as beach landforms including sandy beach, cusp, berm, scarp, beach terrace, upland, rockyshore, cliffs, wave-cut notches and wave-cut platforms; and the fluvial landforms. Comprising of alluvial plain, flood plains, and other shallow marshes in estuaries. The topographical change analysis reveals that the beach landforms have reduced their elevation ranging from 1 to 3 m probably due to sediment removal or flattening. Analysis of cross-shore profiles for twelve locations indicate varying degrees of loss or gain of coastal landforms. For example, the K3-K3′ profile across the Kovalam coast has shown significant erosion (−0.26 to −0.76 m of the sandy beaches resulting in the formation of beach cusps and beach scarps within a distance of 300 m from the shoreline. The volumetric change

  8. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissa.mckinney@uconn.edu [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dudley, Sheldon F.J. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Zungu, M. Philip [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg{sup −1} dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ{sup 15}N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ{sup 13}C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local

  9. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Dudley, Sheldon F.J.; Zungu, M. Philip; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH_3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg"−"1 dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg"−"1 dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ"1"5N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ"1"3C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local emissions. • Length and

  10. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Korea’s air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  11. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  12. Tide-surge interaction along the east coast of the Leizhou Peninsula, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Cheng, Weicong; Qiu, Xixi; Feng, Xiangbo; Gong, Wenping

    2017-06-01

    A triply-nested two-dimensional (2D) ocean circulation model along with observed sea level records are used to study tide-surge interaction along the east coast of the Leizhou Peninsula (LP) which is characterized by extensive mudflats, large tidal ranges and a complex coastline. The dependency of surge maxima on the water level and the phase of tide are respectively investigated using two statistical approaches. Results show that tide-surge interaction along the east coast of the LP is significant, where surges peak 3-6 h before or after the nearest high water. The triply-nested 2D ocean circulation model is used to quantify tide-surge interaction in this region and to investigate its physical cause. The largest amplitudes of tide-surge interaction are found in the shallow water region of the Leizhou Bay, with values up to 1 m during typhoon events. Numerical experiments reveal that nonlinear bottom friction is the main contributor to tide-surge interaction, while the contribution of the nonlinear advective effect can be neglected. The shallow water effect enhances the role of nonlinear bottom friction in determining tide-surge modulation, leaving the surge peaks usually occur on the rising or falling tide. It is also found that the relative contribution of local wind and remote wind is different depending on the storm track and storm intensity, which would finally affect the temporal and spatial distribution of tide-surge interaction during typhoon events. These findings confirm the importance of coupling storm surges and tides for the prediction of storm surge events in regions which are characterized by shallow water depths and large tidal ranges.

  13. Water and erosion damage to coastal structures: South Carolina Coast, Hurricane Hugo, 1989

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hsiang

    1990-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo hit U.S. Mainland on September 21, 1989 just north of Charleston, South Carolina. It was billed as the most costly hurricane on record. The loss on the mainland alone exceeded 7 billion dollars, more than 15,000 homes were destroyed and the loss of lives exceeded forty. This article documents one aspect of the multi-destructions caused by the hurricane - the water and erosion damage on water front or near water front properties. A general damage surve...

  14. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size inquiry skills. Specifically, third grade students learn about coastal habitats, animal and plant adaptations, and human impacts to the environment, and engage in a salt marsh restoration capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSS Core Ideas 3-LS1, 3-LS3, 3-LS4, 3-ESS3. The fourth grade students learn about weather, organism responses to the environment, and engage in a weather buoy construction capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSSS Core Ideas 4-LS1, 4-ESS2, 4-ESS3, 3-5-ETS1. In 5th grade, students focus specifically on the ocean ecosystem, human impacts on the environment and engage in a capstone project of designing and constructing remotely operated vehicles. This part of the curriculum aligns with NGSS Core Ideas 5-PS2, 5-LS1, 5-LS2, 5-ESS2, 3-5-ETS1. Initial evaluation results indicate that the SCAC teachers value the coach mentor approach for teacher professional development as well as the impact of field based experiences, place-based learning, and a culminating capstone project on student learning. Teacher feedback also indicates elements of sustainability that extend beyond the scope of the pilot project.These initial evaluation results poise the SCAC curriculum to be replicated in other

  15. Residents' attitudes to proposed wind farms in the West Coast region of South Africa: A social perspective from the South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, Andrea; Ferreira, Sanette

    2014-01-01

    The West Coast Region (WCR) of the Western Cape Province in South Africa is earmarked for 13 onshore wind farm projects totaling approximately 700 wind turbines. The developed world debate about the social acceptance of wind farm projects has impeded and illuminated a number of these developments. This paper is aimed at understanding people's reaction to proposed wind farm projects in the WCR – a region of a developing country – and to investigate whether the reasoning behind opposition to or acceptance of wind farm projects is similar to the discourse on the topic by scholars in the developed world. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect primary data by semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. A spatial dimension was added through a map-based approach. Reactions by WCR residents to the wind farm projects were mainly positive, although some opposition was detected. International scholarship holds that place attachment serves as a reason for opposition to wind farm projects. Although most of the WCR residents had strong place attachments to their region, most of the respondents also supported the proposed wind farm projects. - Highlights: • A case study on social acceptance of proposed wind farm projects in South Africa is discussed. • The main focus is on the relation between place attachment and social acceptance or rejection of wind farm projects. • The results of the study correspond to the findings on place attachment and wind farm projects in the developed world

  16. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  17. 77 FR 58067 - Disapproval of Implementation Plan Revisions; State of California; South Coast VMT Emissions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... and emergency room visits, and impair the body's immune system defenses, making people more... an ``anonymous access'' system, and EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you... submissions, EPA's role is to approve or disapprove state choices, based on the criteria of the Clean Air Act...

  18. Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2012-03-01

    Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 μg g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 μg g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

  19. Radio nuclides in mineral rocks and beach sand minerals in south east coast, Odisha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Essakki, Chinna; Tripathy, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Mohanty, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primordial and metamorphic mineral rocks of the Eastern Ghats host minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, Silmenite, zircon, garnet and monazite in quartz matrix. The weathered material is transported down to the sea by run-off through Rivers and deposited back in coastal beach as heavy mineral concentrates. The minerals are mined by M/S Indian Rare Earths Ltd at the Chatrapur plant in Odisha coast to separate the individual minerals. Some of these minerals have low level radioactivity and may pose external and internal radiation hazard. The present paper deals with natural Thorium and Uranium in the source rocks with those observed in the coastal deposits. The study correlates the nuclide activity ratios in environmental samples in an attempt to understand the ecology of the natural radio nuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra in environmental context. Further work is in progress to understand the geological process associated with the migration and reconcentration of natural radio-nuclides in the natural high background radiation areas

  20. Some failure analyses of South African Air Force aircraft engine and airframe components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure analyses of various engine and airframe components from South African Air Force aircraft have been performed by the Division of Materials Science and Technology over several years and these have ranged from crash investigations to minor...

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Site FT-03, Charleston Air Force Base, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ... (former Fire Protection Training Area No. 3), Charleston Air Force Base (AFB), South Carolina. A one-year bioventing pilot study previously conducted at this site had successful results in reducing fuel hydrocarbons in soils...

  2. Air–sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l., each from a different period during 2014–2015. At sampling heights  ≥  18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤  ±20 % in the mean agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air–sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air–sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m−2 d−1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l. than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m−2 d−1, consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater. Finally, we found the detection limit of the air–sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m−2 d−1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m−2 d−1 over 24 h.

  3. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west of...

  4. Optimizing Surveillance for South American Origin Influenza A Viruses Along the United States Gulf Coast Through Genomic Characterization of Isolates from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, A M; Walther, P; Link, P; Poulson, R L; Wilcox, B R; Newsome, G; Spackman, E; Brown, J D; Stallknecht, D E

    2016-04-01

    Relative to research focused on inter-continental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes was detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g., the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast. © Published 2014. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Five Sarsiellidae ostracods (Crustacea: Myodocopida) from the South Coast of Korea (East China Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Ivana; Soh, Ho-Young

    2015-04-17

    The East China Sea is part of the Warm Temperate Northwest Pacific zoogeographic province and, as such, has a high biodiversity and many tropical and subtropical biotic elements. Nevertheless, many invertebrate groups from this area remain poorly studied. Ostracods are one of them, especially those belonging to the subclass Myodocopa. In this paper we provide the first data on a diverse myodocopid family, Sarsiellidae, not only for the East China Sea, but also for Korea. Five species are reported in this paper from three Korean islands (Jeju, Chuja, and Maemul), and they are only a part of the ostracods collected during this study, indicating a high diversity of the group in this region. Three new species, Eurypylus koreanus sp. nov., Eusarsiella hanguk sp. nov., and Sarsiella nereis sp. nov., clearly stand apart from their respective congeners, mostly by prominent shell characters but also by details of the soft part morphology. Their affinity though clearly indicates a close connection of the region with the more southern zoogeographical realms, especially Central Indo Pacific and partly Temperate Australasia. Two species previously known from Japan (north part of the Sea of Japan and southeastern part of the Pacific Coast of Japan), Sarsiella japonica Hiruta, 1977 and S. misakiensis Kajiyama, 1912, are redescribed. Based on 11 newly obtained COI sequences we construct a preliminary phylogenetic tree, which supports previous hypotheses based on the morphological data, that Eusarsiella Cohen & Kornicker, 1975 is a polyphyletic taxon. With the maps of species distribution provided for each of the three genera, we give an overview of their current zoogeography, and clearly indicate areas that have no data, mostly due to the lack of investigation.

  6. Sedimentologic and paleontologic study of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina: A late Pleistocene Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramayo, S. A.; Téllez, B. Gutiérrez; Schillizzi, R. A.

    2005-10-01

    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is made mainly on the basis of paleontological and paleoichnological studies, supported by sedimentological analyses and radiocarbon dating. Continental late Pleistocene and continental, transitional, and marine Holocene stratigraphic units are identified. The former comprises fossil mammals and ichnites of 16000-12,000 BP. The continental early Holocene time, ca. 8100 BP, is represented by an interdune paleoenvironment in which shallow brackish ponds were colonized by diatoms, fish, rodents, and birds. A transitional paleoenvironment in the middle Holocene—6930-6570 BP—is recorded by deposits formed by estuarine crabs. During the late Holocene, between 5000 and 4800 BP, a marine transgression was recorded by a rich mollusc fauna.

  7. Simulating seasonal tropical cyclone intensities at landfall along the South China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Charlie C. F.; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2018-04-01

    A numerical method is developed using a regional climate model (RegCM3) and the Weather Forecast and Research (WRF) model to predict seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) intensities at landfall for the South China region. In designing the model system, three sensitivity tests have been performed to identify the optimal choice of the RegCM3 model domain, WRF horizontal resolution and WRF physics packages. Driven from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis dataset, the model system can produce a reasonable distribution of TC intensities at landfall on a seasonal scale. Analyses of the model output suggest that the strength and extent of the subtropical ridge in the East China Sea are crucial to simulating TC landfalls in the Guangdong and Hainan provinces. This study demonstrates the potential for predicting TC intensities at landfall on a seasonal basis as well as projecting future climate changes using numerical models.

  8. Tourism as a Catalyst for Local Economic Development in the Transkei Wild Coast, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntonzima Lulamile

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The democratic dispensation of the post-1994 government in South Africa promised a better life for all. However, shortly after the establishment of new polices by government and governance institutions, the promise faced conflicting socio/politico/economic challenges. One of the key issues to be considered when deciding on the implementation of overdue promises is the question of equitable distribution of resources and how to manage this process. Despite the above explanations few benefits arose from the application of these arguments. It appears that because of challenges at the highest levels of the tourism industry, real benefits have not yet reached people who are in need. This state of affairs provided an opportunity to propose workable recommendations to improve the situation, with the intention of positively influencing the various impacts that such development would have on the relevant communities.

  9. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Meriç

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  10. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  12. Vertical and horizontal larval distribution of an offshore brachyuran crab, Monodaeus couchii, off the south coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N. Pochelon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A strong understanding of larval distribution and abundance is of major value in delineating the location and size of a breeding population of deep-sea species such as Monodaeus couchii. In this study, vertical distribution of the larvae of a brachyuran crab, M. couchii, was assessed during two week-long cruises conducted at the end of January 2006 and 2007 off the South Coast of Portugal. Larvae were collected by oblique plankton hauls with a Longhurst-Hardy Plankton Recorder from the surface to 300 m. Abundance and distribution of zoeae I and II were correlated during both years. For all stages, abundance decreased with depth during the day while it increased with depth at night; the larvae thus displayed reverse diel vertical migration. Abundance of zoeae I and II was correlated with chlorophyll a levels, whereas those of later stages were correlated with neither physical parameters (chlorophyll a, temperature or salinity nor each other. An ontogenic shift in vertical distribution explained the results; earlier zoeal stages remain in the food-rich upper water column while later stages were not correlated with any physical parameters (i.e. chlorophyll a, salinity or temperature and migrated to the bottom for settlement.

  13. In situ gamma ray measurements of radionuclides at a disused phosphate mine on the West Coast of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuidenhout, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    High levels of uranium and its radioactive progeny like radium is normally associated with phosphate mining. In Situ gamma ray spectroscopy as a survey tool has been successfully applied to assess radionuclide concentrations in various geographical environments. A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was therefore employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides at a disused phosphate mine on the West Coast of South Africa. The concentrations of radium, thorium and potassium were measured and plotted. The measurements showed fairly high concentrations with medians of 320 Bq/kg for "2"2"6Ra, 64 Bq/kg for "2"3"2Th and 390 Bq/kg for "4"0K. The highest concentrations were however confined to specific areas of the mine. The effective dose due to gamma irradiation for the various areas of the mine was also estimated and the highest estimated level was 0.45 mSv/y. The article finally draws conclusions as to the origins and impact of the radiation. - Highlights: • A self-developed transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (the GISPI) was employed in the measurements. • A different mathematical analysis method was used. • QGIS was used extensively. • The results is important for current developments in infrastructure and mining.

  14. The marine ecosystems of the South Pacific coast of Costa Rica: state of knowledge and management perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Alpizar, Marco A.; Cortes, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    A review of the existing scientific literature on marine ecosystems in the South Pacific of Costa Rica is presented. Most of the information generated to date concentrates on the Golfo Dulce area, a tropical fiord and only anoxic basin in the American pacific coast. Even thought there is a considerable amount of information available, there are still many aspects of the marine ecosystems of the region that remain unstudied. Among these, those concerning circulation patterns, mangrove dynamics, biodiversity of soft sediments and deep waters, and the ecology of commercially important species of mollusks, crustaceans and fish, stand out. Special attention should be placed on the study of Golfo Dulce, Isla del Cano and the Terraba-Sierpe mangrove system, give their biological importance and unique regional character. Coastal management in the region should be based on the best scientific information available integrating biological, social and economic criteria; and seeking the improvement of inter-institutional coordination in order to achieve integrative solutions to the existing threats to marine resources. (author) [es

  15. Microbiological quality assessment of sand and water from three selected beaches of South Coast, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, K C; Hachich, E M; Sato, M I Z; Di Bari, M; Coelho, M C L S; Matté, M H; Lamparelli, C C; Razzolini, M T P

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the sanitary quality of water, and wet and dry sand from three beaches located in the South Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil, selected taking into account the frequency of tourists and the water quality (good, fair and poor). Thirty-six water samples each of wet and dry sand and seawater were collected monthly over a period of one year and analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci), presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and dermatophytes. The results revealed FIB concentrations more elevated in dry sand followed by wet sand and water. P. aeruginosa and presumptive S. aureus were detected with a similar frequency in water and sand samples, but maximum concentrations and geometric means were higher in dry sand. C. albicans was detected only in water samples whereas the dermatophyte Microsporum sp. was isolated exclusively from dry and wet sand samples. This evaluation showed also that the environment had a significant influence on P. aeruginosa but not on presumptive S. aureus concentrations. According to threshold values proposed in the literature for E. coli and enterococci dry sand densities, none of the beaches would be considered of sufficient quality for recreational activities.

  16. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage.

  17. Interactions between sedimentary evolution and prehistoric human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Fonseca Giannini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina State, in Brazil, the articulation between natural and anthropic processes modeled a strongly domesticated landscape, shaped by the massive construction of shell mounds of monumental dimensions and millenarian permanence. In the coastal plain between Passagem da Barra (Laguna District and Figueirinha Lake (Jaguaruna District, 76 sambaquis were mapped, 48 of which have been dated. Systematic site surveys and radiocarbon datings allowed identifying patterns of spatial distribution in sambaquis according to the sedimentary context at the time of construction, stratigraphy and age. Based on these criteria, the following groups were recognized: five geological-geomorphological contexts of location; three stratigraphic patterns; and four phases of sambaqui occupation in the area, based on site number and type of constructive pattern. The model for sedimentary evolution and time-space distribution of sambaquis shows that sites were built in already emerged areas and that inland sites, away from the lagoons, may have not be preserved or they are not exposed due to the continuous sedimentary filling that characterized this region after the maximum Holocene transgression. The crossing of data, here proposed, shows the importance of integral approaches between archaeology and geosciences for the study of landscape evolution.

  18. Tourists’ willingness to pay to view otters along the Wild Coast, South Africa: a potential for increased ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihle Dumalisile

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on tourists’ willingness to pay to view Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis along the Eastern Cape Wild Coast, South Africa. We collected data from a survey carried out using a structured, selfadministered questionnaire. We analyzed 67 completed questionnaires, of which 60 respondents (89.5% indicated that they would be interested in viewing otters and would be prepared to pay an extra fee, over and above the normal entrance fees, for a trained guide to show them otters. The remaining 7 (10.4% respondents indicated that they would reconsider and pay if this would create jobs for members of the local community. Most (98.4% and 91.8% of the respondents also indicated that they would still pay even if there was only a 50% or 25% chance of seeing otters. Most of the respondents were willing to pay either less than R50.00 (ca US$8.00 or R50.00-R100.00 to view otters regardless of the chances of seeing them. We conclude from our results that otters do have the potential to increase ecotourism in the area, and also to contribute financially to the poverty stricken local Dwesa community.

  19. DNA damage as a biomarker of genotoxic contamination in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the south coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Catarina; Pereira, Catarina; Gomes, Tânia; Bebianno, Maria João; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    DNA damage was evaluated in the haemolymph of Mytilus galloprovincialis from nine sites along the south coast of Portugal using the comet assay. DNA damage was low, in the same range of sites considered to suffer low impact from genotoxic contaminants. Even so, differences between sites, seasons and genders were found. Highest values were in mussels from the main estuaries and the fishery harbour, reflecting higher genotoxin levels, whereas the lowest values can be used as a baseline for future work. Non-contaminant related factors (e.g. temperature and oxygen) were also shown to influence DNA damage. Between seasons, highest values were in summer related not only to the increase of tourism in this region (∼10-fold), but also to temperature. Between genders, males were found to be more sensitive. The condition index was also generally higher in summer. Lipid peroxidation, another damage biomarker, was measured in gills to assess if there is any association between the responses of both biomarkers and if they are similarly affected by the same environmental conditions. LPO like DNA damage was higher in summer. This work confirms that DNA damage is a sensitive biomarker to discriminate genotoxic contamination, even in areas considered to suffer low impact from genotoxins.

  20. Uranium-series disequilibrium studies in phosphorite nodules from the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Veeh, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Sedimentary phosphorites occurring on the sea floor off Peru and Chile have been analyzed for U and Th isotopes, to establish their ages and hence obtain clues for their mode of formation. Fission-track distribution studies indicate that the U is primarily associated with the apatite fraction. Uranium-series disequilibrium methods, therefore, should be applicable, if the U incorporation is syngenetic with the apatite. The fractionation of U isotopes between oxidation states in the relatively young phosphorites from South America is low compared to that in older deposits. This supports the contention of Kolodny et al., (Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta;34:3 (1970)) that the major mechanism of 234 U/ 238 U fractionation is displacement of 234 U atoms into sites where they are more 'oxidizable' than the 238 U parent. Age estimates based on 234 U(IV) and 230 Th contents are internally consistent and range from late Pleistocene to Recent. The results indicate that marine phosphorites are currently forming in this area of intense oceanic upwelling. The age pattern during the last 150,000 yr suggests a correlation with eustatic high sea level stands and implies that conditions were more favourable for apatite genesis in this area during interglacials rather than during glacial times. (author)

  1. Overview of ambient air quality monitoring in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data is currently collected, processed and archived by a number of independent institutes. No collaboration exists between these organisations and there is no provincial or national air quality data information system or archive...

  2. Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Vinod, K.; Saravanan, K.R.; Anbalagan, T.; Saravanan, R.; Sanaye, S.V.; Mojjada, S.K.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 43 (4), April 2014, pp. 618-633 Diversity, occurrence and socio-economic aspects of snappers and job fish (Family: Lutjanidae) fisheries from Gulf of Mannar region, south-east coast of India A. Murugan...] Introduction The role of human activity on marine ecosystems is receiving increased attention with the perception that human activities are causing considerable economic loss for local fishing communities1. In particular, the increase in fishing pressure...

  3. Using UAS Hyperspatial RGB Imagery for Identifying Beach Zones along the South Texas Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoreline information is fundamental for understanding coastal dynamics and for implementing environmental policy. The analysis of shoreline variability usually uses a group of shoreline indicators visibly discernible in coastal imagery, such as the seaward vegetation line, wet beach/dry beach line, and instantaneous water line. These indicators partition a beach into four zones: vegetated land, dry sand or debris, wet sand, and water. Unmanned aircraft system (UAS remote sensing that can acquire imagery with sub-decimeter pixel size provides opportunities to map these four beach zones. This paper attempts to delineate four beach zones based on UAS hyperspatial RGB (Red, Green, and Blue imagery, namely imagery of sub-decimeter pixel size, and feature textures. Besides the RGB images, this paper also uses USGS (the United States Geological Survey Munsell HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value and CIELUV (the CIE 1976 (L*, u*, v* color space images transformed from an RGB image. The four beach zones are identified based on the Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM and Local Binary Pattern (LBP textures. Experiments were conducted with South Padre Island photos acquired by a Nikon D80 camera mounted on the US-16 UAS during March 2014. The results show that USGS Munsell hue can separate land and water reliably. GLCM and LBP textures can slightly improve classification accuracies by both unsupervised and supervised classification techniques. The experiments also indicate that we could reach acceptable results on different photos while using training data from another photo for site-specific UAS remote sensing. The findings imply that parallel processing of classification is feasible.

  4. Early Pleistocene lineages of Bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Ariidae, from the Atlantic coast of South America, with insights into the demography and biogeography of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wemerson C. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coastal and marine environments are characterized by a lack of evident physical barriers or geographic isolation, and it may be difficult to understand how divergence can arise and be sustained in marine environments. The identification of 'soft' barriers is a crucial step towards the understanding of gene flow in marine environments. The marine catfishes of the family Ariidae are a demersal group with restricted migratory behavior, no pelagic larval stages, and mechanisms of larval retention, representing a potentially useful model for the understanding of historical processes of allopatric speciation in the marine environment. In the present study, two lineages of the Coco sea catfish, Bagre bagre , were recognized from their complete segregation at both mitochondrial and morphological levels. One lineage is distributed between Venezuela and the northern coast of Brazil, including the semiarid northeast coast, while the second lineage is found on the eastern coast of Brazil, including the humid northeast coast. Based on distribution area, habitats preference, and genetic variability, inferences are made in relation to biogeography and demography of lineages in Atlantic coast of South America.

  5. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar age constraints on the timing of regional deformation, south coast of New South Wales, Lachlan Fold Belt: problems and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, C.L.; Phillips, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four slate samples from subduction complex rocks exposed on the south coast of New South Wales, south of Batemans Bay, were analysed by K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating methods, One sample contains relatively abundant detrital muscovite flakes that are locally oblique to the regional cleavage in the rock, whereas the remaining samples appear to contain sparse detrital muscovite. Separates of detrital muscovite yielded plateau ages of 505 + 3 Ma and 513 + 3 Ma indicating that inheritance has not been eliminated by metamorphism and recrystallisation. Step-heating analyses of whole-rock chips from all four slate samples produced discordant apparent age spectra with 'saddle shapes' following young apparent ages at the lowest temperature increments. Elevated apparent ages associated with the highest temperature steps are attributed to the presence of variable quantities of detrital muscovite ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of ca 455Ma, which are some 15-30 million years older than K-Ar ages for the same samples. These discrepancies suggest that the slates have also been affected by recoil loss/redistribution of 39 Ar, Ieading to anomalously old 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages. Two other samples, from slaty tectonic melange and intensely cleaved slate, yielded average 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of ca 424Ma, which are closer to associated mean K-Ar ages of 423 + 4Ma and 409 + 16Ma, respectively. Taking into account the potential influences of recoil loss/redistribution of 39 Ar and inheritance, the results from the latter samples suggest a maximum age of ca 440 Ma for deformation/metamorphism. The current results indicate that recoil and inheritance problems may also have affected whole-rock 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data reported from other regions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Therefore, until these effects are adequately quantified, models for the evolution of the Lachlan Fold Belt, that are based on such whole-rock 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data, should be treated with caution. Copyright (2001) Geological

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall over the South-West Coast of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarwar Hossain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from the 1940s to 2007 in the south west coastal region of Bangladesh. Time series statistical tests were applied to examine the spatial and temporal trends in three time segments (1948–1970, 1971–1990 and 1991–2007 and four seasons (Pre-monsoon; Monsoon; Post-Monsoon and Winter, during the period 1948–2007. Eight weather stations were divided into two zones: exposed (exposed to sea and interior (distant to sea. Overall, rainfall increased during the period 1948–2007, while the trends intensified during post-1990s. Post-monsoon and winter rainfall was observed to follow significant positive trends at most weather stations during the time period 1948–2007. The rate of change was found in exposed zone and interior zone are +12.51 and +4.86 mm/year, respectively, over post monsoon and +0.9 and +1.86 mm/year, respectively, over winter. These trends intensified both in the exposed zone (+45.81 mm/year and the interior zone (+27.09 mm/year 1990 onwards. Winter rainfall does not exhibit significant change (p > 0.1 over the exterior or interior zone, though individual stations like Jessore, Satkhira and Bhola show significant negative trends after 1990s. Although the trends were observed to weaken in the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons, they are not significant. Moreover, an 11-year cyclicity was found within these two seasons, whilst no cyclicity was observed in the post-monsoon and winter seasons. Sequential Mann Kendal test reveals that the changes in two zones rainfall trends are started around mid-80s, where step change found only for fours season in Khulna stations and also for winter seasons in all weather stations. These changes may have a detrimental effect on rain-fed agriculture in Bangladesh. The application of palaeo-environmental techniques, threshold determination and rainfall analysis across the whole country could be useful to support adaptation planning of

  7. Air quality indicators from the Environmental Performance Index: potential use and limitations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Garland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In responding to deteriorating air quality, many countries, including South Africa, have implemented national programmes that aim to manage and regulate ambient air quality, and the emissions of air pollutants. One aspect within these management strategies is effective communication to stakeholders, including the general public, with regard to the state and trend of ambient air quality in South Africa. Currently, information on ambient air quality is communicated through ambient mass concentration values, as well as number of exceedances of South African National Ambient Standards. However, these do not directly communicate the potential impact on human health and the ecosystem. To this end, the use of air quality indicators is seen as a potential way to achieve communication to stakeholders in a simplified, yet scientifically defensible manner. Air quality indicators and their source data from the Environmental Performance Index (EPI were interrogated to understand their potential use in South Africa. An assessment of four air quality indicators, together with their source data, showed improvements in air quality over the time period studied, though the input data do have uncertainties. The source data for the PM indicators, which came from a global dataset, underestimated the annual PM2.5 concentrations in the Highveld Priority Area and Vaal Triangle Airshed Priority Area over the time period studied (2009-2014 by ~3.7 times. This highlights a key limitation of national-scale indicators and input data, that while the data used by the EPI are a well-thought out estimate of a country’s air quality profile, they remain a generalised estimate. The assumptions and uncertainty inherent in such an ambitious global-wide attempt make the estimates inaccurate for countries without proper emissions tracking and accounting and few monitoring stations, such as South Africa. Thus, the inputs and resultant indicators should be used with caution until such

  8. Air pollution reduction and control in south asia need for a regional agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, M.A.; Shaheen, N.; Sherazi, A.; Shaheen, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing urbanization and economic growth, air pollution is becoming an urgent concern in South Asia. The objective of this study is to look into and discuss the socioeconomic situation of South Asia, the existing situation of air pollution in the countries of the region, resulting health impacts of air pollution on the population and the responses, if any, of national governments to combat this problem. With the increase in industrial activity and exponential growth in number of vehicles and population, the contribution of each South Asian country to the regional air pollution will increase over time. As evident from the review of the available country data, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been rising steadily over past few decades. The air pollutants can be transported across state and national boundaries, therefore, pollutants produced by one country can, as well, have adverse impacts on the environment and public health of neighboring countries. It has been reported by the country national health authorities that air pollution has pushed respiratory diseases up in the ranks as the leading cause of hospitalization. To minimize the socio-economic and health impacts, resulting from air pollution, South Asian states have developed environmental legal and regulatory frameworks in their respective countries. However, the implementation of country national environmental action plan has been limited due to lack of financial resources and technical know-how. Recommendations have been made for policy actions, including a legally binding agreement for South Asia (LBA-SA), for strengthening the framework for air pollution reduction at regional and national levels in South Asia. (author)

  9. Investigating air quality and air-related complaints in the City of Tshwane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of implemented air quality interventions beyond ambient air pollution reductions, indicators need to be identified and appropriate health data need to be routinely collected to track air-related health. Presently, the only...

  10. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2017-08-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  11. Interactions Between Asian Air Pollution and Monsoon System: South Asia (ROSES-2014 ACMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Chin, Mian; Tao, Zhining; Kim, Dongchul; Bian, Huisheng; Kucsera, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Asia's rapid economic growth over the past several decades has brought a remarkable increase in air pollution levels in that region. High concentrations of aerosols (also known as particulate matter or PM) from pollution sources pose major health hazards to half of the world population in Asia including South Asia. How do pollution and dust aerosols regulate the monsoon circulation and rainfall via scattering and absorbing solar radiation, changing the atmospheric heating rates, and modifying the cloud properties? We conducted a series of regional model experiments with NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NUWRF) regional model with coupled aerosol-chemistry-radiation-microphysics processes over South Asia for winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon seasons to address this question. This study investigates the worsening air quality problem in South Asia by focusing on the interactions between pollution and South Asian monsoon, not merely focusing on the increase of pollutant emissions.

