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Sample records for south central chilean

  1. Ecosystem process interactions between central Chilean habitats

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    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding ecosystem processes is vital for developing dynamic adaptive management of human-dominated landscapes. We focus on conservation and management of the central Chilean silvopastoral savanna habitat called “espinal”, which often occurs near matorral, a shrub habitat. Although matorral, espinal and native sclerophyllous forest are linked successionally, they are not jointly managed and conserved. Management goals in “espinal” include increasing woody cover, particularly of the dominant tree Acacia caven, improving herbaceous forage quality, and increasing soil fertility. We asked whether adjacent matorral areas contribute to espinal ecosystem processes related to the three main espinal management goals. We examined input and outcome ecosystem processes related to these goals in matorral and espinal with and without shrub understory. We found that matorral had the largest sets of inputs to ecosystem processes, and espinal with shrub understory had the largest sets of outcomes. Moreover, we found that these outcomes were broadly in the directions preferred by management goals. This supports our prediction that matorral acts as an ecosystem process bank for espinal. We recommend that management plans for landscape resilience consider espinal and matorral as a single landscape cover class that should be maintained as a dynamic mosaic. Joint management of espinal and matorral could create new management and policy opportunities.

  2. First report on large scleractinian (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) accumulations in cold-temperate shallow water of south Chilean fjords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Försterra, G.; Häussermann, V.

    2003-01-01

    South Chilean fjords contain an astonishing diverse benthic macrofauna of which anthozoans form a major portion. Azooxanthellate solitary scleractinians, which were hitherto known from major depths, were found as shallow as 8 m during several expeditions to the south Chilean fjord region. At some

  3. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

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    D. Huygens

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR, a grassland (GRASS and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS. Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2 than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2 was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use

  4. Water reuse in South America: A Chilean study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piero, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The driest desert in the western hemisphere is the source of the largest and most lucrative copper mining and processing business in South America. The newest, most explosive capitalist economy in South America is fueled by an industry whose ancient water supply is on the verge of collapse. Farther south, a textbook example of 1950's industrial pollution continues to be dumped in the Bio Bio River, the water supply of the country's third largest city. In the temperate Central Valley, public health advisories regularly warn consumers against consuming vegetables irrigated with river water containing raw sewage. In the warm summer months, hepatitis and cholera epidemics are frequent and deadly. In the last 5 years, these areas have initiated major sewage treatment plant and system improvements with significant reuse components. The technologies and reuse applications of reclaimed water that are now being used in Chile are being monitored and evaluated by Peru, Argentina, and Brazil. Major efforts at environmental cleanups are now being combined with new strategies to sue reclaimed water to meet the needs of South American in the 21st century.

  5. Spatio temporal population dynamics of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata in central-southern Chilean rivers.

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    Montecino, V; Molina, X; Bothwell, M; Muñoz, P; Carrevedo, M L; Salinas, F; Kumar, S; Castillo, M L; Bizama, G; Bustamante, R O

    2016-10-15

    We document the distribution of Didymosphenia geminata in central-southern Chilean rivers and identify the chemical and physical factors associated with its presence/absence (p/a). Repeated surveys in five successive years provided evidence that D. geminata could be nearing a biogeographic equilibrium in the region. D. geminata databases from extensive biological and environmental surveys in 187 rivers, within ten catchments, south of 38°S commenced in November 2010 and ran through May 2013. In addition, data from two other field surveys were used. The sites evenly distributed latitudinally were climatically characterized. The recent sampling program, following a published species distribution model, was designed to explore D. geminata distribution within thirteen catchments (34°S-48°S). An extensive river survey in 2014 (spring-summer) and in 2015 (autumn) included the p/a, and relative abundance of D. geminata cells in phytobenthos and in the drift. These p/a results showed that the probability of re-encountering D. geminata cells at sites where the species was previously found was significantly high while the probability of finding D. geminata cells at sites previously without the species was significantly low. This suggests that the distribution of D. geminata cells among suitable habitats was nearing completion. The relative abundance of D. geminata cells in the phytobenthos versus in the drift indicates seasonality with higher proportion of cells in the phytobenthos during the spring-summer than during the autumn. During the final surveys, principal component analysis of chemical and physical characteristics of rivers showed significant differences between rivers with and without D. geminata. Based on our observations of the distribution of D. geminata cells among rivers with suitable habitat conditions and the fluctuating rate of spread between rivers, we conclude that D. geminata is probably in the ending stage of its spatial demographic expansion in

  6. Mesobathic chondrichthyes of the Juan Fernández seamounts: are they different from those of the central Chilean continental slope?

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    Isabel Andrade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the geographic distribution of groups of chondrychthid fishes of two physically proximal, although geographically different, regions that include the Juan Fernández seamounts and the central Chilean continental slope, both sampled at mesopelagic and mesobenthonic depths. The ridge is in the Nazca Plate, while the slope region in on the South American Plate, and is closer to the South American continent. We found six species of Chondrichthyes for the seamounts (four orders, four families. The slope sampling produced ten species of Chondrichthyes, of which Torpedo tremens De Buen 1959, was the only species in common with the Juan Fernández area. There are clear differences between the Chondrichthyes of the two regions. These fisheries require adequate administrative modes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 181-190. Epub 2008 March 31.

  7. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  8. The genus Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from the central-south Chilean coast (33° to 41° S, with the description of two new species El género Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa central y sur de Chile (33° a 41° S, con la descripción de dos nuevas especies

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    NATALIA ARAKAKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of the species in the genus Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta from central-south Chile (33° to 41° S is examined on the basis of morphological and molecular evidence. Of the four species originally cited for central Chile, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea and C. laciniata, only the presence of C. variegata has been confirmed in this study. C. pinnata reported from Chile is found to be different from C. pinnata described from California, and it is here newly described as C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea from southern Chile (including C. linguata from the Antarctic Peninsula is distinct from the species called C. atrosanguinea from central-south Chile, the latter which is here described as C. macrostiolata sp. nov. C. variegata, C. concepcionensis and C. macrostiolata are distinguished from one another by their external habit, the nature and distribution of their cystocarps, and the female reproductive morphology. Comparative rbcL sequence analysis corroborates the distinction of these taxa from central-south Chile and their relationships to other species worldwide.Se examina el estatus taxonómico de las especies del género Callophyllis Kützing (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta de la costa centro-sur de Chile (33° a 41° S en base a caracteres morfológicos y moleculares. De las cuatro especies citadas para Chile central, C. variegata, C. pinnata, C. atrosanguinea y C. laciniata, solo la presencia de C. variegata ha sido confirmada en este estudio. C. pinnata de Chile muestra diferencias con C. pinnata descrita para California y con el resto de las especies de Callophyllis hasta ahora conocidas, constituyendo así una nueva especie, C. concepcionensis sp. nov. C. atrosanguinea del sur de Chile (incluyendo C. linguata de la Península Antártica muestra diferencias con la especie llamada C. atrosanguinea de la costa centro-sur de Chile, esta última especie es descrita como C. macrostiolata

  9. Seasonal and annual variation in Chilean hake Merluccius gayi spawning locations and egg size off central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, Mauricio F.; Castro, Leonardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Variability in Chilean hake reproductive tactics off central Chile was assessed by analyzing ichthyoplankton samples from nine oceanographic cruises (1996-2005) and through experimental trials with early life stages (eggs, yolk-sac larvae) during the main (austral spring) and secondary (late summer-early autumn) spawning seasons. Abundant eggs in the plankton (1300-2000 eggs per 10 m 2) and historical adult reproductive data showed the highest reproductive activity in austral spring, with large egg aggregations near shelf break (50-100 m depth). Large, recently spawned eggs (1.15-1.20 mm diameter) were advected nearshore by coastward subsurface flows in the spring upwelling season. Experimental trials indicated that recently hatched larvae (3.4-3.5 mm) consumed their yolk-sac (0.17-0.41 mm 3) in 3-4 days at 10-12 °C; plankton sampling indicated that larval hake remained at mid-depth (50-100 m) without showing daily vertical migrations until completing their caudal fin formation (∼15 mm). During the secondary reproductive peak, hake spawned nearshore, when smaller eggs (0.95-1.13 mm) and recently hatched larvae (2.2-2.6 mm notochord length) occurred in surface waters (0-10 m depth). Their relatively large yolk-sac volumes (0.57 ± 0.11 mm 3) provided endogenous nourishment for at least 5 days at 10 °C, according to experiments. In the field, preflexion larvae occurred mainly in the mixed layer (0-25 m) and started ontogenetic daily vertical migrations at 7 mm. A strong decline occurred after 2002 in the adult Chilean hake biomass (estimated by hydroacoustic surveys) and body size, coinciding with variations in spawning locations (more coastward in early spring 2004 and 2005) and decline in egg size. Thus, recent variations in Chilean hake reproductive tactics may reflect an indirect effect of declines in the parental population size.

  10. Summer energy balance and ablation of high elevation glaciers in the central Chilean Andes

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    Brock, Benjamin; Rivera, Andres; Burger, Flavia; Bravo, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers of the semi-arid central Chilean Andes are an important freshwater source for the populous Central Valley region of Chile, but have been shrinking in recent decades. The surface energy balance of these glaciers is of high scientific interest as summer ablation occurs through both sublimation and melt. During the 2012-13 Austral Summer a glacio-meteorological monitoring programme was established on Olivares Alfa (3.9 km2, 4130-4800 m elevation) and Beta (8.3 km2, 3620-4850 m elevation) Glaciers and their forelands in the Upper Olivares Valley, 33°00'-33°11' S, 70°05'-70°15' W, approximately 50 km north-east of Santiago. This included complete automatic weather stations (AWSs) with sonic rangers to record surface ablation on the ablation zones of the two glaciers, and one AWS in the proglacial area of Olivares Alfa Glacier including precipitation gauge. To complement these point data, daily images of the glaciers were captured with fixed cameras in order to calculate snow cover and albedo distributions. To calculate the surface energy balance and rates of melt and sublimation, a model was developed which uses direct AWS measurements of the radiative fluxes and calculates the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat using the bulk aerodynamic approach. The model also calculates the subsurface heat flux and includes a simple scheme to estimate refreezing of melt water within surface snow or ice. Meteorological data and model results for the December to May period will be presented in this paper. Model calculations match closely the cumulative ablation curve of the sonic ranger at Olivares Alfa, with a slight overestimation, and overestimate cumulative ablation recorded by the sonic ranger at Olivares Beta, possibly due, at least in part, to uncertain snow density values. Modelled cumulative ablation in the December-April period is 2.2 m water equivalent (w.e.) at Olivares Alfa (0.10 m sublimation, 2.10 m melt) and 2.34 m w.e. at Olivares Beta (0.18 m

  11. Oil supply in Central and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Central and South American (CSA) region. The curve includes volumes from provinces not previously assessed by other organizations, as well as reserve growth. Volumes for the previously unassessed provinces are estimated using a variable shape distribution (VSD) model. Then the volumes are allocated to CSA countries based on each country's share of proved reserves. Figures provided by the cumulative supply curve are stock variables for all time, unlike the traditional supply curve where they are flow variables that can continue from one period to the next. In this study, the fixed stock approach is used since it provides practical information with respect to the concerns that some have expressed about oil scarcity in the near future. Results indicate that Central and South American oil is more abundant than often assumed, and can be produced at costs below current market oil prices, and substantially below mid-2008 prices.

  12. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

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    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  13. Stomach cancer burden in Central and South America.

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    Sierra, Monica S; Cueva, Patricia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Stomach cancer mortality rates in Central and South America (CSA) are among the highest in the world. We describe the current burden of stomach cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer deaths from WHO's mortality database (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 and estimated annual percent change to describe time trends. Stomach cancer was among the 5 most frequently diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer mortality. Between CSA countries, incidence varied by 6-fold and mortality by 5-6-fold. Males had up to 3-times higher rates than females. From 2003 to 2007, the highest ASRs were in Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Peru (males: 19.2-29.1, females: 9.7-15.1). The highest ASMRs were in Chilean, Costa Rican, Colombian and Guatemalan males (17.4-24.6) and in Guatemalan, Ecuadorian and Peruvian females (10.5-17.1). From 1997 to 2008, incidence declined by 4% per year in Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica; mortality declined by 3-4% in Costa Rica and Chile. 60-96% of all the cancer cases were unspecified in relation to gastric sub-site but, among those specified, non-cardia cancers occurred 2-13-times more frequently than cardia cancers. The variation in rates may reflect differences in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors. High mortality may additionally reflect deficiencies in healthcare access. The high proportion of unspecified cases calls for improving cancer registration processes. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Burden of colorectal cancer in Central and South America.