  12. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution mediate socioeconomic differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeladza K Amegah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence linking socioeconomic deprivation with adverse pregnancy outcomes has been conflicting mainly due to poor measurement of socioeconomic status (SES. Studies have also failed to evaluate the plausible pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage impacts on pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the importance of maternal SES as determinant of birth weight and gestational duration in an urban area and evaluated main causal pathways for the influence of SES. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 559 mothers accessing postnatal services at the four main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2011. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers was collected in a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression adjusting for maternal age, parity and gender of newborn, low SES resulted in 292 g (95% CI: 440-145 reduction in birth weight. Important SES-related determinants were neighborhood poverty (221 g; 95% CI: 355-87, low education (187 g; 95% CI: 355-20, studentship during pregnancy (291 g; 95% CI: 506-76 and low income (147 g; 95% CI: 277-17. In causal pathway analysis, malaria infection (6-20%, poor nutrition (2-51% and indoor air pollution (10-62% mediated substantial proportions of the observed effects of socioeconomic deprivation on birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders indicated a 218% (RR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.41-7.21 risk increase of LBW and 83% (RR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.31-2.56 of PTB among low income mothers. Low and middle SES was associated with 357% (RR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.67-12.49 and 278% (RR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.39-10.27 increased risk of LBW respectively. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution respectively mediated 10-21%, 16-44% and 31-52% of the observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on LBW risk. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence of the effects of socioeconomic deprivation

  13. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution mediate socioeconomic differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Damptey, Obed K; Sarpong, Gideon A; Duah, Emmanuel; Vervoorn, David J; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence linking socioeconomic deprivation with adverse pregnancy outcomes has been conflicting mainly due to poor measurement of socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have also failed to evaluate the plausible pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage impacts on pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the importance of maternal SES as determinant of birth weight and gestational duration in an urban area and evaluated main causal pathways for the influence of SES. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 559 mothers accessing postnatal services at the four main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2011. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers was collected in a structured questionnaire. In multivariate linear regression adjusting for maternal age, parity and gender of newborn, low SES resulted in 292 g (95% CI: 440-145) reduction in birth weight. Important SES-related determinants were neighborhood poverty (221 g; 95% CI: 355-87), low education (187 g; 95% CI: 355-20), studentship during pregnancy (291 g; 95% CI: 506-76) and low income (147 g; 95% CI: 277-17). In causal pathway analysis, malaria infection (6-20%), poor nutrition (2-51%) and indoor air pollution (10-62%) mediated substantial proportions of the observed effects of socioeconomic deprivation on birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders indicated a 218% (RR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.41-7.21) risk increase of LBW and 83% (RR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.31-2.56) of PTB among low income mothers. Low and middle SES was associated with 357% (RR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.67-12.49) and 278% (RR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.39-10.27) increased risk of LBW respectively. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution respectively mediated 10-21%, 16-44% and 31-52% of the observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on LBW risk. We provide evidence of the effects of socioeconomic deprivation, substantially mediated by malaria infection, poor nutrition

  14. BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION STUDIES BETWEEN THE TSUNAMIGENIC SEDIMENTS OF MANDAPAM AND TUTICORIN, SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. MOHAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Mannar is a transitional zone between the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean proper and is connected with the Bay of Bengal through a shallow sill, the Palk Strait. The study area extends from Mandapam to Tuticorin on the southern coast of Tamil Nadu (India over a distance of 120 km. It is bound in the northeast by Rameshwaram Island, in the east by the Bay of Bengal, in the west by the Eastern and Western Ghats, and in the south by Tuticorin. A total of 36 sediment samples were collected from the beach (6 and the offshore (30 area in the study region. The offshore samples were collected at six transects keeping the stations at Mandapam (5 nos, Valinokkam (5 nos, Vaippar (5 nos, Vembar (5 nos, Kallar, (5 nos and Tuticorin (5 nos. Totally, 77 benthic foraminiferal species (Post-tsunami and varieties belonging to 39 genera, 13 families, 10 superfamilies and 4 suborders have been reported and illustrated. The following species are widely distributed in the pre and post-tsunami samples namely Spiroloculina communis, Quinqueloculina elongatum, Q.lamarckiana, Q. seminulum, Triloculina trigonula, Cibicides lobatululs, Ammonia beccarii, A. dentata, A.tepida, Elphidium crispum and Assilina ammonoides. Grain size studies shows the frequency curves vary from unimodal to bimodal in places of river discharge from the Vembar, Kallar, Vaippar and Tamiraparani, as a result of which an additional sub-population is deposited. At Mandapam and Tuticorin, the total species are increasing in the deeper depths whereas in Kallar there will be reverse trend which decreases with depth. Similarly, the living species also have the same trend at Vallinokkam. The scatter plot of salinity versus living species shows a positive correlation. The scatter plot of organic matter versus living species shows strong negative correlation and positive correlation with dead species showing a negative relation with the biomass. Further, the trend of organic matter vs. carbonate

  15. Seasonal changes of the sediment size distribution and stability along the beaches of Kerala, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Chandramohan, P.; Nampoodiripad, K.S.N.

    Mean grain size distribution under different environmental conditions along the coast of Kerala showed considerable spatial variation (0.14-0.96 mm). Standard deviation values indicated a very well sorted class along all the beaches with a lowest...

  16. Quaternary Tectonic Tilting Governed by Rupture Segments Controls Surface Morphology and Drainage Evolution along the South-Central Coast of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtler, H. P.; Bookhagen, B.; Melnick, D.; Strecker, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Chilean coast represents one of the most active convergent margins in the Pacific rim, where major earthquakes (M>8) have repeatedly ruptured the surface, involving vertical offsets of several meters. Deformation along this coast takes place in large-scale, semi-independent seismotectonic segments with partially overlapping transient boundaries. They are possibly related to reactivated inherited crustal anisotropies; internal seismogenic deformation may be accommodated by structures that have developed during accretionary wedge evolution. Seismotectonic segmentation and the identification of large-scale rupture zones, however, are based on limited seismologic und geodetic observations over short timespans. In order to better define the long-term behavior and deformation rates of these segments and to survey the tectonic impact on the landscape on various temporal and spatial scales, we investigated the south-central coast of Chile (37-38S). There, two highly active, competing seismotectonic compartments influence the coastal and fluvial morphology. A rigorous analysis of the geomorphic features is a key for an assessment of the tectonic evolution during the Quaternary and beyond. We studied the N-S oriented Santa María Island (SMI), 20 km off the coast and only ~70km off the trench, in the transition between the two major Valdivia (46-37S) and Concepción (38-35S) rupture segments. The SMI has been tectonically deformed throughout the Quaternary and comprises two tilt domains with two topographic highs in the north and south that are being tilted eastward. The low-lying and flat eastern part of the island is characterized by a set of emergent Holocene strandlines related to coseismic uplift. We measured detailed surface morphology of these strandlines and E-W traversing ephemeral stream channels with a laser-total station and used these data to calibrate and validate high-resolution, digital imagery. In addition, crucial geomorphic markers were dated by the

  17. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The...

  18. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.73 Section 81.73 Protection of Environment... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  19. Intracardiac air- the "hospital killer' identified? | Smith | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venous access is an essential part of caring for the sick neonate. The primary problem with catheters, whether peripherally or centrally placed, is the difficulty in maintaining them, the development of phlebitis and systemic infection, and fluid extravasation. A lesser known complication is the development of venous air ...

  20. A new ceramic assemblage from Caution Bay, south coast of mainland PNG : the linear shell edge-impressed tradition from Bogi 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, B.; McNiven, I.J.; Leavesley, M.; Barker, B.; Mandui, H.; Richards, T.; Skelly, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the ceramics from Squares A and B of Bogi 1, a newly excavated site at Caution Bay, south coast of mainland Papua New Guinea. A dense cultural horizon dated from c. 2150 to c. 2100 calBP and preceded by earlier cultural deposits contains previously undescribed ceramics of limited decorative variability almost exclusively focused on Anadara shell edge impressions below finger-grooved lips, which we term the Linear Shell Edge-Impressed Tradition. Here we present the chrono-stratigraphic evidence for this decorative tradition and how it relates to previously described shell-impressed ceramics from the broader region. (author). 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  2. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  3. The South African Air Force, 1920–2012: A Review of its History and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uvp

    for any country to have a well-balanced air force, it is the purpose of this article to ... commanders during the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902), went to Europe to attend military ..... Japan, from whence they proceeded to South Korea. All in all, 826 ...

  4. The Indian Ocean Experiment : Widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, PJ; Ramanathan, A.; Andreae, MO; Brenninkmeijer, CAM; Campos, T; Cass, GR; Dickerson, RR; Fischer, H; de Gouw, JA; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, ATJ; Lal, S; Lawrence, MG; Lobert, JM; Mayol-Bracero, OL; Mitra, AP; Novakov, T; Oltmans, SJ; Prather, KA; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, HA; Sikka, D; Williams, J

    2001-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure Long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution Levels were observed over

  5. 76 FR 64017 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Update to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... of Air Quality Implementation Plans; South Carolina; Update to Materials Incorporated by Reference... the ``good cause'' exemption in section 553(b)(3)(B) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) which... also finds that there is good cause under APA section 553(d)(3) for this correction to become effective...

  6. Air pollution and forest health studies along a south-north transect in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan Godzik; Jerzy Szdzuj; Tomasz Staszewski; Wlodzimierz Lukasik

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution, bulk deposition and throughfall, soil characteristics, needle chemistry, and forest injury were studied on six permanent plots from the south (Brenna and Salmopol in the Beskidy Mountains) to the north (Gac, the Baltic Sea coastal area) in Poland. The concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were the highest at the Katowice location and the...

  7. The new South Pole air shower experiment - SPASE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Gaisser, T K; Gill, J R; Hart, S P; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Martello, D; Miller, T C; Ogden, P A; Patel, M; Rochester, K; Spiczak, G M; Stanev, T; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new coincidence experiment designed to improve understanding of the composition of the primary cosmic-ray beam around the knee of the spectrum. The experiment consists of an air shower array on the surface (SPASE-2), which works in coincidence with an array of air-Cherenkov detectors (VULCAN), and the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) deep in the ice. The experiment must cover the energy range from approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 to approx 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 eV to overlap with direct measurements at lower energy and encompass the regions of the knee and beyond in the cosmic ray spectrum.

  8. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura.... SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District...

  9. 78 FR 25011 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

  10. A coastal seawater temperature dataset for biogeographical studies: large biases between in situ and remotely-sensed data sets around the Coast of South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus J Smit

    Full Text Available Gridded SST products developed particularly for offshore regions are increasingly being applied close to the coast for biogeographical applications. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the dangers of doing so through a comparison of reprocessed MODIS Terra and Pathfinder v5.2 SSTs, both at 4 km resolution, with instrumental in situ temperatures taken within 400 m from the coast. We report large biases of up to +6°C in places between satellite-derived and in situ climatological temperatures for 87 sites spanning the entire ca. 2 700 km of the South African coastline. Although biases are predominantly warm (i.e. the satellite SSTs being higher, smaller or even cold biases also appear in places, especially along the southern and western coasts of the country. We also demonstrate the presence of gradients in temperature biases along shore-normal transects - generally SSTs extracted close to the shore demonstrate a smaller bias with respect to the in situ temperatures. Contributing towards the magnitude of the biases are factors such as SST data source, proximity to the shore, the presence/absence of upwelling cells or coastal embayments. Despite the generally large biases, from a biogeographical perspective, species distribution retains a correlative relationship with underlying spatial patterns in SST, but in order to arrive at a causal understanding of the determinants of biogeographical patterns we suggest that in shallow, inshore marine habitats, temperature is best measured directly.

  11. A checklist of the reptiles and amphibians found in protected areas along the South African Wild Coast, with notes on conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed six protected areas along the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, to determine general herpetofaunal diversity as well as the representation of species of special conservation concern. Visual encounter survey methods and standard Y-shape trap arrays were used to conduct surveys from 2011 to 2013. A total of 59 species (22 amphibians and 37 reptiles were recorded. A number of previously unknown populations of threatened species and one potential novel species were discovered in these protected areas, and the known ranges of several other species were extended. A total of 243 quarter-degree grid-cell unit records were documented, of which 90 (23% amphibians and 50% reptiles represented the first records for the area. Amphibian and reptile diversity increased along the coast and a number of species of conservation concern were well represented in current protected areas. Our study provides a comprehensive amphibian and reptile checklist for an under-sampled region and highlights the importance of baseline data for improving conservation management. Conservation implications: Small protected areas play an important role in conserving a number of threatened herpetofaunal species along the Wild Coast. The region is currently under significant and increasing pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental degradation, which affects biodiversity and subsequently the local inhabitants. The information presented here represents an important baseline for future conservation management.

  12. A Coastal Seawater Temperature Dataset for Biogeographical Studies: Large Biases between In Situ and Remotely-Sensed Data Sets around the Coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Albertus J.; Roberts, Michael; Anderson, Robert J.; Dufois, Francois; Dudley, Sheldon F. J.; Bornman, Thomas G.; Olbers, Jennifer; Bolton, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Gridded SST products developed particularly for offshore regions are increasingly being applied close to the coast for biogeographical applications. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the dangers of doing so through a comparison of reprocessed MODIS Terra and Pathfinder v5.2 SSTs, both at 4 km resolution, with instrumental in situ temperatures taken within 400 m from the coast. We report large biases of up to +6°C in places between satellite-derived and in situ climatological temperatures for 87 sites spanning the entire ca. 2 700 km of the South African coastline. Although biases are predominantly warm (i.e. the satellite SSTs being higher), smaller or even cold biases also appear in places, especially along the southern and western coasts of the country. We also demonstrate the presence of gradients in temperature biases along shore-normal transects — generally SSTs extracted close to the shore demonstrate a smaller bias with respect to the in situ temperatures. Contributing towards the magnitude of the biases are factors such as SST data source, proximity to the shore, the presence/absence of upwelling cells or coastal embayments. Despite the generally large biases, from a biogeographical perspective, species distribution retains a correlative relationship with underlying spatial patterns in SST, but in order to arrive at a causal understanding of the determinants of biogeographical patterns we suggest that in shallow, inshore marine habitats, temperature is best measured directly. PMID:24312609

  13. FOOD HABITS AND FEEDING HABITS OF BARRAMUNDI FISH (Lates calcarifer Block IN TERUSAN DALAM (INSIDE CANAL WATERS, EAST COAST OF SOUTH SUMATERA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasyid Ridho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about the food habits and feeding habits of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Block in Terusan Dalam (inside canal waters, East coast of South Sumatera Province, had been done during March to June 2012. The purpose of this research was to analyze the food habits and feeding habits of  Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Block on Terusan Dalam (inside canal waters, East coast of South Sumatera Province. Sampling method of the fish was purposive sampling method using Tangsi net. The results of this research showed that the number of fish from March to June totaled 31 individuals of fish. Based on the Relative Importance Index (RII, the natural food of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Block in March to June 2012 consisted of shrimp as the main food with the Relative Importance Index 72.37-99.51%, the fish was as the complement food with the Relative Importance Index 11.33-27.63%, and as the additional food was the worm with Relative Importance Index 0.49%. Keywords: Barramundi, food habits, feeding habits

  14. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  15. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 766-square-mile South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The SCRC study unit was the 25th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. The SCRC study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the SCRC study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 70 wells in two study areas (Basins and Uplands) in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 15 wells were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). In addition to

  16. Assessment of potential biological activities and distributions of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in sediments of the west coast of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seungyeon; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-02-01

    The west coast of Korea has experienced environmental deterioration for more than half a century. In the present study, we specifically aimed to: i) evaluate potential toxicities of contaminants in sediments that cause effects mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER); ii) determine spatio-temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs); and iii) identify causes of greater potencies of samples. From 2010 to 2014, sediments were collected from 12 major estuarine and coastal regions along the west coast of South Korea. In vitro cell bioassays were performed to determine AhR- and ER-mediated potencies using H4IIE-luc and MVLN cells, respectively. Fifteen PAHs and six APs in sediments were identified by GC/MSD. Results of bioassays generally showed a low-to-moderate degree of contamination, however, greater AhR- and ER-mediated potencies were measured at some locations. Concentrations of PAHs and APs varied among locations, which indicated that sources were independently affected by the surrounding environment (e.g., industrial complex and cities). Results of bioassays were generally well correlated with concentrations of putative causative chemicals. Benzo[k]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the major AhR agonists, explaining approximately 30% of the bioassay-derived benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP-EQ). Unknown AhR and ER agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the present study provides baseline information on chemical contaminations and potential toxicity of sediments in a fairly wide geographical region of the west coast of South Korea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Re-evaluating the resource potential of lomas fog oasis environments for Preceramic hunter-gatherers under past ENSO modes on the south coast of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford-Jones, David; Pullen, Alexander G.; Whaley, Oliver Q.; Moat, Justin; Chauca, George; Cadwallader, Lauren; Arce, Susana; Orellana, Alfonso; Alarcón, Carmela; Gorriti, Manuel; Maita, Patricia K.; Sturt, Fraser; Dupeyron, Agathe; Huaman, Oliver; Lane, Kevin J.; French, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Lomas - ephemeral seasonal oases sustained by ocean fogs - were critical to ancient human ecology on the desert Pacific coast of Peru: one of humanity's few independent hearths of agriculture and "pristine" civilisation. The role of climate change since the Late Pleistocene in determining productivity and extent of past lomas ecosystems has been much debated. Here we reassess the resource potential of the poorly studied lomas of the south coast of Peru during the long Middle Pre-ceramic period (c. 8000-4500 BP): a period critical in the transition to agriculture, the onset of modern El Niño Southern Oscillation ('ENSO') conditions, and eustatic sea-level rise and stabilisation and beach progradation. Our method combines vegetation survey and herbarium collection with archaeological survey and excavation to make inferences about both Preceramic hunter-gatherer ecology and the changed palaeoenvironments in which it took place. Our analysis of newly discovered archaeological sites - and their resource context - show how lomas formations defined human ecology until the end of the Middle Preceramic Period, thereby corroborating recent reconstructions of ENSO history based on other data. Together, these suggest that a five millennia period of significantly colder seas on the south coast induced conditions of abundance and seasonal predictability in lomas and maritime ecosystems, that enabled Middle Preceramic hunter-gatherers to reduce mobility by settling in strategic locations at the confluence of multiple eco-zones at the river estuaries. Here the foundations of agriculture lay in a Broad Spectrum Revolution that unfolded, not through population pressure in deteriorating environments, but rather as an outcome of resource abundance.

  18. The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapa-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and sediment dynamics of the 1500 km-long coast of South America between the mouths of the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers are largely dependent on the massive suspended-sediment discharge of the Amazon, part of which is transported alongshore as mud banks. These mud banks have an overwhelming impact on the geology, the geomorphology, the ecology and the economy of this coast. Although numerous field investigations and remote sensing studies have considerably enhanced our underst...

  19. Radiometric date for the Port Durnford peat and development of yellow-wood forest along the South African east coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oschadleus, HD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The age of the peat, or 'lignite', layer in the Port Durnford Formation on the Zululand coast has been established to be about 70 kyr by means of the Th-230/U-234 disequilibrium dating technique. This date places the pent temporally at the beginning...

  20. Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Warneke, C.; Hudson, P. K.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Nicks, D. K., Jr.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Schauffler, S. M.; Stroud, V.; Johnson, K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were observed in air masses that had been transported from Asia. The hydrocarbon composition of the air masses indicated that the highest CO levels were related to fossil fuel use. During the flights on 5 and 17 May and other days, the levels of several biomass-burning indicators increased with altitude. This was true for acetonitrile (CH3CN), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the ratio of acetylene (C2H2) to propane (C3H8), and, on May 5, the percentage of particles measured by the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument that were attributed to biomass burning based on their carbon and potassium content. An ensemble of back-trajectories, calculated from the U.S. west coast over a range of latitudes and altitudes for the entire ITCT 2K2 period, showed that air masses from Southeast Asia and China were generally observed at higher altitudes than air from Japan and Korea. Emission inventories estimate the contribution of biomass burning to the total emissions to be low for Japan and Korea, higher for China, and the highest for Southeast Asia. Combined with the origin of the air masses versus altitude, this qualitatively explains the increase with altitude, averaged over the whole ITCT 2K2 period, of the different biomass-burning indicators.

  1. Prescribed fire and air quality in the American South: a review of conflicting interests and a technique for incorporating the land manager into regional air quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, conflicting interests in prescribed burn practice and improving air quality in the South are reviewed. Conflicting societal interests and legislative actions threaten to curtail the use of prescribed fire to manage for endangered species and for other land management objectives in the South. This comes at a time when efforts are being made to increase...

  2. Air quality and climate change co-benefits for the industrial sector in Durban, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambiran, Tirusha; Diab, Roseanne D.

    2011-01-01

    Industries in Durban, South Africa, are a major source of air pollutant emissions and large users of fossil fuel based energy. Durban's energy strategy prioritises energy efficiency at industries as a key action, whilst industries are also the focus of the city's air quality management plan (AQMP). In this paper, measures that have been introduced in industries in Durban to effect air quality improvements and reduce energy consumption are examined in terms of their respective impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. It was found that co-benefits for GHG mitigation were achieved when petroleum refineries switched from using heavy fuel oil to refinery gas and methane rich gas. Within other industries, co-benefits for air quality stemmed from reducing fossil fuel energy consumption and the improved efficiency of combustion systems. Air quality and energy policies in the city are being executed independently, without consideration of the trade-offs or synergies of the interventions being implemented. Recommendations are made for authorities and industries to consider the co-benefits for GHG mitigation in their AQMPs and where these are not possible to consider offsetting the increased GHG emissions through improved alignment with energy strategies. - Highlights: → Industrial energy use is a major source of atmospheric pollution in Durban. → Air quality and energy policies are executed independently. → Opportunities to harvest co-benefits and reduce trade-offs are overlooked. → Air quality management plans should be aligned with energy strategies.

  3. Air quality and climate change co-benefits for the industrial sector in Durban, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thambiran, Tirusha, E-mail: tthambiran@csir.co.za [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 17001, Congella 4013 (South Africa); School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Diab, Roseanne D. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    Industries in Durban, South Africa, are a major source of air pollutant emissions and large users of fossil fuel based energy. Durban's energy strategy prioritises energy efficiency at industries as a key action, whilst industries are also the focus of the city's air quality management plan (AQMP). In this paper, measures that have been introduced in industries in Durban to effect air quality improvements and reduce energy consumption are examined in terms of their respective impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. It was found that co-benefits for GHG mitigation were achieved when petroleum refineries switched from using heavy fuel oil to refinery gas and methane rich gas. Within other industries, co-benefits for air quality stemmed from reducing fossil fuel energy consumption and the improved efficiency of combustion systems. Air quality and energy policies in the city are being executed independently, without consideration of the trade-offs or synergies of the interventions being implemented. Recommendations are made for authorities and industries to consider the co-benefits for GHG mitigation in their AQMPs and where these are not possible to consider offsetting the increased GHG emissions through improved alignment with energy strategies. - Highlights: > Industrial energy use is a major source of atmospheric pollution in Durban. > Air quality and energy policies are executed independently. > Opportunities to harvest co-benefits and reduce trade-offs are overlooked. > Air quality management plans should be aligned with energy strategies.

  4. Contributions of Open Air Museums in preserving heritage buildings: study of open-air museums in South East England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraini Md Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most open air museums were established to preserve and present a threatened aspect of regional or national culture and to help forge a sense of identity and achievement. Britain's open air museums have aroused controversy among both museum professionals and building conservationists. They have been praised for spearheading innovative and vivacious approaches towards heritage interpretation and saving neglected buildings, while some have criticised them for inconsistent standards of conservation especially for taking buildings out of their original settings. Such architectural issues were strongly debated in the 1970s, while recent debates focus on popular approaches towards attracting the public to the past. This paper describes the evolution of open air museums in Britain, their contribution in conserving unloved buildings and how they have become an increasingly competitive tourist attraction. Observations and lessons learned from interviews and visit to two open air museums in South East England provides some insight about the importance of such museums. Operated as registered charity organisations, they have played significant roles not only in saving various buildings and structures from demolition but also in helping visitors to appreciate the rich heritage of these regions.

  5. Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Closure of Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    are Virginia chain-fern (Woodwardia virainica), netted chain-fern (W. aerolata), royal fern (Osmunda regalis), poison ivy (Toxicodendion radicans...Jersey A.B.D., Economics, Rutgers-the State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Years of Experience: 21 "George H. Ledbetter , Major, U.S. Air Force...CESAD-EN-TA Pawleys Island Town Council Mr. Dennnis Calbreath Honorable Lee Brockington U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pawleys Island Town Council South

  6. An air quality assessment in the industrialised western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of the South African mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC, with the western limb being the most exploited. Because the majority of the world’s platinum is produced in the BIC, this area is also of international interest. There are some indications that the western BIC should be considered an air pollution hotspot; however, inadequate data exist to substantiate these claims scientifically. To partially address this knowledge gap, a comprehensive air quality monitoring station was operated for more than 2 years in this area. Meteorological parameters, trace gas concentrations and total mass concentration of particulate matter up to 10 µm in size (PM10 were measured. Compared with South African and European ambient air quality standards, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations were generally acceptable. The major sources of SO2 were identified as high-stack industry emissions, while household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements was identified as the predominant source of NO2 and CO. In contrast, O3 exceeded the 8-h moving average more than 322 times per year. The main contributing factor was identified to be the influx of regional air masses, with high O3 precursor concentrations. PM10 exceeded the current South African 24-h standard 6.6 times per year, the future (2015 standard 42.3 times per year and the European standard more than 120 times per year. The main source of PM10 was identified as household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements. The findings clearly indicate that atmospheric O3 and PM10 levels in the western BIC need to be addressed to avoid negative environmental and human health impacts.

  7. A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy

    2011-03-01

    We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration.

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  10. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  11. Aspects of the biology of the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei (Proscylliidae: Carcharhiniformes) from the south-west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Pillai, N G K

    2012-08-01

    Biological data are presented for the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea off the south-west coast of India. A total of 549 individuals, from 101 to 257 mm total length (L(T)) and 2·2 to 56 g, were collected. The L(T) at first maturity (L(T50)) of females and males was estimated at 183 and 170 mm, respectively, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that E. radcliffei feeds primarily on crustaceans. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25-29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28-30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region.

  13. Uplift rates of the marine terraces in the south coast of Japan deduced from in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Nagano, G.; Nakamura, A.; Maemoku, H.; Miyairi, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.

    2015-12-01

    Marine terraces are low-relief platforms located along coastal areas. They are formed by waves action with the changes in the relative sea level (RSL) that is affected by combined effects of the eustatic sea level (ESL) and the tectonic movements (e.g. uplift, subsidence and isostatic effect). Therefore, determining the ages and the elevations of the marine terraces allows us to reconstruct the ESL and/or the tectonic history of the study area. The Kii Peninsula and the southern coast of the Shikoku Island are located along the Nankai Trough where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting under the Eurasian plate. There exist relatively well-preserved marine terraces along the coastal line with the elevation of ca. 50 -100 m. Because of this unique tectonic setting, the terraces are regarded as the suitable counterparts to reconstruct uplift history of the south coast of Japan. However, the ages of these terraces are poorly understood due to the lack of the ash layers that is suitable for the tephrochronology. In this study, we determine the age of the marine terraces using terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic radionuclides (TCN), 10Be and 26Al. This is the first age estimation of the marine terraces in Japan using TCN, allowing us to determine the uplift rates and the seismic history of the region.

  14. Using Multi-Scenario Tsunami Modelling Results combined with Probabilistic Analyses to provide Hazard Information for the South-WestCoast of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosseder, K.; Post, J.; Steinmetz, T.; Wegscheider, S.; Strunz, G.

    2009-04-01

    the inundation for a specific area, the wave height at coast at this area and the estimated times of arrival (ETAs) of the waves, caused by one tsunamigenic source with a specific magnitude. These parameters from the several scenarios can overlap each other along the coast and must be combined to get one comprehensive hazard assessment for all possible future tsunamis at the region under observation. The simplest way to derive the inundation probability along the coast using the multiscenario approach is to overlay all scenario inundation results and to determine how often a point on land will be significantly inundated from the various scenarios. But this does not take into account that the used tsunamigenic sources for the modeled scenarios have different likelihoods of causing a tsunami. Hence a statistical analysis of historical data and geophysical investigation results based on numerical modelling results is added to the hazard assessment, which clearly improves the significance of the hazard assessment. For this purpose the present method is developed and contains a complex logical combination of the diverse probabilities assessed like probability of occurrence for different earthquake magnitudes at different localities, probability of occurrence for a specific wave height at the coast and the probability for every point on land likely to get hit by a tsunami. The values are combined by a logical tree technique and quantified by statistical analysis of historical data and of the tsunami modelling results as mentioned before. This results in a tsunami inundation probability map covering the South West Coast of Indonesia which nevertheless shows a significant spatial diversity offering a good base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. Keywords: tsunami hazard assessment, tsunami modelling, probabilistic analysis, early warning

  15. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  16. POPULATION BIOLOGY OF SEABOB-SHRIMP Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 CAPTURED ON THE SOUTH COAST OF PERNAMBUCO STATE, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Francisco Corrêa Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the population dynamics and to evaluate the stock of the seabob-shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri on the coast of Pernambuco. Sampling was carried out between August/2011 and July/2012 in Sirinhaém, southern coast of Pernambuco. A total of 1201 individuals were analyzed, 673 females and 528 males. Total length (Lt of females varied from 4.5 to 13.5 cm while the Lt of males ranged between 4.0 and 11.0 cm. The relationship between the Lt and carapace length and Lt and total weight showed negative allometry (males, females and pooled sexes. The slope of the curve "b" was statistically different between males and females for both relationships. Females mature with 8.90 cm. Asymptotic length L∞ was lower for males than for females (12.26 to 14.79 and 10.72 to 11.5 cm, respectively, K was similar between sexes (1.00-2.04 and 1.00-2.63 cm/year-1 respectively as well as the longevity and size at 1st capture (1.50 to 1.97 years and 7.9 to 8.9 cm for males and females, respectively. The results indicate that X. kroyeri in the region is not overexploited for males, however considering females and pooled sexes the stock is near to being fully exploited.

  17. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Antonio; Fuentes, Verónica; Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Acevedo, Melissa; Toledo-Guedes, Kilian; Ortiz, Antonio; Durá, Elia; Bordehore, César; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae) along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain) in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models) to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current) affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates) were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary) production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  18. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa in South-Western Mediterranean coasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Canepa

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms cause important ecological and socio-economic problems. Among jellyfish, cubozoans are infamous for their painful, sometimes deadly, stings and are a major public concern in tropical to subtropical areas; however, there is little information about the possible causes of their outbreaks. After a bloom of the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis (Carybdeidae along the coast of Denia (SW Mediterranean, Spain in 2008 with negative consequences for local tourism, the necessity to understand the ecological restrictions on medusae abundance was evident. Here we use different models (GAM and zero-inflated models to understand the environmental and human related factors influencing the abundance and distribution of C. marsupialis along the coast of Denia. Selected variables differed among medusae size classes, showing different environmental restriction associated to the developmental stages of the species. Variables implicated with dispersion (e.g. wind and current affected mostly small and medium size classes. Sea surface temperature, salinity and proxies of primary production (chl a, phosphates, nitrates were related to the abundances of small and large size classes, highlighting the roles of springtime salinity changes and increased primary production that may promote and maintain high densities of this species. The increased primary (and secondary production due to anthropogenic impact is implicated as the factor enabling high numbers of C. marsupialis to thrive. Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities.

  19. Monitoring soil erosion features using a time series of airborne remote sensing data: a case study Wild Coast, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, RG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available (accessed October 2013). Lal R. 2003. Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environment International, 29, pp. 437-450. Le Roux J. J., 2011. Monitoring soil erosion in South Africa at a regional scale. ISCW Report No. GW/A/2011/23. ARC...

  20. Corresponding Relation between Warm Season Precipitation Extremes and Surface Air Temperature in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Wei; LI; Jian; YU; Ru-Cong

    2013-01-01

    Hourly data of 42 rain gauges over South China during 1966–2005 were used to analyze the corresponding relation between precipitation extremes and surface air temperature in the warm season(May to October).The results show that below 25℃,both daily and hourly precipitation extremes in South China increase with rising temperature.More extreme events transit to the two-time Clausius-Clapeyron(CC)relationship at lower temperatures.Daily as well as hourly precipitation extremes have a decreasing tendency nearly above 25℃,among which the decrease of hourly extremes is much more significant.In order to investigate the efects of rainfall durations,hourly precipitation extremes are presented by short duration and long duration precipitation,respectively.Results show that the dramatic decrease of hourly rainfall intensities above 25℃ is mainly caused by short duration precipitation,and long duration precipitation extremes rarely occur in South China when surface air temperature surpasses 28℃.