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    Sierra, Monica S; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    The colorectal cancer (CRC) burden is increasing in Central and South American due to an ongoing transition towards higher levels of human development. We describe the burden of CRC in the region and review the current status of disease control. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries, as well as cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years for 2003-2007 and the estimated annual percentage change for 1997-2008. The CRC rate in males was 1-2 times higher than that in females. In 2003-2007, the highest ASRs were seen in Uruguayan, Brazilian and Argentinean males (25.2-34.2) and Uruguayan and Brazilian females (21.5-24.7), while El Salvador had the lowest ASR in both sexes (males: 1.5, females: 1.3). ASMRs were<10 for both sexes, except in Uruguay, Cuba and Argentina (10.0-17.7 and 11.3-12.0). CRC incidence is increasing in Chilean males. Most countries have national screening guidelines. Uruguay and Argentina have implemented national screening programs. Geographic variation in CRC and sex gaps may be explained by differences in the prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, early detection, and cancer registration practices. Establishing optimal CRC screening programs is challenging due to lack of healthcare access and coverage, funding, regional differences and inadequate infrastructure, and may not be feasible. Given the current status of CRC in the region, data generated by population-based cancer registries is crucial for cancer control planning. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

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    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected. Keywords: Cryptic species, Diversity, Endemic, Indicator species, Octodon degus, Plant

  16. From Chilean Patagonia to Galapagos, Ecuador: novel insights on blue whale migratory pathways along the Eastern South Pacific

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    Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The most traditional scheme for migration among baleen whales comprises yearly migrations between productive waters at high latitude summer feeding grounds and warmer waters at lower latitudes where whales calve and mate, but rarely feed. Evidence indicates, however, that large departures from this scheme exist among populations and individuals. Furthermore, for some populations there is virtually no information on migratory pathways and destinations. Such is the case of Chilean blue whales throughout the Eastern South Pacific; hence, the goal of this study was to assess its migratory behavior. Methods Dedicated marine surveys and satellite tagging efforts were undertaken during the austral summer and early autumn on blue whale feeding grounds off Chilean Northern Patagonia (CNP during 2013, 2015 and 2016. Positional data derived from satellite tags regarding movement patterns and behavior were analyzed using Bayesian switching first-difference correlated random walk models. Results We instrumented 10 CNP blue whales with satellite transmitters and documented individual variation in departure time, northbound migratory routes and potential wintering grounds. The onset of migration occurred from mid/late austral autumn to well into the austral winter. Blue whales moved in various directions, but ultimately converged toward a general NW movement direction along a wide corridor exceeding 2,000 km. Area-Restricted Search behavior was exhibited within fjords and channels of CNP and also South of Galapagos Archipelago (GA and northern Peru, but never during migration. Interestingly, dive profiles for one whale that reached GA showed a sharp and consistent increase in depth north of 5°S and extreme deep dives of up to 330 m. Discussion Information derived from satellite tagged blue whales in this study is the first of its kind off the Eastern Southern Pacific. Our results provide valuable information on their migratory timing, routes and

  17. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  18. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra; Ramajo, Laura; Hendriks, Iris E.; Fernandez, Miriam; Lagos, Nelson A.; Prado, Luis; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  19. Nuclear Power in South-Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''

  20. Privatizing Water in the Chilean Andes: The Case of Las Vegas de Chiu-Chiu

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    Manuel Prieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean water model has been described as a textbook example of a free-market water system. This article contributes to the critiques of this model by showing the effect of its implementation in the Atacameño community of Chiu-Chiu, located in the Atacama Desert in the south-central Andes. In this community, the privatization of water rights ignored local water management practices that had produced a high-altitude wetland (known as a vega. This led to the inhabitants’ dispossession of crucial water rights and to wetland degradation. This process belies statements that the Chilean model relies on an unregulated market and instead highlights the state’s role in marginalizing local irrigation practices by reducing the water consumption of the indigenous population while keeping the copper mining industry (the main source of Chilean income and related growing urban populations supplied with water.

  1. Reduction of firewood consumption by households in south-central Chile associated with energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities in the central-southern area of Chile face serious environmental pollution due to extensive use of firewood for heating. Low energy efficiency of constructions and cold climate increase the problem, which also affects native forests. The aims of this study are to characterize energy consumption in dwellings of this region, investigate the reduction potential, and study social and environmental consequences of high consumption of firewood. Actual energy consumption is studied with information from surveys, potential for reduction is modeled with software and other consequences are analyzed from previous studies. Results for the city of Valdivia show high firewood consumption per household, with a media bulk volume near 12 m 3 /year. Thermal regulations are softer compared with other countries. Moreover, around 85% of buildings were built before enforcing codes in 2007, and has almost no thermal protection. The reduction potential due to thermal improvements is found to be very high (62%) if buildings are refurbished to comply with the present Chilean Norm of 2007, but it reaches a 77% reduction if refurbished according to stricter foreign regulations. Therefore, an energy efficiency program strongly addressing existing buildings has the largest potential for reducing firewood use, and therefore mitigate environmental and health impacts. - Highlights: • High firewood consumption and environmental pollution in cities of south-central Chile. • High use of firewood due to inefficient constructions and soft thermal regulations. • Potential reduction of energy consumption up to 77% with more demanding regulations. • Policies should address building stock before thermal regulation, corresponding to 85%

  2. Collection, Characterization and Use of Genetic Bariation in Chilean Bean Germplasm (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bascur B., Gabriel; Tay U., Juan

    2005-01-01

    Recently performed studies on the type of seed protein present from several origins and their morphological traits have shown that the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is native to America, being a species without a specific center of origin and with two areas of domestication: Central America and South America. In this last center, three strains were determined, one of them is called "the Chilean strain", which as noted is a sub-center of genetic diversity for this species. With the purpo...

  3. Teacher Education in Central Equatoria, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs Brinkley, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Without education, many South Sudanese will continue living in poverty. There are numerous factors that limit their educational opportunities including tribal warfare, colonialism, missionary malpractice, civil wars, a high illiteracy rate, low government funding, and threats of war. These factors have left a substantial deficiency in available…

  4. Impact of Land Use Change on the Temperate Forest of South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Fuentes, R.; Jaque, E.; Fernandez, S.

    2017-12-01

    Chilean temperate forests is a biological hotspot because its high diversity and endemism. Nevertheless, in the last few decades the spatial extent of this forest has been decimated, portraying potentially harmful impacts on the regional biodiversity. In this work, we present our ongoing study on the rate of temperate forest shrinkage and their causes in a section of the BioBío region (37°S), South Central Chile. We derived land cover maps from satellite imagery acquired over 20 years (1990 and 2010) and assessed the effects of changes in land use on native forest. Between 1990 and 2010, there was a 59% reduction in native forest area, which is equivalent to an annual forest loss rate of 4.4% per year. Forest fragmentation was associated with a decrease in forest patch size and proximity, and an increase in the number of forest patches. During this study period native forest loss was correlated with an expansion of plantations of exotic species, which in turn was associated with substantial changes in the spatial configuration of the landscape. We will also present an update of this pattern including the period 2010-2017. The assessment of deforestation and fragmentation provides a basis for future research on the impacts of forest fragmentation on the different components of biodiversity. We suggest that conservation strategies and land use planning are necessary in the study area; this should consider the spatial pattern of native forest patches and the change of these over time at a landscape level.

  5. [Tungiasis affects a chilean turist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara M, Cristian; Barthel M, Elizabeth; Labarca M, Eduardo; Neira O, Patricia; Espinoza E, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    Tungiasis is a cutaneous ectoparasitosis caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans whose higher prevalence occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa, South América and the Caribbean. We report a case of a 23 year old chilean male who presented dermal lesions suggestive of tungiasis on his return from Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy, identifying the arthropod and an egg from one of the lesions. The natural history, co-morbidities and treatment options were reviewed.

  6. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  7. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the state-of-the-art in seismology and earthquake engineering that is being advanced in Central and South America. Provides basic information on seismological station locations in Latin America and some of the programmes in strong-motion seismology, as well as some of the organizations involved in these activities.-from Author

  8. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentiles) nesting in south central Wyoming consumed at least 33 species of prey; 14 were mammals and 19 were birds. Based on percent occurrence in regurgitated pellets, dominant (>10% frequency) prey species included: red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus; present in 50% of pellets), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus; 34...

  9. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from south-central Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Amara, Pterostichinae, Carabidae, Turkey. INTRODUCTION. This publication is the second part of a taxonomic and geographical treatment of the Pterostichinae of south- central Turkey, with a focus on sites in the province of. Kahramanmaraş and some of the geographically adjacent provinces.

  10. Biogeografía histórica de la familia Curculionidae (Coleoptera en las subregiones Subantártica y Chilena Central Historical biogeography of family Curculionidae (Coleoptera on Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Posadas

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de los patrones de distribución y la información filogenética de 71 especies de Curculionidae, distribuidas en las subregiones Subantártica y Chilena Central, aplicando los métodos biogeográficos de los árboles reconciliados y análisis de parsimonia de Brooks (BPA, resulta en un único cladograma general de áreas: ((Chile Central (Maule, Bosque Valdiviano (Islas Malvinas (Páramo Magallánico, Bosque Magallánico. La aplicación del análisis de dispersión-vicarianza (DIVA muestra que el evento vicariante más frecuente es el que separa las Islas Malvinas de las otras dos provincias subantárticas meridionales. Por otra parte, de acuerdo con los resultados del DIVA, se evidencia que las relaciones entre el Maule, Bosque Valdiviano y Chile Central no se deberían a eventos de vicarianza sino a eventos de dispersión, ya que el 61% del total de los eventos de dispersión implica a estas tres áreas. Aún más, los eventos de dispersión más frecuentes implican al Maule, ya sea en relación con Chile Central o con el Bosque Valdiviano, por lo que se deduce que la aparente complejidad de las relaciones biogeográficas del Maule podría estar relacionada con dichos eventos de dispersión.The application of the historical biogeographic techniques of reconciled trees and Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA to the distributional and phylogenetic information of 71 species of Curculionidae ranged in the Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions results in a single general area cladogram: ((Central Chile (Maule, Valdivian Forest (Malvinas Islands (Magellanic Moorland, Magellanic Forest. The application of dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA to the same data set shows as the most frequent vicariant event the split of Islas Malvinas from the two southern Subantarctic provinces. In addition, DIVA results evidenced that the relationship among Maule, Valdivian Forest, and Central Chile did not arise from vicariance events (common history

  11. When the border talks: Singularities of the Argentine-Chilean relationship in recent decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Colacrai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with bilateral relations between Argentina and Chile in recent decades, highlighting the potential of their new border relations. It assumes that the wide range of governmental actors, subnational and local entities linking each other have given this a unique dynamic border and are considered spaces of cooperation. The article is descriptive-reflective and is organized around a series of questions about the continued search for Argentine-Chilean border integration since the nineties and the construction of top-down and bottom-up institutional agreements. Within the variety of links, some remarkable examples are selected for the article like the "Integration Committees", the settlement of the Central West of South America Integration Zone (Zicosur and the Argentine-Chilean cooperation in Antarctica. It stresses the integrationist Maipú Treaty (2009 and institutions that charge different instances of bilateral dialogue.

  12. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  13. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy in South Australia: a case for 'centralized decentralization'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chen Gang; Khurana, Sanjeev; Couper, Richard; Ford, Andrew W D

    2015-11-01

    Recent follow-up studies have demonstrated significant improvement in overall survival as well as survival with native liver following geographic centralization of services to three centres in the UK. However, this model has not been replicated in countries with relatively low population density such as Australia and Canada. Retrospective evaluation of all patients born with biliary atresia (BA) in South Australia from 1989 to 2010 was performed. Thirty-one patients with BA were discovered. Two patients were excluded because the initial Kasai procedure (KP) was performed interstate. Outcome parameters measured were (i) clearance of jaundice (bilirubin of less than 20 μmol/L, by 6 months); (ii) survival with native liver; and (iii) overall survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted for both survival with native liver and overall survival. The incidence of BA in South Australia between 1989 and 2010 was 7.48 per 100,000 live births. Following KP, clearance of jaundice was achieved in 42.9% of patients. Five-year actuarial survival with native liver was 55.2%, and overall 5-year actuarial survival was 89.3%. The results of KP performed at Women's and Children's Hospital from 1989 to 2010 can be considered comparable with international benchmarks. Based on these results, we propose the creation of a 'centralized' pool of surgeons in Australia to help continue providing 'decentralized' care of BA. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Variability of Soil Types in Wetland Meadows in the South of the Chilean Patagonia Variabilidad de Tipos de Suelos en Las Vegas del Sur de la Patagonia Chilena

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislava Filipová; Radim Hédl; Nilo Covacevich C.

    2010-01-01

    The wetland meadows and pastures (vegas) of the agricultural zone of the Magallanes Region and the Chilean Patagonia are productive and intensively exploited ecosystems. However, there is scarce data about the typology and the physical and chemical properties of the soils that determine the agricultural potential of vegas sites. Sampling of the main horizons of 47 soil profiles was conducted throughout the area. The profiles were described in the field and consequently classified according to...