  1. 232-Th and 238-U radioactive contaminations of sediments along the South China Sea of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee; Elias Saion; Naghavi, K.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 232 Th and 238 U were determined in 30 sediment samples, collected from the South China Sea bed of the east coast peninsular Malaysia. The samples were dried in an oven for 10 days at 65 C and stored in polyethylene bottles for future analysis. INAA used to analyse surficial sediments. The 232 Th and 238 U activities in surficial sediments determined. These activities increased from 14.02 to 30.17 Bq Kg -1 and from 47.49 to 113.69 Bq Kg -1 for 232 Th and 238 U , respectively. Results show diffuse distribution of 232 Th and 238 U actinides in studied area. The Th/Sc and U/Sc ratios of the suricial sediments have same distribution and the highest their values are in station EC12. The radioactive contamination of the investigated sector is compared with the results obtained of other coastal sediments of Malaysia. Results show activity contamination in coastal sediments of the South China Sea is lower than the Straits of Malacca and is the same with the Straits of Johor. (Author)

  2. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes, situated nearly the Pacific coast of the North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    The Pacific coast of the North and South America is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the world forming part of the so-called Ring of Fire More than 10 earthquakes with the Richter scale magnitude 4 5 were analyzed They were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only High resolution Aster satellite images were used to extract the principal lineaments using The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis LESSA software package It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately and a few months later the system returns to its initial state This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and it is much more easily detectable in case of convergent plate boundaries for example Nasca and South American plates The results obtained open the possibility to develop a methodology able to evaluate the seismic risk in the regions with similar geological conditions

  3. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular...

  4. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.E.; Nascimento, J.; Furrier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  5. A resource allocation model to support efficient air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Govender

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into management interventions that create the required enabling environment for growth and development in South Africa are both timely and appropriate. In the research reported in this paper, the authors investigated the level of efficiency of the Air Quality Units within the three spheres of government viz. National, Provincial, and Local Departments of Environmental Management in South Africa, with the view to develop a resource allocation model. The inputs to the model were calculated from the actual man-hours spent on twelve selected activities relating to project management, knowledge management and change management. The outputs assessed were aligned to the requirements of the mandates of these Departments. Several models were explored using multiple regressions and stepwise techniques. The model that best explained the efficiency of the organisations from the input data was selected. Logistic regression analysis was identified as the most appropriate tool. This model is used to predict the required resources per Air Quality Unit in the different spheres of government in an attempt at supporting and empowering the air quality regime to achieve improved output efficiency.

  6. Fight and air exposure times of caught and released salmonids from the South Fork Snake River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Curtis J.; Schill, Daniel J.; Quist, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Catch-and-release regulations are among the most common types of fishing regulations. In recent years, concerns have arisen regarding the exposure of fish to air during catch-and-release angling. The purpose of our study was to quantify the length of time angled fish were exposed to air by anglers in a typical catch-and-release fishery and relate it to the lengths of time reported to produce negative effects. In total, 312 individual anglers were observed on the South Fork Snake River, Idaho, from May through August 2016. Fight time varied from 1.1 s to 230.0 s, and average fight time was 40.0 s (SD = 36.8). Total air exposure times varied from 0.0 s to 91.8 s and averaged 19.3 s (SD = 15.0). Though not statistically significant, a trend in reduced fight times was observed when anglers were guided and increased air exposure times when a net was used and a picture was taken. Results of the current study suggest that anglers expose fish to air for periods that are much less than those reported to cause mortality.

  7. A review of scientifc linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirusha Thambiran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientifc understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due to impacts on pollution sources and meteorology. Climate-induced changes to sources of tropospheric ozone precursor gases and to atmospheric circulation are likely to lead to changes in both the concentration and dispersion of near-surface ozone that could act to offset improvements in air quality. The control of air pollutants through air quality management is also likely to impact on climate change, with reductions in ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide being of particular interest. The improved understanding of the relationship between air quality and climate change provides a scientific basis for policy interventions. After a review of the scientific linkages, the potential to include climate change considerations in air quality management planning processes in South Africa was examined.

  8. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with changes in air mass origin at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesch, J.-M.; Drewnick, F.; Zorn, S. R.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Martinez, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W). As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville) and the Atlantic Ocean, a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m-3 and 1000 cm-3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54%) was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition, small concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA), a product of biogenic dimethyl sulfate (DMS) emissions, could be identified in the particle phase

  9. Genetic variations in the Dravidian population of South West coast of India: Implications in designing case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cunha, Anitha; Pandit, Lekha; Malli, Chaithra

    2017-06-01

    Indian data have been largely missing from genome-wide databases that provide information on genetic variations in different populations. This hinders association studies for complex disorders in India. This study was aimed to determine whether the complex genetic structure and endogamy among Indians could potentially influence the design of case-control studies for autoimmune disorders in the south Indian population. A total of 12 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) related to genes associated with autoimmune disorders were genotyped in 370 healthy individuals belonging to six different caste groups in southern India. Allele frequencies were estimated; genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship within the various caste groups and other HapMap populations were ascertained. Allele frequencies for all genotyped SNVs did not vary significantly among the different groups studied. Wright's FSTwas 0.001 per cent among study population and 0.38 per cent when compared with Gujarati in Houston (GIH) population on HapMap data. The analysis of molecular variance results showed a 97 per cent variation attributable to differences within the study population and variation due to differences between castes. Phylogenetic analysis showed a separation of Dravidian population from other HapMap populations and particularly from GIH population. Despite the complex genetic origins of the Indian population, our study indicated a low level of genetic differentiation among Dravidian language-speaking people of south India. Case-control studies of association among Dravidians of south India may not require stratification based on language and caste.

  10. Mean surface meteorological parameter characterization at Kavaratti, Lakshadweep Island, South-East Arabian Sea, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijaykumar, K.; Mehra, P.; Nair, B.; Agarwadekar, Y.; Luis, R.; Ghatge, D.; Lobo, S.; Halmalkar, B.

    with lesser intensity. Monthly mean wind speed in October was ~ 2 m/s while in July it was ~7 m/s. Monthly mean atmospheric pressure in October was ~1008 mbar as against ~1007 mbar in July. Surface air-temperature and relative humidity have also exhibited...

  11. Efficacy of potential phage cocktails against Vibrio harveyi and closely related Vibrio species isolated from shrimp aquaculture environment in the south east coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, Nattan; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2017-08-01

    A diverse set of novel phages infecting the marine pathogenic Vibrio harveyi was isolated from shrimp aquaculture environments in the south east coast of India. Based on initial screening, three phages with a broad host range revealed that the growth inhibition of phage is relatively specific to V. harveyi. They were also able to infect V. alginolyticus and V. parahemolyticus that belonged to the Harveyi clade species from shrimp pond and sea coast environment samples. However, the impact of these phages on their host bacterium are well understood; a one-step growth curve experiment and transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed three phages grouped under the Myoviridae (VHM1 and VHM2); Siphoviridae (VHS1) family. These phages were further molecular characterized with respect to phage genomic DNA isolates. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) digestion with HindIII, and major structural proteins were distinguished by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) clearly indicated that all the phage isolates were different, even when they came from the same source, giving an insight into the diversity of phages. Evaluation of microcosm studies of Penaeus monodon larvae infected with V. harveyi (105 CFU mL-1) showed that larvae survival after 96 h in the presence of phage treatment at 109 PFU mL-1 was enhanced when compared with the control. The resolution in over survival highly recommended that this study provides the phage-based therapy which could be an innovative and eco-friendly solution against Vibrio disease in shrimp aquaculture and in the natural environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Proposals to enhance thermal efficiency programs and air pollution control in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2015-01-01

    Major cities in South-central Chile suffer high levels of particulate matter PM 10 and PM 2.5 due to combustion of solid fuels for heating. Exposure to these air pollutants is recognized as a major contribution to ill health in the region. Here we discuss new strategies to reduce air pollution. Regulations and subsidies focusing on improved combustion by providing drier wood fuel and better stoves have been in effect since 2007. However, air pollution due to combustion of wood fuel has been steadily rising, along with reports on health consequences. The paper analyzes a survey of 2025 households in the city of Valdivia, which found that wood fuel quality, stove renewal, and awareness of programs are strongly affected by income level, and that higher consumption of wood fuel is found in households already having better stoves and drier wood fuel. The analysis suggests that regulations intended to improve combustion are influenced by user's behavior and have limited potential for lowering pollution. We conclude that thermal refurbishment has a larger potential for improvement, not yet been implemented as an energy policy for the majority. Here we propose improvements and additions to current programs to enhance effectiveness and cover the whole social spectrum. - Highlights: • High levels of PM 2.5 from wood combustion affect cities of south-central Chile. • Current programs on dry wood fuel and stoves renewal have not reduced air pollution. • Real operation of wood stoves strongly depends on user's behavior. • Buildings' energy efficiency has greater potential for reducing emissions. • Retrofit prevents degradation of native forest and improves indoor temperature

  13. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  14. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Elops machnata (Forskal Populations in South East and West Coasts of India Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellaichamy RAMANADEVI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was used to study the genetic diversity of four Elops machnata populations in South India. Elops machnata is considered as a least concern species (LC, categorized by the International Union for Conservation and Nature (IUCN. The population trends are currently stable in Indian Ocean, Eastern Africa, but are unknown throughout the rest of its expansive range, especially in Indian estuaries. Among the ten RAPD primers tested, eight primers got amplified and gave scorable bands. In total, 119 scorable bands were observed in all populations. The overall observed and effective number of alleles was found to be 2.000 ± 0.000 and 1.5307 ± 0.2503 respectively for the entire population. The overall polymorphic loci were 61.00% and the overall gene flow among the four populations was predicted to 0.1032. The genetic distance and geographic distance between the four populations showed a positive correlation. The highest genetic similarity (0.6824 was found between Parangipettai and Muthupettai population, which reflected the geographical relationship between them. Tow main clusters were obtained based on UPGMA dendrogram. This study proves that RAPD analysis has the ability to discriminate E. machnata populations in South Indian coastal waters.

  15. Geomorphological condition and sea bottom sediment characteristics of Sebagin coast for NPP site evaluation in South Bangka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliastuti; Heni Susiati; Yarianto Sugeng Budi Susilo

    2015-01-01

    Study on geomorphological condition and sea bottom sediment in the coastal area of Sebagin, South Bangka Regency, Bangka Belitung Province has been performed. Geomorphological of the seabed was valuable to identify geological structures that exist on the seabed layers. Whereas, sediments seabed characteristics was useful to provide portrait of seabed layer due to the stability of NPP site concerning the seismic aspect and the determination of water intake position. The objective of the study was to evaluate geomorphological condition and sea bed sediment characteristics in the South Bangka sea. Methodology used for evaluating geomorphological of the sea bed were Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES) and Single Beam Echo Sounder (SBES), while for sea bottom sediment characteristics, high resolution seismic reflection using SBP together with sediment sample analysis were used. The result of the study showed that the study area was a shallow water sea with a depth range of 1-59 m. Geomorphological profile of the sea bed tend to be irregular and based on the seismic interpretation, there were no fault exists. Result analysis on the sea bottom sediment showed that clay distribution dominated the study area. (author)

  16. Observational analysis of air-sea fluxes and sea water temperature offshore South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, X.; Huang, J.; Gao, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the air-sea fluxes (momentum flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) from eddy covariance method based on data collected at an offshore observation tower in the South China Sea from January 2009 to December 2016 and sea water temperature (SWT) on six different levels based on data collected from November 2011 to June 2013. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m. This study presents the in-situ measurements of continuous air-sea fluxes and SWT at different depths. Seasonal and diurnal variations in air-sea fluxes and SWT on different depths are examined. Results show that air-sea fluxes and all SWT changed seasonally; sea-land breeze circulation appears all the year round. Unlike winters where SWT on different depths are fairly consistent, the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea temperature at 10 m water depth fluctuates dramatically and the maximum value reaches 7 °C during summer.

  17. Assessing emissions levels and costs associated with climate and air pollution policies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneman, Lucas R.F.; Rafaj, Peter; Annegarn, Harold J.; Klausbruckner, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Affordable energy supply and reductions in emissions of local air pollution and greenhouse gases are each important aspects of South Africa's goals. Many traditional solutions, however, work in contradiction to one another. This work investigates effects on estimated emissions and costs of mitigation strategies using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interaction Synergies (GAINS) model to identify policies that satisfy multiple goals. Eight scenarios that describe air pollution control options and mixes of energy production technologies are implemented in GAINS, which quantifies country-wide air pollution and greenhouse emissions and costs of controls. Emissions and costs trajectories are compared to the business as usual case, which projects CO_2 emissions to increase by 60% by 2050 compared to 2015. Results show that replacing all coal generation with renewables reduces CO_2 emissions in 2050 by 8% compared to 2015, and that aggressive policy targeting the whole energy sector reduces CO_2 emissions in 2050 by 40%. GAINS is used to show co-benefits and tradeoffs of each scenario, such as reductions in emissions control costs that accompany a switch to renewables. The approach provides supporting evidence for policies that exploit co-benefits and avoid contradictions by assessing multiple aspects of the energy sector within the integrated framework provided by the GAINS modeling platform.

  18. PSI Analysis of Ground Deformations Along the South-Western Coast of the Gulf of Gdansk (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnogorska, Magdalena; Graniczny, Marek; Uscinowicz, Szymon; Nutricato, Raffaele; Triggiani, Saverio; Nitti, David Oscar; Bovenga, Fabio; Wasowski, Janusz

    2010-03-01

    We use over 40 descending ERS-1/2 SLC (Frame = 2511 , Track = 36) images from the period 1995 - 2001 and the SPINUA (Stable Point Interferometry over Un- urbanised Areas) Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) processing technique to study Earth surface deformations along the SW coast of the Gulf of Gdansk, along the SE part of the Baltic Sea.The area of interest (AOI) includes few cities and several towns, villages and harbours. The low lying coastal areas of the SW part of the Gulf of Gdansk are at risk of floods and marine erosion. It is expected that this problem can be exacerbated by the ongoing sea level rise and possibly by crustal movements (subsidence) reported in the literature.The PSI results, however, did not reveal the presence of a regional scale, spatially consistent pattern of displacements. It is likely that any crustal deformations in the AOI simply do not exceed +-2 mm/year, which is the velocity threshold we assumed to distinguish between moving and non-moving radar targets. Nevertheless, significant downward displacements, amounting to several mm/year, are locally present in the coastal zone east of Gdansk that belongs to the Vistula river delta-alluvial plain system, as well as in the inland area west of the cities of Gdansk and Sopot. It is apparent that in all these cases the movements reflect mainly differential settlements of buildings and engineering infrastructure, which have recently been built in the areas including clay-rich, compressible sediments. Indeed, one of the highest subsidence rates (- 12 mm/year) was observed in the Gdansk petroleum refinery constructed on alluvial sediments. Thus the anthropogenic loading and consolidation of the recent deposits can locally be an important factor causing ground settlements. Importantly, for the most part the urban areas of the main cities (Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot) result to be stable.

  19. Biological effects of high level natural background radiation on human population residing in Kerala coast, South West India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The populations residing in Kerala coast are exposed to elevated natural background radiation since many generations. Extensive studies conducted by Bio-Medical group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center have generated wealth of data from this area dealing with epidemiology, monitoring the newborns for malformations, Health Audit Survey, Dosimetry and biological studies using cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques. Our studies on congenital malformations and chromosomal anomalies in children born to parents residing in High Level Natural Radiation Areas in Kerala have not shown any significant difference from normal radiation areas. Screening of over 1,25,000 consecutively born children showed an incidence rate which is comparable in both areas. Other factors such as consanguinity, maternal age and gravida status are more significant contributors than radiation dose to the risk for having malformation in child. Radiation prevalent in the HLNRA is in the dose range of above 1.5 to about 50 mGy per year which translates to doses in the range of nGy per hour. This clearly indicate the number of cells exposed to radiations will be one in few thousand or ten thousands. This throws up challenges in our capability to investigate the effects of radiation on cells. It has become imperative to develop and exploit techniques which will detect responses in single cells and would be able screen large number of cells at a time. Developments in cell biology and molecular biology are now giving us these capabilities. Use of flowcytometer and next generation sequencing would enable us to address many of these questions and provide meaningful approaches to understand the effects of such low dose radiation

  20. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inner boundary of the Atlantic (Coastal) Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) south of 30 degrees... 33 degrees north latitude, or from the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coasts from a place in the Western Hemisphere south of 30 degrees north latitude, from any place in Mexico, from the U.S. Virgin Islands, or...

  1. Modelling the physical multiphase interactions of HNO3 between snow and air on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C) and coast (Halley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Ga; Frey, Markus M.; King, Martin D.

    2018-02-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) from the photolysis of nitrate (NO3-) in snow affect the oxidising capacity of the lower troposphere especially in remote regions of high latitudes with little pollution. Current air-snow exchange models are limited by poor understanding of processes and often require unphysical tuning parameters. Here, two multiphase models were developed from physically based parameterisations to describe the interaction of nitrate between the surface layer of the snowpack and the overlying atmosphere. The first model is similar to previous approaches and assumes that below a threshold temperature, To, the air-snow grain interface is pure ice and above To a disordered interface (DI) emerges covering the entire grain surface. The second model assumes that air-ice interactions dominate over all temperatures below melting of ice and that any liquid present above the eutectic temperature is concentrated in micropockets. The models are used to predict the nitrate in surface snow constrained by year-round observations of mixing ratios of nitric acid in air at a cold site on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C; 75°06' S, 123°33' E; 3233 m a.s.l.) and at a relatively warm site on the Antarctic coast (Halley; 75°35' S, 26°39' E; 35 m a.s.l). The first model agrees reasonably well with observations at Dome C (Cv(RMSE) = 1.34) but performs poorly at Halley (Cv(RMSE) = 89.28) while the second model reproduces with good agreement observations at both sites (Cv(RMSE) = 0.84 at both sites). It is therefore suggested that in winter air-snow interactions of nitrate are determined by non-equilibrium surface adsorption and co-condensation on ice coupled with solid-state diffusion inside the grain, similar to Bock et al. (2016). In summer, however, the air-snow exchange of nitrate is mainly driven by solvation into liquid micropockets following Henry's law with contributions to total surface snow NO3- concentrations of 75 and 80 % at Dome C and Halley

  2. Modeling the Physical Multi-Phase Interactions of HNO3 Between Snow and Air on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C) and coast (Halley)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoi Ga; Frey, Markus M.; King, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions from nitrate (NO3-) photolysis in snow affect the oxidising capacity of the lower troposphere especially in remote regions of the high latitudes with low pollution levels. The porous structure of snowpack allows the exchange of gases with the atmosphere driven by physicochemical processes, and hence, snow can act as both source and sink of atmospheric chemical trace gases. Current models are limited by poor process understanding and often require tuning parameters. Here, two multi-phase physical models were developed from first principles constrained by observed atmospheric nitrate, HNO3, to describe the air-snow interaction of nitrate. Similar to most of the previous approaches, the first model assumes that below a threshold temperature, To, the air-snow grain interface is pure ice and above To, a disordered interface (DI) emerges assumed to be covering the entire grain surface. The second model assumes that Air-Ice interactions dominate over the entire temperature range below melting and that only above the eutectic temperature, liquid is present in the form of micropockets in grooves. The models are validated with available year-round observations of nitrate in snow and air at a cold site on the Antarctica Plateau (Dome C, 75°06'S, 123°33'E, 3233 m a.s.l.) and at a relatively warm site on the Antarctica coast (Halley, 75°35'S, 26°39'E, 35 m a.s.l). The first model agrees reasonably well with observations at Dome C (Cv(RMSE) = 1.34), but performs poorly at Halley (Cv(RMSE) = 89.28) while the second model reproduces with good agreement observations at both sites without any tuning (Cv(RMSE) = 0.84 at both sites). It is therefore suggested that air-snow interactions of nitrate in the winter are determined by non-equilibrium surface adsorption and co-condensation on ice coupled with solid-state diffusion inside the grain. In summer, however, the air-snow exchange of nitrate is mainly driven by solvation into liquid

  3. Propagation and forcing of high-frequency sea level variability along the west coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Cornejo-Rodriguez, Maria; Enfield, David B.

    1987-12-01

    Tide and wind data from coastal and island stations from Buenaventura, Colombia (4°N), to Callao, Peru (12°S), have been analyzed for the 1979-1984 time period to determine the propagation and forcing characteristics of coastal sea level variability at periods of days to weeks, as well as how they vary either with season or between the 1982-1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period and non-ENSO years. During four non-ENSO years, the ensemble averaged cross spectra between coastal sea level height (SLH) and local winds show weak evidence of local forcing during the whole year without significant differences between the austral summer and winter seasons, other than a greater energy in the wind fluctuations at Talara during summer. Cross spectra between SLH series from neighboring stations show evidence of poleward phase propagation during winter seasons at speeds of about 2.0 m s-1 between La Libertad and Talara at periods of a week or more, and about 2.7 m s-1 between Talara and Callao at periods of 5-11 days, but no propagation is found during summers. During the 1982-1983 ENSO there is a large increase in SLH energy at most frequencies at all coastal stations, but especially in the 8-to-11-day band, where energies are enhanced by as much as an order of magnitude above non-ENSO levels. The cross spectra between adjacent SLH stations indicate a nondispersive poleward propagation of events during the 1982-1983 ENSO with phase speeds of 2.2-3.5 m s-1 from La Libertad to Talara (periods of a week or more) and 3.4-3.6 m s-1 from Talara to Callao (3.5 days or more). As with the SLH energy, the coherence and phase propagation were much stronger along the Peru coast in 1982-1983 than during non-ENSO periods, especially in the 8-to-11-day band. The one-third increase in phase speeds during the ENSO over the non-ENSO speeds is found to be consistent with the anomalous depressions of the density structure during El Niño. Comparisons between coastal SLH and the local

  4. Leisure Coast City : A comparative history of the urban leisure waterfront. Barcelona. Chicago. Buenos Aires. 1870-1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martire, A.

    2008-01-01

    *** NOTIFICATION *** With reference to this thesis, I express my debt to Dr. Sonia Berjman’s numerous and pioneer publications on Buenos Aires landscape history, which were not only inspiring but also the basis of my analysis of Courtois, Bouvard, Thays, Carrasco brothers, Forestier and other

  5. Evaluation of climate-induced waterlogging hazards in the south-west coast of Bangladesh using Geoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareq, Syed M; Tauhid Ur Rahman, M; Zahedul Islam, A Z M; Baddruzzaman, A B M; Ashraf Ali, M

    2018-03-19

    Climate-induced waterlogging has been significantly affecting the lives and livelihood of people in the south-west coastal region of Bangladesh for a couple of decades. The objective of this study is to investigate the waterlogging hazards of Tala, a south-western coastal Upazila of Bangladesh by analyzing satellite image. An empirical model based on velocity of flow, depth of flow, and inundation depth has been proposed to assess waterlogging hazard in pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon period. Landsat TM images for the years 1989, 2000, and 2011 were analyzed by using Geoinformatics including GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify the water hazard. Three dominant land use classes such as "water," "vegetation," and "bare lands and others" were selected to identify the land use land cover change. Both FGD (focus group discussions) and KII (key informant interviews) were also accomplished to assess the waterlogging hazard. It was revealed that 0.7% of the study area (246 ha) was under water in 1989, which increased alarmingly to 34% (11,525 ha) in 2011. There was an increase in 62.9% of water bodies during 1989 to 2000, which was further expanded to 77% during 2000 to 2011. Satellite image analysis between 2011 and 2015 also showed that nearly 89% of the waterlogged area including floodplain is inundated by tidal saline water that supports shrimp cultivation. On the contrary, 11% of the waterlogged area was occupied by trapped rain water. Confirmation of saline water and fresh water was done by measuring electrical conductivity and conducting "mouth taste" during field visit. The decreasing rate of "bare lands and others" category indicates that there is around 69.4% of reduction in this category to accommodate the increasing water covering areas. The hazard model shows that the middle part of the Tala along with the flood plain of the Kabodak River usually have to suffer waterlogged in both pre monsoon and post monsoon period. It was found that low

  6. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the Atlantic Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus (Scombridae) off the Atlantic Coast of Florida and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah; de Buron, Isaure

    2013-04-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra atlantica n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of the Atlantic Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) (Scombridae, Perciformes), off the Atlantic coast of Florida and South Carolina. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in the length of spicules (111-126 μm), number and arrangement of genital papillae, and a U-shaped, dorsally interrupted caudal mound in the male. A unique feature among all gonad-infecting philometrids is the presence of 2 reflexed dorsal barbs on the distal end of the gubernaculum. From a few congeneric, gonad-infecting species with unknown males, it can be distinguished by some morphological and biometrical features found in gravid females (body length, length of first-stage larvae or esophagus, structure of caudal end) and by the host type (fish family) and geographical distribution. Philometra atlantica is the fourth valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from fishes of the family Scombridae.

  7. 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar whole rock age constraints on the timing of regional deformation, South Coast of New South Wales, Lachlan Fold Belt, Southeastern Australia: problems and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Fergusson, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Subduction complex rocks are well exposed on the south coast of New South Wales around Batemans Bay. Farther south in the Narooma and Bermagui region, Offier et al (1998) have determined two 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages of 450 ± 3 Ma and 445 ± 2 Ma. They argued that these ages constrain the timing of intense underplating-related deformation and we have undertaken farther work, from an area south of Batemans Bay, to test this suggestion. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method applied to fine-grained, low temperature metamorphic rocks, such as slates, is beset by the problem of recoil loss and/or redistribution of 39 Ar during the irradiation process. Another problem is the difficulty of distinguishing between the contributions to 40 Ar/ 39 Ar spectra from illite/muscovite grown during the cleavage-producing deformation and detrital muscovite/illite. In the current study, four slate samples, with variable contents of detrital white mica, were analysed by both the K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating methods. A separate of detrital white mica from one slate sample yields a plateau age of 500 ± 2 Ma. This result indicates that inheritance has not been eliminated by metamorphism as is commonly assumed and that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages provide only a maximum estimate for the timing of deformation. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses of state chips yield discordant, saddle-shaped age spectra, with minimum, within-saddle' ages of ca. 420 Ma. Two slate samples give identical 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of 455 ± 2 Ma. One sample contains relatively abundant detrital bedding-parallel mica flakes that are locally oblique to the regional cleavage in the rock. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages are some 20 Ma older than K-Ar ages for these same samples, suggesting that recoil loss of 39 Ar may also have affected these slates. Both recoil loss of 39 Ar and inherited white micas will yield elevated apparent ages, thus providing only maximum ages for the cleavage-producing deformation. Two other samples from slaty tectonic

  8. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties from the mangrove Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza of Burmanallah coast, South Andaman, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajendra Seepana; Karthick Perumal; Narayana Murthy Kada; Ramesh Chatragadda; Mohanraju Raju; VijayakumarAnnamalai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of partially purified leaf, bark and root extracts obtained from two mangrove species Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza from South Andaman against clinical bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: Roots, bark and leaves were dried in the shade and subjected to organic solvent extraction. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed by agar well diffusion technique. Column purified extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography for compound identification. Results: Results of the partially purified extracts were analyzed by column chromatography. Fractions collected by high performance liquid chromatography exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activities against several bacterial and fungal pathogens. Fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (25 mm) was found to be more sensitive against the mangrove extracts as compared with Klebsiella pneumoniae (23 mm), Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi (22 mm). Active fractions were identified as tannin compounds based on the peaks obtained by high performance liquid chromatography. Conclusions: Present findings reveal that mangrove bark, roots, and leaves contain valuable metabolites, which have significant importance in the pharmacological industries. Hence, this study suggests that these two mangrove plants Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza are potential candidates for discovering antimicrobial compounds against clinical pathogens.

  9. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2010-11-01

    Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

  10. Projected and Observed Aridity and Climate Change in the East Coast of South India under RCP 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, A.; Praveen, Dhanya; Jaganathan, R.; Palanivelu, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the purview of global warming, the present study attempts to project changes in climate and quantify the changes in aridity of two coastal districts in south India under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. Projected climate change output generated by RegCM 4.4 model, pertaining to 14 grid points located within the study area, was analyzed and processed for this purpose. The meteorological parameters temperature and precipitations were used to create De Martonne Aridity Index, to assess the spatial distribution of aridity. The original index values ranged from 13.7 to 16.4 mm/°C, characterizing this area as a semidry climate. The outcome from the changed scenario analysis under RCP 4.5 showed that, during the end of the 21st century, the aridity may be increased more as the index values tend to reduce. The increasing trend in the drying phenomenon may be attributed to the rising of mean annual temperatures. PMID:26771002

  11. Multiyear ice transport and small scale sea ice deformation near the Alaska coast measured by air-deployable Ice Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Kasper, J.; Winsor, P.

    2015-12-01

    Highly complex patterns of ice motion and deformation were captured by fifteen satellite-telemetered GPS buoys (known as Ice Trackers) deployed near Barrow, Alaska, in spring 2015. Two pentagonal clusters of buoys were deployed on pack ice by helicopter in the Beaufort Sea between 20 and 80 km offshore. During deployment, ice motion in the study region was effectively zero, but two days later the buoys captured a rapid transport event in which multiyear ice from the Beaufort Sea was flushed into the Chukchi Sea. During this event, westward ice motion began in the Chukchi Sea and propagated eastward. This created new openings in the ice and led to rapid elongation of the clusters as the westernmost buoys accelerated away from their neighbors to the east. The buoys tracked ice velocities of over 1.5 ms-1, with fastest motion occurring closest to the coast indicating strong current shear. Three days later, ice motion reversed and the two clusters became intermingled, rendering divergence calculations based on the area enclosed by clusters invalid. The data show no detectable difference in velocity between first year and multiyear ice floes, but Lagrangian timeseries of SAR imagery centered on each buoy show that first year ice underwent significant small-scale deformation during the event. The five remaining buoys were deployed by local residents on prominent ridges embedded in the landfast ice within 16 km of Barrow in order to track the fate of such features after they detached from the coast. Break-up of the landfast ice took place over a period of several days and, although the buoys each initially followed a similar eastward trajectory around Point Barrow into the Beaufort Sea, they rapidly dispersed over an area more than 50 km across. With rapid environmental and socio-economic change in the Arctic, understanding the complexity of nearshore ice motion is increasingly important for predict future changes in the ice and the tracking ice-related hazards

  12. Occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas species in tropical seafood, aquafarms and mangroves off Cochin coast in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the

  13. Toward an integrated quasi-operational air quality analysis and prediction system for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, Gholam Ali; Brasseur, Guy; Petersen, Katinka; Bouarar, Idiir; Andrade, Maria de Fatima

    2015-04-01

    Recent industrialization and urbanization in South America (SA) have notably exacerbated the air pollution with adverse impacts on human health and socio-economic systems. Consequently, there is a strong demand for developing ever-better assessment mechanisms to monitor the air quality at different temporal and spatial scales and minimize its damages. Based on previous achievements (e.g., MACC project in Europe and PANDA project in East Asia) we aim to design and implement an integrated system to monitor, analyze and forecast the air quality in SA along with its impacts upon public health and agriculture. An initiative will be established to combine observations (both satellite and in-situ) with advanced numerical models in order to provide a robust scientific basis for short- and long-term decision-making concerning air quality issues in SA countries. The main objectives of the project are defined as 3E: Enhancement of the air quality monitoring system through coupling models and observations, Elaboration of comprehensive indicators and assessment tools to support policy-making, Establishment of efficient information-exchange platforms to facilitate communication among scientists, authorities, stockholders and the public. Here we present the results of the initial stage, where a coarse resolution (50×50 km) set up of Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate the air quality in SA considering anthropogenic, biomass-burning (based on MACCity, FINN inventories, respectively) and biogenic emissions (using MEGAN model). According to the availability of the observation data for Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, August 2012 is selected as the simulation period. Nested domains with higher resolution (15×15 km) are also embedded within the parent domain over the megacities (Sao Paolo and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil and Buenos Aires in Argentina), which account for the major anthropogenic emission sources located along coastal regions

  14. Dechlorane Plus (DP) in air and plants at an electronic waste (e-waste) site in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shejun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian Mi; Wang Jing; Shi Tian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Yong [Guangdong Forestry Survey and Planning Institute, Guangzhou 510520 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai Bixian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Air and foliage samples (Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were collected from e-waste and reference sites in South China and analyzed for Dechlorane Plus (DP) and two dechlorinated DPs. DP concentrations in the air were 13.1-1794 pg/m{sup 3} for the e-waste site and 0.47-35.7 pg/m{sup 3} for the reference site, suggesting the recycling of e-waste is an important source of DP to the environment. Plant DP, with concentrations of 0.45-51.9 ng/g dry weight at the e-waste site and 0.09-2.46 ng/g at the reference site, exhibited temporal patterns similar to the air DP except for pine needle at the reference site. The air-plant exchange of DP could be described with the two-compartment model. Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. The ratios of anti-Cl{sub 11} DP to anti-DP in the air and plants may indicate the preferential uptake of dechlorinated DP by plant compared with DP. - Highlights: > Dechlorane Plus was widely present in the air and plants in South China. > Temporal patterns of the plant DP could be described with the two-compartment model. > Plant uptake can efficiently reduce air DP concentration at the reference site. > Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. - E-waste recycling in South China results in wide occurrence of DP in the air and plant.