  15. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads

  16. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  17. Nitrous oxide distribution and its origin in the central and eastern South Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Charpentier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of microbial nitrous oxide (N2O production in the ocean have been the subject of many discussions in recent years. New isotopomeric tools can further refine our knowledge of N2O sources in natural environments. This study compares hydrographic, N2O concentration, and N2O isotopic and isotopomeric data from three stations along a coast-perpendicular transect in the South Pacific Ocean, extending from the center (Sts. GYR and EGY of the subtropical oligotrophic gyre (~26° S; 114° W to the upwelling zone (St. UPX off the central Chilean coast (~34° S. Although AOU/N2O and NO3 trends support the idea that most of the N2O (mainly from intermediate water (200–600 m comes from nitrification, N2O isotopomeric composition (intramolecular distribution of 15N isotopes expressed as SP (site preference of 15N shows low values (10 to 12permil that could be attributed to the production through of microbial nitrifier denitrification (reduction of nitrite to N2O mediated by ammonium oxidizers. The coincidence of this SP signal with high – stability layer, where sinking organic particles can accumulate, suggests that N2O could be produced by nitrifier denitrification inside particles. It is postulated that deceleration of particles in the pycnocline can modify the advection - diffusion balance inside particles, allowing the accumulation of nitrite and O2 depletion suitable for nitrifier denitrication. As lateral advection seems to be relatively insignificant in the gyre, in situ nitrifier denitrification could account for 40–50% of the N2O produced in this layer. In contrast, coastal upwelling system is characterized by O2 deficient condition and some N deficit in a eutrophic system. Here, N2O accumulates up to 480% saturation, and isotopic and

  18. Sandy lower Gotherivian reservoirs in the south central Turkmeniya. [Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavyyev, N.Ch.; Nedirov, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Composition and capacitance-filtering properties of sandy rocks of the early Gotherivian age developed on the fields of Karadzhaulak and Cirili within the northeast slope of the Predkopetdag marginal trough and on areas of Dengli Bakharadok of the Bakharadok monocline are studied. These rocks are viewed as analogs of the gas-bearing Shatlyk level of the Murgabskiy Basin. They can be considered the main potential source of hydrocarbons on the studied territory. In the upper part of the lower Gotherivian, a level of sandy rocks is traced. Rocks represented by small-and average-grained red and light grey differences in sandstones of polymictic composition. The porosity of the sandstones is 20-22%, permeability is 200-500 mdarcy. Not only a similar stratigraphic position of the described sandstones in the lower Gotherivian was found, but also lithological common nature of the rocks. In the south central Turkmeniya one can isolate age analogs of the Shatlyk level, the main productive level of southeast Turkmeniya. The thickness of the sandy beds is from 17 to 45 m. The sandstones of the Karadzhaulak area have the best capacitance-filtering properties. Post sedimentation changes depend on the quantity and composition of the cement, influence of formation waters, and possibly thermobaric conditions of rock formation. The presence of sandy rocks with high collector properties in the cross section of the lower Gotherivian deposits in south central Turkmeniya should be considered in determining the objects for further prospecting and exploration. The areas of Kumbet and Karadzhaulak are primary.

  19. The burden of oesophageal cancer in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Enrique; Sierra, Monica S; Musetti, Carina; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Oesophageal cancer shows marked geographic variations and is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. We described the burden of this malignancy in Central and South America. Regional and national level incidence data were obtained from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries. Mortality data were obtained from the WHO mortality database. Incidence of oesophageal cancer by histological subtype were available from high-quality population-based cancer registries. Males had higher incidence and mortality rates than females (male-to-female ratios: 2-6:1 and 2-5:1). In 2003-2007, the highest rates were in Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. Mortality rates followed the incidence patterns. Incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than adenocarcinoma (AC), except in females from Cuenca (Ecuador). SCC and AC incidence were higher in males than females, except in the Region of Antofagasta and Valdivia (Chile), Manizales (Colombia) and Cuenca (Ecuador). Incidence and mortality rates tended to decline in Argentina, Chile, Brazil (incidence) and Costa Rica from 1997 to 2008. The geographic variation and sex disparity in oesophageal cancer across Central and South America may reflect differences in the prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption which highlights the need to implement and/or strengthen tobacco and alcohol control policies. Maté consumption, obesity, diet and Helicobacter pylori infection may also explain the variation in oesophageal cancer rates but these relationships should be evaluated. Continuous monitoring of oesophageal cancer rates is necessary to provide the basis for cancer prevention and control in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Parasite loads and altitudinal distribution of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes Cargas parasitarias y distribución de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN H. CAROTHERS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the distributions of ten species of Liolaemus lizards in the central Chilean Andes to the distributions of four types of parasites: malaria-causing Plasmodium, gut nematodes, ticks, and mites. We wanted to see if parasite numbers might be a factor in determining distributional limits of the lizards. We found that there was no evidence of malarial infestation of the lizards, that ticks were almost absent, that more often than not mite numbers decreased at the distributional limits of the lizards, and that gut nematodes confined to the herbivorous lizards in our sample may well be beneficial rather than detrimental. Rather than parasitism, other biotic interactions (e.g., predation or competition are more likely candidates as factors influencing lizard elevational distributions, as are abiotic characteristics such as microhabitat availabilities and thermal factorsEste estudio compara las distribuciones de diez especies de lagartijas Liolaemus en los Andes de Chile central, con las distribuciones de cuatro tipos de parásitos: Plasmodium causantes de malaria, nemátodos intestinales, garrapatas y ácaros. Quisimos verificar si los números de parásitos pudieran ser un factor determinante de los límites de distribución de las lagartijas. Encontramos que no había evidencia de infestación por malaria en las lagartijas; que las garrapatas estaban casi ausentes; que los números de ácaros más a menudo decrecían que aumentaban en los límites distribucionales de las lagartijas; y que los nemátodos intestinales confinados a las lagartijas herbívoras en nuestra muestra bien podían ser beneficiosos antes que dañinos. Más bien que parasitismo, otras interacciones bióticas (e.g., depredación o competencia son candidatos más probables como factores que influyen las distribuciones altitudinales de las lagartijas, además de características abióticas tales como la disponibilidad de microhábitats y los factores térmicos

  1. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  2. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  3. Quaternary tectonic setting of South-Central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettis, William R.; Hanson, Kathryn L.; Unruh, Jeffrey R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Keller, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent geodetic, geologic, and seismologic studies show that the south-central coast of California is a region of active Quaternary deformation. Northeast-directed crustal shortening is occurring in a triangular-shaped region between the Hosgri-San Simeon fault system on the west, the Southern Coast Ranges on the northeast, and the western Transverse Ranges on the south. We informally call this region the Los Osos domain. In this study, we conducted detailed geological, seismological, and geophysical investigations to characterize the nature and rates of deformation in the domain. Locations of active and potentially active faults and folds are compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 for the entire domain based primarily on onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Crustal shortening in the domain is accommodated by a series of prominent northwest-trending reverse faults and localized folding. The reverse faults separate distinct structural blocks that have little or no internal deformation. Hangingwall blocks are being uplifted at rates of up to 0.2 mm/yr. Footwall blocks are either static or slowly subsiding at rates of 0.1 mm/yr or less, except for localized areas of concentrated subsidence directly adjacent to some faults. The cumulative rate of crustal shortening is about 1 to 2 mm/yr across the northern part of the domain based on observed geologic deformation. Cumulative shortening across the central and southern parts of the domain is poorly constrained by geologic data and may approach 2 to 3 mm/yr. Historical and instrumental seismicity generally are spatially associated with the uplifted blocks and bordering reverse faults to depths of about 10 km. Together with near-surface geological data and deeper crustal geophysical imaging that show high-angle faulting, the seismicity data indicate that the reverse faults probably extend to the base of the seismogenic crust. The base of the seismogenic crust may correspond with a mid-crustal detachment or

  4. Quaternary Tectonic Tilting Governed by Rupture Segments Controls Surface Morphology and Drainage Evolution along the South-Central Coast of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtler, H. P.; Bookhagen, B.; Melnick, D.; Strecker, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Chilean coast represents one of the most active convergent margins in the Pacific rim, where major earthquakes (M>8) have repeatedly ruptured the surface, involving vertical offsets of several meters. Deformation along this coast takes place in large-scale, semi-independent seismotectonic segments with partially overlapping transient boundaries. They are possibly related to reactivated inherited crustal anisotropies; internal seismogenic deformation may be accommodated by structures that have developed during accretionary wedge evolution. Seismotectonic segmentation and the identification of large-scale rupture zones, however, are based on limited seismologic und geodetic observations over short timespans. In order to better define the long-term behavior and deformation rates of these segments and to survey the tectonic impact on the landscape on various temporal and spatial scales, we investigated the south-central coast of Chile (37-38S). There, two highly active, competing seismotectonic compartments influence the coastal and fluvial morphology. A rigorous analysis of the geomorphic features is a key for an assessment of the tectonic evolution during the Quaternary and beyond. We studied the N-S oriented Santa María Island (SMI), 20 km off the coast and only ~70km off the trench, in the transition between the two major Valdivia (46-37S) and Concepción (38-35S) rupture segments. The SMI has been tectonically deformed throughout the Quaternary and comprises two tilt domains with two topographic highs in the north and south that are being tilted eastward. The low-lying and flat eastern part of the island is characterized by a set of emergent Holocene strandlines related to coseismic uplift. We measured detailed surface morphology of these strandlines and E-W traversing ephemeral stream channels with a laser-total station and used these data to calibrate and validate high-resolution, digital imagery. In addition, crucial geomorphic markers were dated by the

  5. Prostate cancer burden in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Mónica S; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Central and South America (CSA) in the last few decades. We describe the geographical patterns and trends of prostate cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries in 13 countries and nation-wide cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years for 2003-2007 and the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) to describe time trends. Prostate cancer was the most common cancer diagnosis and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among males in most CSA countries. From 2003-2007, ASRs varied between countries (6-fold) and within countries (Brazil: 3-6-fold). French Guyana (147.1) and Brazil (91.4) had the highest ASRs whereas Mexico (28.9) and Cuba (24.3) had the lowest. ASMRs varied by 4-fold. Belize, Uruguay and Cuba (24.1-28.9) had the highest ASMRs while Peru, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (6.8-9.7) had the lowest. In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica prostate cancer incidence increased by 2.8-4.8% annually whereas mortality remained stable between 1997 and 2008. The geographic and temporal variation of prostate cancer rates observed in CSA may in part reflect differences in diagnostic and registration practices, healthcare access, treatment and death certification, and public awareness. The incidence of prostate cancer is expected to increase given recent early detection activities and increased public awareness; however, the impact of these factors on mortality remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes in South and Central America: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Pablo; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Aguirre, Loreto; Franco, Laercio; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; de Lapertosa, Sylvia Gorban; Seclen, Segundo; Vinocour, Mary

    2014-02-01

    The estimated population of the South and Central America (SACA) Region is 467.6 million and 64% is in the age range of 20-79 years but the population pyramid and age distribution are changing. The average prevalence of diabetes in the Region is 8.0% and is expected to reach 9.8% by the year 2035. Prevalence is much lower in rural settings than in urban and the differences attributed to lifestyle changes may be a target for intervention. The indigenous population is a particularly vulnerable group needing special attention. On average, 24% of the adult cases with diabetes are undiagnosed but in some countries this is still as high as 50%. Health expenditure due to diabetes in the Region is around 9% of the global total. Inadequate glycemic control, defined as HbA1c >7%, is a strong predictor of chronic complications which increase resource use in the Region and less than half of the patients enrolled in diabetes care programmes are at target. Fifty percent or more of the adult population is overweight/obese and around one third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome using regional cutoffs for waist circumference. The number of people with IGT is almost equal to those with diabetes presenting an additional challenge for prevention. Children with type 1 diabetes represent only 0.2% of the total population with diabetes but the incidence may be increasing. In many places they have limited access to insulin, and even when available, it is not used appropriately. The available epidemiological data provide the background to act in developing national diabetes programmes which integrate diabetes care with cardiovascular prevention and promote diabetes prevention as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  8. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  9. Stream and Aquifer Biology of South-Central Texas - A Literature Review, 1973-97

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ourso, Robert T; Hornig, C. E

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes in table format 32 aquatic vertebrate (primarily fish), 54 aquatic invertebrate, and 13 aquatic plant studies available for the area of the South-Central Texas study unit of the U.S...

  10. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  11. Uranium metallogenic geological conditions in the south central section of da hinggan mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Liu Qing

    2014-01-01

    The south central section of Da Hinggan Mountains, where the Zha Lantun prospecting zones of volcanic type uranium ore, is a high density concentrated distribution area of uranium and polymetallic mineral. This article elaborated uranium metallogenic geological conditions in the south central section of Da Hinggan Mountain, from the tectonic conditions, the source of uranium, the heat source, the space for ore-forming, hydrothermal alteration, the mineralization, and ect. This area has a good prospecting foreground and potentiality. (authors)

  12. Groundwater quality on dairy farms in central South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Water quality, groundwater, E. coli, coliforms, nitrate, hardness, dairy farms. INTRODUCTION ... a major contributor to the South African economy through ..... co.za/milk-procurement-model (Accessed 1 November 2013). DAHIYA S ...

  13. Chilean Antarctic Stations on King George Island

    OpenAIRE

    Katsutada Kaminuma

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of my visit to Chilean Antarctic Stations was to assess the present status of geophysical observations and research, as the South Shetland Island, West Antarctica, where the stations are located, are one of the most active tectonic regions on the Antarctic plate. The Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH) kindly gave me a chance to stay in Frei/Escudero Bases as an exchange scientist under the Antarctic Treaty for two weeks in January 2000. I stayed in Frei Base as a member of a geol...

  14. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  15. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  16. The Relationship between High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and General and Central Obesity: Findings from a Sample of Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25–29.9 kg/m2 and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as waist circumfe...