  15. The planktonic communities of the Jamaican south-east coast; a comparison of harbor, shelf and oceanic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Small

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have compared water quality and plankton along the eutrophication gradient from Kingston Harbour to oceanic waters around Jamaica. To compare the planktonic community along the expected nutrient gradient, we sampled every two weeks at four stations, from eutrophic Kingston Harbour to oceanic California Bank. Phytoplankton was assessed from whole water Niskin bottle casts and zooplankton by vertical hauls with plankton nets of three different mesh sizes: 64µm, 200µm, and 600µm. Total phytoplankton biomass declined sharply away from the harbour (1.0 μg L-1 at the Harbour Shoal Beacon to 0.2 μg L-1 at California Bank. Characteristic estuarine phytoplankton genera -such as Ceratium, Gonyaulax, Gyrodinium and Rhizosolenia- dominated harbour samples while genera characteristic of offshore locations -such as Asterionelliopsis, Navicula, Nitzschia, Rhizosolenia and Thalassionema- dominated California Bank. Highest phytoplankton densities (mean values of 34 174 cells L-1 were found at the harbor mouth. Mean zooplankton abundances ranged from maximum (5 858.5m-3 at Beacon to minimum (2 124.2 m-3 at California; 171 species of zooplankton were identified and copepods dominated with 76 species. Overall, 75 species of zooplankton were identified from Beacon, 107 from Port Royal Cays- South East Cay, 110 from the exposed shelf edge- Windward Edge, and 95 from the oceanic California Bank. Larval forms dominated; copepod nauplii, fish eggs and echinoderm larvae occurred at all sites. Lucifer faxoni and Penilia avirostris were indicative of harbor waters and Microsetella sp. and Farranula carinata of offshore waters. Some zooplankton taxa, like L. faxoni, Paracalanus parvus and copepod nauplii, despite showing gradual decline with distance from Beacon to the Edge, increased in abundance at the furthest station, California. California Bank clearly experiences enrichment which at times can be as high as near-shore areas, but the planktonic

  16. Late quaternary uplift and subsidence of the west coast of Tanna, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific: U-Th ages of raised coral reefs in the Median Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neef, G.; Zhao, J.X.; Collerson, K.D.; Zhang, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Twelve Late Quaternary TIMS U-Th ages are reported here from 10 coral samples collected in situ from five transgressive coral/algal raised reefs (height: max. 113m, min. 8m) and two raised lagoonal deposits (height: max. 18 m, min. 8 m) along and near the west coast of Tanna, which lies in the Median Sedimentary Basin of South Vanuatu, southwest Pacific. These reefs and raised lagoonal deposits represent several age groups: (i) 215ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 7) penultimate interglacial (highest elevation and oldest); (ii) one lagoonal deposit of ca 127 ka (marine oxygen-isotope stage 5e); (iii) three last interglacial reefs with ages 102, 89 and 81 ka (representing marine oxygen-isotope stages 5c, 5b and 5a, respectively, of the latter part of the last interglacial); (iv) a lagoonal deposit with a 92 ka age (5b); and (v) a Holocene reef (age >5.7-5.0 ka) (lowest elevation and youngest). A ca 4.9 ka regressive reef (at elevation of 1.5 m above sea-level) is consistent with an island-wide 6.5m uplift (probably largely coseismic), and a probable further island-wide uplift-occurred in the late Holocene. The U-series ages taken together with the heights of transgressive reefs show that uplift since 215 ka was, on average, at -0.52 mm/y, although since 5 ka the uplift rate was, on average, ∼1.6 mm/y (the assumption being that a 1.5 m above sea-level reef has a coseismic origin) Elevation of transgressive reefs 5a, 5b and 5c and their ages indicates an island-wide subsidence during the period ?124-89 ka (i.e. Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence was jerky). Late Quaternary uplift/subsidence on the northwest coast of Tanna is considered to be due to irregular thickness of crust being subducted beneath Tanna. Copyright (2003) Geological Society of Australia

  17. Geochemical Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments in the Eastern Beibu Gulf: A Reflection on the Industrial Development of the South China Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Qian, Bihua; Wu, Zhai; Huang, Peng; Chen, Kai; Li, Tianyao; Cai, Minggang

    2018-01-01

    The Beibu Gulf (also named the Gulf of Tonkin), located in the northwest of the South China Sea, is representative of a bay suffering from turbulence and contamination associated with rapid industrialization and urbanization. In this study, we aim to provide the novel baseline levels of heavy metals for the research area. Concentrations of five heavy metals (i.e., Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) were determined in surface sediments from 35 sites in the eastern Beibu Gulf. The heavy metal content varied from 6.72 to 25.95 mg/kg for Cu, 16.99 to 57.98 mg/kg for Pb, 73.15 to 112.25 mg/kg for Zn, 0.03 to 0.12 mg/kg for Cd, and 20.69 to 56.47 mg/kg for Cr, respectively. With respect to the Chinese sediment quality criteria, sediments in the eastern Beibu Gulf have not been significantly affected by coastal metal pollutions. The results deduced from the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed that the study area has been slightly polluted by Pb, which might be caused by non-point sources. Relatively high concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd were found around the coastal areas of Guangxi province, the Leizhou Peninsula and the northwest coast of Hainan Island, whereas the highest concentrations of Zn and Cr were found on the northwest coast of Hainan Island. Spatial distribution patterns of the heavy metals showed that bioavailable fractions of Pb were higher than in the residual fractions, while Cu and Cd concentrations in exchangeable and carbonate fractions were relatively higher than those in the bioavailable fractions. Hierarchical clustering analysis suggested that the sampling stations could be separated into three groups with different geographical distributions. Accompanying their similar spatial distribution in the study area, significant correlation coefficients among Cu, Cd and Pb were also found, indicating that these three metals might have had similar sources. Overall, the results indicated that the distribution of these heavy metals in the surface sediments collected from

  18. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta along the Eastern coast of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matioli Sergio R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta. Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of

  19. Group I introns and associated homing endonuclease genes reveals a clinal structure for Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) along the Eastern coast of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Group I introns are found in the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of some species of the genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Size polymorphisms in group I introns has been interpreted as the result of the degeneration of homing endonuclease genes (HEG) inserted in peripheral loops of intron paired elements. In this study, intron size polymorphisms were characterized for different Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (PSA) populations on the Southern Brazilian coast, and were used to infer genetic relationships and genetic structure of these PSA populations, in addition to cox2-3 and rbcL-S regions. Introns of different sizes were tested qualitatively for in vitro self-splicing. Results Five intron size polymorphisms within 17 haplotypes were obtained from 80 individuals representing eight localities along the distribution of PSA in the Eastern coast of South America. In order to infer genetic structure and genetic relationships of PSA, these polymorphisms and haplotypes were used as markers for pairwise Fst analyses, Mantel's test and median joining network. The five cox2-3 haplotypes and the unique rbcL-S haplotype were used as markers for summary statistics, neutrality tests Tajima's D and Fu's Fs and for median joining network analyses. An event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number, followed by a pattern of isolation by distance was obtained for PSA populations with the three analyses. In vitro experiments have shown that introns of different lengths were able to self-splice from pre-RNA transcripts. Conclusion The findings indicated that degenerated HEGs are reminiscent of the presence of a full-length and functional HEG, once fixed for PSA populations. The cline of HEG degeneration determined the pattern of isolation by distance. Analyses with the other markers indicated an event of demographic expansion from a population with low effective number. The different degrees of degeneration of the HEG

  20. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with continental, urban and marine air masses at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesch, J.-M.; Drewnick, F.; Zorn, S. R.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Martinez, M.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides) project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W). As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville) and the Atlantic Ocean a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS). Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) and a weather station provided meteorological parameters. Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m-3 and 1000 cm-3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54%) was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition small concentrations of methanesulfonic acid (MSA), a product of biogenic dimethyl sulfate (DMS) emissions could be identified in the particle phase. In all

  1. Variability of aerosol, gaseous pollutants and meteorological characteristics associated with changes in air mass origin at the SW Atlantic coast of Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Diesch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the ambient aerosol were performed at the Southern coast of Spain, within the framework of the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides project. The field campaign took place from 20 November until 9 December 2008 at the atmospheric research station "El Arenosillo" (37°5'47.76" N, 6°44'6.94" W. As the monitoring station is located at the interface between a natural park, industrial cities (Huelva, Seville and the Atlantic Ocean, a variety of physical and chemical parameters of aerosols and gas phase could be characterized in dependency on the origin of air masses. Backwards trajectories were examined and compared with local meteorology to classify characteristic air mass types for several source regions. Aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon concentrations were measured in PM1 and size distributions were registered covering a size range from 7 nm up to 32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS. Gas phase analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO2 and a weather station provided meteorological parameters.

    Lowest average submicron particle mass and number concentrations were found in air masses arriving from the Atlantic Ocean with values around 2 μg m−3 and 1000 cm−3. These mass concentrations were about two to four times lower than the values recorded in air masses of continental and urban origins. For some species PM1-fractions in marine air were significantly larger than in air masses originating from Huelva, a closely located city with extensive industrial activities. The largest fraction of sulfate (54% was detected in marine air masses and was to a high degree not neutralized. In addition, small concentrations of

  2. Variations in speciated emissions from spark-ignition and compression-ignition motor vehicles in California's south coast air basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Eric M; Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Sagebiel, John C; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Chow, Judith C; Gabele, Peter A; Crews, William; Snow, Richard; Clark, Nigel N; Wayne, W Scott; Lawson, Douglas R

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study examined the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the contributions of spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine exhaust to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presents the chemical composition profiles of SI and CI engine exhaust from the vehicle-testing portion of the study. Chemical analysis of source samples consisted of gravimetric mass, elements, ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) thermal/optical methods, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, alkanes, and polar organic compounds. More than half of the mass of carbonaceous particles emitted by heavy-duty diesel trucks was EC (IMPROVE) and emissions from SI vehicles contained predominantly OC. Although total carbon (TC) by the IMPROVE and STN protocols agreed well for all of the samples, the STN/IMPROVE ratios for EC from SI exhaust decreased with decreasing sample loading. SI vehicles, whether low or high emitters, emitted greater amounts of high-molecular-weight particulate PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and coronene) than did CI vehicles. Diesel emissions contained higher abundances of two- to four-ring semivolatile PAHs. Diacids were emitted by CI vehicles but are also prevalent in secondary organic aerosols, so they cannot be considered unique tracers. Hopanes and steranes were present in lubricating oil with similar composition for both gasoline and diesel vehicles and were negligible in gasoline or diesel fuels. CI vehicles emitted greater total amounts of hopanes and steranes on a mass per mile basis, but abundances were comparable to SI exhaust normalized to TC emissions within measurement uncertainty. The combustion-produced high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in used gasoline motor oil but not in fresh oil and are negligible in used diesel engine oil. The contributions of lubrication oils to abundances of these PAHs in the exhaust were large in some cases and were variable with the age and consumption rate of the oil. These factors contributed to the observed variations in their abundances to total carbon or PM2.5 among the SI composition profiles.

  3. 77 FR 31200 - Revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... process with the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG). SCAG provides extensive data on... process in Part D of Title I of the Act. In 1992, EPA issued guidance entitled ``State Implementation... payback of offset debt or through orphan shutdowns * * *''. (Citations omitted) (See Response 10D...

  4. Development of the regional policy process for air pollution in South Asia, southern Africa and Latin America

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hicks, WK

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available issues in three sub-regions of three continents. Experiences gained through activities within a programme on Regional Air Pollution in Developing Countries are used to illustrate progress. The sub-regional process in South Asia developed through a series...

  5. Expert and Generalist Local Knowledge about Land-cover Change on South Africa's Wild Coast: Can Local Ecological Knowledge Add Value to Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Chalmers

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Local ecological knowledge (LEK can shed light on ecosystem change, especially in under-researched areas such as South Africa's Wild Coast. However, for ecosystem planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the accuracy and validity of LEK, and determine where such knowledge is situated in a community, and how evenly it is spread. Furthermore, it is relevant to ask: does LEK add value to science, and how do science and local knowledge complement one another? We assessed change in woodland and forest cover in the Nqabara Administrative Area on South Africa's Wild Coast between 1974 and 2001. The inhabitants of Nqabara are "traditional" Xhosa-speaking people who are highly dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods. More recently, however, infrastructural development has influenced traditional lifestyles at Nqabara, although poverty remains high and formal education levels low. We assessed LEK about changes in woodland and forest cover over the past 30 years by interviewing 11 local "experts," who were recognized as such by the Nqabara community, and 40 senior members of randomly selected households in each village. We also analyzed land-cover change, using orthorectified aerial photos taken in 1974 and 2001. Forest and woodland cover had increased by 49% between 1974 and 2001. The 11 "experts" had a nuanced understanding of these changes and their causes. Their understanding was not only remarkably consistent with that of scientists, but it added considerable value to scientific understanding of the ultimate causes of land-cover change in the area. The experts listed combinations of several causal factors, operating at different spatial and temporal scales. The 40 randomly selected respondents also knew that forest and woodland cover had increased, but their understanding of the causes, and the role of fire in particular, was somewhat simplistic. They could identify only three causal factors and generally listed single factors rather

  6. Gis-based assessment of marine oil spill hazard and environmental vulnerability for the coasts of Crete in South Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Nikiforakis, Ioannis K.; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2017-04-01

    Developing effective early warning and coordination systems can save thousands of lives and protect people, property and the environment in the event of natural and man-made disasters. In its document "Towards Better Protection of Citizens against Disaster Risks: Strengthening Early Warning Systems in Europe", the Commission points out that it seeks to follow a multi-hazard approach, to develop near real time alert systems, to ensure a near real time dissemination of alerts to Participating States, and to improve its rapid analytical capacity. In this context, the EU project DECATASTROPHIZE (http://decatastrophize.eu/project/) co-financed by the EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection aims to develop a Geospatial Early warning Decision Support System (GE-DSS) to assess, prepare for and respond to multiple and/or simultaneous natural and man-made hazards, disasters, and environmental incidents by using existing models/systems in each partner country (Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy and Spain) in a synergistic way on ONE multi-platform, called DECAT. Specifically, project partners will establish appropriate geo-databases for test areas and use existing hazard models to produce hazard and vulnerability geo-spatial information for earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, floods, forest fires and marine oil spills. The GE-DSS in will consist of one source code with six geodatabases, i.e., one for each partner and risk data in the respective test area. Each partner organization will be able to manage and monitor its own data/database and their results using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). The GE-DSS will be demonstrated at the local, regional and national levels through a set of Command Post and Table Top Disaster Exercises. As part of the DECAT GE-DSS, the gis-based geo-database and assessment of marine oil spill hazard and environmental vulnerability for the coasts of Crete in South Aegean Sea are presented here. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are

  7. A Study of the Distribution of Natural Radionuclides and their Environmental Impacts in Halayeb Triangle Area, along the South Eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.H.M.; Khedr, R.F.E.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty samples (14 surficial soil, 3 Sea water-3 desalinated water, and 10 plant) were collected from halayeb triangle are a along the south eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt . Distributions of natural radionuclides of "2"2"6 Ra, "2"3"2 Th, "4"0 K and "1"3"7Cs in these samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry. The average activities of natural radionuclides in all samples in the study are a are 19.38 (3.35-61.09) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"2"6 Ra, 10.87 (1.39-24.28) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2 Th, 245.25 (132.46-531.19) Bq kg"-"1 for "40 K, and 1.48 (0.67 - 2.52) Bq kg"-"1 "1"3"7 Cs for surficial soil samples . These values were 8.59 (1.48-21.57) Bq kg"-"1 for 226 Ra, 11.34 (2. 64-25.44) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2Th, and 254.66(69.73-450.58) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K, for plant samples. For sea water samples, the average activity for "2"2"6 Ra is 3.20 (1.99-3.91) Bq kg"-"1, for "2"3"2Th is 1.73(1.24-2.45) Bq kg"-"1, and 15.10 (8.67-23.25) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0 K. For desalinised water the average activity is under detection limits for "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th, and 13.49 (8.67-17.85) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K. A comparison of radionuclide activities in the study area and in other coastal and aquatic environments is given. The radiation hazard parameters (absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, internal hazard index, external hazard index ,annual gonadal dose equivalent); and transfer factor of elements from soil to plant were calculated. The results of measurements will serve as base line data and background reference level for south Egyptian coastlines

  8. Assessing aquifer vulnerability from lumped parameter modeling of modern water proportions in groundwater mixtures - Application to nitrate pollution in California's South Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, B.; Ruane, M.; Clark, N.

    2017-12-01

    In California, the overuse of synthetic fertilizers and manure in agriculture have caused nitrate (NO3) to be one of the state's most widespread groundwater pollutants. Given that nitrogen fertilizer applications have steadily increased since the 1950s and given that soil percolation and recharge transit times in California can exceed timescales of decades, the nitrate impact on groundwater resources is likely a legacy for years and even decades to come. This study presents a methodology for groundwater vulnerability assessment that operates independently of difficult-to-constrain soil and aquifer property data (i.e., saturated thickness, texture, porosity, conductivity, etc.), but rather utilizes groundwater age and, more importantly, groundwater mixing information to illustrate actual vulnerability at the water table. To accomplish this, the modern (i.e., less than 60-year old) water proportion (MWP) in groundwater mixtures is computed via lumped parameter modeling of chemical tracer (i.e., 3H, 14C and 3Hetrit) data. These MWPs are then linked to groundwater dissolved oxygen (DO) values to describe the risk for soil zone-derived nitrate to accumulate in the saturated zone. Preliminary studies carried out for 71 wells in California's South Coast Range-Coastal (SCRC) study unit reveal MWP values derived from binary dispersion models of 3.24% to 21.8%. The fact that high MWPs generally coincide with oxic (DO ≥1.5 mg/L) groundwater conditions underscores the risk towards increased groundwater NO3 pollution for many of the tested wells. These results support the conclusion that best agricultural management and policy objectives should incorporate groundwater vulnerability models that are developed at the same spatial scale as the decision making.

  9. Pollen record of the mid- to late-Holocene centennial climate change on the East coast of South Korea and its influential factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bing; Yi, Sangheon; Jia, Hongjuan; Nahm, Wook-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Cheul; Lim, Jaesoo; Lee, Jin-Young; Sha, Longbin; Mao, Limi; Yang, Zhongyong; Nakanishi, Toshimichi; Hong, Wan; Li, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    To understand historical climate change in western Pacific coastal areas, a sediment core (SOJ-2) from the stable sedimentary environment of the Songjiho Lagoon on the east coast of South Korea was obtained for centennial-resolution palynological analysis. The ages of the SOJ-2 core is well controlled by carbon 14 dating with high-resolution accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and the results indicated a general warm to cold climate trend from the mid-Holocene to the present, which can be divided into two different stages: a warmer stage between 6842 and 1297 cal yr BP and a colder stage from 1297 cal yr BP to the present, with fluctuations during these stages. The climate was wetter from 6842 to 6227 cal yr BP and 4520 to 1297 cal yr BP and was drier from 6227 to 4520 cal yr BP. The climate changed to cold and dry during the period from 1297-425 cal yr BP. The impact of human activity on the climate began at approximately 1297 cal yr BP and became pronounced starting in 425 cal yr BP. The general cooling trend may represent a response to decreasing solar insolation; however, the relative dryness or wetness of the climate may have been co-determined by westerlies and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). The climate had a teleconnection with the North Atlantic region, resulting from changes in solar activity. Nevertheless, EI Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity played an important role in impacting the EASM changes in western Pacific coastal areas.

  10. Use of side-scan sonar for estimations of Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 stocks in subtidal banks on the south coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Geraldine Castilho Westphal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled extractivism has led to a worldwide reduction in oyster stocks. The use of new and more efficient management tools for impacted environments must increase. The application of such tools requires previous biological and environmental knowledge of the resident populations of these bivalve mollusks. Technical difficulties are usually associated with studies of submerged oyster banks, and these difficulties result in a considerable lack of biological data on the oysters that inhabit subtidal zones. This study aimed to survey Crassostrea brasiliana (also known as C. gasar stocks in submerged banks and to evaluate a method with which to measure the extent of the banks and identify and quantify the oysters in the banks with the use of side-scan sonar. This study was conducted on 10 oysters banks located in the subtidal zone of Guaratuba Bay, on the south coast of Brazil. The prospection of all these banks was later validated by diving, and oyster samples (n = 20/bank were collected for species identification with a molecular method. Only one bank contained oysters that were generically classified as Crassostrea sp.; those in the remaining banks being identified as C. brasiliana. The prospected banks contained oysters of various sizes (average 1.5 m, n = 1,107 that were heterogeneously scattered in the riverbeds. The total number of oysters in the 10 sampled banks was estimated to be 21,159.13 oysters or 1 oyster/4.5 m², which represents a low oyster density in the study site. The results validate the use of side-scan sonar as an efficient means with which to prospect for oysters in banks located within subtidal zones.

  11. Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew R; Reid, Tim; du Plessis, Johan; Colyn, Robin; Benn, Grant; Millikin, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    Pre-construction assessments of bird collision risk at proposed wind farms are often confounded by insufficient or poor quality data describing avian flight paths through the development area. These limitations can compromise the practical value of wind farm impact studies. We used radar- and observer-based methods to quantify great white pelican flights in the vicinity of a planned wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa, and modelled turbine collision risk under various scenarios. Model outputs were combined with pre-existing demographic data to evaluate the possible influence of the wind farm on the pelican population, and to examine impact mitigation options. We recorded high volumes of great white pelican movement through the wind farm area, coincident with the breeding cycle of the nearby colony and associated with flights to feeding areas located about 50 km away. Pelicans were exposed to collision risk at a mean rate of 2.02 High Risk flights.h-1. Risk was confined to daylight hours, highest during the middle of the day and in conditions of strong north-westerly winds, and 82% of High Risk flights were focused on only five of the proposed 35 turbine placements. Predicted mean mortality rates (22 fatalities.yr-1, 95% Cl, 16-29, with average bird and blade speeds and 95% avoidance rates) were not sustainable, resulting in a negative population growth rate (λ = 0.991). Models suggested that removal of the five highest risk turbines from the project, or institution of a curtailment regimen that shuts down at least these turbines at peak traffic times, could theoretically reduce impacts to manageable levels. However, in spite of the large quantities of high quality data used in our analyses, our collision risk model remains compromised by untested assumptions about pelican avoidance rates and uncertainties about the existing dynamics of the pelican population, and our findings are probably not reliable enough to ensure sustainable development.

  12. Assessment and management of white mullet Mugil curema (Valencienne, 1836 (Mugilidae fisheries of the south coast of São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT. Mendonça

    Full Text Available There is intense fishing activity, mainly artisanal, in the Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida Estuarine System. White mullet (Mugil curema is one of the local fishery resources and is usually caught with gillnets and fish traps. This study aimed to characterise the Mugil curema fisheries thereby underpinning the management of the species in the region. The study was developed with data collected from landings in the town of Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1995 to 2009. Production data, fishing effort and CPUE were used to assess the evolution of captures. The gillnets were characterised by interviewing fishermen from 16 communities in Cananéia. White mullet fishery has aroused the interest of fishermen in the region since the 80s and today it is one of the main products of artisanal estuarine fishery off the south coast of São Paulo. The major landings occur in the warmer months with fish traps and gillnets being the main fishing gear used. The largest catches occur in the spawning months of the species from October to April. The highest landings varied according to different fishing gear, showing differences primarily due to trade preferences and to the structure of the fishing gear. According to the index of abundance used in this study, the resource is overfished due to the progressive increase in fishing effort, so it is suggested that measures should be taken to control fishing effort, such as special fishing permits to catch white mullet, especially with gillnets. The current management measures neither meet the needs of fishermen nor the preservation of the resource, and must be reviewed in a participatory way with management agencies and the fishery sector, ensuring greater legitimacy and success in the sustainability of the activity.

  13. Assessment and management of white mullet Mugil curema (Valencienne, 1836) (Mugilidae) fisheries of the south coast of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J T; Bonfante, T M

    2011-08-01

    There is intense fishing activity, mainly artisanal, in the Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida Estuarine System. White mullet (Mugil curema) is one of the local fishery resources and is usually caught with gillnets and fish traps. This study aimed to characterise the Mugil curema fisheries thereby underpinning the management of the species in the region. The study was developed with data collected from landings in the town of Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1995 to 2009. Production data, fishing effort and CPUE were used to assess the evolution of captures. The gillnets were characterised by interviewing fishermen from 16 communities in Cananéia. White mullet fishery has aroused the interest of fishermen in the region since the 80s and today it is one of the main products of artisanal estuarine fishery off the south coast of São Paulo. The major landings occur in the warmer months with fish traps and gillnets being the main fishing gear used. The largest catches occur in the spawning months of the species from October to April. The highest landings varied according to different fishing gear, showing differences primarily due to trade preferences and to the structure of the fishing gear. According to the index of abundance used in this study, the resource is overfished due to the progressive increase in fishing effort, so it is suggested that measures should be taken to control fishing effort, such as special fishing permits to catch white mullet, especially with gillnets. The current management measures neither meet the needs of fishermen nor the preservation of the resource, and must be reviewed in a participatory way with management agencies and the fishery sector, ensuring greater legitimacy and success in the sustainability of the activity.

  14. Holocene environmental change along the southern Cape coast of South Africa - Insights from the Eilandvlei sediment record spanning the last 8.9 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Quick, Lynne J.; Zabel, Matthias; Frenzel, Peter; Hahn, Annette; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Kasper, Thomas; Meadows, Michael E.; Mäusbacher, Roland

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates Holocene sediments from Eilandvlei, a coastal lake located within the Wilderness embayment at the southern Cape coast of South Africa. The evolution of the present estuarine/coastal lake system is reconstructed based on seismic data as well as a multi-proxy approach on a 30.5 m sediment core spanning the last 8.9 kyr. Geochemical (Ca, TOC/S, Br/TOC) and micropalaeontological data (diatoms, foraminifera) reflect changes in the degree of marine influence at the core site. The embayment likely developed via distinct phases of connectivity to the Indian Ocean caused by sea level changes and dune progradation. Marine conditions prevailed at the core site from 8900 to 4700 cal BP. The rapid sea level rise during the early Holocene caused the inundation of a palaeovalley that most likely had formed at lower sea levels during the Pleistocene. Towards the mid-Holocene the sea level exceeded its present height around 7500 cal BP creating a marine embayment. At 4700 cal BP, the embayment became distinctly more disconnected from the ocean turning into a lagoon system that persisted until 1200 cal BP. Subsequently, the marine influence further decreased and the present estuarine/coastal lake system was established. Grain size and geochemical data (Fe, Si/Al, chemical index of alteration (CIA)) further reflect changes in the deposition of terrigenous sediments at the core site. While the sedimentation of fine-grained (climatic conditions than today from 8900 to 7900 cal BP and 6400 to 3000 cal BP. In contrast, the periods between 7900-6400 cal BP and 3000 cal BP-present were likely characterized by high river discharge and thus, generally more rainfall. The reconstructed palaeoclimatic variations are discussed within the context of e.g., shifts in the position of the Antarctic sea ice extent and the mid-latitude westerly wind belt as well as changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  15. The Association Between Gender Inequalities and Women's Utilization of Maternal Health Services: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Eight South Central Coast Provinces, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ha Thi Thu; Le, Thi Minh; Van Pham, Tac; Doan, Duong Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Duy Anh; Nguyen, Canh Chuong; Duong, Duc Minh

    Gender inequalities influence the utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam, but little research has been published. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the association between gender inequalities and women's utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam. The study was conducted in 8 provinces in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during August 2013 to May 2014. A total of 907 women who delivered a year prior to the date of interview participated in the study. A multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the association between gender inequalities (including sociodemographic determinants of health) and utilization of 4 or more antenatal care (ANC4+) services, institutional delivery, and ever used contraceptive methods. The utilization rate of maternal health services was varied, from 53.9% for ANC4+ to 87.7% for ever used a contraceptive method and 97% for institutional delivery. Ethnicity was identified as the most influential variable out of all sociodemographic determinants of health. Regarding gender inequalities, couple communication was the only variable having significant association with women's utilization of maternal health services. Women's equal role within context of their daily life and relations with their husbands (discussing maternal care with husband and having equal income to husband) supported their use of maternal health services. Therefore, there should be concerted efforts from all relevant stakeholders including the health system to focus on disadvantaged women in planning and delivery of maternal health services, especially to ethnic minority women. Male involvement strategy should be implemented to promote maternal health care, especially during the prenatal and postpartum period. To provide more culturally sensitive and right-based approaches in delivery of maternal health services to disadvantaged women in Vietnam, interventions are recommended that promote male involvement, that is, to engage men in

  16. Estimation of groundwater recharge via percolation outputs from a rainfall/runoff model for the Verlorenvlei estuarine system, west coast, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Miller, Jodie; Fleischer, Melanie; de Clercq, Willem

    2018-03-01

    Wetlands are conservation priorities worldwide, due to their high biodiversity and productivity, but are under threat from agricultural and climate change stresses. To improve the water management practices and resource allocation in these complex systems, a modelling approach has been developed to estimate potential recharge for data poor catchments using rainfall data and basic assumptions regarding soil and aquifer properties. The Verlorenvlei estuarine lake (RAMSAR #525) on the west coast of South Africa is a data poor catchment where rainfall records have been supplemented with farmer's rainfall records. The catchment has multiple competing users. To determine the ecological reserve for the wetlands, the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge had to be well constrained using the J2000 rainfall/runoff model. The majority of rainfall occurs in the mountains (±650 mm/yr) and considerably less in the valley (±280 mm/yr). Percolation was modelled as ∼3.6% of rainfall in the driest parts of the catchment, ∼10% of rainfall in the moderately wet parts of the catchment and ∼8.4% but up to 28.9% of rainfall in the wettest parts of the catchment. The model results are representative of rainfall and water level measurements in the catchment, and compare well with water table fluctuation technique, although estimates are dissimilar to previous estimates within the catchment. This is most likely due to the daily timestep nature of the model, in comparison to other yearly average methods. These results go some way in understanding the fact that although most semi-arid catchments have very low yearly recharge estimates, they are still capable of sustaining high biodiversity levels. This demonstrates the importance of incorporating shorter term recharge event modeling for improving recharge estimates.