  17. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    . An examination of the electron photomicrographs revealed several features of the chromite grains (Figure 5 c to f ). Grains display mechanical breaking such as con- choidal to sub-conchoidal fractures, V-shaped impact depressions and irregular cracks... . In this article we describe the occurrence, mineralogy, geochemistry, transport mechanisms, provenance and economic feasibility of the chromite deposit of south Maharashtra coast. Methodology Surficial and sub-surficial samples from various physi- ographic...

  18. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paidashe Hove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay. Of these, qPCR is the most sensitive for detection of A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa. Serological assays also feature in routine diagnostics, but cross-reactions prevent accurate species identification. Recently, genetic characterisation has confirmed that A. marginale and A. centrale are separate species. Diversity studies targeting Msp1a repeats for A. marginale and Msp1aS repeats for A. centrale have revealed high genetic variation and point to correspondingly high levels of variation in A. marginale outer membrane proteins (OMPs, which have been shown to be potential vaccine candidates in North American studies. Information on these OMPs is lacking for South African A. marginale strains and should be considered in future recombinant vaccine development studies, ultimately informing the development of regional or global vaccines.

  19. HIV-related symptoms and patient clusters among Chileans living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, A X; Norr, K F; Pérez, C M; Levy, J A; Park, C G; Kim, M J

    2013-01-01

    Identifying both Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related and co-morbid symptoms experienced by people living with HIV (PLWH) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment is a major challenge for healthcare providers globally. Yet, little research to date has examined the symptoms of illness experienced by PLWH including patients living in Central and South American. To address this gap, this study was designed to identify symptoms of HIV by socio-demographic and/or clinical characteristics among Chilean patients living with the virus. A convenience sample of 209 Chilean PLWH was recruited from an outpatient clinic in Santiago, Chile. A structured interview was used to elicit socio-demographic information and HIV symptoms status. Additional clinical information was obtained through a review of the participants' medical records. Results show that patients' most commonly reported HIV-related symptoms were fear/worries (66%), anxiety (52%), gas/bloating (50%), and thirst (50%). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the number of reported HIV-related symptoms and number of years living with HIV. Having completed college was negatively associated with number of symptoms. Latent class analysis indicated that PLWH in the sample who had completed college were two times more likely to experience a mild intensity of HIV-related symptoms than their lesser educated counterparts. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that college-educated PLWH were twice as likely to be classified in the subgroup reporting mild intensity of symptoms than those who lacked a college degree. Overall, the study's results reveal that many Chilean PLWH, even those with high CD4 counts and low or undetectable viral loads, are not symptom free. The findings point to the need for clinicians to tailor a plan of care for individuals living with HIV that is based on their symptomatology.

  20. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  1. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site

  2. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  3. Variability of Soil Types in Wetland Meadows in the South of the Chilean Patagonia Variabilidad de Tipos de Suelos en Las Vegas del Sur de la Patagonia Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislava Filipová

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The wetland meadows and pastures (vegas of the agricultural zone of the Magallanes Region and the Chilean Patagonia are productive and intensively exploited ecosystems. However, there is scarce data about the typology and the physical and chemical properties of the soils that determine the agricultural potential of vegas sites. Sampling of the main horizons of 47 soil profiles was conducted throughout the area. The profiles were described in the field and consequently classified according to the soil typology system of the WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006. Analyses of bulk and particle densities, capillary water capacity, pH (H2O, pH (CaCl2, texture, organic material, C:N ratio, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, N, P, Ca-Mg-K-Na, exchangeable Al,  extractable Al, sulfur SO4(2-, B, and micronutrients (Cu-Zn-Mn-Fe were carried out.  The most frequently recorded groups of soil types in the studied vegas were Histosols - peat soils (20 profiles, and Fluvisols (19. Gleysols (3, Vertisols (1, Regosols (3, Solonchaks (1 and Solonetzs (1 were detected with much less frequency. There is also considerable variability in soil properties among and within the groups of soil types. The principal differences between the Histosols and the Fluvisols are the content of organic matter (often peat, pH level (related to the absence/presence of carbonates and associated soil properties. Fluvisols are more susceptible to salinization under conditions of aridity, whereas the main threat to Histosols is artificial drainage.Las praderas húmedas (vegas de la zona de uso agropecuario de la Región de Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena son ecosistemas productivos e intensamente explotados. No obstante, los conocimientos de los factores edáficos que determinan el potencial de las vegas son escasos. En este trabajo se realizó el muestreo de los horizontes principales de 47 perfiles del suelo de distintos tipos de vegas de la zona. Los perfiles

  4. Recurrent mesoproterozoic continental magmatism in South-Central Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Svend; Andersen, Tom; Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    rocks and metasediments from the Byglandsfjorden supracrustal cover sequence, and metaigneous rocks which intruded the whole succession. The main crustal evolution took place from 1,550-1,020 Ma, beginning with the emplacement of juvenile tonalitic melts; the contribution of older crustal material......We report U-Pb dates and Lu-Hf isotope data, obtained by LAM-ICPMS, for zircons from metamorphic rocks of the Setesdalen valley, situated in the Telemark block south of the classic Telemark region of southern Norway. The samples include infracrustal rocks from the metamorphic basement, metaigneous...... is represented by supracrustal rocks, principally metarhyolites with minor mafic material and immature sediments of the Byglandsfjorden Group. The crust generation processes ended with the intrusion of diorites and granodiorites at 1,030 Ma, late in the Sveconorwegian orogeny. Regional processes of metamorphism...

  5. Late Cenozoic structure and stratigraphy of south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Fecht, K.R.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structural framework of the Columbia Basin began developing before Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) volcanism. Prior to 17.5 Ma, the eastern part of the basin was a relatively stable area, with a basement of Paleozoic and older crystalline rock. The western part was an area of subsidence in which large volumes of sediment and volcanic rocks accumulated. Concurrent with eruption of the CRBG, anticlinal ridges of the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) were growing under north-south compression. Topographic expression of these features was later masked by the large volume of CRBG basalt flowing west from fissures in the eastern Columbia Basin. The folds continued to develop after cessation of volcanism, leading to as much as 1,000 m of structural relief in the past 10 million years. Post-CRBG evolution of the Columbia Basin is recorded principally in folding and faulting in the YFB and sediments deposited in the basins. The accompanying tectonism resulted in lateral migration of major depositional systems into subsiding structural lows. Although known late Cenozoic faults are on anticlinal ridges, earthquake focal mechanisms and contemporary strain measurements indicate most stress release is occurring in the synclinal areas under north-south compression. There is no obvious correlation between focal mechanisms for earthquakes whose foci are in the CRBG and the location of known faults. High in situ stress values help to explain the occurrence of microseismicity in the Columbia Basin but not the pattern. Microseismicity appears to occur in unaltered fresh basalt. Faulted basalt associated with the YFB is highly brecciated and commonly altered to clay. The high stress, abundance of ground water in confined aquifers of the CRBG, and altered basalt in fault zones suggest that the frontal faults on the anticlinal ridges probably have some aseismic deformation. 85 refs

  6. Interpreting gravity anomalies in south Cameroon, central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadjou Jean Marie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The area involved in this study is the northern part of the Congo craton, located in south Cameroon, (2.5°N - 4.5°N, 11°E - 13°E. The study involved analysing gravity data to delineate major structures and faults in south Cameroon. The region’s Bouguer gravity is

  7. Landscape scale attributes of elk centers of activity in the central Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia H. Stubblefield; Kerri T. Vierling; Mark A. Rumble

    2006-01-01

    We researched the environmental attributes (n = 28) associated with elk (n = 50) summer range (1 May ­30 Sep) in the central Black Hills of South Dakota, USA, during 1998-­2001. We defined high-use areas or centers of activity as landscapes underlying large concentrations of elk locations resulting from the shared fidelity of...

  8. Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm

  9. Online Bibliographic Databases in South Central Pennsylvania: Current Status and Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles

    A survey of libraries in south central Pennsylvania was designed to identify those that are using or planning to use databases and assess their perceived training needs. This report describes the methodology and analyzes the responses received form the 57 libraries that completed the questionnaire. Data presented in eight tables are concerned with…

  10. Positions, Dispositions and Practices in Education Policy in Central and South East Europe (Research in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos Kecojevic, Živa; Gaber, Slavko

    2012-01-01

    In the article, we present the conceptualisation and selected results of ongoing research dealing with the particular area of top decision making in education in Central and South East Europe. Aiming at a Bourdieuian type of objectification of key agents of decision making in education--ministers--a group of researchers from the region is in the…

  11. Abundance of Armillaria within old-growth eastern hemlock stands in South-Central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Fromm; Donald D. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—In early summer 2002, 329 soil-sampling pits were dug within an old-growth, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) stand in south-central Pennsylvania recently infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). For comparison, 199 similar pits were dug in an adjacent hardwood stand. Rhizomorphs of...

  12. Lichen communities and species indicate climate thresholds in southeast and south-central Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather T. Root; Bruce. McCune; Sarah. Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Because of their unique physiology, lichen communities are highly sensitive to climatic conditions,making them ideal bioindicators for climate change. Southeast and south-central Alaska host diverse and abundant lichen communities and are faced with a more rapidly changing climate than many more southerly latitudes. We develop sensitive lichen-based indicators for...

  13. Determining habitat potential and surveying for nine rare plant species in south-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Clark; Christine M. Groebner

    2001-01-01

    In south-central Utah, lands within and adjacent to Capitol Reef National Park contain populations of nine rare plant species. In an effort to enhance the combined knowledge about these species, the Bureau of Land Management, the USDA Forest Service, and the National Park Service signed an Interagency Agreement and hired an interagency biologist and field crew to...

  14. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan

  15. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian)

  16. An Examination of Social Media Policy Usage of South Central United States' Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Virginia J.; Luse, Donna W.; Hodge, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Since the use of social media tools by universities has expanded exponentially, a university can easily find itself in a precarious situation in a moment's notice because social media tools have been used inadvertently. This study investigated the social media policies of AACSB-International accredited schools in the SREB South Central Region of…

  17. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  18. Forest health restoration in south-central Alaska: a problem analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; Jerry L. Boughton; Thomas M. Quigley

    2001-01-01

    A spruce beetle outbreak of unprecedented size and intensity killed most of the spruce trees on millions of acres of forest land in south-central Alaska in the 1990s. The tree mortality is affecting every component of the ecosystem, including the socioeconomic culture dependent on the resources of these vast forests. Based on information obtained through workshops and...

  19. From Central Asia to South Africa: In Search of Inspiration in Rock Art Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozwadowski Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the story of discovering South African rock art as an inspiration for research in completely different part of the globe, namely in Central Asia and Siberia. It refers to those aspect of African research which proved to importantly develop the understanding of rock art in Asia. Several aspects are addressed. First, it points to importance of rethinking of relationship between art, myth and ethnography, which in South Africa additionally resulted in reconsidering the ontology of rock images and the very idea of reading of rock art. From the latter viewpoint particularly inspiring appeared the idea of three-dimensionality of rock art ‘text’. The second issue of South African ‘origin,’ which notably inspired research all over the world, concerns a new theorizing of shamanism. The paper then discusses how and to what extent this new theory add to the research on the rock art in Siberia and Central Asia.

  20. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Flaxman, Seth R; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; Vijaya, Lingam; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R; Bourne, Rupert R A

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns and trends of vision impairment and its causes from 1990 to 2010 in Central and South Asia. Based on the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 and ongoing literature searches, we examined prevalence and causes of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity Central Asia, the estimated age-standardised prevalence of blindness decreased from 0.4% (95% CI 0.3% to 0.6%) to 0.2% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.3%) and of MSVI from 3.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 4.7%) to 1.9% (95% CI 1.2% to 3.2%), and in South Asia blindness decreased from 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 2.1%) to 1.1% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.3%) and MSVI from 8.9% (95% CI 6.9% to 10.9%) to 6.4% (95% CI 5.2% to 8.2%). In 2010, 135 000 (95% CI 99,000 to 194,000) people were blind in Central Asia and 10,600,000 (95% CI 8,397,000 to 12,500,000) people in South Asia. MSVI was present in 1,178,000 (95% CI 772,000 to 2,243,000) people in the Central Asia, and in 71,600,000 (95% CI 57,600,000 to 92,600,000) people in South Asia. Women were generally more often affected than men. The leading causes of blindness (cataract) and MSVI (undercorrected refractive error) did not change from 1990 to 2010. The prevalence of blindness and MSVI in South Asia is still three times higher than in Central Asia and globally, with women generally more often affected than women. In both regions, cataract and undercorrected refractive error were major causes of blindness and MSVI.

  1. Transit traverse in Missouri, 1900-1937. Part 2, South-central Missouri, 1908-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staack, John George

    1940-01-01

    This bulletin, which for convenience is to be published in eight parts, contains the results of all transit traverse* done In Missouri through 1937 by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, including those heretofore published. (See page X.) Each of the parts deals with one of eight sections into which the State has been divided for this purpose and which have been designated northeastern, northwestern, southeastern, southwestern, central, east-central, south-central, and west-central Missouri. In each part descriptions of the points for which geodetic positions have been determined are listed according to the quadrangles in which the points occur. Results of transit traverse other than that done by the Geological Survey have not been included.South-central Missouri, as the term is used in this bulletin and as the subject of part 2 of the bulletin, is that section of the State lying south of latittude, 38°00' and between longitudes 91°15' and 93°00'.

  2. Caracterización de agregaciones de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus en la zona centro-sur de Chile Characterization of Chilean hoki (Macruronus magellanicus aggregations off central-southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Queirolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización mensual de las agregaciones de merluza de cola usando registros acústicos obtenidos por equipos SIMRAD EK60 y ES60 a bordo de tres embarcaciones multipropósito que operaron en la Unidad de Pesquería Centro-Sur durante el año 2003, para lo cual se emplearon descriptores morfológicos y batimétricos. En cuanto a su morfología, las agregaciones mostraron una amplia variabilidad, explicada por su nivel de cohesión y tendencia a formar agregaciones de gran extensión horizontal, mientras que batimétricamente se determinó que el 90% de éstas se ubicaron preferentemente entre 300 y 450 m. Existe evidencia de asociación entre diversos descriptores y estos a su vez con otros factores como talla media, temperatura del agua, latitud y mes, lo que permite describir apropiadamente la forma de las agregaciones y su ubicación en la columna de agua. Algunas relaciones relevantes corresponden a: profundidad de las agregaciones respecto a la profundidad del fondo (r = 0,55, altitud de las agregaciones respecto a la profundidad del fondo (r = 0,72, altitud de las agregaciones respecto al índice de profundidad relativa (r = -0,98 y profundidad de las agregaciones respecto a la talla media (r = 0,66.A monthly characterization of Chilean hoki aggregations was done using acoustic records ob-tained with SIMRAD EK60 and ES60 devices aboard three multipurpose vessels that operated in the central-southern fishery unit during 2003; this considered morphological and bathymetric descriptors. The wide mor-phological variation of the aggregations was explained by their cohesión level and tendency to form large horizontal aggregations whereas, bathymetrically, 90% of the aggregations were located between 300 and 450 m. Evidence of associations between various descriptors was found, and these were, in turn, associated with other factors such as mean size, water temperature, latitude, and month, allowing an adequate description of the

  3. From The Mountain To The Sea: Exchange Between The South-Central Highlands And The South Coast During The Early Horizon Period

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence of the exchange of obsidian and cinnabar, highly coveted resources that traveled in prehistoric Peru from the south-central highlands to the Paracas culture area. The evidence for exchange of these materials is compared with evidence of cultural exchange between the coast and the south-central highlands, focusing on ceramic materials uncovered from excavations at the archaeological site Atalla, located in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. The article argues t...

  4. Tectonic recherche of the central, south and sotheast regions of the peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote, R.; Goy, J.L.; Zazo, C.; Carbo, A.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L.; Hernandez Enrile, J.L.; Urbanell, A.G.; Vegas, R.

    1984-01-01

    The research works done on neotectonics and its applications in the central region of the Peninsule (Central System, Tajo and Duero Tertiary Basins and Iberian Range), in the South and Southeast Regions (Provinces of Cadiz, Huelva, Almeria and Murcia) and in the Eastern Region (Province of Valencia and northern part of Alicante) are presented. In these regions, the analysis of the postmiocene tectonic is studied in the continental and coastal areas, using several different technics, from tectonic, geophysic and remote sensing methods to geomorphologic methods. (author)

  5. Latitudinal variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity in the active Chilean convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Enrique G.; Venegas, Patricio; Laroze, David

    2018-03-01

    We present a different view of secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, through the variations in the threshold rigidity known as the variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (VRc). As the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (Rc) lets us differentiate between charged particle trajectories arriving at the Earth and the Earth's magnetic field, we used the VRc to look for internal variations in the latter, close to the 70° south meridian. Due to the fact that the empirical data of total magnetic field BF and vertical magnetic field Bz obtained at Putre (OP) and Los Cerrillos (OLC) stations are consistent with the displacement of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly (SAMA), we detected that the VRc does not fully correlate to SAMA in central Chile. Besides, the lower section of VRc seems to correlate perfectly with important geological features, like the flat slab in the active Chilean convergent margin. Based on this, we next focused our attention on the empirical variations of the vertical component of the magnetic field Bz, recorded in OP prior to the Maule earthquake in 2010, which occurred in the middle of the Chilean flat slab. We found a jump in Bz values and main frequencies from 3.510 to 5.860 µHz, in the second derivative of Bz, which corresponds to similar magnetic behavior found by other research groups, but at lower frequency ranges. Then, we extended this analysis to other relevant subduction seismic events, like Sumatra in 2004 and Tohoku in 2011, using data from the Guam station. Similar records and the main frequencies before each event were found. Thus, these results seem to show that magnetic anomalies recorded on different timescales, as VRc (decades) and Bz (days), may correlate with some geological events, as the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC).

  6. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  7. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-03-01

    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  8. Enculturating environments: rock art and the archaeology of interior south-central California

    OpenAIRE

    Sturt, Fraser C.; Robinson, David; Bernard, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    The disarticulation of rock art from the archaeological record and its changing environment remains a primary obstacle facing many rock art researchers across the globe, but particularly in the American Far West, and California specifically (Robinson & Sturt 2009). A schism, so to speak, exists between the archaeological record and rock art as well as 'dirt' archaeologists and rock art specialists. This is because, in California, and particularly in the rock art rich area of south-central...

  9. The effect of a local source on the composition of precipitation in south-central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Boyce; Samuel S. Butcher

    1976-01-01

    Bulk precipitation samples were collected from ten sites in south-central Maine during the period 18 June to 30 September 1974. Data from the chemical analyses of the precipitation were used to determine regional deposition patterns of the ionic constituents. Acidic pH values ranging from 3.8 to 5.0 are characteristic of the region, but relatively alkaline pH values of...

  10. Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    De La Rocque et al. 2011) and their spread into higher elevations of Africa, Latin America , and Asia (Epstein 2001). Dengue fever and...denguehemorrhagic fever have resurgeddramatically in Latin America (Zell 2004). In North America ,West Nile virus has impacted signiÞcantly the health and welfare of...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central , and South America KENDRA

  11. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian) sedimentary basins, and the influence of Late Paleozoic faulting on the underlying Variscan basement. The present structure of the basement is rather complex as it results from multiple Variscan an...

  12. Fire and climate suitability for woody vegetation communities in the south central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther; Struckhoff, Matthew; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Guyette, Richard P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate and fire are primary drivers of plant species distributions. Long-term management of south central United States woody vegetation communities can benefit from information on potential changes in climate and fire frequencies, and how these changes might affect plant communities. We used historical (1900 to 1929) and future (2040 to 2069 and 2070 to 2099) projected climate data for the conterminous US to estimate reference and future fire probabilities

  13. Seroprevalence and awareness of porcine cysticercosis across different pig production systems in south-central Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderosoye Adenuga

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite most pigs being kept confined in pens rather than raised in free-roaming systems, porcine cysticercosis appears to be endemic in south-central Cambodia and is associated with smallholder production. Further investigation is needed to identify which Taenia species are causing infections among pigs, and how seroprevalence and zoonotic risk may vary across the country, to understand the risks to public health and assess where interventions might be needed.

  14. Tribal engagement strategy of the South Central Climate Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Taylor, April; Winton, Kimberly T.

    2014-01-01

    The South Central Climate Science Center was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 2012 to increase understanding of climate change and coordinate an effective response to climate-change effects on Native American tribes and natural and cultural resources that the Department manages. The eight regional Climate Science Centers of the U.S. Department of the Interior work closely with natural-resource management agencies, university researchers, and others such as tribes and private landowners on climate-change issues. The relatively large number of Native Americans in the south central United States and their special knowledge of changing ecosystems make working with tribes and tribal members on climate-change issues particularly important in this part of the Nation. This circular describes priorities of the South Central Climate Science Center and provides information about resources available from Climate Science Centers and partner agencies regarding climate change. The circular also describes how this Climate Science Center, tribes and tribal members, and others can collaborate to minimize potential harmful effects of climate change on human society and our surrounding ecosystems.

  15. Mio-Pliocene aridity in the south-central Andes associated with Southern Hemisphere cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, William H; Fisher, G Burch; Burbank, Douglas W; Ciccioli, Patricia L; Alonso, Ricardo N; Gorin, Andrew L; Silverhart, Perri H; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C; Christoffersen, Michael S

    2017-06-20

    Although Earth's climate history is best known through marine records, the corresponding continental climatic conditions drive the evolution of terrestrial life. Continental conditions during the latest Miocene are of particular interest because global faunal turnover is roughly synchronous with a period of global glaciation from ∼6.2-5.5 Ma and with the Messinian Salinity Crisis from ∼6.0-5.3 Ma. Despite the climatic and ecological significance of this period, the continental climatic conditions associated with it remain unclear. We address this question using erosion rates of ancient watersheds to constrain Mio-Pliocene climatic conditions in the south-central Andes near 30° S. Our results show two slowdowns in erosion rate, one from ∼6.1-5.2 Ma and another from 3.6 to 3.3 Ma, which we attribute to periods of continental aridity. This view is supported by synchrony with other regional proxies for aridity and with the timing of glacial ‟cold" periods as recorded by marine proxies, such as the M2 isotope excursion. We thus conclude that aridity in the south-central Andes is associated with cold periods at high southern latitudes, perhaps due to a northward migration of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, which disrupted the South American Low Level Jet that delivers moisture to southeastern South America. Colder glacial periods, and possibly associated reductions in atmospheric CO 2 , thus seem to be an important driver of Mio-Pliocene ecological transitions in the central Andes. Finally, this study demonstrates that paleo-erosion rates can be a powerful proxy for ancient continental climates that lie beyond the reach of most lacustrine and glacial archives.

  16. Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaib Ammari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will size an optimum hybrid central content three different generators, two on renewable energy (solar photovoltaic and wind power and two nonrenewable (diesel generator and storage system because the new central generator has started to consider the green power technology in order for best future to the world, this central will use all the green power resource available and distributes energy to a small isolated village in southwest of Algeria named “Timiaouine”. The consumption of this village estimated with detailed in two season; season low consumption (winter and high consumption (summer, the hybrid central will be optimized by program Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER PRO, this program will simulate in two configuration, the first with storage system, the second without storage system and in the end the program HOMER PRO will choose the best configuration which is the mixture of both economic and ecologic configurations, this central warrants the energetic continuity of village. Article History: Received May 18th 2017; Received in revised form July 17th 2017; Accepted Sept 3rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ammari, C., Hamouda,M., and Makhloufi,S. (2017 Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3, 263-272. http://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.263-272

  17. Warm and Dry Spells (WDS in Austral Winter over Central South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Satyamurty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.

  18. Early urban and colonized regions of central and south Italy : A case study in comparative landscape archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, P; Darvill, T; Gojda, M

    2001-01-01

    Systematic field surveys and topographical research undertaken to date in various Italian regions south of Rome shou, that responses to early urbanization in central and south Italy, and the interplay of early urbanization with Greek and Roman colonization, differed widely between regions. In this

  19. A 600-year-long stratigraphic record of tsunamis in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Isabel; Dura, Tina; Ely, Lisa L.; Horton, Benajamin P.; Nelson, Alan R.; Cisternas, Marco; Nikitina, Daria; Wesson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    The stratigraphy within coastal river valleys in south-central Chile clarifies and extends the region’s history of large, earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis. Our site at Quidico (38.1°S, 73.3°W) is located in an overlap zone between ruptures of magnitude 8–9 earthquakes in 1960 and 2010, and, therefore, records tsunamis originating from subduction-zone ruptures north and south of the city of Concepción. Hand-dug pits and cores in a 3-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat in an abandoned meander (a little-examined depositional environment for tsunami deposits) and exposures along the Quidico River show five sand beds that extend as much as 1.2 km inland. Evidence for deposition of the beds by tsunamis includes tabular sand beds that are laterally extensive (>100 m), well sorted, fine upward, have sharp lower contacts, and contain diatom assemblages dominated by brackish and marine taxa. Using eyewitness accounts of tsunami inundation, 137Cs analyses, and 14C dating, we matched the upper four sand beds with historical tsunamis in 2010, 1960, 1835, and 1751. The oldest prehistoric bed dates to 1445–1490 CE and correlates with lacustrine and coastal records of similar-aged earthquakes and tsunamis in south-central Chile.

  20. IAU South West and Central Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hakopian, S. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced its Strategic Plan on Astronomy for Development in 2009, during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). One of its main components was the creation of the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and corresponding Regional Offices (ROADs) for implementation and coordination of its aims. The OAD was created in Cape Town, South Africa and later on ROADs were created in 8 regions. Since 2015, Armenia hosts one of them, IAU South West Asian (SWA), later renamed to South West and Central Asian (SWCA) ROAD. At present, already 6 countries have officially joined (Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Turkey), but the Office serves for a rather broad region, from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. Armenia's geographical location and its historical role in astronomy (both for well-known archaeoastronomical heritage and the presence of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) founded by Viktor Ambartsumian in 1946) serve as a link between Europe and Eastern Partnership countries, Middle East and Asia in general. We run activities in 3 directions, Task Forces (TF): TF1 Universities and Research, TF2 Children and Schools and TF3 Public Outreach. We present our projects and all other accomplishments and discuss the role of our ROAD in maintaining contacts and development of astronomy in the region, as well as contacts between Europe and the Eastern Partnership countries. Most up-to-date information about the IAU SWCA ROAD is available on its webpage at http://iau-swa-road.aras.am/eng/index.php.