  17. Geology and rare earth (RE) metals in air Gegas area, South Bangka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Soetopo

    2013-01-01

    Rare Earth (RE) is a valuable commodity both for industry and for the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). In RE chemical bonds present in the phosphate (P) are the mineral monazite, xenotime, zircon minerals associated with cassiterite, magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, anatase, apatite, quartz and feldspar sand deposits are found in alluvial river or beach placer. RE deposits in monazite, zircon, xenotime in the Air Gegas of South Bangka area is an alluvial river that has the ease of exploration and mining. Geologically, monazite, xenotime and zircon minerals are from Klabat Granite aged Jurassic. The used method are the observation of geology, radioactivity measurement, sampling, laboratory analysis (microscopic and XRF). Results showed that the geology of the area Air Gegas of Tanjung Genting Formation consists of sandstone, clay (Early Triassic), Klabat Granite (Late Jurassic-Early Triassic) and Alluvial sediments (Quaternary). Alluvial monazite containing 0.071 to 3.574%, zircon from 0.172 to 10.376%, xenotime from 0.15 to 3.023% of the weight of MB from 10.73 to 168.072 grams. The presence of rare earth (RE) metals is derived from the mineral monazite, xenotime, zircon that was derived from granitic rocks of Klabat. Rare earth (RE) distributed in the eastern part of the study area which occupies the valley of the river. (author)

  18. Relationships between Hg Air-surface exchange, Soil Moisture and Precipitation at a Background Vegetated Site in South-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsween, K.; Edwards, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite many decades of research, the controlling mechanisms of mercury (Hg) air-surface exhange are still poorly understood. Particularly in Australian ecosystems where there are few anthropogenic inputs. A clear understanding of these mechanisms is vital for accurate representation in the global Hg models, particularly regarding re-emission. Water is known to have a considerable influence on Hg exchange within a terrestrial ecosystem. Precipitation has been found to cause spikes is Hg emissions during the initial stages of rain event. While, Soil moisture content is known to enhance fluxes between 15 and 30% Volumetric soil water (VSW), above which fluxes become suppressed. Few field experiments exist to verify these dominantly laboratory or controlled experiments. Here we present work looking at Hg fluxes over an 8-month period at a vegetated background site. The aim of this study is to identify how changes to precipitation intensity and duration, coupled with variable soil moisture content may influence Hg flux across seasons. As well as the influence of other meteorological variables. Experimentation was undertaken using aerodynamic gradient micrometeorological flux method, avoiding disruption to the surface, soil moisture probes and rain gauge measurements to monitor alterations to substrate conditions. Meteorological and air chemistry variables were also measured concurrently throughout the duration of the study. During the study period, South-Eastern Australia experienced several intense east coast low storm systems during the Autumn and Spring months and an unusually dry winter. VSW rarely reached above 30% even following the intense rainfall experienced during the east coast lows. The generally dry conditions throughout winter resulted in an initial spike in Hg emissions when rainfall occurred. Fluxes decreased shortly after the rain began but remained slightly elevated. Given the reduced net radiation and cooler temperatures experienced during the winter

  19. 76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD).\\1\\ This was the low end of a range of estimates that... controls within the range of estimates developed by BAAQMD and the South Coast Air Quality Management....453 tons per year (tpy) per restaurant to potential UFC controls but never explains the basis for this...

  20. Tracking air-related health should be an integrated part of air quality management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available that the largest burden of air pollution related diseases is on developing countries where air pollution levels are also among the highest in the world. Air pollution may cause symptoms ranging from eyes, nose and throat irritation, exacerbation of asthma...

  1. PCB in soils and estimated soil-air exchange fluxes of selected PCB congeners in the south of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, Cecilia; Cousins, Ian T.; Larsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    PCB concentrations were studied in different soils to determine the spatial variation over a region of approximately 11 000 km 2 . PCB congener pattern was used to illustrate the spatial differences, as shown by principal component analysis (PCA). The relationship to different soil parameters was studied. PCB concentrations in soil showed a large variation between sampling-areas with median concentrations ranging between 2.3 and 332 ng g -1 (dw). Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with extremely high organic carbon content. Both sites were located on the west coast of southern Sweden. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with congener patterns almost site-specific. PCB in air and precipitation was measured and the transfer of chemicals between the soil and air compartments was estimated. Soil-air fugacity quotient calculations showed that the PCBs in the soil consistently had a higher fugacity than the PCBs in the air, with a median quotient value of 2.7. The gaseous fluxes between soil and air were estimated using standard modelling equations and a net soil-air flux estimated by subtracting bulk deposition from gaseous soil-air fluxes. It was shown that inclusion of vertical sorbed phase transport of PCBs in the soil had a large effect on the direction of the net soil-air exchange fluxes. - Soil-air exchange of PCBs is investigated and modelled across Sweden

  2. Coast Guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities

  3. Presence of the tunicate Asterocarpa humilis on ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pinochet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-native ascidians are important members of the fouling community associated with artificial substrata and man-made structures. Being efficient fouling species, they are easily spread by human-mediated transports (e.g., with aquaculture trade and maritime transports. This is exemplified by the ascidian Asterocarpa humilis which displays a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere and has been recently reported in the Northern Hemisphere (NW Europe. In continental Chile, its first report dates back from 2000 for the locality of Antofagasta (23°S. Although there was no evidence about the vectors of introduction and spread, nor the source, some authors suggested maritime transport by ship hulls and aquaculture devices as putative introduction pathways and vectors. In the present study, we report for the first time the presence of A. humilis on the hull of an international ship in a commercial port in Concepción bay (36°S, south central Chile. We also found one individual associated to a seashell farm, 70 km far from Concepción bay. Further individuals were subsequently identified within Concepción bay: one juvenile settled upon international harbor pilings and a dozen individuals along aquaculture seashell longlines. For the first specimens sampled, species identification was ascertained using both morphological criteria and molecular barcoding, using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and a nuclear gene (ribosomal RNA 18S. The nuclear 18S gene and the mitochondrial gene COI clearly assigned the specimens to A. humilis, confirming our morphological identification. Two haplotypes were obtained with COI corresponding to haplotypes previously obtained with European and Northern Chilean specimens. The present study thus reports for the first time the presence of A. humilis in the Araucanian ecoregion, documenting the apparent expansion of this non-native tunicate in Chile over 2,000 km, spanning over three ecoregions

  4. Quantification of MTE in surface sediments of Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France): A preliminary approach for determination of sources and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joselyn; Goubert, Evelyne; Labeyrie, Laurent; Coynel, Alexandra; Menier, David

    2014-05-01

    The Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France) has an intense coastal activity: farming, industry, urban habitation run-off, yachting and transportation. In the past centuries, tin mining industry was also developed. These different factors may introduce metal trace elements (MTE) into the marine environment at toxic concentration levels. This pollution can particularly affect the oyster production, widely developed in the area. Monitoring MTE in surface sediments at high spatial resolution has been programmed to assess pollutants and their sources in two of the major Morbihan coastal systems concerned with oyster farming, and where available information on MTE impact and sediment quality is limited: the Bay of Quiberon, partly protected from the open ocean by the Quiberon Peninsula and several islands, mostly sandy (coarse to fine, with a significant shelly fraction), with water depths shallower that 25 m, and the Gulf of Morbihan, a shallow depth (less than 5 m, apart from the two paleoriver beds), semi-enclosed, estuarine system with very coarse sand to fine mud, mostly distributed by a strong tidal current system. Fifty two surface sediment samples were collected in April 2013 to characterize the MTE spatial distribution through the salinity and pollution gradients, from the small local rivers and harbor areas to the open marine environments. Analyses cover sedimentological and biogeochemical properties (particulate organic carbon using a LECO-CS-230; MTE using ICP-MS or DMA for Hg). Statistical analyses help to discriminate within the spatial variability the natural (e.g. grain-size effect) and anthropogenic factors. MTE concentrations were also compared to local geochemical background as measured at the bottom of three sediment cores collected in representative sites, for calculating the enrichment index of each MTE and evaluating the degree of sediment contamination. The initial interpretation of the results would indicate a clear distinction between the

  5. The nature, use and problems of historical archives for the temporal occurrence of landslides, with specific reference to the south coast of Britain, Ventnor, Isle of Wight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen, Maïa-Laura; Brunsden, Denys

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate the nature of the European historical archives which are suitable for the assessment of the temporal occurrence and forecasting within landslides studies, using the British south coast as an example. The paper is based upon the British contribution to the Environment programme EPOCH, 1991-1993. A primary requirement of a research programme on process occurrence is to determine the event frequencies on as many time and space scales as possible. Thus, the analysis of archives is, potentially, an essential preliminary to the study of the temporal occurrence of landslide events. The range of such data sources extends from isolated, fortuitously dated sites from the Quaternary assemblage, through inferred event impacts using dendrochronology or lichenometric time series to historical records of causal factors such as rainfall data and more recently, deliberately recorded packages of cumulative or continuous data. Most countries have extensive historical sources which may be of considerable value in establishing the characteristics of geomorphological processes. These include narrative in literature, prints and other artwork, terrestrial and aerial photographs, remote sensing series, newspapers, incidental statements and scientific journals and reports. These are numerous difficulties in accessing, extracting, organising, databasing and analysing such data because they are not usually collated for scientific use. Problems involve such incalculable errors as: the experience, training and conscientiousness of the observer; the editing and recording process; judging the validity of the data used and the haphazard nature of recorded events in time and space. Despite these difficulties, such data do yield a record which adds to the representative temporal sample as a level above some threshold reporting position. It therefore has potential for specific statistical analysis. An example of a reasonable temporal landslide

  6. Red tide of Noctiluca miliaris off south of Thiruvananthapuram subsequent to the ‘stench event’ at the southern Kerala coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahayak, S.; Jyothibabu, R.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Habeebrehman, H.; Sabu, P.; Prabhakaran, M.P.; Jasmine, P.; Shaiju, P.; Rejomon, G.; Threslamma, J.; Nair, K.K.C.

    kill was noticed on 17 September 2004 along the Trivandrum coast, with foul smell coming from the sea. Many people, especially children, who got exposed the stench, were hospitalized due to vomiting and nausea. Initial reports indicated...

  7. The nitrate contents in the groundwater in the south end of Buenos Aires conurbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carol, E.

    2004-01-01

    The study area is in the south end of Buenos Aires outskirts. The population is of 42000 inhabitants, from which 69% is supplied of water by means of domiciliary wells. The water for human consumption is located in Pampeano and Puelches aquifers, which form a series of semi-free aquifers of the multi-layer type that are hydraulically connected. The aim of this work was to analyze the nitrate content in the groundwater (Pampeano and Puelches aquifers) and to evaluate the pollution type. The percentage of wells that overcome the range 40-50 mg/l of nitrates was 34% for Pampeano aquifer and 36% for Puelches aquifer. Results obtained for the Pampeano aquifer suggest that the pollution would be produced by a pseudo diffuse process associated to septic wells. Meanwhile, in the Puelches aquifer, the same process of pseudo diffuse pollution would be produced but in this case its origin would be caused by the water migration with nitrates from the Pampeano aquifer. Results mentioned in this work make evident the deterioration process of groundwater, where the pollution would be related to the anthropic activity, coming principally from the urban zone [es

  8. Modernization of the Indian Air Force: Security Implications for South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the Indian Air Force's (IAF) robust modernization campaign and explores why the IAF is on the path to transforming itself from an air force dedicated to air defense to one capable of global force projection...

  9. Tracking lichen community composition changes due to declining air quality over the last century: the Nash legacy in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Riddell; Sarah Jovan; Pamela E. Padgett; Ken. Sweat

    2011-01-01

    Southern California's South Coast Air Basin includes the heavily urbanized Los Angeles and Orange counties, the inland urban and suburban areas, and the surrounding mountain ranges. Historically high air pollution makes the region a natural laboratory for investigating human impacts on natural systems. Regional lichen distribution records from the early 1900s...

  10. Interplay between air passengers' service quality, satisfaction, loyalty and loyalty programmes in South African owned airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Mantey, Nicholas O.; Naidoo, Vannie

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Delivering service quality is crucial for the continuous operation and sustainability of South African owned airlines. The term ‘South African owned airlines’ refers to six South African owned registered airlines, and is used for purpose of anonymity and confidentiality. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the interplay between service quality delivery, satisfaction, loyalty programmes and passengers’ loyalty to South African owned airlines. Motivati...

  11. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Mortality in Cape Town, South Africa: 2001?2006

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available on the strength of the association between ambient air pollution exposure and health effects in developing countries such as South Africa. The association between the 24-h average ambient PM10, SO2 and NO2 levels and daily respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD) and cerebrovascular (CBD) mortality in Cape Town (2001–2006) was investigated with a case-crossover design. For models that included entire year data, an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in PM1...

  12. Tourist perceptions of air travel and climate change: an assessment of the polluters pay principle in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate about possible taxation of air travel and the inclusion of aviation in emission trading schemes. One proposal is the introduction of a carbon tax as part of a broad range of mitigation options to address climate change. However, the effectiveness of such a tax depends largely on the responsiveness to it by tourists. Consequently, the aim of the study is to explore the attitudes of domestic tourists in South Africa toward the introduction of a carbon tax, together with their knowledge and perceptions of climate change. Therefore, the perceptions of the polluters pay principle amongst domestic tourists who use air travel in South Africa are investigated. Data was collected using a structured survey involving two hundred domestic air travel passengers at O.R. Tambo International airport, selected through a random sampling technique. The study is the first of its kind in South Africa and it concludes that the average domestic tourist has moderate to good knowledge regarding climate change, believes climate change to be very serious and in need of attention and is willing to pay a carbon tax in order to offset their contribution to climate change; provided that it is regulated and used effectively.

  13. Cetaceans trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo) coasts; Monitoramento de encalhe de cetaceos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the cetaceans stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 15 cetaceans stranded were registered. The species Sotalia guianensis was prevailing in number and distribution. Megaptera novaeangliae was the second specie in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Tursiops truncatus and Peponocephala electra. (author)

  14. Air born soil pollution assessment and mitigation in the south of ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Olga; Kharytonov, Mykola; Moschner, Christin; Khlopova, Valentina M.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric emissions made by mining and metallurgy industry account for 54 % of total air pollutions of the Dnipropetrovsk Region. As it has been shown previously, the range of pollutants depends on the number and types of the industrial enterprises located within the each urban area. In Dnipropetrovsk and surrounding cities the dominant emissions come from the waste of metallurgical and chemical industries, which is heavily developed in this area. The multipollution exposure assessment was made for the several cities in Dnipropetrovsk industrial region in the south of Ukraine. In this connection the monitoring of atmospheric air pollution in the environment of the Dnepropetrovsk megalopolis area was carried out in several industrial cities: Dnipropetrovsk, Dneprodzerzhynsk, Kryvyy Ryg and Pavlograd with use of the network of stationary monitoring stations at the Dnepropetrovsk Regional Center of Hydrometeorology. The initial evaluation of technogenic atmospheric pollution with toxic substances was performed with due to the limit values of so-called maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for harmful emissions in the atmosphere as set out in the Ukrainian Air Quality Standards. The main sources of air pollution in industrial cities are stationary. Meantime increasing road transport is a growing source of pollution. The maximum excess of MPC content of NO2 in the atmosphere of the cities has reached twice. Over the last 5 years in the atmosphere of industrial cities in the region there was an increased level of nitrogen dioxide (excess of MPC in 1, 5-2, 5 times). Number of inorganic aerosols (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other) has an effect of summation. In the presence of diffuse sources are superimposed individual emissions and formed the total torch actually located over the whole of the industrial agglomeration. Spatial structure of such a torch is very complicated, instant concentrations of impurities at various points in the city are substantially

  15. First data from IceAct, an imaging air Cherenkov telescope with SiPMs at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Bretz, Thomas; Hansmann, Bengt; Hansmann, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Kemp, Julian; Middendorf, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Raedel, Leif; Schaufel, Merlin; Schumacher, Johannes; Stahlberg, Martin; Werhan, Ansgar; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    IceCube-Gen2 is planned to extend the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the Southern Hemisphere. This motivates a large extension of IceTop to more efficiently detect cosmic rays, IceVeto. Part of these extension plans is an array of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes, IceAct. A first IceAct prototype is consisting of an SiPM camera and lens optics optimized for harsh environments. Compared to IceTop stations, these telescopes potentially lower the detection threshold for air showers at the cost of a lower duty cycle. We present first data, taken during the commissioning of an IceAct prototype in December 2015 at the South Pole.

  16. Evaluating the 'Lapita Smoke Screen' : site SGO015 of Goro, and early Austronesian settlement of the south-east coast of New Caledonia's Grande Terre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, C.; Ouetcho, A.; Bole, J.; Baret, D.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary archaeological data from the east coast of the Grande Terrre of New Caledonia have been interpreted for some time as indicating an early prehistoric settlement of the southernmost Melanesian Archipelago by two cultural groups. Absence of Lapita sites on this coast, as well as very early dates published for the appearance of paddle-impressed pottery of the Podtanean tradition, led to the proposal of a pre-Lapita, non-Austronesian, 'Melanesian' settlement of southern Melanesia. This paper presents data on the first early Lapita site from Grande Terre's east coast, and discusses the implications of these new archaeological data for the definition of the characteristics of first human settlement in this region of Remote Oceania. (author). 59 refs., 6 figs

  17. Highlighting of pollutants elements of atmospheric air and industrial wastewater in Antananarivo and Analysis of a forest plants of the east coast of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASOAZANANY, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    The present work has for objectives to determine the polluting elements of air, of the industrial waste waters of the urban environment (Antananarivo) and in the leaves of a plant forest called Noronhia of the rural environment (East Coast of Madagascar) and to identify the sources of these pollutants. The method of analysis by total refection X-ray fluorescence at the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Madagascar-INSTN) have been used for the measures of the present elements in the samples, the pHmeter and the conductimeter for the measures of pH and the electric conductivity. In 2000, the average concentrations of lead in the aerosols collected in Andrefan'Ambohijanahary in Antananarivo are 137±4 ng.m -3 during the day and 51±2 ng-m -3 during the night. They are lower than the guideline values adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The average PM10 concentrations diurnal and nocturnal (equal to 194 μg.m -3 and 145 μg.m -3 respectively) in the aerosols are extensively superior to the guideline values 70 μg.m -3 adopted by the WHO in Dakar (1999).Therefore, the site of Andrefan'Ambohijanahary is to be classified saturated zone according to canadian government rule. In 2002, the immobilization of nearly all cars in the capital show that the report of reduction of the concentration of lead in 2002 in relation to the period 2000 is equal to 38. The present work confirms the introduction of unleaded gasoline in Madagascar. Physico-chemical measures of the samples of waste waters in the different sites of Antananarivo are made. The chromium is a toxic metal for the environment associated to the tannery. Its concentration of 2712.1 μg.L -1 is superior to the national norm of 2000 μg.L -1 . The presence of the chromium in the downstream samples is also noted. Regarding to the textile factories, the higher value of the conductivity (equal to 4 670 μS.cm -1 ) of the

  18. Gender-based discrimination as reflected in the laws of urinary segregation: Comparing facilities in South Africa’s major cities with those in East Coast cities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International treaties, national legislation and local by-laws advocate the equal treatment of people of different genders, but there are still claims of gender-based discrimination. However, indicators of discrimination against women, including employment ratios and differences in income, show that great strides have been made in the recent past. These measures are, however, often biased. In this study a different, more exact and tangible method of detecting and describing discrimination is presented, based on the difference between the number of ablution facilities provided for each gender group in public spaces. Ablution facilities at airports, train stations and shopping centres in four major South African cities (N=128 were inspected. The same was done at six East Coast cities in the United States of America (USA; N=124. Medium to large differences in the respective number of facilities were found (eta2 .05 to .13 in South Africa, with women receiving fewer services than those for men. The same tendency was not found in the USA. These results suggest that, despite the progressive legislation and vigorous affirmative action applied in South Africa, South African women are still being discriminated against on a very concrete, tangible level.

  19. Southern right whales Eubalaena australis visit the coasts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Counts and photographs of right whales Eubalaena australis taken on aerial surveys of the southern coast of. South Africa between ... of 0.08–2.89 km.h-1. Theodolite tracking of undisturbed groups of right whales from Cape Columbine produced ...... right whales on the coast of Argentina (Outer Coast) between 1971 and ...

  20. Evaluation of Some Tree Species to Absorb Air Pollutants in Three Industrial Locations of South Bengaluru, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast growing and excessive increase in industrial projects in Bengaluru, the level of pollution is also increasing. Metal-accumulating woody species have been considered for phytoextraction of metal-contaminated sites. The study examined the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI of plant species around three industrial areas of south Bengaluru. The physiological and biochemical parameters, which are relative to leaf's water content (RWC, ascorbic acid content (AA, total leaf chlorophyll (TCh and leaf extract pH were used to compute the APTI values and three heavy metals were selected (cadmium, lead and zinc for analysis. The result shows that the most tolerant tree species with respect to ATPI and heavy metal concentration were Ficus religiosa, Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata (L.. These plants can be considered as tolerant species in the industrial areas. The APTI values for remaining species are reported lower and are considered as sensitive species. Further studies on air pollution tolerance index with respect to three industrial areas of south Bengaluru indicated that the air pollution was maximum in Jigani industrial area and minimum in Electronic city.

  1. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal V, A.; Schroeder, F.G. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haungs, A.; Huege, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10{sup 16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole. (orig.)

  2. Ambient air pollution exposure and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Cape Town, South Africa: 2001–2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2012-11-05

    Little evidence is available on the strength of the association between ambient air pollution exposure and health effects in developing countries such as South Africa. The association between the 24-h average ambient PM(10), SO(2) and NO(2) levels and daily respiratory (RD), cardiovascular (CVD) and cerebrovascular (CBD) mortality in Cape Town (2001-2006) was investigated with a case-crossover design. For models that included entire year data, an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in PM(10) (12 mg/m3) and NO(2) (12 mg/m3) significantly increased CBD mortality by 4% and 8%, respectively. A significant increase of 3% in CVD mortality was observed per IQR increase in NO(2) and SO(2) (8 mg/m3). In the warm period, PM(10) was significantly associated with RD and CVD mortality. NO(2) had significant associations with CBD, RD and CVD mortality, whilst SO(2) was associated with CVD mortality. None of the pollutants were associated with any of the three outcomes in the cold period. Susceptible groups depended on the cause-specific mortality and air pollutant. There is significant RD, CVD and CBD mortality risk associated with ambient air pollution exposure in South Africa, higher than reported in developed countries.

  3. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Mortality in Cape Town, South Africa: 2001–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuku Voyi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Little evidence is available on the strength of the association between ambient air pollution exposure and health effects in developing countries such as South Africa. The association between the 24-h average ambient PM10, SO2 and NO2 levels and daily respiratory (RD, cardiovascular (CVD and cerebrovascular (CBD mortality in Cape Town (2001–2006 was investigated with a case-crossover design. For models that included entire year data, an inter-quartile range (IQR increase in PM10 (12 mg/m3 and NO2 (12 mg/m3 significantly increased CBD mortality by 4% and 8%, respectively. A significant increase of 3% in CVD mortality was observed per IQR increase in NO2 and SO2 (8 mg/m3. In the warm period, PM10 was significantly associated with RD and CVD mortality. NO2 had significant associations with CBD, RD and CVD mortality, whilst SO2 was associated with CVD mortality. None of the pollutants were associated with any of the three outcomes in the cold period. Susceptible groups depended on the cause-specific mortality and air pollutant. There is significant RD, CVD and CBD mortality risk associated with ambient air pollution exposure in South Africa, higher than reported in developed countries.

  4. Impact of northern and southern air mass transport on the temporal distribution of atmospheric (210)Po and (210)Pb in the east coast of Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuti, Asnor Azrin; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2016-09-01

    Concentration activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 were determined to discuss their distribution and chemical behavior in relation to meteorological parameters especially in air mass transport during monsoon events. Marine aerosol samples were collected between January 2009 and December 2010 at the coastal region of Mersing, which is located in the southern South China Sea and is about 160 km northeast of Johor Bahru, as part of the atmosphere-ocean interaction program in Malaysia. About 47 PM10 samples were collected using the Sierra-Andersen model 1200 PM10 sampler over a 2-year sampling campaign between January 2009 and December 2010. Samples were processed using acid digestion sequential extraction techniques to analyze various fractions such as Fe and Mn oxides, organic matter, and residual fractions. While, (210)Pb and (210)Po activities were measured with the Gross Alpha/Beta Counting System model XLB-5 Tennelec® Series 5 and the Alpha Spectrometry (model Alpha Analyst Spectroscopy system with a silicon-surface barrier detector), respectively. The distribution activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 samples were varied from 162 to 881 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 347 ± 170 μBq/m(3) and from 85 to 1009 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 318 ± 202 μBq/m(3), respectively. The analysis showed that (210)Po activity in our samples lies in a border and higher range than global distribution values due to contributions from external sources injected to the atmosphere. The speciation of (210)Pb and (210)Po in marine aerosol corresponds to transboundary haze; e.g., biomass burning especially forest fires and long-range air mass transport of terrestrial dust has enriched concentrations of particle mass in the local atmosphere. The monsoon seems to play an important role in transporting terrestrial dust from Indo-China and northern Asia especially during the northeast monsoon, as well as biogenic pollutants originating from Sumatra and the southern

  5. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South China Sea from 2012-05-13 to 2012-08-26 (NCEI Accession 0144304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144304 includes Surface underway data collected from Marcus G. Langseth in the North Pacific Ocean, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and South...

  7. Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China—Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Celine S. L.; Li, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Ding, Ai-Jun; Wang, Tao

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization in South China has placed great strain on the environment and on human health. In the present study, the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, the two largest urban centres in South China, was sampled from December 2003 to January 2005. The samples were analysed for the concentrations of major elements (Al, Fe, Mg and Mn) and trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and Zn), and for Pb isotopic composition. Elevated concentrations of metals, especially Cd, Pb, V and Zn, were observed in the urban and suburban areas of Guangzhou, showing significant atmospheric trace element pollution. Distinct seasonal patterns were observed in the heavy metal concentrations of aerosols in Hong Kong, with higher metal concentrations during the winter monsoon period, and lower concentrations during summertime. The seasonal variations in the metal concentrations of the aerosols in Guangzhou were less distinct, suggesting the dominance of local sources of pollution around the city. The Pb isotopic composition in the aerosols of Hong Kong had higher 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in winter, showing the influence of Pb from the northern inland areas of China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and lower 206Pb/ 207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios in summer, indicating the influence of Pb from the South Asian region and from marine sources. The back trajectory analysis showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in Hong Kong and Guangzhou was closely associated with the air mass from the north and northeast that originated from northern China, reflecting the long-range transport of heavy metal contaminants from the northern inland areas of China to the South China coast.

  8. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Lane

    Full Text Available Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%, abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%, gastroenteritis (70%, hepatitis (62%, and endometritis (42%. Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung, Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin. Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%, splenic filamentous tags (45%, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%, and myocardial fibrosis (26%. No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  9. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Miami, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the continental shelf off of Jacksonville, FL in the South Atlantic...

  11. The burden of ischemic heart disease related to ambient air pollution exposure in a coastal city in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Li, Guoxing; Qian, Xujun; Xu, Guozhang; Zhao, Yan; Huang, Jian; Liu, Qichen; He, Tianfeng; Guo, Xinbiao

    2018-07-01

    Air pollution is considered one of the most important risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which is a major public health concern. The disease burden of IHD has continued to rise in China in the past two decades. However, epidemiological studies examining the associations between air pollution and IHD have been scarce in China, and the only studies were conducted in severe air pollution areas, where air pollution levels seriously exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines. Whether the influence of air pollution on IHD in areas with relatively low levels of air pollution differs from the influence of high pollution levels in heavily studied areas was unknown until now. Furthermore, the estimation of the disease burden of IHD related to air pollution has been very limited. We conducted a time-series study to estimate the short-term burden of ambient air pollution on IHD using the indicator of years of life lost (YLL), based on 10 322 IHD deaths from 2011 to 2015 in Ningbo, a coastal city in South China. The mean concentrations of fine particle (PM 2.5 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were 49.58 μg/m 3 , 21.34 μg/m 3 and 43.41 μg/m 3 , respectively. A 10 μg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 , SO 2 and NO 2 was associated with changes in YLL of 0.71 (95%CI: - 0.21,1.64), 3.31 (95%CI: 0.78, 5.84), and 2.27 (95%CI: 0.26, 4.28) years, respectively. Relatively stronger impacts were found for gaseous pollutants than PM 2.5 . A larger increase in YLL was found in the younger population than in the older population for NO 2 exposure. In addition, estimations of the effects of SO 2 and NO 2 on YLL were higher for males than females. SO 2 exposure was positively associated with YLL in widowed group. The findings highlighted the importance of stringent air pollution control, especially for gaseous pollutants. Furthermore, using the indicator of YLL, considering the occurrence of death at different ages, provided more

  12. Assessment of ambient air quality in Chidambaram a south Indian town

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balashanmugam; A.R. Ramanathan; V. Nehrukumar

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide preliminary studies in large number are advocated to create data base, to identify potential cities / towns that warrant “continuous ambient air quality monitoring and control mechanism” and to evolve priorities for clean air target. The results reported pertain to an eight hour random preliminary air sampling exercise carried out at each of the eight select locations in Chidambaram, a southern semi urban settlement in India. Criteria pollutants SPM, CO, SO2 and NO2 measured are fou...

  13. Variations of caesium isotope concentrations in air and fallout at Dalat, South Vietnam, 1986-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Zuy Hien; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Truong Y.; Vuong Thu Bac; Nguyen Trong Ngo.

    1993-01-01

    Monthly records of Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in air and fallout at Dalat for the period 1986-1991 are presented and discussed. The concentration variations exhibit distinct maxima during December-January, when dry fallout dominated. These peaks are explained by the intrusion of more radioactive cold air masses from temperate northern latitudes during the development of large-scale anticyclones frequently observed in the most active winter monsoon period. High dry fallout velocities (about 10 cm/s) determined from this data clearly demonstrate one of the most relevant characteristics of cold air masses: behind the cold front, vertical air motion is descending

  14. Modelling the physical multiphase interactions of HNO3 between snow and air on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C and coast (Halley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Chan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx  =  NO + NO2 from the photolysis of nitrate (NO3− in snow affect the oxidising capacity of the lower troposphere especially in remote regions of high latitudes with little pollution. Current air–snow exchange models are limited by poor understanding of processes and often require unphysical tuning parameters. Here, two multiphase models were developed from physically based parameterisations to describe the interaction of nitrate between the surface layer of the snowpack and the overlying atmosphere. The first model is similar to previous approaches and assumes that below a threshold temperature, To, the air–snow grain interface is pure ice and above To a disordered interface (DI emerges covering the entire grain surface. The second model assumes that air–ice interactions dominate over all temperatures below melting of ice and that any liquid present above the eutectic temperature is concentrated in micropockets. The models are used to predict the nitrate in surface snow constrained by year-round observations of mixing ratios of nitric acid in air at a cold site on the Antarctic Plateau (Dome C; 75°06′ S, 123°33′ E; 3233 m a.s.l. and at a relatively warm site on the Antarctic coast (Halley; 75°35′ S, 26°39′ E; 35 m a.s.l. The first model agrees reasonably well with observations at Dome C (Cv(RMSE  =  1.34 but performs poorly at Halley (Cv(RMSE  =  89.28 while the second model reproduces with good agreement observations at both sites (Cv(RMSE  =  0.84 at both sites. It is therefore suggested that in winter air–snow interactions of nitrate are determined by non-equilibrium surface adsorption and co-condensation on ice coupled with solid-state diffusion inside the grain, similar to Bock et al. (2016. In summer, however, the air–snow exchange of nitrate is mainly driven by solvation into liquid micropockets following Henry's law with

  15. Air quality and climate change co-benefits for the industrial sector in Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available of the city's air quality management plan (AQMP). In this paper, measures that have been introduced in industries in Durban to effect air quality improvements and reduce energy consumption are examined in terms of their respective impacts on greenhouse gas...

  16. Survey on the presence of non-dioxine-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in south Mediterranean coasts (Sicily, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammilleri, Gaetano; Calvaruso, Enza; Pantano, Licia; Cascio, Giovanni Lo; Randisi, Barbara; Macaluso, Andrea; Vazzana, Mirella; Caracappa, Giulia; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Vella, Antonio; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    A total of 71 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded along the coasts of Sicily (Southern Italy) were examined for non-dioxine like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) levels in muscle and adipose tissue by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method. The results revealed 6 high-indicator congener (∑ 6 PCB IND ) levels in 45% of the loggerhead turtles examined, with mean values of 980.39 ± 2508.39 ng/g wet weight in adipose tissue and 102.53 ± 238.58 ng/g wet weight in muscle tissue. The hexachloro and heptachloro PCB congeners were the most abundant in both the sample types. The highest NDL-PCB levels were reached in an adipose tissue sample of a loggerhead turtle of 80 kg stranded along the coasts of Termini Imerese (14 183.85 ng/g wet wt). No significant correlation was found between modified Fulton's K values of the loggerhead turtles and PCB contents (S = 47 151, p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant differences were found between sexes (W = 365, p >  0.05). The PCB levels found in the present study were much higher than those found in the literature. The present study is the first report on the existence of NDL-PCBs in loggerhead turtles stranded in Sicilian coasts confirming C. caretta as a valuable indicator of contaminant exposure in the marine environment because of their specific biological and ecological characteristics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2997-3002. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  17. Geochemical And Hydrodynamic Behavior Of The Karstic Aquifer System In The Portion Between Akumal And Boca Paila, In The South Eastern Coast Of The Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez Oliman, G.; Leal Bautista, R. M.; Perry, E. C.; Carrol, M.; Wagner, N.; Castillo Oliman, P.

    2008-12-01

    We report here aspects of the geochemistry and hydrodynamics of a nearly 450 km2 area that constitutes part of the rapidly developing tourist corridor between Akumal and Boca Paila, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Some of the largest explored submerged cave systems in the world, including Nohoch Nah Chic and Dos Ojos, are within the study area. The presence of these and other highly permeable conduits highlights the importance of a better understanding of the aquifer system both to assess its vulnerability and to facilitate sustainable water management. This study focuses on major ion, trace element, and stable isotope geochemistry of groundwater and on monitoring system hydrodynamics through water levels measurements. Sampling along approximately 30 km of coast was accomplished by means of a network of 29 sampling sites arranged along three NW-SE transverse lines running approximately perpendicular to the coast and each extending about 16 km inland. To date 52 samples have been taken. In addition, vertical specific conductivity profiles have helped delineate the thickness of the freshwater lens, which has a maximum thickness of 33.5 m in the southwestern part of the study area, approximately 13.5 km from the coast. In the northeastern corner of the study area, 7.5 m of brackish water overlies sea water near the coast. Water level monitoring is by means of Schlumberger pressure transducers installed at 11 sites. Water table changes record tidal oscillation, confirming the interconnectedness of the system, an observation supported by conductivity measurements that indicate oscillatory vertical movement of the saline interface. (SO4/Cl) ratios, expressed as 1000(SO4/Cl) in meq/kg, are useful tracers of groundwater provenance. The ratio is approximately 100 for seawater and is much greater for groundwater in southern Quintana Roo that has dissolved evaporite (Perry et al, 2002). Ratios in the study area, which are 100 or less, indicate no contact with evaporite. Background

  18. 77 FR 16447 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... County, Western Mojave Desert, South Coast Air Basin, Eastern Kern County, and San Diego County. DATES... April 30, 2004 final rule, we designated the Western Mojave Desert area as a moderate nonattainment area... reclassification of several areas for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard. See 75 FR 24409 (May 5, 2010). The Western...

  19. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality in Dimitrovgrad (South-Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution detection in Dimitrovgrad has not been done yet. In this work different lichen have been used as a bioindication to establish different air pollution levels. At 18 investigated points 22 lichen taxa have been found. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP it has been found that there are 3 different air pollution zones in Dimitrovgrad: 'lichen desert', 'transitional' and 'normal zone'. The most sensitive lichen taxa in Dimitrovgrad are Evernia prunastra, Ochrolechia pallescens, Parmelia sulcata, and Physcia tenella and the most tolerant are Phaeophyscia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens, Physconia distorta, Physconia grisea, and Xanthoria parietina. .

  20. Integration of climate change considerations into local air quality management plans in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available & Technology, 39 (13) 4685-4691. Williams, M. and Chiotti, Q. (2006). Emerging Challenges and Opportunities in the Development of Clean Air Policy Strategies. NERAM Guidance Document on Air Quality Risk Management. NERAM V Colloquium Strategic Policy... Directions for Air Quality Risk Management (16-18 October, 2006). Available at: http://www.irr-neram.ca/Guidance%20Documents/GD_Chapt_5.pdf Date accessed 28 May 2007 Wuebbles, D.J. and Hayhoe, K. (2002). Atmospheric methane and global change. Earth...

  1. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-04-01

    Hainan\\'s coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Coral reef degradation and metabolic performance of the scleractinian coral Porites lutea under anthropogenic impact along the NE coast of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia; Wu, Zhongjie; Richter, Claudio; Zhang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Hainan's coast provides favorable climatic, geochemical and biogeographic conditions for the development of extensive coral reefs in China. Observations in five reefs along the NE coast of Hainan showed, however, that the overall density of mobile macrofauna is low and key functional groups such as browsing, scraping or excavating herbivore fish are missing altogether. Coral diseases, partial mortality or tissue degradation are abundant and growth of macroalgal space competitors extensive. Signs of eutrophication, siltation and destructive fishing practices are evident resulting in a strongly altered environment unfavorable for coral recruitment success and survival. Acclimation to the anthropogenically altered conditions in the massive coral Porites lutea occurs at the cost of a decreased photosynthesis: respiration ratio reducing the regenerative capacity of these key framebuilding organisms. Even though, on the organismal level, corals are able to cope with these stressful conditions, a shift is imminent on the ecosystem level from a coral reef to a macroalgae-dominated community if land-based disturbance prevails unabated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Ambient Air Pollution and Risk for Ischemic Stroke: A Short-Term Exposure Assessment in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on the association between air pollution and risk of ischemic stroke in China are still limited. This study aimed to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of ischemic strokes in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, using a large-scale multicenter database of stroke hospital admissions. Daily counts of ischemic stroke admissions over the study years 2013–2015 were obtained from the Guangzhou Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease Event Surveillance System. Daily particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ozone (O3, and meteorological data were collected. The associations between air pollutants and hospital admissions for stroke were examined using relative risks (RRs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs based on time-series Poisson regression models, adjusting for temperature, public holiday, day of week, and temporal trends in stroke. Ischemic stroke admissions increased from 27,532 to 35,279 through 2013 to 2015, increasing by 28.14%. Parameter estimates for NO2 exposure were robust regardless of the model used. The association between same-day NO2 (RR = 1.0509, 95% CI: 1.0353–1.0668 exposure and stroke risk was significant when accounting for other air pollutants, day of the week, public holidays, temperature, and temporal trends in stroke events. Overall, we observed a borderline significant association between NO2 exposure modeled as an averaged lag effect and ischemic stroke risk. This study provides data on air pollution exposures and stroke risk, and contributes to better planning of clinical services and emergency contingency response for stroke.

  4. Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Guangcai; Tang, Jinchen; Lv, Dongyan; Wang, Hongjin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ►A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ► The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ►A correlation considering d eq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (M fr v 3 )/(Ψd eq 2 ) =((T a )/(T w ) ) 0.1 ((vτ)/(d eq ) ) 0.7 (l/(d eq ) ) 1.378 X a 1.228 . ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube d eq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

  5. Vegetative Propagation Trial of Prosopis africana (Guill. et Perr.) Taub. by Air Layering under Sudano-Sahelian Climate in the South-Central Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Laouali; Karim, Saley; Habou, Rabiou; Mahamane, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Prosopis africana is a species of great socioeconomic importance but threatened with extinction in Niger because of overuse and regeneration problem. This study, conducted in the Maradi (Niger) area, precisely at El Gueza in the south of Gazaoua department, aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of P. africana by air layering under the Sudano-Sahelian climate of the south-central Niger. A ring of bark was taken on each selected branch and the wound was covered with a black plast...

  6. Air quality monitoring and evaluation tools for human health risk reduction in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a serious environmental health threat to humans. Adverse effects range from nausea, difficulty in breathing and skin irritations, to birth defects, immuno-suppression and cancer. Moreover, the severity of health outcomes associated...

  7. The consideration of non-anthropogenic emissions for air quality modelling in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available levels and are thus just as important to quantify to avoid underestimation in air quality in simulations. Biomass burning plays a key role in southern Africa's environmental concerns (highlighted by both the Southern African Regional Science Initiative...

  8. The South African Air Force, 1920–2012: A Review of its History and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, a review is provided of the history of the SAAF, with specific reference to its operational deployments in the 1920s; the difficult years of the great depression and its aftermath and impact on the SAAF; the very important role played by the SAAF in the course of World War II (for example in patrolling South Africa's ...

  9. The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapá-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

    2013-07-01

    The morphology and sediment dynamics of the 1500 km-long coast of South America between the mouths of the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers are largely dependent on the massive suspended-sediment discharge of the Amazon, part of which is transported alongshore as mud banks. These mud banks have an overwhelming impact on the geology, the geomorphology, the ecology and the economy of this coast. Although numerous field investigations and remote sensing studies have considerably enhanced our understanding of the dynamics of this coast over the last three decades, much still remains to be understood of the unique functional mechanisms and processes driving its evolution. Among the themes that we deem as requiring further attention three come out as fundamental. The first concerns the mechanisms of formation of individual mud banks from mud streaming on the shelf off the mouth of the Amazon. An unknown quantity of the fluid mud generated by offshore estuarine front activity is transported shoreward and progressively forms mud banks on the Amapá coast, Brazil. The volume of each mud bank can contain from the equivalent of the annual mud supply of the Amazon to several times this annual sediment discharge. The mechanisms by which individual banks are generated from the Amazon turbidity maximum are still to be elucidated. Areas of research include regional mesoscale oceanographic conditions and mud supply from the Amazon. The second theme is that of variations in rates of migration of mud banks, which influence patterns of coastal accretion. Research emphasis needs to be placed on the analysis of both regional meteorological-hydrodynamic forcing and distant Atlantic forcing, as well as on the hydrology of the large rivers draining the Guyana Shield. The rivers appear to generate significant offshore deflection of mud banks in transit alongshore, through a hydraulic-groyne effect. This may favour both muddy accretion on the updrift coast and downdrift mud liquefaction with

  10. Seasonal Prediction of Regional Surface Air Temperature and First-flowering Date in South Korea using Dynamical Downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal prediction of both the surface air temperature and the first-flowering date (FFD) over South Korea are produced using dynamical downscaling (Hur and Ahn, 2015). Dynamical downscaling is performed using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) v3.0 with the lateral forcing from hourly outputs of Pusan National University (PNU) coupled general circulation model (CGCM) v1.1. Gridded surface air temperature data with high spatial (3km) and temporal (daily) resolution are obtained using the physically-based dynamical models. To reduce systematic bias, simple statistical correction method is then applied to the model output. The FFDs of cherry, peach and pear in South Korea are predicted for the decade of 1999-2008 by applying the corrected daily temperature predictions to the phenological thermal-time model. The WRF v3.0 results reflect the detailed topographical effect, despite having cold and warm biases for warm and cold seasons, respectively. After applying the correction, the mean temperature for early spring (February to April) well represents the general pattern of observation, while preserving the advantages of dynamical downscaling. The FFD predictabilities for the three species of trees are evaluated in terms of qualitative, quantitative and categorical estimations. Although FFDs derived from the corrected WRF results well predict the spatial distribution and the variation of observation, the prediction performance has no statistical significance or appropriate predictability. The approach used in the study may be helpful in obtaining detailed and useful information about FFD and regional temperature by accounting for physically-based atmospheric dynamics, although the seasonal predictability of flowering phenology is not high enough. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953 and

  11. 75 FR 24406 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  12. 75 FR 24544 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD), and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from petroleum facilities, chemical plants, and facilities which use organic solvents. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  13. Assessment of ambient air quality in Chidambaram a south Indian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balashanmugam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide preliminary studies in large number are advocated to create data base, to identify potential cities / towns that warrant “continuous ambient air quality monitoring and control mechanism” and to evolve priorities for clean air target. The results reported pertain to an eight hour random preliminary air sampling exercise carried out at each of the eight select locations in Chidambaram, a southern semi urban settlement in India. Criteria pollutants SPM, CO, SO2 and NO2 measured are found to have either crossed or on the verge of crossing the limits, necessitating the immediate installation of a continuous monitoring and control mechanism. While transport related emissions are the major sources of air contamination, increasing civil construction activities also contribute to particulates. The exponential rise in volume of vehicles, disadvantageous traffic flow pattern, differing driving cycle pattern and human interceptions deserve due attention. It is concluded that Chidambaram town is a strong case for continuous monitoring of ambient air quality due to alarming and increasing level of pollutants.

  14. Distributed Maritime Capability: Optimized U.S. Navy-U.S. Coast Guard Interoperability, a Case in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    poses a threat to regional security and economic stability —major U.S. national interests. Distributed maritime capability is demonstrated by applying...regional security, economic stability , fisheries enforcement 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 95 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...a dominant aggressor in the South China Sea that poses a threat to regional security and economic stability —major U.S. national interests

  15. Traffic-related air pollution and health co-benefits of alternative transport in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Nitschke, Monika; Zhang, Ying; Shah, Pushan; Crabb, Shona; Hansen, Alana

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions contribute nearly a quarter of the world's energy-related greenhouse gases and cause non-negligible air pollution, primarily in urban areas. Changing people's travel behaviour towards alternative transport is an efficient approach to mitigate harmful environmental impacts caused by a large number of vehicles. Such a strategy also provides an opportunity to gain health co-benefits of improved air quality and enhanced physical activities. This study aimed at quantifying co-benefit effects of alternative transport use in Adelaide, South Australia. We made projections for a business-as-usual scenario for 2030 with alternative transport scenarios. Separate models including air pollution models and comparative risk assessment health models were developed to link alternative transport scenarios with possible environmental and health benefits. In the study region with an estimated population of 1.4 million in 2030, by shifting 40% of vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) by passenger vehicles to alternative transport, annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by approximately 0.4μg/m(3) compared to business-as-usual, resulting in net health benefits of an estimated 13deaths/year prevented and 118 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented per year due to improved air quality. Further health benefits would be obtained from improved physical fitness through active transport (508deaths/year prevented, 6569DALYs/year prevented), and changes in traffic injuries (21 deaths and, 960 DALYs prevented). Although uncertainties remain, our findings suggest that significant environmental and health benefits are possible if alternative transport replaces even a relatively small portion of car trips. The results may provide assistance to various government organisations and relevant service providers and promote collaboration in policy-making, city planning and infrastructure establishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Space time modelling of air quality for environmental-risk maps: A case study in South Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Amilcar; Pereira, Maria J.

    2007-10-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been a strong industrial development in the Sines area, on the southern Atlantic coast of Portugal, including the construction of an important industrial harbour and of, mainly, petrochemical and energy-related industries. These industries are, nowadays, responsible for substantial emissions of SO2, NOx, particles, VOCs and part of the ozone polluting the atmosphere. The major industries are spatially concentrated in a restricted area, very close to populated areas and natural resources such as those protected by the European Natura 2000 network. Air quality parameters are measured at the emissions' sources and at a few monitoring stations. Although air quality parameters are measured on an hourly basis, the lack of representativeness in space of these non-homogeneous phenomena makes even their representativeness in time questionable. Hence, in this study, the regional spatial dispersion of contaminants is also evaluated, using diffusive-sampler (Radiello Passive Sampler) campaigns during given periods. Diffusive samplers cover the entire space extensively, but just for a limited period of time. In the first step of this study, a space-time model of pollutants was built, based on a stochastic simulation-direct sequential simulation-with local spatial trend. The spatial dispersion of the contaminants for a given period of time-corresponding to the exposure time of the diffusive samplers-was computed by ordinary kriging. Direct sequential simulation was applied to produce equiprobable spatial maps for each day of that period, using the kriged map as a spatial trend and the daily measurements of pollutants from the monitoring stations as hard data. In the second step, the following environmental risk and costs maps were computed from the set of simulated realizations of pollutants: (i) maps of the contribution of each emission to the pollutant concentration at any spatial location; (ii) costs of badly located monitoring stations.

  17. Fluid intellingence and spatial reasoning as predictors of pilot training performance in the South African Air Force (SAAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François de Kock

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilot selection is a form of high-stakes selection due to the massive costs of training, high trainee ability requirements and costly repercussions of poor selection decisions. This criterion-related validation study investigated the predictive ability of fluid intelligence and spatial reasoning in predicting three criteria of pilot training performance, using an accumulated sample of South African Air Force pilots (N = 108. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses with training grade achieved as criterion were performed for each of the phases of training, namely practical flight training, ground school training, and officers’ formative training. Multiple correlations of 0.35 (p 0.05 and 0.23 (p > 0.05 were obtained for flight, ground school and formative training results, respectively. Spatial ability had incremental validity over fluid intelligence for predicting flight training performance.

  18. Air quality indicators from the Environmental Performance Index: potential use and limitations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available and input data, that while the data used by the EPI are a well-thought out estimate of a country’s air quality profile, they remain a generalised estimate. The assumptions and uncertainty inherent in such an ambitious global-wide attempt make the estimates...

  19. 1-D Air-snowpack modeling of atmospheric nitrous acid at South Pole during ANTCI 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D air-snowpack model of HONO has been developed and constrained by observed chemistry and meteorology data. The 1-D model includes molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion, windpumping in snow, gas phase to quasi-liquid layer phase HONO transfer and quasi-liquid layer nitrate and interstitial air HONO photolysis. Photolysis of nitrate is important as a dominant HONO source inside the snowpack, however, the observed HONO emission from the snowpack was triggered mainly by the equilibrium between quasi liquid layer nitrite and firn air HONO deep down the snow surface (i.e. 30 cm below snow surface. The high concentration of HONO in the firn air is subsequently transported above the snowpack by diffusion and windpumping. The model uncertainties come mainly from lack of measurements and the interpretation of the QLL properties based on the bulk snow measurements. One critical factor is the ionic strength of QLL nitrite, which is estimated here by the bulk snow pH, nitrite concentration, and QLL to bulk snow volume ratio.

  20. Wild and native plants and mushrooms sold in the open-air markets of south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper-Pakosz, Renata; Pietras, Marcin; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2016-10-07

    The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly. In each market, 25 sellers were interviewed. Voucher specimens were collected and fungi were identified using DNA barcoding. Altogether, 468 species of plants were recorded, 117 of them native to south-eastern Poland - 19 only collected from the wild and 11 both wild and cultivated. Seventeen of the species are under legal protection. Most protected plants were sold from cultivation, although proper authorization procedures had not been performed. Thirty-two species of fungi were sold (including two cultivated species), all of them for culinary purposes. Two species (Lactarius quieticolor, Leccinum schistophilum) are new to the mycobiota of Poland. Ornamental plants constituted a large section of the market, and they dominated the group of native species. Food plants dominated among wild-collected plants and were sold mainly as fruits for jams, juices and alcoholic drinks, or as culinary herbs. Very few medicinal or green vegetable plants were sold. An interesting feature of the markets was the sale of Ledum palustre as an insect repellent. Finding two species of fungi which are new to Poland highlights the importance of DNA barcoding in ethnomycological studies. Most items in the markets are ornamental plants, or edible fruits and mushrooms. Very few medicinal plants and green vegetables are sold, which differentiates the markets from southern European ones. Such a pattern is probably the model for most central European markets.

  1. ’Les Baoulé ne sont pas des oiseaux pour manger du riz’. Food, migrations and ecology in South-West Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Ruf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La Côte d’Ivoire est le plus grand théâtre des migrations cacaoyères en Afrique sub-saharienne, depuis le Sahel et les régions de savane vers les forêts humides du golfe de Guinée. Dans tout le sud-ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire, se côtoient trois grands groupes de populations, les autochtones, les migrants d’originaires du centre du pays, et les migrants venus du Burkina Faso, ayant construit des modèles alimentaires spécifiques avant de se rencontrer. L’objectif est d’identifier les évolutions depuis leur rencontre dans les forêts du sud-ouest, puis d’en expliquer les déterminants. Les données collectées auprès de 110 planteurs, par questionnaires et interviews, sont limitées à la composante alimentaire des céréales, tubercules, banane plantain. Le résultat le plus important est une conversion partielle des régimes alimentaires des migrants vers le riz, longtemps l’alimentation de base des autochtones. Au cours de la même période de 30 ans, les autochtones suivent un chemin opposé, réduisant leur consommation de riz, abandonnant presque la production. Pour expliquer cette énigme sociologique, les thèses néo-malthusiennes appliquées à la Côte d’Ivoire, un temps contestées, sont remises à l’ordre du jour, teintées d’innovations boserupiennes. À la croisée des changements écologiques, économiques et sociaux, la raréfaction des terres, la disparition des forêts au cours du déroulement du cycle du cacao, l’accès différencié au travail, jouent un rôle décisif dans ces changements alimentaires, via des bouleversements dans les systèmes de production et les rapports sociaux.The Ivory Coast is the largest space for cocoa migrations in sub-Saharan Africa, extending from the Sahel and savannah regions to the rainforests of the Gulf of Guinea. In the southwest of Ivory Coast, three major population groups live side by side: natives, migrants coming from the central region of the country

  2. A new species of the genus Ammonicera (Prosobranchia, Omalogyridae) in a coralline algae community from Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tsukasa; Rolán, Emilio; Noseworthy, Ronald G.; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-12-01

    A species of the genus Ammonicera Vayssière, 1893 collected from coralline algae communities in Jeju Island, South Korea, is described as a new species, A. aurea, for science. Its morphological characters are described and illustrated by SEM micrographs. This new species can be clearly distinguished from other Ammonicera species from the Pacific Ocean by the presence of a spiral cord and about 25 slightly-elevated axial ribs, resulting in about 25 nodules at intersecting points of the cord and ribs on the last whorl of the teleoconch.

  3. Design of a quasi-flat linear permanent magnet generator for pico-scale wave energy converter in south coast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Budi; Prawinnetou, Wassy; Hutama, Dewangga Adhyaksa

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia has several potential ocean energies to utilize. One of them is tidal wave energy, which the potential is about 49 GW. To convert the tidal wave energy to electricity, linear permanent magnet generator (LPMG) is considered as the best appliance. In this paper, a pico-scale tidal wave power converter was designed using quasi-flat LPMG. The generator was meant to be applied in southern coast of Yogyakarta, Indonesia and was expected to generate 1 kW output. First, a quasi-flat LPMG was designed based on the expected output power and the wave characteristic at the placement site. The design was then simulated using finite element software of FEMM. Finally, the output values were calculated and the output characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that the designed power plant was able to produce output power of 725.78 Wp for each phase, with electrical efficiency of 64.5%. The output characteristics of the LPMG: output power would increase as the average wave height or wave period increases. Besides, the efficiency would increase if the external load resistance increases. Meanwhile the output power of the generator would be maximum at load resistance equals 11 Ω.

  4. Sea turtle and artisanal cerco-fixo fishing interactions in Cananéia, south coast of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Fidelis Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are reptiles that occur on the Brazilian coast, mainly on nesting and feeding grounds. The consumption of turtle meat and eggs is an ancient habit in many coastal communities around the world. The main dangers that threaten these species are the increase in fishing and the drastic changes in the environment. This study aimed to elucidate the interaction between the artisanal fishermen and the sea turtles in Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil. Local fishermen had developed an artisanal trap to fish, the "cerco-fixo", and through interviews and illustrations, as well as by accompanying the fishermen' daily activities, three main aspects were verified: (i the perception of the fishermen about the sea turtles; (ii the identification of species and morphological characteristics of these animals; and (iii a description of the incidental bycatch of sea turtles in these traps. The data indicates that this fishing trap is not harmful to the sea turtles. Location of traps can influence the capture of these animals, particularly those traps placed on rocky shores and other similiar points.

  5. Sea turtle and artisanal cerco-fixo fishing interactions in Cananéia, south coast of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Fidelis Bahia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are reptiles that occur on the Brazilian coast, mainly on nesting and feeding grounds. The consumption of turtle meat and eggs is an ancient habit in many coastal communities around the world. The main dangers that threaten these species are the increase in fishing and the drastic changes in the environment. This study aimed to elucidate the interaction between the artisanal fishermen and the sea turtles in Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil. Local fishermen had developed an artisanal trap to fish, the “cerco-fixo”, and through interviews and illustrations, as well as by accompanying the fishermen’ daily activities, three main aspects were verified: (i the perception of the fishermen about the sea turtles; (ii the identification of species and morphological characteristics of these animals; and (iii a description of the incidental bycatch of sea turtles in these traps. The data indicates that this fishing trap is not harmful to the sea turtles. Location of traps can influence the capture of these animals, particularly those traps placed on rocky shores and other similiar points.

  6. Equity in development and access to health services in the Wild Coast of South Africa: the community view through four linked cross-sectional studies between 1997 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background After election in 1994, the South African government implemented national and regional programmes, such as the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative (SDI), to provoke economic growth and to decrease inequities. CIET measured development in the Wild Coast region across four linked cross-sectional surveys (1997-2007). The 2007 survey was an opportunity to look at inequities since the original 1997 baseline, and how such inequities affect access to health care. Methods The 2000, 2004 and 2007 follow-up surveys revisited the communities of the 1997 baseline. Household-level multivariate analysis looked at development indicators and access to health in the context of inequities such as household crowding, access to protected sources of water, house roof construction, main food item purchased, and perception of community empowerment. Individual multivariate models accounted for age, sex, education and income earning opportunities. Results Overall access to protected sources of water increased since the baseline (from 20% in 1997 to 50% in 2007), yet households made of mud and grass, and households who bought basics as their main food item were still less likely to have protected sources of water. The most vulnerable, such as those with less education and less water and food security, were also less likely to have worked for wages leaving them with little chance of improving their standard of living (less education OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.94; less water security OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93; less food security OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.64). People with less income were more likely to visit government services (among men OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.13-0.59; among women OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.20-0.54), reporting decision factors of cost and distance; users of private clinics sought out better service and medication. Lower food security and poorer house construction was also associated with women visiting government rather than private health services. Women with some formal education

  7. Equity in development and access to health services in the Wild Coast of South Africa: the community view through four linked cross-sectional studies between 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    After election in 1994, the South African government implemented national and regional programmes, such as the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative (SDI), to provoke economic growth and to decrease inequities. CIET measured development in the Wild Coast region across four linked cross-sectional surveys (1997-2007). The 2007 survey was an opportunity to look at inequities since the original 1997 baseline, and how such inequities affect access to health care. The 2000, 2004 and 2007 follow-up surveys revisited the communities of the 1997 baseline. Household-level multivariate analysis looked at development indicators and access to health in the context of inequities such as household crowding, access to protected sources of water, house roof construction, main food item purchased, and perception of community empowerment. Individual multivariate models accounted for age, sex, education and income earning opportunities. Overall access to protected sources of water increased since the baseline (from 20% in 1997 to 50% in 2007), yet households made of mud and grass, and households who bought basics as their main food item were still less likely to have protected sources of water. The most vulnerable, such as those with less education and less water and food security, were also less likely to have worked for wages leaving them with little chance of improving their standard of living (less education OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.94; less water security OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93; less food security OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.64). People with less income were more likely to visit government services (among men OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.13-0.59; among women OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.20-0.54), reporting decision factors of cost and distance; users of private clinics sought out better service and medication. Lower food security and poorer house construction was also associated with women visiting government rather than private health services. Women with some formal education were nearly eight times more

  8. Equity in development and access to health services in the Wild Coast of South Africa: the community view through four linked cross-sectional studies between 1997 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After election in 1994, the South African government implemented national and regional programmes, such as the Wild Coast Spatial Development Initiative (SDI, to provoke economic growth and to decrease inequities. CIET measured development in the Wild Coast region across four linked cross-sectional surveys (1997-2007. The 2007 survey was an opportunity to look at inequities since the original 1997 baseline, and how such inequities affect access to health care. Methods The 2000, 2004 and 2007 follow-up surveys revisited the communities of the 1997 baseline. Household-level multivariate analysis looked at development indicators and access to health in the context of inequities such as household crowding, access to protected sources of water, house roof construction, main food item purchased, and perception of community empowerment. Individual multivariate models accounted for age, sex, education and income earning opportunities. Results Overall access to protected sources of water increased since the baseline (from 20% in 1997 to 50% in 2007, yet households made of mud and grass, and households who bought basics as their main food item were still less likely to have protected sources of water. The most vulnerable, such as those with less education and less water and food security, were also less likely to have worked for wages leaving them with little chance of improving their standard of living (less education OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.94; less water security OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93; less food security OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.64. People with less income were more likely to visit government services (among men OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.13-0.59; among women OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.20-0.54, reporting decision factors of cost and distance; users of private clinics sought out better service and medication. Lower food security and poorer house construction was also associated with women visiting government rather than private health services. Women with

  9. Indoor Air Quality Assessment and Study of Different VOC Contributions within a School in Taranto City, South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marzocca

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children spend a large amount of time in school environments and when Indoor Air Quality (IAQ is poor, comfort, productivity and learning performances may be affected. The aim of the present study is to characterize IAQ in a primary school located in Taranto city (south of Italy. Because of the proximity of a large industrial complex to the urban settlement, this district is one of the areas identified as being at high environmental risk in Italy. The study carried out simultaneous monitoring of indoor and outdoor Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC concentrations and assessed different pollutants’ contributions on the IAQ of the investigated site. A screening study of VOC and determination of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX, sampled with Radiello® diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption, were carried out in three classrooms, in the corridor and in the yard of the school building. Simultaneously, Total VOC (TVOC concentration was measured by means of real-time monitoring, in order to study the activation of sources during the monitored days. The analysis results showed a prevalent indoor contribution for all VOC except for BTEX which presented similar concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. Among the determined VOC, Terpenes and 2-butohxyethanol were shown to be an indoor source, the latter being the indoor pollutant with the highest concentration.

  10. Environmental Assessment for New Veterinary Clinic, Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The following prehistory and history of Ellsworth AFB has been excerpted from the Ellsworth AFB Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plan (U.S...Air Force, 2011). Prehistoric Period Northern Plains prehistory has been the subject of several published studies and archaeological surveys as...information or research questions related to the prehistory of the immediate Ellsworth AFB area. Historical Period The Black Hills mining boom began

  11. The Role of the Brazilian Air Force in the Defense of the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    the ocean as a means of maritime and air communica’tions and tride; 4. Participation .in the Exploration of the Antartic continent. From my point of...Good Hope - Magellan - Cape of Good Hope - Antartic roLItesII The following routes are those that especially demand our I attention: - Coastal...keeping it out of the East-West struggle); Internation.1 cooperation to develop the rugi.on’s countrie_ -- Exploration of the Antartic . In line with

  12. Radionuclide concentrations in ground level air and precipitation in South Germany from 1976 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.

    1983-08-01

    The activity concentrations of fallout radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and of Be-7 in ground level air and precipitation have been determined by the Institut fuer Strahlenschutz at Munich-Neuherberg since 1970. While methods and results from 1970 to 1975 have been published in a previous report, the present report describes the revised program which includes now the naturally occurring nuclides Pb-210 and Po-210, as well as H-3. Sampling methods, analytical techniques and measuring procedures are given. The results up to the end of 1982 are reported and seasonal and long-term variations of radionuclide concentrations as well as frequency distributions of the data are discussed. The data are compared with those of other stations. As a consequence of some recent atmospheric nuclear test explosions by the People's Republic of China also short-lived radionuclides have been detected in ground level air and precipitation. The radiation exposure due to the radioactivity in ground level air and precipitation is estimated. (orig.)

  13. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.

    2003-12-01

    We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the Atlantic Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox," for the Jan-Feb-March period, which included initial indications of a very long-distance contribution from South Asia. The approach has been to describe typical periods of significant maximum and minimum tropospheric ozone for early 1999, exploiting TOMS tropospheric ozone estimates jointly with characteristic features of the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone soundings. Further investigation of the Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) record for all of 1999 suggests that there are repeated periods of very long-distance Asian influence crossing Africa, with an apparent effect on those portions of the Atlantic Equatorial troposphere which are downwind. Trajectory analyses suggest that the pattern over the Indian Ocean is complex: a sequence invoving multiple or mixed combustion sources, low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and high-level transport to the west seem to be indicated by the TTO record. Biomass burning, fossil and biofuel combustion, and lighting seem to all contribute. For the Atlantic, burning and lighting on adjacent continents as well as episodes of this cross-Africa long-distance transport are all linked in a coordinated seasonal march: all are related by movement of the sun. However, interseasonal tropical variability related to the Madden-Julian oscillation allows intermittent ozone buildups that depart from the seasonal norm.