  1. Cretaceous alkaline volcanism in south Marzanabad, northern central Alborz, Iran: Geochemistry and petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Doroozi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The alkali-basalt and basaltic trachy-andesites volcanic rocks of south Marzanabad were erupted during Cretaceous in central Alborz, which is regarded as the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Based on petrography and geochemistry, en route fractional crystallization of ascending magma was an important process in the evolution of the volcanic rocks. Geochemical characteristics imply that the south Marzanabad alkaline basaltic magma was originated from the asthenospheric mantle source, whereas the high ratios of (La/YbN and (Dy/YbN are related to the low degree of partial melting from the garnet bearing mantle source. Enrichment pattern of Nb and depletion of Rb, K and Y, are similar to the OIB pattern and intraplate alkaline magmatic rocks. The K/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios of volcanic rocks range from 62 to 588 and from 4.27 to 9 respectively, that are some higher in more evolved samples which may reflect minor crustal contamination. The isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd respectively vary from 0.70370 to 0.704387 and from 0.51266 to 0.51281 that suggest the depleted mantle as a magma source. The development of south Marzanabad volcanic rocks could be related to the presence of extensional phase, upwelling and decompressional melting of asthenospheric mantle in the rift basin which made the alkaline magmatism in Cretaceous, in northern central Alborz of Iran.

  2. Deglaciation events in part of the Manchester South 7.5' quadrangle south-central New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.

    1971-01-01

    The study-area lies in south-central New Hampshire, and is bordered on the west by the Merrimack River, the principal north-south drainage route of central New Hampshire. The classical two tills of New England outcrop in the area. In a unique exposure of the sandy upper till, a loose ablation unit overlies a compact basal unit. Both upper till facies overlie a sheared section of dense, olive-gray lower till. Outwash sequences mapped in the study-area are progressively younger to the north, indicating backwastage of the Wisconsinan ice sheet. Primary structures in proglacial Lake Merrimack sediments include contorted bedding, buckled laminae, and folds. A large slumped section in lake sediments exhibits three distinct deformation zones, characterized by brittle, ductile, and unconsolidated deformation. Cross-cutting relationships establish four fold generations and a deformation sequence in the slumped section. Slip in each fold generation was along nearly parallel slip-lines, as deduced from analyses of fold rotation senses. The primary and slump deformation features contrast sharply with the intense style of deformation of lake beds below till at an apparent ice readvance cut. The deduced drag fold slip-line agrees with till fabric point maxima and dip-slip on one group of thrust faults. A southerly movement of readvancing ice is inferred.The study-area was deglaciated about 13,000 years ago, according to a proposed deglaciation model for New Hampshire. The model is based on Nye's theoretical glacier surface gradient, and evidence for active retreat of the Wisconsinan ice sheet.

  3. [Motivations and barriers of chilean children; threats or opportunities for the implementation of 2013 food based dietary guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; González, Carmen Gloria

    2014-08-01

    Implementation of the updated Food Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) for the Chilean population requires the design of innovative strategies and effective. To determine motivations and barriers for children and mothers of preschool-age children to follow new FBDG messages, aiming to identify challenges and opportunities for designing effective communication and implementation strategies. A qualitative study based on 12 focus groups of 9 to 13 age children and 6 focus groups of mothers of preschool-age children, living in the north, central and south regions of the country, to analyze their reaction to each one of the 2013 FBDG messages. Answers of children and mothers did not show differences by gender (in the case of the children) or region of the country. Results show the most frequent and representative comments regarding each message. Challenges to reducing the consumption of foods high in energy, fat, sugar and salt include advertisements and plentiful supply and low prices for these types of foods, both in the school environment and on the street. Opportunities identified included the advertisement of fruits, vegetables and dairy products to promote their consumption, as well as the coming implementation of Law 20.606, which is expected to be an effective way to support this initiative. The results of this study show that the design of strategies based on values, desires and needs of different groups will contribute to optimizing the implementation of the 2013 Chilean FBDG. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding morphological variability in a taxonomic context in Chilean diplomystids (Teleostei: Siluriformes, including the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Arratia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus and is diagnosed. An identification key to the Chilean species, including the new species, is presented. All specific diagnoses are based on external morphological characters, such as aspects of the skin, neuromast lines, and main lateral line, and position of the anus and urogenital pore, as well as certain osteological characters to facilitate the identification of these species that previously was based on many internal characters. Diplomystids below 150 mm standard length (SL share a similar external morphology and body proportions that make identification difficult; however, specimens over 150 mm SL can be diagnosed by the position of the urogenital pore and anus, and a combination of external and internal morphological characters. According to current knowledge, diplomystid species have an allopatric distribution with each species apparently endemic to particular basins in continental Chile and one species (O. viedmensis known only from one river in the Chilean Patagonia, but distributed extensively in southern Argentina.

  5. Head and neck cancer burden and preventive measures in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Sandra; Martin Roa, Guillermo; Brennan, Paul; Forman, David; Sierra, Mónica S

    2016-09-01

    Central and South America comprise one of the areas characterized by high incidence rates for head and neck cancer. We describe the geographical and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of head and neck cancers in the Central and South American region in order to identify opportunities for intervention on the major identified risk factors: tobacco control, alcohol use and viral infections. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years were estimated. Brazil had the highest incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer in the region for both sexes, followed by Cuba, Uruguay and Argentina. Cuba had the highest incidence and mortality rates of laryngeal cancer in the region for males and females. Overall, males had rates about four times higher than those in females. Most countries in the region have implemented WHO recommendations for both tobacco and alcohol public policy control. Head and neck squamous-cell cancer (HNSCC) incidence and mortality rates in the Central and South America region vary considerably across countries, with Brazil, Cuba, French Guyana, Uruguay and Argentina experiencing the highest rates in the region. Males carry most of the HNSCC burden. Improvement and implementation of comprehensive tobacco and alcohol control policies as well as the monitoring of these factors are fundamental to prevention of head and neck cancers in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Palynological and iridium anomalies at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, south-central Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D.J.; Jarzen, D.M.; Orth, C.J.; Oliver, P.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in south-central Saskatchewan is marked by coincident anomalies in abundance of iridium and fern spores at the extinction level of a suite of Cretaceous pollen taxa. Evidence of disruption of the terrestrial flora includes the fern-spore abundance anomaly and local extinction of as much as 30 percent of angiosperm species. The reorganized earliest Tertiary flora is made up largely of surviving species that assumed new roles of dominance. Persistence of climatically sensitive taxa across the boundary indicates that if paleoclimate was altered by the terminal Cretaceous event, it returned quickly to the pre-event condition.

  7. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Krizler C. Tanalgo; John Aries G. Tabora

    2015-01-01

    The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species we...

  8. Unretrieved shooting loss of mourning doves in north-central South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Unretrieved loss for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in north-central South Carolina was between 27 and 41 percent of the retrieved kill for the 1973 through 1975 hunting seasons based on 1,396 doves shot by 281 hunters. Dove hunters hunted in groups, fired 8.6 shots per retrieved dove, and engaged in a substantial number of illegal activities. Increased dove populations and hunter bag resulted in increased unretrieved loss, numbers of shots per bagged bird, and illegal activities. Retriever dogs increased the efficiency of dove hunters.

  9. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  10. Spectra of the earthquake sequence February-March, 1981, in south-central Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    O. Kulhánek; T. van Eck; N. John; K. Meyer; Rutger Wahlström

    1983-01-01

    On February 13, 1981, a relatively strong earthquake occurred in the Lake Vanern region in south-central Sweden. The shock had a magnitude of M"SUB L" = 3.3 and was followed within three weeks by three aftershocks, with magnitudes 0.5 = or < M"SUB L" = or < 1.0. The focal mechanism solution of the main shock indicates reverse faulting with a strike in the N-S or NE-SW direction and a nearly horizontal compressional stress. The aftershocks were too small to yield data for a full mechanism solu...

  11. Geologic map of the Alamosa 30’ × 60’ quadrangle, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Michael N. Machette,; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-10-15

    The Alamosa 30'× 60' quadrangle is located in the central San Luis Basin of southern Colorado and is bisected by the Rio Grande. The Rio Grande has headwaters in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado and ultimately discharges into the Gulf of Mexico 3,000 kilometers (km) downstream. Alluvial floodplains and associated deposits of the Rio Grande and east-draining tributaries, La Jara Creek and Conejos River, occupy the north-central and northwestern part of the map area. Alluvial deposits of west-draining Rio Grande tributaries, Culebra and Costilla Creeks, bound the Costilla Plain in the south-central part of the map area. The San Luis Hills, a northeast-trending series of flat-topped mesas and hills, dominate the landscape in the central and southwestern part of the map and preserve fault-bound Neogene basin surfaces and deposits. The Precambrian-cored Sangre de Cristo Mountains rise to an elevation of nearly 4,300 meters (m), almost 2,000 m above the valley floor, in the eastern part of the map area. In total, the map area contains deposits that record surficial, tectonic, sedimentary, volcanic, magmatic, and metamorphic processes over the past 1.7 billion years.

  12. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  13. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEED YIELD OF BROAD BEANS IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL ZONE OF THE SOUTH OF THE CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kurkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich in high quality protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids and trace elements seeds, green fruits and young leaves broad beans (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz has long been used in the food, and the culture of beans are promising in biological agriculture and horticulture. The aim of this work was to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans in the South Central zone of the region. At the Botanical garden BelSU (Belgorod to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans (Belarusiskie, Velena, Russkie chernie, Aquadul and determined the biochemical composition of seeds. Optimal height of attachment of the first fruit for mechanical harvesting (20-25 cm characteristic of plants of all studied varieties. Weight of the fetus, according to the coefficient of variability, equal to 45%, distinguished by a strong variability on grades with a maximum grade of Velena. The length of fruit ranged from 9 to 13 cm and were characterized by moderate variability (V=20%. Seeds production is determinened not only by size of fruits of beans, but and its important components such as 1000 seed weight. Protein content in the seeds at 30% different varieties of broad beans domestic breeding. Contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and iron is higher in the cotyledons than in the skin. Dark purple color of the seed varieties of Russian black is due to the biosynthesis useful for human organism anthocyanins in seed peel.

  14. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

  15. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American grey fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Yáñez, José; Norambuena, Heraldo V; Zúñiga, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    The South American grey fox Lycalopex griseus is a canid widely distributed in southern South America; however, some aspects of its biology are still poorly known. We studied the diet and density of L. griseus in the Lago Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, in Central Chile. The trophic niche breadth was B = 6.16 (B sta = 0.47) and prey diversity was H' = 2.46 (H max ' = 3.17, J' = 0.78). The highest proportions of prey consumed in the diet were Oryctolagus cuniculus (52.21%) and other mammals (32.78%). We compared these results with a latitudinal gradient of diet results for this species in Chile. L. griseus eats mostly mammals (>90% of total prey), consuming the rodent Phyllotis darwini and reptiles in the northern zone; Oryctolagus cuniculus, Octodon degus and Abrocoma bennetti in the central zone; Abrothrix spp. and lagomorphs in the southern zone; and Lepus capensis and Ovis aries in the austral zone. The estimated density of L. griseus in Lago Peñuelas NR was 1.3 foxes/km 2 . © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

    2010-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

  17. Lead in drinking water: sampling in primary schools and preschools in south central Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anne R; Steele, Janet E

    2012-03-01

    Studies in Philadelphia, New York City, Houston, Washington, DC, and Greenville, North Carolina, have revealed high lead levels in drinking water. Unlike urban areas, lead levels in drinking water in suburban and rural areas have not been adequately studied. In the study described in this article, drinking water in primary schools and preschools in five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns was sampled to determine if any exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) guidance level for schools and child care facilities of 20 parts per billion (ppb). The results showed a total of 32.1% of the samples had detectable lead levels and 3.6% exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance level for schools and child care providers of 20 ppb. These results indicate that about one-third of the drinking water consumed by children age six and under in the five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns studied has some lead contamination, exposing these children to both short-term and long-term health risks. The authors suggest a need for increased surveillance of children's drinking water in these facilities.

  18. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara; Fernández, Laura; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia; Moirano, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based GNSS products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, seven-year long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay (Bianchi et al. 2016). As preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2% per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model fairly reproduces the observed mean delays, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited form the underling atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available at a scientific repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858234). References: C. Bianchi, L. Mendoza, L. Fernandez, M. P. Natali, A. Meza, J. F. Moirano, Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies, Ann. Geophys., ISSN 0992-7689, eISSN 1432-0576, 34 (7), 623-639 (doi:10.5194/angeo-34-623-2016).

  19. Occurrence of Coccolithophorids in the Northeastern and Central South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Nan Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophorids in the northeastern and central South China Sea (SCS were surveyed in March and October 1996. The cell density of coccolithophorids ranged from 25 x 103 cells L-1 to 31 x 103 cells L-1 in sea-surface water (0–25 m in depth, and from 12 x 103 cells L-1 to 62 x 103 cells L-1 in subsurface water (150 m in depth. The lowest cell number was recorded in the subsurface (150 m in depth in the central gyral area, while the highest one was at the same depth in the northeastern realm. A total of thirty-one species were identified. The species richness in the northeastern SCS is higher than in the central area. Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann Hay et Mohler, Gephyrocapsa oceanica Kamptner, Umbellosphaera Paasche spp. And Syracosphaera Lohmann spp. Dominated the surface assemblages, whereas Florisphaera profunda Okada et Honjo, Gladiolithus flabellatus (Halldal et Markali Jordan et Chamberlain predominated in the subsurface layer. In contrast, Palusphaera vandeli Lecal emend. R. E. Norris presented in both surface and subsurface assemblages.