  14. Attribution of the Main Sources of Biomass Burning in South East Asia that Impact on Air Quality in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. B.; Kendall, E.; Chew, B. N.; Chong, W. M.; Gan, C.; Hort, M. C.; Shaw, F.; Witham, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning in South East Asia causes intense haze episodes in Singapore, these are of major concern to the local government and the population exposed to the haze. Using a Lagrangian dispersion model we have studied haze in the seven most recent years (2010 - 2016) to gain a deeper understanding of intense haze in Singapore. In this study, modelled haze time-series at one eastern and one western monitoring station in Singapore are compared to local observed PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations. The haze time-series are broken down by season or month, source region, and monitoring location.The analysis, presented as time series and pie charts, illustrates the relative contribution to haze in Singapore from different regions, variations between seasons and the correlation of impact to the combined timing of burning activity and meteorological patterns. Air history maps, showing where air arriving in Singapore originates from and/or has travelled through, are used to isolate the meteorological dependence of impacts. These show a strong monsoonal variation and help explain the inter-annual differences between sources and actual concentrations of biomass burning PM in Singapore. For example, there is a strong correlation in 2013 between burning in Riau and haze in Singapore, but a weak correlation in other years when a significant part of haze originates from, e.g., Peninsula Malaysia, but emissions are seemingly negligible. We see that, in spite of the size of Singapore, there is significant difference in concentrations and major contributing source regions between the two monitoring stations, annually and seasonally. The differences at the two monitoring stations are seen in varying degrees in the years 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2015, throughout different seasons. Although only biomass burning is considered in the simulations, our modelled results are in good agreement with local observations. We have identified the source regions with the biggest contributions to haze

  15. Aerosol composition and properties variation at the ground and over the column under different air masses advection in South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, G; Lettino, A; Calvello, M; Esposito, F; Fiore, S

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol composition and properties variation under the advection of different air masses were investigated, as case studies, by contemporary measurements over the atmospheric column and at the ground in a semi-rural site in South Italy. The absence of local strong sources in this area allowed to characterize background aerosol and to compare particle mixing effects under various atmospheric circulation conditions. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ǻngström parameters from radiometric measurements allowed the detection and identification of polluted, dust, and volcanic atmospheric conditions. AODs were the input for a suitable model to evaluate the columnar aerosol composition, according to six main atmospheric components (water-soluble, soot, sea salt accumulation, sea salt coarse, mineral dus,t and biological). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of particulate sampled with a 13-stage impactor at the ground showed not only fingerprints typical of the different air masses but also the effects of transport and aging on atmospheric particles, suggesting processes that changed their chemical and optical properties. Background columnar aerosol was characterized by 72% of water-soluble and soot, in agreement with ground-based findings that highlighted 60% of contribution from anthropogenic carbonate particles and soot. In general, a good agreement between ground-based and columnar results was observed. Under the advection of trans-boundary air masses, water-soluble and soot were always present in columnar aerosol, whereas, in variable percentages, sea salt and mineral particles characterized both dust and volcanic conditions. At the ground, sulfates characterized the amorphous matrix produced in finer stages by the evaporation of solutions of organic and inorganic aerosols. Sulfates were also one of the key players involved in heterogeneous chemical reactions, producing complex secondary aerosol, as such clay-sulfate internally mixed particle externally mixed

  16. Copper, lead and zinc distribution in soils and sediments of the South-Western coast of the Rio de la Plata Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilion, M.C.; Hurtado, M.A. [CISAUA-UNLP: Centro de Investigaciones de Suelos y Aguas de Uso Agropecuario, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Manassero, M.J. [CIG-UNLP-CONICET: Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Ronco, A.E. [CIMA-UNLP-CONICET: Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    The compositional study of suspended matter in water from rivers of different latitudes and climates has revealed that the fine fraction reflects both substrate lithology from source areas or topsoil composition along the course. Metal distribution patterns are also strongly related to the clay mineral fate in fluvial aquatic systems. For the particular case of the coastal area of the Rio de la Plata estuary in South America, previous studies have, on the one hand, focused on the analysis of distribution patterns of heavy metals in bottom river sediments and, on the other hand, on the assessment of metal contents in topsoils. The present study was conducted to evaluate the Cu, Pb and Zn distribution in soils and sediments from four drainage basins crossing two differentiated geomorphologic units composed of unconsolidated materials and to understand the metal behaviour. (orig.)

  17. Nutrition, modernity and the archaeological record: coastal resources and nutrition among Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers on the Western Cape coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Katharine; Parkington, John E; Marais, Adrian D; Braun, David R

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the nutritional value of some marine and terrestrial food resources available to Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers in the Western Cape of South Africa with respect to an important macronutrient (protein) and an essential micronutrient (iron) and introduce a framework for assessing the relative utility of marine and terrestrial resources. Whilst the ability to extract nutrients from the environment has always been a lynchpin in archaeologists' reconstructions of human evolution, a recent paradigm shift has recognized the role of marine resources in encephalization. Nutritional research indicates that marine ecosystems are the best source for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for proper brain development, and excavations at securely dated archaeological sites in South Africa provide firm evidence for the exploitation of marine resources by Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers from at least Marine Isotope Stage 5 (130 ka), and possibly even earlier. Because marine molluscs are abundant, predictably located and easily harvested, they would have been readily available to all members of the community, in contrast to terrestrial resources. The improving archaeological record gives important clues to resource choice, but many more nutritional observations are needed to determine the extent to which marine resources could have met the nutrient requirements of prehistoric people. Our observations indicate that marine and terrestrial fauna are both excellent sources of protein, and that marine molluscs have higher iron concentrations than we expected for invertebrate fauna. We calculate the number of individual food items from a selection of marine and terrestrial species needed to provide the protein and iron requirements of a hypothetical group of hunter-gatherers, identify contrasts in peoples' requirements for and access to nutrients and resources, and discuss the implications for prehistoric subsistence strategies and human evolution

  18. Improving Aerosol Simulation over South Asia for Climate and Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Chin, Mian; Bian, Huisheng; Gautam, Ritesh

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution over South Asia attracts special attention due to its effects on regional climate, the water cycle, and human health. These effects are potentially growing owing to rising trends of anthropogenic aerosol emissions found there. However, it has been proved quite challenging to adequately represent the aerosol spatial distribution and magnitude over this critical region in global models (Pan et al. 2014), with the surface concentrations, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and absorbing AOD (AAOD) significantly underestimated, especially in October-January when the agricultural waste burning and anthropogenic aerosol dominate over dust aerosol. In this study, we aim to investigate the causes for such discrepancy in winter by conducting sets of model experiments with NASA's GEOS-5 in terms of (1) spatial resolution, (2) emission amount, and (3) meteorological fields.

  19. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  20. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: limited evidence from India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S S; Phalkey, R; Malik, A A

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major contributors to mortality and morbidity in South Asia. Chronic exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, although the majority of studies to date have been conducted in developed countries. Both indoor and outdoor air pollution are growing problems in developing countries in South Asia yet the impact on rising rates of CVD in these regions has largely been ignored. We aimed to assess the evidence available regarding air pollution effects on CVD and CVD risk factors in lower income countries in South Asia. A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science. Our inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed, original, empirical articles published in English between the years 1990 and 2012, conducted in the World Bank South Asia region (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). This resulted in 30 articles. Nine articles met our inclusion criteria and were assessed for this systematic review. Most of the studies were cross-sectional and examined measured particulate matter effects on CVD outcomes and indicators. We observed a bias as nearly all of the studies were from India. Hypertension and CVD deaths were positively associated with higher particulate matter levels. Biomarkers of oxidative stress such as increased levels of P-selection expressing platelets, depleted superoxide dismutase and reactive oxygen species generation as well as elevated levels of inflammatory-related C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 were also positively associated with biomass use or elevated particulate matter levels. An important outcome of this investigation was the evidence suggesting important air pollution effects regarding CVD risk in South Asia. However, too few studies have been conducted. There is as an urgent need for longer term investigations using robust measures of air pollution with different population groups that include a wider

  1. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  2. Population genetic structure and genetic diversity of Chinese pomfret at the coast of the East China Sea and the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Yin, Fei

    2018-05-01

    The Chinese pomfret Pampus chinensis is one of the most economic and ecological important marine fish species in China. In the present study, the population genetic structure and genetic diversity of P. chinensis were evaluated from a total sample size of 180 individuals representing six populations from the East China Sea and the South China Sea using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 24 variable sites (including 3 singleton sites and 21 parsimony information sites) were observed, and 18 haplotypes were defined. The haplotype diversity (Hd) of the populations ranged from 0.559 to 0.775, and the nucleotide diversity (π) ranged from 0.330 to 1.090%. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) reveals that the main variation (66.02%) was among individuals within populations. The average pairwise differences and ϕ ST values indicated significant genetic differentiation between Dongxing population and the other populations. The results of the present study are helpful for the sustainable management and utilization of this species.

  3. Phylogeographic patterning among two codistributed shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae reveals high levels of connectivity across biogeographic regions along the South African coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa E Wood

    Full Text Available We compare the genetic structuring and demographic history of two sympatric caridean shrimp species with distinct life history traits, one amphidromous species Palaemon capensis and one marine/estuarine species Palaemon peringueyi, in the historical biogeographical context of South Africa. A total of 103 specimens of P. capensis collected from 12 localities and 217 specimens of P. peringueyi collected from 24 localities were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one (CO1 locus. Results from analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA, pairwise ΦST comparisons and haplotype networks demonstrate weak to moderate genetic differentiation in P. capensis and P. peringueyi respectively. P. peringueyi exhibits partial isolation between populations associated with distinct biogeographic regions, likely driven by the region's oceanography. However, there is minimal evidence for the occurrence of discrete regional evolutionary lineages. This demonstrated lack of genetic differentiation is consistent with a marine, highly dispersive planktonic phase in both the amphidromous P. capensis and the marine/estuarine P. peringueyi. Bayesian skyline plots, mismatch expansions and time since expansion indicate that both species maintained stable populations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, unlike other southern African aquatic species.

  4. Interspecific variability of endocrine disruption and oxidative stress in two bivalve species from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems that have been increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. In this study, the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs and their relation to oxidative stress were assessed in two bivalve species (mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and clams Ruditapes decussatus from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south Portugal. We applied the alkali-labile phosphate (ALP assay to determine vitellogenin-like protein levels, and the lipid peroxidation (LPO method to assess oxidative damage. Mussels and clams exhibited the same pattern of ALP concentrations, with no differences between genders and higher levels in winter. R. decussatus showed higher ALP values than M. galloprovincialis, possibly associated with a stronger responsiveness of clams to EDCs or due to the influence of the reproductive cycle. Mussels exhibited a more evident seasonal effect for LPO, indicating that these organisms are more influenced by seasonal fluctuations in the water column compared to the sediment-associated clams. Both species appear to be under the influence of EDC exposure (which could induce Vg-like protein synthesis and oxidative stressors (leading to lipid peroxidation in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, particularly in winter, reflecting the presence of different contaminants in Ria Formosa and environmental changes, as well as complex interactions between them.

  5. 76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from solvent cleaning machines and solvent cleaning operations and oil and gas production wells. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  6. 76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD), Sacramento Municipal Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from solvent cleaning machines and solvent cleaning operations and oil and gas production wells. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  7. High resolution morphobathymetric analysis and short-term evolution of the upper part of the Capbreton submarine canyon (south-east Bay of Biscay - French Atlantic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Hervé; Mazières, Alaïs; Mulder, Thierry; Cremer, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The Capbreton Canyon stands out by its deep incision through continental shelf and slope and its present turbidite activity. The head of the canyon is anthropically disconnected from the Adour River since 1310 AD, but is located close enough to the coast to allow a direct supply by longshore drift. Sedimentary processes in upper part of the Capbreton Canyon are poorly documented. Several evidences, including sandy slide scars in the head, suggest that this area plays a major role in triggering downstream gravity currents). However, no modern sedimentary activity in the upper canyon had so far been evidenced. Our study is based on the analysis and comparison of several sets of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in 1998, 2010 and 2012 (up to 1.5 m resolution). The morphobathymetric analysis brought the following key observations: - The upper part of the canyon is characterised by a meandering talweg underlined by two kinds of terraces: (1) small elongated terraces standing only 10 to 15 m above the talweg axis and (2) large terraces standing 45 to 100 m above the talweg axis. - The regular 1° longitudinal slope of the talweg is interrupted by several 10 m high knickpoints. - The floor of the talweg shows some rough areas scattered with transversal bedforms similar to the sediment waves described in the Monterey Canyon upper part (Smith et al, 2005). The morphological evolutions in the upper part of the canyon over the last 14 years especially affect the floor of the talweg: - Between 1998 and 2010, we observe a downstream succession of accretion areas (up to 11m thick) and erosion areas (reaching -25 m). The largest and highest terraces remain stable over this period, whereas the smallest and lowest elongated terraces show active sedimentation (+5 to +8 m). - Difference between 2010 and 2012 DEMs reveals three localized erosion spots corresponding to 200 m backward stepping of the knickpoints. Such observation confirms the active headward erosion in this part of

  8. Diversity and Abundance of Sand Crabs on the South Coast of Central Java (Diversitas dan Kelimpahan Kepiting Pasir di Pantai Selatan Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashar

    2014-12-01

    this organism, it requires wise management based on the characteristics of the sand crab population. Information on the type and abundance of sand crabs is important as an initial step in sustainable management of sand crabs. This study aims to determine the species composition and abundance of each species of sand crabs. Sand crab specimens were collected from two study sites, namely Bocor beach, Kebumen, and Bunton beach, Cilacap. The results showed that in both sites found three species of sand crabs, namely Emerita emeritus, Hippa adactyla, and Albunea symmysta. E. emerita found in greatest composition percentage, 70.5% -75.3%; followed by H. adactyla 22.5% -24.7%; and A. symmysta 2.2% -4.8%. Females sand crab found in highest composition percentage, which is 78.2% to 92.8%. E. emeritus were also found in highest abundance average in both sites, 5 and 34 ind.100m-2. E. emeritus and H. adactyla were found on Bunton beach, Cilacap have abundance higher than that found on Bocor beach, Kebumen, while average abundance ofAlbunea symmysta relatively similar in both study sites, which is about 1 ind.100m-2. Implication of this research is high diversity of sand crabs relatively on the southern coast of Central Java with varying abundance that affected by intensity of human activities in the sandy beach area. Keywords: abundance, Albunea symmysta, Emerita emeritus, Hippa adactyla, sand crab, species composition

  9. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Wei, G.; Chen, T.; Sun, W.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Shen, C.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g-1 in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g-1 in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a-1 from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a-1 from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m-3 a-1, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Epidemiology of non-syndromic cleft lip/palate in the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of the South west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    All consecutive births in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural background radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala were monitored for congenital malformations observable at birth since 1995. The HLNR area, with natural deposits of monazite sand containing thorium (8-10%) and Uranium (0.3%), is a coastal strip of land about 55 km in length and 0.5 km in breadth from Purakkad in the north in Alleppey district to Sakthikulangara in the south of Quilon district and is one among the most prominent background radiation areas of the world. Patchy and non-uniform distribution of Monazite sand causes wide variation in dose ranging from <1 to 45 mGy/year. High population density, limited migration, ethnic diversity, good literacy, health awareness, institutionalized births and acceptance of small family norm are some of the key features of the population. Areas with a mean radiation dose of more than 1.5 mGy/year were treated as HLNR areas and areas with a dose level of 1.5 mGy/year or less were treated as normal level radiation areas (NLNRA). A total of 134,178 newborns were monitored and non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP) was detected in 143 newborns (1.07%). Cleft lip with cleft palate (59.4%) was more common than cleft lip (18.2%) or Cleft palate (22.4%) alone and 11.9% had other malformation(s) together with NSCLP. There was no evidence to suggest that NSFC was significantly associated with prevailing dose level of area of mother's residence, maternal age birth, gravida, ethnicity or consanguinity

  11. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water andd air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, B.; Hammond, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainity of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of bethic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water inteface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2--6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models

  12. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainty of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of benthic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water interface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2–6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models.

  13. In depth analysis of the role of the mountain gap south of the Valley of Mexico on the air quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo Ruiz Suarez, Luis

    2010-05-01

    38 days of air quality observations in Tenango del Aire (TENAI), south of Mexico City during MILAGRO were analyzed. That site was managed by FQA-CCA-UNAM's team with a mobile laboratory equipped with standard air quality monitors: O3, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2 and surface meteorological parameters. Hosted additional instruments were: CH2O, column NO2 (DOAS), backscatter (Lidar) and pilot balloons. Also, an ultra light plane from IMK-IFU, equipped with O3, PM10, CN, Dew Point monitors flew around the Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl volcanoes and above of TENAI some days during MILAGRO. Atop of TENAI, the ultra light descended in spiral until near ground and ascended to resume its path. In addition to these measurements, UNAM team ran air quality numerical simulations using the Mesoscale Climate and Chemistry Model (MCCM) and an online coupled Wind Erosion Processor to MCCM we call WEPS-MCCM. The combined observations on the ground, the ultra light plane and the models results enabled us to carry out an in depth analysis of air quality in such important region south of Mexico City. Comparison were made with the episodes classification proposed by De Foy; Ozone North and South, Convection North and South, Cold Surge and South Venting to characterize dynamics in the Valley of Mexico. The aim was to define how well connected is TENAI with the air quality network in the MCMA. The influence of the mountain gap on ozone and PM10 levels in Mexico City is analyzed by episode type. Also, the impact of the mega city of Mexico on the nearby region to the south can be understood by observations in TENAI. More polluted episode types in TENAI are those called: Cold Surge, Ozone South and South Venting due to a wind shift occurring in early afternoon that brings back polluted air that was drained south during the morning and returns back to TENAI rich in aged air parcels. March 17 was chosen to show the integrated analysis of all variables observed and modeled (MCCM) in TENAI. In that day

  14. a Baseline Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Trace Metals in Waters of Manakudy, South-West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, M.; Muthumanikkam, J.

    2013-05-01

    The transport of trace metals from the land to ocean has a number of different routes and efficiencies. The sources of toxic elements into the rivers to be debouched into the sea through estuaries are either weathered naturally from the soils and rocks or introduced anthropogenically from point or non-point sources, in labile form or in particulate form. However, recent studies indicate that the transport of trace elements to the aquatic environment is much more complex than what has been thought. The chemistry and ecology of an estuarine system are entirely different from the fluvial as well as the marine system. Estuarine environment is characterized by a constantly changing mixture of salt and freshwater. In the present study area Manakudy estuary is situated about 8 kilometres north west of Kanyakumari (Latitude N 08 05 21.8 and Longitude E 077 29 03.7). To gain a better understanding of the geochemical behavior of physico-chemical parameters and trace elements in the estuary and to examine variations in associated chemical changes, 20 water samples were collected throughout the Manakudy estuary, a minor river in south-western India. These samples, collected in typical dry season during 2012, were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, dissolved major and trace elements. Our results show that dissolved Na, Mg, Ca and Cl behave conservatively along the salinity gradient. The concentration of nutrients is normal and they are due to the higher organic activity in soils as well as faster rates of chemical weathering reaction in the source region. The concentration of major ions is due to tidal influence and it increases with salinity and the nutrients do behave non-conservatively due to biogenic removal. The conservative behaviour of the trace metals with salinity has been strongly affected by the introduction of these metals by external sources. Even though the trace metals in the contaminated water have been removed and incorporated in sediments due to

  15. Indoor air quality in restaurant kitchens in the south Tehran (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naseri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Generally nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 and carbon monoxide (CO are emitted Toxic gases like carbon monoxide (CO., carbon dioxide (CO 2 , nitrogen oxides (NOx will remain in the kitchen when cooking with a gas stove. The purpose of the present study was to measure carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 levels during the operation of cooking  in restaurant kitchens that use gas or natural gas, which are widely used in Tehran.     Methods   One hundred thirty one restaurants were chosen randomly from a list of 276 restaurants in five region different geographic categories, of the metropolitan Tehran, area, in summer 2006. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor air sampling occurred at each sampling site.   Carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations were measured by a real-time analyzer portable computer monitors.     Results   The results of this study showed that %83 and %68 kitchens had local exhaust ventilation and fan system, respectively. The results of this study showed that the mean concentrations of CO and NO 2 with gas stoves for food cooking in restaurant kitchens were below the standard which was established as TLV-TWA=25 and 3 ppm, respectively by ACGIH. The I/O  ratios of CO and NO 2 , were larger than 1 when there were indoor sources.     Conclusion  In this study, the mean levels of CO and NO 2 indoor were upper than the CO and  NO 2 outdoor the restaurants. Generally, improved methods of cooking besides appropriate  ventilation of all indoor combustion appliances, including gas stoves, should be adopted in  industrial kitchens

  16. Use of an air collector plant for a municipal water house in South Africa; Einsatz einer Luftkollektoranlage fuer ein kommunales Wasserhaus in Suedafrika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroepf, Siegfried; Ettl, Rudolf [Grammer Solar GmbH, Amberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A very interesting example of application for solar heating of industrial water and drinking water is the 'Water building project' in Jansenville (South Africa). There, the solarly heated water not only serves for having a shower, but also for washing clothes. The washing performance is increased by warm water. Thus less water is consumed. A major task of the project was to develop a completely self-sufficient and low-maintenance solar air-conditioning which easily and effectively covers the hot water requirement of a building with a high solar fraction. Additionally, the solar heating system supports the building with heat and air during the winter months.

  17. MODEL PREDIKSI PENGARUH LIMBAH CAIR HOTEL TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR LAUT DI PESISIR TELUK KUPANG (A Prediction Model of Liquid Waste Hotel Impact on The Sea Water along The Coast of Kupang Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inty Megarini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Hotel-hotel di pesisir Teluk Kupang sebagian besar membuang efluen limbah cairnya ke laut. Kondisi ini akan berpengaruh terhadap kualitas air laut dan berdampak pada kelangsungan hidup biota dan mikroorganisme laut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat prediksi pengaruh efluen limbah cair hotel yang dibuang terhadap kualitas air laut di hadapannya. Parameter yang diteliti adalah minyak dan lemak dan ortofosfat efluen limbah cair hotel. Parameter kualitas air laut yang diteliti adalah kekeruhan, minyak dan lemak dan klorofil. Metode pengambilan sampel dan pengujian menggunakan SNI dan USEPA. Analisis data menggunakan uji korelasi dan regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kekeruhan air laut pada jarak 0 meter dan 25 meter dapat diprediksi dari kadar minyak dan lemak efluen limbah cair hotel melalui model regresi y = 0,0051 x + 4,8456 dan y = 0,0015 x + 4,5440. Kadar klorofil air laut pada jarak 25 meter dan 75 meter dapat diprediksi dari kadar ortofosfat efluen limbah cair hotel melalui persamaan regresi y = 0,0430 x + 0,0004 dan y = 0,0075 x + 0,0001. ABSTRACT Most of the hotels located along the coast of Kupang Bay dump their effluent liquid waste to the sea. This action will definitely affect the sea water quality and in turn, will unavoidably give deep impact on the life of both microorganism and all the living things in the sea. This research intends to make an impact prediction on the sea water quality over the dumping hotels’ affluent liquid waste to the sea. The parameters which are observed are oil and fat and orthophosphate of the hotels’ affluent liquid waste. While the observed parameters of the sea water quality are turbidity, oil and fat, and chlorophyll. The methods used to take and test the sample are SNI and USEPA. And to analyze the data, testing on both correlation and regression are applied. The result of the study reveals that the turbidity of the sea water within the range of 0 to 25 meters can be

  18. Review of scientific linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality, with implications for air quality management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran, Tirusha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been considerable advancement in our scientific understanding of the linkages and interactions between climate change and air quality. A warmer, evolving climate is likely to have severe consequences for air quality due...

  19. Saltburn following a summar gale in south-east England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlin, H L

    1957-01-01

    On July 29, 1956, a south-westerly gale of unusual violence swept Britain, and its effects on trees in the south-east are here discussed. Trees of most kinds near the coast showed extensive browning of leaves, followed by partial or complete foliation, on their seaward side; this is due to the deposition of salt. The varying susceptibility of different species is reviewed. Saltburn could be observed up to 50 miles inland and 750 ft. above sea level, but only on exposed ridges where the flow of air is apparently concentrated. Some trees near the coast put out fresh foliage, and even flowers. Although broadleaved trees were in full leaf, comparatively few were uprooted.

  20. PENGELOLAAN MATA AIR UNTUK PENYEDIAAN AIR RUMAHTANGGA BERKELANJUTAN DI LERENG SELATAN GUNUNGAPI MERAPI (Springs Management for Sustainability Domestic Water Supply in the South West of Merapi Volcano Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mata air merupakan pemunculan air tanah ke permukaan tanah. Pemanfaatan mata air sangat beragam, antara lain penggunaan untuk keperluan air minum, irigasi, perikanan, untuk obyek wisata. Mata air mempunyai debit terbatas, namun kualitasnya baik, penggunaannya beragam, hal tersebut sering terjadi konflik pemanfaatan. Di saat musim kemarau, beberapa mata air merupakan sumber air satu-satunya di suatu tempat, sehingga pengelolaannya harus dilakukan secara baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengelolaan mata air berbasis teknologi tepat guna dalam penyediaan air rumahtangga di lereng selatan Gunungapi Merapi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survei dan observasi di lapangan terhadap mata air yang digunakan untuk penyediaan air rumahtangga. Sejumlah responden pengguna mata air dan tokoh masyarakat setempat diwawancarai secara bebas dan terstruktur untuk memperoleh data pengelolaan mata air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi lingkungan dan karakteristik mata air, pengetahuan masyarakat dan budaya lokal yang beragam akan berpengaruh terhadap pengelolaanmata air. Perkembangan teknologi tidak dapat diabaikan dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. Hal ini dapat dipadukan dengan budaya masyarakat setempat dalam pengelolaan mata air, sehingga dapat diperoleh manfaat yang optimal dan kesinambungan fungsi dan manfaat mata air tersebut.   ABSTRACT Spring is the groundwater which comes out on ground surface. The use of water from springs is very diverse, varying from water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries, even for tourism. The springs usually have a limited discharge but the water quality from springs is good, therefore they are often facing some conflicts in utilization. In the dry season, in fact the springs are the only source of water supply; therefore the management of the spring should be done properly. This research aims to study the spring management based on appropriate technology in relation to household water supply in the

  1. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  2. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA'S WESTERN AND EASTERN COASTS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    1998-10-21

    Oct 21, 1998 ... South Africa with Special Reference to Post-conflict. Reconstruction ..... from heavy ground mobile forces to light air and sea mobile forces. The ... needs and politico-developmental ambitions of China, Japan and India. Russia ...

  3. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed pollutant levels. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from

  4. A Holistic Evaluation of a Typical Coast Nourishment on the Danish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2008-01-01

    The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural...

  5. A Holistic Evaluation of a Typical Coast Nourishment on the Danish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural herit...

  6. 南海北部大气气相多溴联苯醚的含量及来源%Levels and Sources of Gaseous Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Air over the Northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦路; 李军; 刘向; 徐维海; 张干

    2012-01-01

    A total of 32 air samples collected during a Shiyan Ⅲ voyage over the northern South China Sea(SCS) were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.The concentrations of ∑7PBDEs ranged from 0.07 to 35.9 pg·m-3.The ∑7PBDEs were dominated by tetra-(BDE-47) and penta-(BDE-99 and-100) components,which accounted for 51.5% and 36.9%,respectively.This result indicated that the widely used commercial penta-BDE product was the original source.The higher concentrations of PBDEs were monitored close to the coastline of the South China and Philippine,while the lower concentrations were found over the SCS adjacent to central coast of Vietnam.Back trajectory analysis showed that the high PBDE concentrations observed in air over the northern SCS may be related to the continental pollutant outflows from the southeast coast of China,especially the Pearl River Delta,Taiwan and Philippine,by prevailing northeast wind transport.%通过"实验三号"开放航次在南海北部采集了32个大气样品,用气相色谱/质谱联用仪分析了样品中的多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)同系物,并对其含量、组成特征、空间分布及主要来源进行了研究.结果表明,南海北部大气中7种PBDEs总浓度为0.07~35.9 pg.m-3,四溴(BDE-47)和五溴(BDE-99和-100)化合物为主要组成,分别约占PBDEs总量的51.5%和36.9%,显示工业五溴联苯醚的使用是其主要来源;中国东南沿海和菲律宾附近PBDEs浓度较高,南海靠近越南中部海域大气PBDEs含量较低.后推气流轨迹分析指出:我国东南沿海,特别是珠江三角洲,以及我国台湾和菲律宾等地区陆源污染物的外溢是引起南海北部地区PBDEs浓度较高的主要原因.

  7. Coast Guard Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    looks on as Adm. Charles Ray thanks Adm. Chuck Michel for his service as the 30th vice commandant of the commandant Adm. Charles W. Ray relieved Adm. Charles D. Michel as vice commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard by . Following graduation and commissioning as an officer in the Coast Guard, Wright will be heading to the

  8. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from gas-fired fan-type central furnaces, small water heaters, and the transfer and dispensing of gasoline. We are proposing to approve local rules to regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  9. 78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...EPA is taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions from gas-fired fan-type central furnaces, small water heaters, and the transfer and dispensing of gasoline. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act).

  10. Attributable risk and potential impact of interventions to reduce household air pollution associated with under-five mortality in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sabrina; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2018-01-01

    Solid fuel use is the major source of household air pollution (HAP) and accounts for a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries. To evaluate and compare childhood mortality attributable to HAP in four South Asian countries. A series of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets for Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan were used for analysis. Estimates of relative risk and exposure prevalence relating to use of cooking fuel and under-five mortality were used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) for each country. Potential impact fractions (PIFs) were also calculated assessing theoretical scenarios based on published interventions aiming to reduce exposure prevalence. There are an increased risk of under-five mortality in those exposed to cooking fuel compared to those not exposed in the four South Asian countries (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.07-1.57, P  = 0.007). Combined PAF estimates for South Asia found that 66% (95% CI: 43.1-81.5%) of the 13,290 estimated cases of under-five mortality was attributable to HAP. Joint PIF estimates (assuming achievable reductions in HAP reported in intervention studies conducted in South Asia) indicates 47% of neonatal and 43% of under-five mortality cases associated with HAP could be avoidable in the four South Asian countries studied. Elimination of exposure to use of cooking fuel in the household targeting valuable intervention strategies (such as cooking in separate kitchen, improved cook stoves) could reduce substantially under-five mortality in South Asian countries.

  11. AIR NCO's AND AIRMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.F.C. o Proceeded to Cape Town 9:5:22. Left Cape Town for. African Protectorate 25:2:22. J Left for South West African Protectorate 25:2:22. [ Left for South West African Protectorate. 1:6:22. Colonel: Director of Air Services. Air Directorate. 6th June 1922. SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE. NOMINAL ROLL OF AIR W.O.'s,.

  12. PCDD/Fs in air and soil around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Tang, Y H; Peng, P A; Cai, Y

    2015-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air and farmland soil sampled in 2006 around an e-waste dismantling area with open burning of insulated wires in Longtang in south China were investigated. The total toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 3.2-31.7 pg/m(3) in air and 5.8 12.4 ng/kg in farmland soil at an e-waste site and 0.063-0.091 pg/m(3) in air at a background site. PCDD/Fs in the air at the e-waste site were characterized with dominant 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF and higher concentrations of furans than dioxins, suggesting open burning of insulated wires was likely to be the main source of PCDD/Fs. Compared with the results in this study, the level of PCDD/F tended to lessen with the average TEQ concentration decreasing by 41 % and the pattern changed to be dominated by OCDD in the air of Longtang in 2010 when insulated wires were openly burned in only a small scale. Our results indicate that the lower chlorinated congeners with higher vapor pressures have enhanced atmospheric transport tendencies.