  20. Melittofauna and Other Potential Pollinators in Wetland and Uplands in South Central Nebraska (Insecta: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cynthia N; Overall, Lisa M; Smith, Loren M; Lagrange, Ted; McMurry, Scott

    2017-03-10

    Our objective was to document potential wild pollinating insects in south central Nebraska. This intensively cultivated region is known as the Rainwater Basin and contains some of the most endangered wetland systems in North America. We used blue vane traps to passively collect insects and insect nets to actively collect on flowering plants from April through October in 2014 and 2015. Habitat types included playa wetlands, adjacent mixed and tallgrass prairies, and agricultural fields. Over 112,000 insects were collected; Hymenoptera represented 78% of the total, and the families Apidae and Halictidae comprised 99% of the total melittofauna. Insects from 13 orders were collected, but Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera were the most abundant potential pollinators.

  1. Modeling Prices for Sawtimber Stumpage in the South-Central United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Parajuli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central United States, which includes the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Arkansas, represents an important segment of the softwood sawtimber market. By using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR method to account for the linkage among the four contiguous timber markets, this study examines the dynamics of softwood sawtimber stumpage markets within the region. Based on quarterly data from 1981 to 2014, the findings reveal that both pulpwood and chip-and-saw (CNS prices have a positive influence on the Texas and Arkansas sawtimber markets. Moreover, Granger-causality tests suggest that unidirectional causality runs from pulpwood and CNS markets to the respective sawtimber market. Compared to the pre-financial crisis period, sawtimber prices in these four states are 9%–17% lower in the recent years.

  2. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorneles@biof.ufrj.br; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta [Centro de Pesquisa e Gestao de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Sudeste e Sul, IBAMA, 88301-700 Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: gibteuthis@yahoo.com.br; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto [Laboratorio de Dinamica de Populacoes Marinhas, UNIRIO, 22290-240 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauloascosta@uol.com.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: azevedo.alex@uol.com.br; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in {mu}g/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 {mu}g/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods.

  3. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in μg/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 μg/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods

  4. Factors affecting condom usage among college students in South Central Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    The absence of consistent and correct usage of condoms increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS. However, most studies done to date across the nation indicate a low usage of condoms among college students. This study identifies protective and risk factors associated with condom use among college students. The National College Health Assessment was administered to a random sample of students at a state comprehensive university in south central Kentucky. Findings revealed that among the sexually active students, approximately half never used condoms during vaginal intercourse. Further, among students engaging in oral sex, an alarmingly high proportion (95%) reported never using a condom during this act. These findings, along with differences noted in various subgroups (gender, housing, class standing), and other risk behaviors (alcohol, illicit drug use) are discussed.

  5. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott; Osborn, Noel I.; Neel, Christopher R.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Puckette, James; Pantea, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. Proposed development of water supplies from the aquifer led to concerns that large-scale withdrawals of water would cause decreased flow in rivers and springs, which in turn could result in the loss of water supplies, recreational opportunities, and aquatic habitat. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board, in collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Oklahoma, studied the aquifer to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board the scientific information needed to determine the volume of water that could be withdrawn while protecting springs and streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in coopertion with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, did a study to describe the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow of the aquifer.

  6. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  7. Presence of the tunicate Asterocarpa humilis on ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pinochet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-native ascidians are important members of the fouling community associated with artificial substrata and man-made structures. Being efficient fouling species, they are easily spread by human-mediated transports (e.g., with aquaculture trade and maritime transports. This is exemplified by the ascidian Asterocarpa humilis which displays a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere and has been recently reported in the Northern Hemisphere (NW Europe. In continental Chile, its first report dates back from 2000 for the locality of Antofagasta (23°S. Although there was no evidence about the vectors of introduction and spread, nor the source, some authors suggested maritime transport by ship hulls and aquaculture devices as putative introduction pathways and vectors. In the present study, we report for the first time the presence of A. humilis on the hull of an international ship in a commercial port in Concepción bay (36°S, south central Chile. We also found one individual associated to a seashell farm, 70 km far from Concepción bay. Further individuals were subsequently identified within Concepción bay: one juvenile settled upon international harbor pilings and a dozen individuals along aquaculture seashell longlines. For the first specimens sampled, species identification was ascertained using both morphological criteria and molecular barcoding, using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and a nuclear gene (ribosomal RNA 18S. The nuclear 18S gene and the mitochondrial gene COI clearly assigned the specimens to A. humilis, confirming our morphological identification. Two haplotypes were obtained with COI corresponding to haplotypes previously obtained with European and Northern Chilean specimens. The present study thus reports for the first time the presence of A. humilis in the Araucanian ecoregion, documenting the apparent expansion of this non-native tunicate in Chile over 2,000 km, spanning over three ecoregions

  8. The importance and quality of cluster governance in the Chilean wine industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.J.; Langen, de P.W.

    2006-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the issue of the governance of cooperation within the Chilean wine industry. The effects of the internationalization of this industry for the importance and the quality of governance of intra-cluster cooperation involving firms and other actors are analysed. Two

  9. Proposals to enhance thermal efficiency programs and air pollution control in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2015-01-01

    Major cities in South-central Chile suffer high levels of particulate matter PM 10 and PM 2.5 due to combustion of solid fuels for heating. Exposure to these air pollutants is recognized as a major contribution to ill health in the region. Here we discuss new strategies to reduce air pollution. Regulations and subsidies focusing on improved combustion by providing drier wood fuel and better stoves have been in effect since 2007. However, air pollution due to combustion of wood fuel has been steadily rising, along with reports on health consequences. The paper analyzes a survey of 2025 households in the city of Valdivia, which found that wood fuel quality, stove renewal, and awareness of programs are strongly affected by income level, and that higher consumption of wood fuel is found in households already having better stoves and drier wood fuel. The analysis suggests that regulations intended to improve combustion are influenced by user's behavior and have limited potential for lowering pollution. We conclude that thermal refurbishment has a larger potential for improvement, not yet been implemented as an energy policy for the majority. Here we propose improvements and additions to current programs to enhance effectiveness and cover the whole social spectrum. - Highlights: • High levels of PM 2.5 from wood combustion affect cities of south-central Chile. • Current programs on dry wood fuel and stoves renewal have not reduced air pollution. • Real operation of wood stoves strongly depends on user's behavior. • Buildings' energy efficiency has greater potential for reducing emissions. • Retrofit prevents degradation of native forest and improves indoor temperature

  10. P and S wave Coda Calibration in Central Asia and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Mayeda, K.; Gok, R.; Barno, J.; Roman-Nieves, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    Empirically derived coda source spectra provide unbiased, absolute moment magnitude (Mw) estimates for events that are normally too small for accurate long-period waveform modeling. In this study, we obtain coda-derived source spectra using data from Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan networks - KN and KR, and Tajikistan - TJ) and South Korea (Korea Meteorological Administration, KMA). We used a recently developed coda calibration module of Seismic WaveForm Tool (SWFT). Seismic activities during this recording period include the recent Gyeongju earthquake of Mw=5.3 and its aftershocks, two nuclear explosions from 2009 and 2013 in North Korea, and a small number of construction and mining-related explosions. For calibration, we calculated synthetic coda envelopes for both P and S waves based on a simple analytic expression that fits the observed narrowband filtered envelopes using the method outlined in Mayeda et al. (2003). To provide an absolute scale of the resulting source spectra, path and site corrections are applied using independent spectral constraints (e.g., Mw and stress drop) from three Kyrgyzstan events and the largest events of the Gyeongju sequence in Central Asia and South Korea, respectively. In spite of major tectonic differences, stable source spectra were obtained in both regions. We validated the resulting spectra by comparing the ratio of raw envelopes and source spectra from calibrated envelopes. Spectral shapes of earthquakes and explosions show different patterns in both regions. We also find (1) the source spectra derived from S-coda is more robust than that from the P-coda at low frequencies; (2) unlike earthquake events, the source spectra of explosions have a large disagreement between P and S waves; and (3) similarity is observed between 2016 Gyeongju and 2011 Virginia earthquake sequence in the eastern U.S.

  11. Chilean Antarctic Stations on King George Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutada Kaminuma

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of my visit to Chilean Antarctic Stations was to assess the present status of geophysical observations and research, as the South Shetland Island, West Antarctica, where the stations are located, are one of the most active tectonic regions on the Antarctic plate. The Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH kindly gave me a chance to stay in Frei/Escudero Bases as an exchange scientist under the Antarctic Treaty for two weeks in January 2000. I stayed in Frei Base as a member of a geological survey group named "Tectonic Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula" which was organized by Prof. F. Herve, University of Chile, from January 05 to 19,2000. All my activity in the Antarctic was organized by INACH. During my stay in Frei Base, I also visited Bellingshausen (Russian, Great Wall (China and Artigas (Uruguay stations. All these stations are located within walking distance of Frei Base. King Sejong Station (Korea, located 10km east from Frei Base, and Jubany Base (Argentine, another 6km south-east from King Sejong Station, were also visited with the aid of a zodiac boat that was kindly operated for us by King Sejong Station. All stations except Escudero Base carry out meteorological observations. The seismological observations in Frei Base are operated by Washington State University of the U. S. monitoring of earthquake activity and three-component geomagnetic observations are done at King Sejong and Great Wall stations. Earth tide is monitored at Artigas Base. Continuous monitoring of GPS and gravity change are planned at King Sejong Station in the near future. Scientific research activities of each country in the area in the 1999/2000 Antarctic summer season were studied and the logistic ability of all stations was also assessed for our future international cooperation.

  12. Presence of rapidly degrading permafrost plateaus in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Baughman, Carson; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Parsekian, Andrew D.; Babcock, Esther; Stephani, Eva; Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Berg, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost presence is determined by a complex interaction of climatic, topographic, and ecological conditions operating over long time scales. In particular, vegetation and organic layer characteristics may act to protect permafrost in regions with a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) above 0 °C. In this study, we document the presence of residual permafrost plateaus in the western Kenai Peninsula lowlands of south-central Alaska, a region with a MAAT of 1.5 ± 1 °C (1981–2010). Continuous ground temperature measurements between 16 September 2012 and 15 September 2015, using calibrated thermistor strings, documented the presence of warm permafrost (−0.04 to −0.08 °C). Field measurements (probing) on several plateau features during the fall of 2015 showed that the depth to the permafrost table averaged 1.48 m but at some locations was as shallow as 0.53 m. Late winter surveys (augering, coring, and GPR) in 2016 showed that the average seasonally frozen ground thickness was 0.45 m, overlying a talik above the permafrost table. Measured permafrost thickness ranged from 0.33 to  >  6.90 m. Manual interpretation of historic aerial photography acquired in 1950 indicates that residual permafrost plateaus covered 920 ha as mapped across portions of four wetland complexes encompassing 4810 ha. However, between 1950 and ca. 2010, permafrost plateau extent decreased by 60.0 %, with lateral feature degradation accounting for 85.0 % of the reduction in area. Permafrost loss on the Kenai Peninsula is likely associated with a warming climate, wildfires that remove the protective forest and organic layer cover, groundwater flow at depth, and lateral heat transfer from wetland surface waters in the summer. Better understanding the resilience and vulnerability of ecosystem-protected permafrost is critical for mapping and predicting future permafrost extent and degradation across all permafrost regions that are currently warming

  13. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  14. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  15. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  16. Financial Performance of Mixed-Age Naturally Regenerated Loblolly-Hardwood Stands in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen Lee Abt

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the financial performance of a natural mixed species and mixed-age management in the loblolly-pine forest type, we examined 991 FIA plots in the south central states. The plots were of the loblolly pine forest type, mixed-age, and had been regenerated naturally. We gauged the financial performance of each plot from the equivalent annual income (EAI)...

  17. Childhood and Exile in Chilean Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Palacios; Catalina Donoso Pinto

    2017-01-01

    This article approaches the trauma of the Chilean dictatorship through the intersection between childhood and exile. It analyzes the role of childhood in Chilean exile cinema, focusing on documentaries produced throughout the 1970s and 80s. We will study the presence of childhood as a symbol in the political imaginary of exile, discuss the ways in which cinema recognizes and authorizes children’s testimony, and cover the dilemmas of desexilio and counter-nostalgia in films devoted to the them...

  18. [Suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.