  13. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  14. Extensión del límite austral de distribución de tres especies de peces óseos tropicales en la costa de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Southern extension of three species of tropical bony fishes along the coast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés C Milessi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres nuevos registros de especies de peces óseos cuya distribución corresponde a aguas tropicales, capturados por buques pesqueros en la costa de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (CPBA, 36°-38°S. Los ejemplares corresponden a las especies: Rachycentrum canadum, Elops saurus y Caulolatilus chrysops. Estos registros amplían significativamente el límite austral de su distribución. La presencia ocasional de estas especies está asociada al transporte de agua subtropical cálida proveniente de la plataforma continental brasilera. Esta hipótesis es probada mediante el análisis de imágenes satelitales de temperatura superficial del mar.We document the southern records of three species of tropical bony fishes along the coast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (CBAP, 36-38°S. Rachycentrum canadum, Elops saurus and Caulolatilus chrysops were caught by bottom-trawl commercial vessels. Records presented here significantly extend southward their latitudinal distribution from those previously reported. Using sea surface temperature satellite images we show a southward warm circulation event from Brazil as a putative factor to explain the occurrence of these bony fishes in the CBAP.

  15. Oceans and Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  16. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  17. The application of lichens as ecological surrogates of air pollution in the subtropics: a case study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Natália M; Branquinho, Cristina; Matos, Paula; Pinho, Pedro; Lucheta, Fabiane; Martins, Suzana M A; Vargas, Vera M F

    2016-10-01

    The use of lichens as ecological surrogates has been an important tool to evaluate the impact of air pollution in both ecosystem and human health but remains underused in the subtropics due to lack of knowledge. Aiming to support the application of lichen as ecological surrogates of the effects of air pollution in the subtropics, we hypothesized that urbanization was an important driver of changes on lichen diversity, composition, and vitality. For that, we quantified several lichen diversity metrics (richness, cover, and community composition) and photobiont vitality in relation to atmospheric pollution or its surrogates (modeled pollutant gases, pollutants in lichen thallus, and land cover). We confirmed that air pollution was a key driver for lichen diversity. Changes in lichen community composition and vitality were very significantly related to air pollution and integrated the effect of multiple stressors (particulate matter, NOx, and Cu), thus being powerful ecological indicators of air pollution in the subtropics.

  18. Input and output of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen in subtropical forests of South China under high air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. T. Fang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen (N emissions to the atmosphere and N deposition to forest ecosystems are increasing rapidly in Southeast Asia, but little is known about the fates and effects of elevated N deposition in forest ecosystems in this warm and humid region. Here we report the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved inorganic (DIN and organic N (DON in precipitation, throughfall, surface runoff and soil solution for three subtropical forests in a region of South China under high air pollution over two years (2004 and 2005, to investigate how deposited N is processed, and to examine the importance of DON in the N budget. The precipitation DIN input was 32–34 kg N ha−1 yr−1. An additional input of 18 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as DON was measured in 2005, which to our knowledge is the highest DON flux ever measured in precipitation. A canopy uptake of DIN was indicated in two young conifer dominated forests (72–85% of DIN input reached the floor in throughfall, whereas no uptake occurred in an old-growth broadleaf forest. The DON fluxes in throughfall were similar to that in precipitation in all forests. In the younger forests, DIN was further retained in the soil, with 41–63% of precipitation DIN leached below the 20-cm soil depth. Additionally, about half of the DON input was retained in these forests. The N retention in two young aggrading forests (21–28 kg N ha−1 yr−1 was in accordance with the estimates of N accumulation in biomass and litter accretion. In the old-growth forest, no N retention occurred, but rather a net loss of 8–16 kg N ha−1 yr−1 from the soil was estimated. In total up to 60 kg N ha−1 yr−1 was leached from the old-growth forest, indicating that this forest was completely N saturated and could not retain additional anthropogenic N inputs. We found that the majority of DIN deposition as well as of DIN leaching

  19. Vegetative Propagation Trial of Prosopis africana (Guill. et Perr. Taub. by Air Layering under Sudano-Sahelian Climate in the South-Central Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laouali Abdou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis africana is a species of great socioeconomic importance but threatened with extinction in Niger because of overuse and regeneration problem. This study, conducted in the Maradi (Niger area, precisely at El Gueza in the south of Gazaoua department, aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of P. africana by air layering under the Sudano-Sahelian climate of the south-central Niger. A ring of bark was taken on each selected branch and the wound was covered with a black plastic filled with a damp mixture of soil and wood debris. The chosen parameters are the diameter class and the position on the branch. In all, 60 branches were treated and followed for 130 days: 28.33% produced shoots and there was no significant difference between the diameter classes and between the positions. These results show that propagating trees of the species by air layering is possible and this technique can be used to multiply and keep this species, which will reduce the regeneration problem linked to a low seed germination rate.

  20. Health Risk Assessment of Indoor Air Quality, Socioeconomic and House Characteristics on Respiratory Health among Women and Children of Tirupur, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krassi Rumchev

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indoor air pollution is still considered as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and especially in developing countries, including India. This study aims to assess social, housing, and indoor environmental factors associated with respiratory health among mothers and children. Methods: The study was conducted in the city of Tirupur, South India. We quantitatively assessed the indoor exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and carbon monoxide in relation to respiratory health among women and children. Information on health status, household characteristics and socioeconomic factors was collected using a modified standardised questionnaire. Results: This study demonstrates the significant health impact of housing and socioeconomic characteristics on the burden of respiratory illness among women and children in urban South India. Increased respiratory symptoms were recorded among women and children from low income households, and those who allowed smoking inside. The mean PM2.5 concentration measured in this study was 3.8 mg/m3 which exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO 24 h guideline value of 0.025 mg/m3. Conclusions: This study is the first to our knowledge carried out in urban South India and the findings can be used for future intervention studies.

  1. Air quality simulation over South Asia using Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Divya E.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, G.; Emmons, L. K.; Jena, Chinmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Pfister, G. G.; Chate, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the distribution of tropospheric ozone and related species for South Asia using the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version-2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory. The model present-day simulated ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are evaluated against surface-based, balloon-borne and satellite-based (MOPITT and OMI) observations. The model systematically overestimates surface O3 mixing ratios (range of mean bias about: 1-30 ppbv) at different ground-based measurement sites in India. Comparison between simulated and observed vertical profiles of ozone shows a positive bias from the surface up to 600 hPa and a negative bias above 600 hPa. The simulated seasonal variation in surface CO mixing ratio is consistent with the surface observations, but has a negative bias of about 50-200 ppb which can be attributed to a large part to the coarse model resolution. In contrast to the surface evaluation, the model shows a positive bias of about 15-20 × 1017 molecules/cm2 over South Asia when compared to satellite derived CO columns from the MOPITT instrument. The model also overestimates OMI retrieved tropospheric column NO2 abundance by about 100-250 × 1013 molecules/cm2. A response to 20% reduction in all anthropogenic emissions over South Asia shows a decrease in the anuual mean O3 mixing ratios by about 3-12 ppb, CO by about 10-80 ppb and NOX by about 3-6 ppb at the surface level. During summer monsoon, O3 mixing ratios at 200 hPa show a decrease of about 6-12 ppb over South Asia and about 1-4 ppb over the remote northern hemispheric western Pacific region.

  2. Air pollution and climate change co-benefit opportunities in the road transportation sector in Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thambiran T, Diab RD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the road transportation sector to emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases is a growing concern in developing countries. Emission control measures implemented within this sector can have varying counteracting influences...

  3. Self-reported hypertension in eMbalenhle, Mpumalanga, South Africa: findings from a vulnerability to air pollution assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mbalenhle, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in September 2006 with the heads of 377 randomly selected households to obtain information on the household status of health and disease risk factors. eMbalenhle data were compared...

  4. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury(Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseousmercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  5. Mercury in the marine boundary layer and seawater of the South China Sea: Concentrations, sea/air flux, and implication for land outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Gan; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Yao, Hen; Liang, Peng; Li, Jun; Sommar, Jonas; Yin, Runsheng; Liu, Na

    2010-03-01

    Using R/V Shiyan 3 as a sampling platform, measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), surface seawater total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were carried out above and in the South China Sea (SCS). Measurements were collected for 2 weeks (10 to 28 August 2007) during an oceanographic expedition, which circumnavigated the northern SCS from Guangzhou (Canton), Hainan Inland, the Philippines, and back to Guangzhou. GEM concentrations over the northern SCS ranged from 1.04 to 6.75 ng m-3 (mean: 2.62 ng m-3, median: 2.24 ng m-3). The spatial distribution of GEM was characterized by elevated concentrations near the coastal sites adjacent to mainland China and lower concentrations at stations in the open sea. Trajectory analysis revealed that high concentrations of GEM were generally related to air masses from south China and the Indochina peninsula, while lower concentrations of GEM were related to air masses from the open sea area, reflecting great Hg emissions from south China and Indochina peninsula. The mean concentrations of THg, MeHg, and DGM in surface seawater were 1.2 ± 0.3 ng L-1, 0.12 ± 0.05 ng L-1, and 36.5 ± 14.9 pg L-1, respectively. In general, THg and MeHg levels in the northern SCS were higher compared to results reported from most other oceans/seas. Elevated THg levels in the study area were likely attributed to significant Hg delivery from surrounding areas of the SCS primarily via atmospheric deposition and riverine input, whereas other sources like in situ production by various biotic and abiotic processes may be important for MeHg. Average sea/air flux of Hg in the study area was estimated using a gas exchange method (4.5 ± 3.4 ng m-2 h-1). This value was comparable to those from other coastal areas and generally higher than those from open sea environments, which may be attributed to the reemission of Hg previously transported to this area.

  6. Generating emissions and meteorology to model the impacts of biomass burning emissions on regional air quality in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, WS

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available inventory, trajectory analysis. 1. Introduction The Kruger National Park (KNP), situated on the border of South Africa and Mozambique was intensively studied for its emission contributions and effects on the atmosphere during both the SAFARI...-1992 and SAFARI-2000 campaigns. It is a region that is characterised by dry season biomass burning with more than 52% of its fires occurring throughout the winter months. As an initial step in this study, pyrogenic emissions from savanna...

  7. Coast Guard Proceedings. Volume 71, Number 1, Spring 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Canada. Rescue aircrew from Coast Guard Air Station Traverse City, Mich., conduct helicopter hoist training with the crew of the Canadian Coast...barge about 70-feet forward of the towing vessel — causing the barge to split nearly in half and dump thousands of gallons of oil into the...on the impeller B. double the liquid velocity through the pump when compared to a single volute C. reduce the hydraulic end thrust D. provide the

  8. Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

  9. Monitoring Phragmites australis increases from 1937 to 1976 in the Siyai Lagoon (Natal, South Africa by means of air photo interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The colonization o f the Siyai Lagoon on the north coast of Natal by Phragmites australis was studied by means of  air photo interpretation. It was possible to locate and estimate P. australis areas for 1957 (0,74 ha, 1965 (1,65 ha, 1969 (1,93 ha and 1976 (2,94 ha. Phragmites australis first inhabited the shores of the middle section o f the lagoon followed by rapid expansion in the lower section. The upper section was colonized only at its lower end by expansion from the middle section. It is suggested that P. australis was unsuccessful in this section because of competition by the  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa  Lagoon Fringe Forest. This same community is shading out  P. australis in some places. The notable increase in the rate of advance of land and littoral vegetation into the Siyai Lagoon was caused by sugar farming activities leading to erosion and sedimentation in the lagoon. A vegetation age gradient was observed from the upper section to the mouth region. The colonization of most of the Siyai Lagoon except the immediate mouth zone by  P. australis Reedswamp and  Hibiscus tiliaceus—Barringtonia racemosa Lagoon Fringe Forest, can be expected before the turn of the century. Dredging and mechanical control of vegetation will become necessary if major open water spaces are to be maintained.

  10. Observations and Numerical Modelling of Strong Meteotsunami of 13 June 2013 on the East Coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, I.; Sepic, J.; Rabinovich, A.; Thomson, R.

    2014-12-01

    A strong "derecho" (rapidly moving lines of convectively induced intense thunderstorms) was generated over the Midwestern United States on 12-13 June 2013 and propagated across the Appalachian Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. Three hours after the derecho crossed the Atlantic coast, a ~2-m high meteotsunami wave was reported to have hit the New Jersey coast. Significant tsunami-like oscillations, with wave heights of ~0.6 m, were also recorded by a number of tide-gauges located along the eastern seaboard from Nova Scotia to South Carolina, at Bermuda, and by open-ocean DART 44402. These observations triggered the tsunami-alert mode of the DART station. Intense air pressure disturbances (with pressure change of 3-6 hPa in 20 min) and strong winds were observed at a number of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations to be propagating simultaneously with the derecho system, indicating that the pressure disturbances were the primary cause for the sea level oscillations in Chesapeake and Delaware bays. The air pressure disturbance continued to propagate seaward over the continental shelf, thereby generating long waves via Proudman resonance at those areas of the shelf where the propagation speed of the air pressure disturbance matched the long wave speed. Upon reaching the shelf break, the long-waves were partly transmitted (reaching Bermuda 5 hours later) and partly reflected (returning to the east coast of the US and Canada 3 to 6 hours later). A numerical barotropic ocean model forced with idealized air pressure and wind fields was used successfully to simulate the event. The meteotsunami arrival times and maximum wave heights obtained from the model closely match the measured values and confirm initial assumptions regarding the partitioning between transmitted and reflected meteotsunami waves.

  11. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  12. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NO x emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  13. Tsunami Evidence in South Coast Java, Case Study: Tsunami Deposit along South Coast of Cilacap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Yan; Aswan; Zaim, Yahdi; Dwijo Santoso, Wahyu; Rochim, Nur; Daryono; Dewi Anugrah, Suci; Wijayanto; Gunawan, Indra; Yatimantoro, Tatok; Hidayanti; Herdiyani Rahayu, Resti; Priyobudi

    2017-06-01

    Cilacap Area is situated in coastal area of Southern Java and directly affected by tsunami hazard in 2006. This event was triggered by active subduction in Java Trench which active since long time ago. To detect tsunami and active tectonic in Southern Java, paleo-tsunami study is performed which is targeted paleo-tsunami deposit older than fifty years ago. During 2011 - 2016, 16 locations which suspected as paleo-tsunami location were visited and the test-pits were performed to obtain characteristic and stratigraphy of paleo-tsunami layers. Paleo-tsunami layer was identified by the presence of light-sand in the upper part of paleo-soil, liquefaction fine grain sandstone, and many rip-up clast of mudstone. The systematic samples were taken and analysis (micro-fauna, grainsize and dating analysis). Micro-fauna result shows that paleo-tsunami layer consist of benthonic foraminifera assemblages from different bathymetry and mixing in one layer. Moreover, grainsize shows random grain distribution which characterized as turbulence and strong wave deposit. Paleo-tsunami layers in Cilacap area are correlated using paleo-soil as marker. There are three paleo-tsunami layers and the distribution can be identified as PS-A, PS-B and PS-C. The samples which were taken in Glempang Pasir layer are being dated using Pb - Zn (Lead-Zinc) method. The result of Pb - Zn (Lead-Zinc) dating shows that PS-A was deposited in 139 years ago, PS-B in 21 years ago, and PS C in 10 years ago. This result indicates that PS -1 occurred in 1883 earthquake activity while PS B formed in 1982 earthquake and PS-C was formed by 2006 earthquake. For ongoing research, the older paleo-tsunami layers were determined in the Gua Nagaraja, close to Selok location and 6 layers of Paleo-tsunami suspect found which shown a similar characteristic with the layers from another location. The three layers deeper approximately have an older age than another location in Cilacap.

  14. Home Air Quality And Case Of Pneumonia In Children Under Five Years Old ((In Community Health Center of South Cimahi and Leuwi Gajah, City of Cimahi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rilla Fahimah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the number one deadliest disease in the world with the prevalence of 44%. In Indonesia, pneumonia in to odler is the leading cause of death, after diarrhea, with proportion 15,5%. Pneumonia is a disease caused by a virus and bacteria influenced by physical and chemical contaminants. The purpose of this study is to analyze indoor air quality with the incidence of pneumonia in children under five years old with cross sectional method. The population in this study is the population living in the region of South Cimahi Public Health Center and Leuwi Gajah Public Health Center. The criteria of selection for the region are: region with the highest population, high pneumonia cases (in the red and yellow area, a coal-fired industrial area, and located near the toll Purbaleunyi. The sample of this research are respondents who live in the region of South Cimahi Public Health Center and Leuwi Gajah Public Health Center with inclusion criteria length of stay ≥1 year with a child under five years old. Significant correlation occur between PM10 and PM2,5 (p 0.05 with pneumonia. Dominant factors that cause pneumonia in infants is PM10 (p 0.036 with a value of OR 4.09 after controlled PM2,5 (p 0.142; OR 2.78, the number of bacteria (p 0.004; OR 0.17 and ventilation the house (p 0.395; OR 0.58.

  15. Seasonal and spatial variations of rare earth elements in rainwaters, river waters and total suspended particles in air in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J.S.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.G.; Lee, D.; Chang, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the seasonal and spatial variations of rare earth element (REE) concentrations in natural waters in the central part of South Korea, rain and river waters were collected during 2003-2004. Total suspended particles (TSP) in air were also sampled to investigate the effect of the Asian dust (the Yellow sand) on the chemistry of rainwaters. All samples showed that the absolute concentrations of the light REEs (LREEs) were higher than those of the heavy REEs (HREEs). The post-Archean Australian shale (PAAS)-normalized REE patterns indicate that the REEs in TSP and rainwaters were affected by Asian dust and anthropogenic contaminant, whereas those of river waters were mainly controlled by the geology of their drainage basin and seasonal changes in water regime. The calculated fluxes and yields of total REEs (REEs plus Y) in the South Han River were much greater than those in the North Han River due to the more widespread distribution of sedimentary rocks in the drainage area and more efficient chemical weathering

  16. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  17. Distribution of phosphorus in the marine sediments off the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Sediment samples collected from the shelf and slope regions off the East Coast of India between "Swatch of no ground" in the north and Karaikal in the south, have been analysed for their total phosphorus content and its distribution studied...

  18. Bird Habitat Conservation at Various Scales in the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Milliken; Craig Watson; Chuck Hayes

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture is a partnership focused on the conservation of habitats for migratory birds within the Atlantic Flyway/Atlantic Coast Region from Maine south to Puerto Rico. In order to be effective in planning and implementing conservation in this large and diverse area, the joint venture must work at multiple spatial scales, from the largest ?...

  19. Historical commercial West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historic data from 1891 to 2001 on the annual exports of rock lobster Jasus lalandii products (canned, frozen tails, raw whole frozen, cooked whole frozen and live) from the South African west coast are used to estimate the annual commercial landings by this fishery. Conversion factors were developed to convert canned, ...

  20. Intertidal barnacles are not uniformly abundant around the coast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Intertidal barnacles are significantly more abundant on the south than on the west ... California Coastal Commission, 3111 Camino del Rio North, Suite 200, San ..... factors that are likely to affect adult growth and sur- .... north-west coast of the U.S.A. (e.g. Dayton 1971, .... SHANNON, L. V. 1985 — The Benguela ecosystem.

  1. Distribution and sea-to-air flux of isoprene in the East China Sea and the South Yellow Sea during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Long; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Yang, Gui-Peng

    2017-07-01

    Spatial distribution and sea-to-air flux of isoprene in the East China Sea and the South Yellow Sea in July 2013 were investigated. This study is the first to report the concentrations of isoprene in the China marginal seas. Isoprene concentrations in the surface seawater during summer ranged from 32.46 to 173.5 pM, with an average of 83.62 ± 29.22 pM. Distribution of isoprene in the study area was influenced by the diluted water from the Yangtze River, which stimulated higher in-situ phytoplankton production of isoprene rather than direct freshwater input. Variations in isoprene concentrations were found to be diurnal, with high values observed during daytime. A significant correlation was observed between isoprene and chlorophyll a in the study area. Relatively higher isoprene concentrations were recorded at stations where the phytoplankton biomass was dominated by Chaetoceros, Skeletonema, Pennate-nitzschia, and Thalassiosira. Positive correlation was observed between isoprene and methyl iodide. In addition, sea-to-air fluxes of isoprene approximately ranged from 22.17 nmol m -2  d -1 -537.2 nmol m -2  d -1 , with an average of 161.5 ± 133.3 nmol m -2  d -1 . These results indicate that the coastal and shelf areas may be important sources of atmospheric isoprene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Air Pollutants on Rain Water Characteristics in Hammam Al-Aleel District/ Al-Erej Village South of Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad F. Qasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Hammam Al-Aleel district/ Al-Erej village which is located south of Mosul city. This area has been suffering from spreading the air-pollutants resulted from the chimneys of Hammam Al-Aleel cement factories. Different areas were chosen for collecting samples of the rain water from December 2008 to March 2009. The study showed that rain-water is generally basic. The tests show an increase in ( EC, Mg+2, Ca+2, Cl-1, SO4-2 and NO-1,  due to the air pollutants emitted from local industries. The concentration of heavy elements represented by  Pb and Cd were high and this increase is due to the source of these elements from burning of the crude oil which is used in running the rotating kiln to produce the clinker in cement factory, In addition to the fuel used for  running vehicle and the friction between tires and  road.

  3. Information Framework of Pervasive Real Time Monitoring System: Case of Peat Land Forest Fires and Air Quality in South Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmaini, Siti; Firsandaya Malik, Reza; Stiawan, Deris; Firdaus; Saparudin; Tutuko, Bambang

    2017-04-01

    The information framework aims to holistically address the problems and issues posed by unwanted peat and land fires within the context of the natural environment and socio-economic systems. Informed decisions on planning and allocation of resources can only be made by understanding the landscape. Therefore, information on fire history and air quality impacts must be collected for future analysis. This paper proposes strategic framework based on technology approach with data fusion strategy to produce the data analysis about peat land fires and air quality management in in South Sumatera. The research framework should use the knowledge, experience and data from the previous fire seasons to review, improve and refine the strategies and monitor their effectiveness for the next fire season. Communicating effectively with communities and the public and private sectors in remote and rural landscapes is important, by using smartphones and mobile applications. Tools such as one-stop information based on web applications, to obtain information such as early warning to send and receive fire alerts, could be developed and promoted so that all stakeholders can share important information with each other.

  4. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States)], E-mail: stuartb@umich.edu; Chernyak, S. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Gouden, Y. [Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 719 Umbilo Road, Private Bag 7, Congella, 4013 Durban (South Africa); Hayes, J.; Robins, T. [Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Chetty, S. [Pollution Control Support Unit, Health Department, eThekwini Municipality (South Africa)

    2009-02-15

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 {+-} 47 pg m{sup -3}, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use.

  5. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2009-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004-2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m -3 , and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. - Airborne PCBs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa have similar concentrations but distinctive congener patterns compared to areas of historically high PCB use

  6. Mapa de riesgo de temperaturas extremas frías para el sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires usando datos satelitales y de superficie Frost risk map for the south of Buenos Aires province using satellite and surface data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Ruyver

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerca del 40 % del área sembrada con trigo en Argentina se concentra en el sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los eventos frecuentes de temperaturas extremas frías en la segunda quincena de octubre, coincidentes con un momento fenológico sensible del trigo, provocan daños de importancia en el cultivo. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo proveer mapas de riesgo de temperaturas extremas frías para el período sensible del cultivo de trigo en esa región. Se utilizó información de los canales 3, 4 y 5 del satélite NOAA de 1,09 km² de resolución espacial, obtenidas en el Instituto de Clima y Agua del INTA-Castelar entre 2005 y 2008, y datos diarios de temperaturas mínimas del período 1961-2008 de 13 estaciones de superficie del Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN y del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA. Los resultados muestran que las áreas de mayor riesgo son aquellas que combinan menor altura sobre el nivel del mar y al mismo tiempo mayor distancia al mismo. Esta metodología puede ser extendida a otros cultivos y a otras regiones. Este tipo de análisis constituye una herramienta que puede ser útil en tareas de planificación tanto a nivel estatal como privado.Cold temperature can cause severe damage in crops when a cold front irruption occurs. This is especially true in some specific periods on the growing crops mainly during spring. This work presents frost risk maps for wheat. The region selected was the south of Buenos Aires province in Argentina. Wheat covers almost 2,2 million ha in south Buenos Aires area which represents 40% of the total wheat cultivated in Argentina At the same time, south Buenos Aires area suffers the biggest damage on wheat because of frost during spring time. The study was carried out based on channels 3, 4 and 5 of NOAA satellite images (1,09 km² spatial resolution. Images from 2005 to 2008 were available. Minimum daily temperatures from "Servicio Meteorológico Nacional

  7. Caracterização socioeconômica e mapeamento do uso e ocupação da terra do litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo / Socioeconomic characterization and land use and occupancy mapping of the south coast in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Lepiani Dias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is the socioeconomic characterization of the South Coast in São Paulo State, more specifically the municipalities Iguape, Ilha Comprida and Cananéia. This was done through the historical occupancy, urban sprawl (1970-2010, and the land use (2010, based on the interpretation of satellite images. To achieve this goal, we adopted the supervised classification method for cartographic production, with the final result the land use and occupancy mapping (2010. We consider that the results of this study may contribute to the discussion of territorial planning, since this region was one of the first areas of the Brazilian coast to be colonized. In addition, the results can assist in making decisions, since up to now the area studied suffers conflicting processes of human action, which corresponds to different levels of intervention in the functioning of environmental systems. We found that the dynamics of landscape evolution is linked to the materialization of economic cycles, agricultural practices and tourism, as a guiding socioeconomic development.

  8. Radioactive impact in South Korea from the damaged nuclear reactors in Fukushima: evidence of long and short range transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, G H; Lee, H M; Kim, S H; Hernández-Ceballos, M A; Lozano, R L; Bolívar, J P; Kim, Y I; Yeh, S-W; Baskaran, M

    2012-01-01

    Traces of long-lived fallout-derived radioisotopes ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) were found in wet and dry deposition samples collected from the west and east coasts of South Korea from March to May 2011 following the release of radionuclides from the damaged nuclear power plants in Fukushima, Japan. The analysis of air mass back trajectory and atmospheric pressure systems indicated that the Fukushima-derived radiocaesium had predominantly reached South Korea from the west by surface westerlies from 11 March to 5 April; however, after 6 April, air masses arrived from Japan directly due to a high pressure system that developed to the east of Japan. Spatial variation of deposition fluxes of radiocaesium in South Korea was partly attributed to the presence of local longitudinal orography. (paper)

  9. South African marine pollution survey report 1976-1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gardner, BD

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Rivers were studied, as well as the Wilderness Lakes. In addition information from the Berg, Olifants and Orange Rivers on the West Coast is included. Results from sampling undertaken along oceanic transects on the East Coast, the South Coast...

  10. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  11. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  12. Origin of atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory using studies of air mass trajectories in South America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 149, Nov (2014), 120-135 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA TA ČR TA01010517 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cosmic ray * aerosol * air masses * atmospheric effect * HYSPLIT * GDAS Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0169809514002300/1-s2.0-S0169809514002300-main.pdf?_tid=fcea4ea8-70b1-11e4-b4f3-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1416487228_63c445b9d4c12eb5

  13. Extreme value analysis of air pollution data and their comparison between two large urban regions of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen years of hourly atmospheric pollutant data (1996–2011 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP, and seven years (2005–2011 of data measured in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ, were analyzed in order to study the extreme pollution events and their return period. In addition, the objective was to compare the air quality between the two largest Brazilian urban areas and provide information for decision makers, government agencies and civil society. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were applied to investigate the behavior of pollutants in these two regions. Although GEV and GPD are different approaches, they presented similar results. The probability of higher concentrations for CO, NO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was more frequent during the winter, and O3 episodes occur most frequently during summer in the MASP. On the other hand, there is no seasonally defined behavior in MARJ for pollutants, with O3 presenting the shortest return period for high concentrations. In general, Ibirapuera and Campos Elísios stations present the highest probabilities of extreme events with high concentrations in MASP and MARJ, respectively. When the regions are compared, MASP presented higher probabilities of extreme events for all analyzed pollutants, except for NO; while O3 and PM2.5 are those with most frequent probabilities of presenting extreme episodes, in comparison other pollutants. Keywords: Air pollutants, Extreme events, Megacities, Ozone, Particulate matter

  14. The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic cost of air pollution in Mangaung metro municipality: A case study in South Africa. ... the significance of air quality, to value the benefits of air pollution control ... Key words: Air pollution, air quality, workdays lost, mitigating cost.

  15. Environmental Info for South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in South Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  16. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Collard, François-Xavier; Molinié, Jack; Jeannot, Alexis

    2014-07-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Satellite aerosol products suggest that in spring, there is a comparable transport to northeastern South America. Here we characterize the complete annual cycle of dust transport to the western Atlantic by linking the Barbados record to multiyear records of airborne particulate matter less than 10 µm diameter (PM10) measured in air quality programs at Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guadeloupe. Comparisons of PM10 at these sites with concurrent dust measurements at Barbados demonstrate that high PM10 levels are almost entirely due to dust. Cayenne PM10 peaks in spring in a cycle which is consistent with satellite aerosol optical depth and suggests that the Sahel is the dominant source. The persistent transport of dust during much of the year could impact a wide range of environmental processes over a broad region that extends from the southern United States to the Amazon Basin. Finally, the average 24 h PM10 concentrations at Cayenne and Guadeloupe frequently exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline. Thus soil dust PM10 could be a significant, but generally unrecognized, health factor at western Atlantic sites and also in other relatively remote regions affected by long-range dust from Africa. Because dust emissions and transport are highly sensitive to climate variability, climate change in coming decades could greatly affect a wide range of biogeochemical processes and human health in this region.

  17. Marine archaeological exploration on the western coast, Gulf of Khambhat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Bhatt, B.K.

    large number of stone anchors at Gogha, Hatab, and Gopnath. These are similar to those reported from the western coast of the Saurashtra, particularly at Dwarka (Gaur et al. 2001), Bet Dwarka (Sundaresh et al. 2004), Miyani, Visawada (Gaur et al. 2007.... Stone Anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat Coast, Bulletin of Australian Institute of Maritime Archaeology 26: 43-50 Yang, Q.Z. 1990. South- Song Stone Anchors in China, Korea and Japan, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 19 (2): 113-121. ...

  18. STUDY ON MACROZOOBENTHOS COMMUNITY IN THE WATERS OF THE RIVER AIR PERIKAN MUNICIPALITY OF PAGAR ALAM SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafles Tampubolon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research entitled “ Study on Macrozoobenthos Community in the Waters of the River Air Perikan Pagar Alam Municipality”, was conducted from November 2007 until March 2008. The aims of the research: to know about composition, density, diversity index, dominancy index, and similarity index, which based on the different microhabitat types. Sampling was carried out on November 2007. Five sampling stations were determined by survey method and the Purposive Sampling method was used at each sampling point to find stony, gravel, sandy and leaf pack area as a different microhabitat substrate. Twenty one orders (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Megaloptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Decapoda, Plesiopora, Tricladida, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Mesogastropoda, Ctenobranchiata, Eulamellibranchiata, and Rhynchobdellida which are consisted of 70 families and 151 genera were identified from four types of substrates on each sampling station. According to this research, station 4 has the highest in composition (80 genera, and the lowest one at station 1(33 genera. The highest abundance was 12589 ind./m2 found in the station 5, and the lowest one was in the station 1 approximately 880 ind./m2. For the diversity index value, station 3 was the highest (3.1 and the lowest one was station 5 (1.9. The Dominancy index was found in station 5 at the sandy substrates was approximately 0,8 index, which dominated by Tubifex sp. There were differences species composition on each station.

  19. Post-Gondwana Africa and the vertebrate history of the Angolan Atlantic Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Louis L.; Polcyn, Michael J.; Mateus, Octávio; Schulp, Anne S.; Gonçalves, António Olímpio; Morais, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    The separation of Africa from South America and the growth of the South Atlantic are recorded in rocks exposed along the coast of Angola. Tectonic processes that led to the formation of Africa as a continent also controlled sedimentary basins that preserve fossils. The vertebrate fossil record in

  20. Indian Ocean coasts, coastal ecology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encycl_Coast_Sci_2005_546.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...