  19. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication presents results of the study aimed at reconstruction of recent crustal stresses for Central and South-Eastern Asia with application of the method of cataclastic analysis of displacements caused by ruptures, which was proposed by Yu.L. Rebetsky. Two sources of seismic data were referred to: (1 the catalog comprising data from publications covering the period from 1904 to 1992, and (2 the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT Database of earthquake mechanisms (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqarchives/sopor, which covers the period from 1978 to 2010. The method of cataclastic analysis in its earliest version was applied in 1996 and 1997 when seismic data from the first catalog were analyzed, and it yielded only parameters of stress ellipsoids; the reconstructions were published in a Russian-Chinese journal (it does not exist now. In this paper, these reconstructions are presented in new graphical formats of GIS. Data from the Global CMT Database were analyzed by the method of cataclastic analysis in the new revision with application of its stages 1 and 2. Based on the calculations, orientations of axes of principal stresses, types of ellipsoids, correlations between spherical and deviatoric components of stress tensors, and reduced stresses were determined. The two sets of reconstructions are compared in this paper. The catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms for the period from 1904 to 1992 consolidated information provided by different authors, and thus focal data for many seismic events were highly inconsistent; therefore, the reliability of reconstructions based on such data seems to be lower than that on the basis the Global CMT Database for the period from 1978 to 2010. Some of the reconstructed stress tensor parameters are mapped. For the areas which data are given in the Global CMT Database and considered as more reliable, mapping is based on stress parameters calculated from such data. For the areas that are not covered by the

  20. Frontier areas and exploration techniques. Frontier uranium exploration in the South-Central United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; Biddle, K.T.

    1977-01-01

    Selected areas of the South-Central United States outside the known U trends of South Texas have a largely untested potential for the occurrence of significant U mineralization. These areas, underlain by Tertiary and older sediments, include parts of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The commonly accepted criteria employed in U exploration are applicable to these frontier areas but special consideration must also be given to the atypical geologic aspects of such areas as they may apply to relatively unique types of U mineralization or to the development of special exploration criteria for common types of roll-front and fault-and dome-related uranium mineralization. The procedures used in evaluating frontier areas should be based on comprehensive evaluations involving: (1) location and analysis of potential source rocks (e.g., intrusive igneous rocks, bentonitic sediments, unique complexes, etc.); (2) definition of regional variations in the potential host sediments (e.g. marginal marine to nonmarine environments of deposition); (3) review of all available radiometric data in Tertiary or older rocks; (4) local groundwater sampling; (5) widely spaced reconnaissance (or stratigraphic) drilling, coring and borehole geophysical logging to define favorable sedimentary facies and to establish the specific lithologic character of the sediments; and (6) detailed petrographic evaluation of all available samples to define the environment of deposition and diagenetic history of ''favorable'' sediments. If procedures produce favorable results, an expanded exploration program is justified. Depths up to 3,000 feet should be anticipated if up-dip information is favorable. Selected areas are discussed that have: (1) favorable source and host rocks;(2) favorable age; (3) favorable regional and local structure; and (4) radiometric characteristics favorable for U mineralization of potentially economic grade and reserves in the areas

  1. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  2. Mobile LiDAR Measurement for Aerosol Investigation in South-Central Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Yunhui; Wong Man, Sing; Wang, Runfeng; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Wang, Luyao; Bai, Yang; Rao, Lanlan

    2016-04-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China during the last decades, the increasing anthropogenic pollutant emissions have significantly caused serious air pollution problems which are adversely influencing public health. Hebei is one of the most air polluted provinces in China. In January 2013, an extremely severe and persistent haze episode with record-breaking PM2.5 outbreak affecting hundreds of millions of people occurred over eastern and northern China. During that haze episode, 7 of the top 10 most polluted cities in China were located in the Hebei Province according to the report of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. To investigate and the spatial difference and to characterize the vertical distribution of aerosol in different regions of south-central Hebei, mobile measurements were carried out using a mini micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MiniMPL) in March 2014. The mobile LiDAR kit consisting of a MiniMPL, a vibration reduction mount, a power inverter, a Windows surface tablet and a GPS receiver were mounted in a car watching though the sunroof opening. For comparison, a fixed measurement using a traditional micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MPL-4B) was conducted simultaneously in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. The equipped car was driven from downtown Shijiazhuang by way of suburban and rural area to downtown Cangzhou, Handan, and Baoding respectively at almost stable speed around 100Km per hour along different routes which counted in total more than 1000Km. The results can be summarized as: 1) the spatial distribution of total aerosol optical depth along the measurement routes in south-central Hebei was controlled by local terrain and population in general, with high values in downtown and suburban in the plain areas, and low values in rural areas along Taihang mountain to the west and Yan mountain to the north; 2) obviously high AODs were obtained at roads crossing points, inside densely populated area and nearby

  3. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in South-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Zhou, Yalan; Zeng, Jun; Shi, Meng; Chen, Baihua

    2017-09-01

    Ocular trauma is a major cause of visual loss, but little is known about its epidemiology and clinical characteristics in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ocular trauma and assess prognostic factors in Changsha, Hunan, located in South-Central China. A retrospective case series (ICD codes: S05) study of ocular trauma in patients was performed at the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014. Demographic information, injury causes, ocular trauma types and initial and final visual acuity (VA) were recorded and analysed. The ocular trauma score (OTS) was calculated to assess the extent of the eye injury, prognosis and factors associated with visual impairment. All patient data were collected from the medical records system. Of the 2009 patients presenting during this 5-year period, 1695 (84.4%) were males and 314 (15.6%) were females. The average age of all patients was 37.0 ± 19.3 years (range from 1 to 87 years). The age distribution showed a peak in the ocular trauma population in the 41- to 50-year age group (24%, n = 482), followed by the 51- to 60-year age group (16.9%, n = 339). Overall, open-globe injuries had a higher frequency (70.7%, n = 1420) than closed-globe injuries (28.6%, n = 575) and thermal/chemical injuries (0.7%, n = 14). Of the open-globe injuries, corneal penetration was the most common injury (32.2%, n = 646) followed by rupture (21.5%, n = 432) and an intraocular foreign body (16.2%, n = 325). Overall, the most frequent ocular trauma setting was the workplace (39.6%, n = 795), followed by the home (28.4%, n = 570), and the most frequent activity was ironwork. Firecracker- and firework-associated ocular trauma was significantly higher during the months of January and February than during other months (50.0%, n = 112, p firework-related ocular trauma occurred during the months adjacent to the Chinese New Year

  4. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  5. Chemical stratigraphy of Grande Ronde Basalt, Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.E.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Myers, C.W.; Reidel, S.P.; Landon, R.D.; Hooper, P.R.

    1980-02-01

    Grande Ronde Basalt in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington, can be subdivided into three chemical types and two chemical subtypes based on x-ray fluorescence major element analysis of samples from seven deep core holes and three surface sections. These chemical types are: (1) high-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type; (2) low-Mg Grande Ronde chemical type; (3) low-K (very high-Mg.) Grande Ronde chemical type; and (4) Umtanum Grande Ronde chemical subtype. A possible fifth subdivision is the McCoy Canyon Grande Ronde chemical subtype. The Umtanum and the McCoy Canyon subtypes are both single flows which belong to the low Mg and high-Mg chemical types, respectively. These subdivisions are all distinguished on a plot of MgO versus TiO 2 and/or MgO versus P 2 O 5 , but other major and minor elements, as well as trace elements, also reflect consistent chemical differences between the chemical types. Identification of these chemical types in the Pasco Basin subsurface shows that the high-Mg and low-Mg chemical types are ubiquitous, but the low-K chemical type is limited to the central, southern, and eastern parts of the basin. The Umtanum chemical subtype is present throughout the Pasco Basin subsurface, although it thins in the northeastern part of the basin and is apparently absent from surface exposures 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of the basin. The McCoy Canyon chemical subtype is also present throughout the basin

  6. [Risk factors for suicide attempt among college students at Central South University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-lan; Xiao, Shui-yuan; Feng, Shan-shan; Chen, Xi-xi

    2004-04-01

    To understand the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation among college students and to provide a scientific basis for promoting psychological health and suicide prevention. 623 college students at Central South University were selected using stratified cluster sampling and administered a suicide ideation questionnaire, a Symptom Check List (SCL-90), an Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), a Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and a questionnaire about background information. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify risk factors for suicide ideation. One year prior to our investigation, 14.6% of respondents had suicide ideation, 2.5% had made a specific suicide plan, and 1.8% had made a suicide attempt. The main risk factors for suicide ideation were dissatisfaction with the selected major of study, limited social support, recent negative life events and depressive tendency. The prevalence of suicide ideation among these college students was high. Appropriate measures focusing on the risk factors identified in this study should be urgently developed to prevent suicides in college students.

  7. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  8. Genetic diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in coyotes from the south-central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Panciera, Roger J; Paras, Kelsey; Allen, Kelly E; Reiskind, Michael H; Reichard, Mason V; Johnson, Eileen M; Little, Susan E

    2013-04-01

    To better define the strains and species of Hepatozoon that infect coyotes in the south-central United States, whole blood and muscle samples were collected from 44 coyotes from 6 locations in Oklahoma and Texas. Samples were evaluated by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers amplifying a variable region of the apicomplexan 18S rRNA gene as well as histopathology (muscle only) for presence of tissue cysts. Hepatozoon spp. infections were identified in 79.5% (35/44) of coyotes tested including 27 of 44 (61.4%) whole blood samples and 17 of 44 (38.6%) muscle samples tested by PCR and 23 of 44 (52.3%) muscle samples evaluated by histological examination. Analysis revealed 19 distinct sequences comprising 3 major clusters of Hepatozoon spp., i.e., 1 most closely related to Hepatozoon americanum, another most closely related to Hepatozoon canis , and the third an intermediate between the 2 groups. The diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids appears greater than previously recognized and warrants further investigation.

  9. Bald eagle site management plan for the Hanford Site, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.F.; Weiss, S.G.

    1994-12-01

    The CERCLA remedial investigations of waste sites on the Hanford Site will involve lands containing or adjacent to a bald eagle nest, winter concentration areas, or communal night roost. Because these CERCLA investigations may affect bald eagles, the DOE has prepared this Bald Eagle Site Management Plan (BESMP). However, it is intended that this BESMP be used or updated so as to be also applicable to future activities that affect bald eagles on the Hanford Site. Bald eagles regularly use the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State during winter months for roosting, perching, and foraging. Each of these activities requires buffer zones to protect eagles from human disturbances. Buffer zones developed in this plan follow recommended guidelines and are intended to be used in planning. If Hanford Site activities in the vicinity of identified bald eagle use areas are carried out in accordance with this plan, such actions are not likely to adversely affect the eagles or their habitat. Activities that may be exceptions will involve informal or formal (whichever is appropriate) consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service as required by the Endangered Species Act

  10. Segmentation of Slow Slip Events in South Central Alaska Possibly Controlled by a Subducted Oceanic Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haotian; Wei, Meng; Li, Duo; Liu, Yajing; Kim, YoungHee; Zhou, Shiyong

    2018-01-01

    Recent GPS observations show that slow slip events in south central Alaska are segmented along strike. Here we review several mechanisms that might contribute to this segmentation and focus on two: along-strike variation of slab geometry and effective normal stress. We then test them by running numerical simulations in the framework of rate-and-state friction with a nonplanar fault geometry. Results show that the segmentation is most likely related to the along-strike variation of the effective normal stress on the fault plane caused by the Yakutat Plateau. The Yakutat Plateau could affect the effective normal stress by either lowering the pore pressure in Upper Cook Inlet due to less fluids release or increasing the normal stress due to the extra buoyancy caused by the subducted Yakutat Plateau. We prefer the latter explanation because it is consistent with the relative amplitudes of the effective normal stress in Upper and Lower Cook Inlet and there is very little along-strike variation in Vp/Vs ratio in the fault zone from receiver function analysis. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the difference in effective normal stress results from along-strike variation of pore pressure due to the uncertainties in the Vp/Vs estimates. Our work implies that a structural anomaly can have a long-lived effect on the subduction zone slip behavior and might be a driving factor on along-strike segmentation of slow slip events.

  11. Observations of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in the upper central South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chang-Rong; Chen, Gui-Ying; Shang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-05-01

    Measurements of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ( ɛ), velocity, temperature, and salinity were obtained for the upper ocean of the central South China Sea (14.5° N, 117.0° E) during an experimental campaign from May 11 to 13, 2010. Dissipation in the diurnal mixed layer showed a diurnal variability that was strongly affected by the surface buoyancy flux. Dissipation was enhanced ( ɛ ˜ 10-7 W kg-1) at night due to the convective mixing and was weakened ( ɛ ˜ 10-9 W kg-1) in daytime due to the stratification. Dissipation in the thermocline varied with time under the influence of internal waves. Shear from high-frequency internal waves (period ˜8 h) played an important role in enhancing the turbulent mixing in the thermocline. In the period of strong high-frequency internal waves, the shear from high-frequency internal waves became strong and the depth-averaged ɛ in the thermocline was elevated by almost one order of magnitude. Compared with the dissipation in the thermocline, dissipation below was weaker (the time-averaged ɛ ˜ 10-10 W kg-1). The observation indicates that the dissipation rates during the measurements can be parameterized by the MacKinnon-Gregg model that is widely used in the continental shelf but are not in agreement with the Gregg-Henyey model used for the open ocean.

  12. Observations of turbulent energy dissipation rate in the upper ocean of the central South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of turbulent energy dissipation rate, velocity, temperature, and salinity were obtained in the upper ocean of the central South China Sea (14.5˚N, 117.0˚E) during an experimental campaign from May 11th to 13th 2010. Dissipation rate was elevated ( 10-7 Wkg-1) at night by convection mixing and was weakened ( 10-9 Wkg-1) in daytime due to the warming stratification. Thermocline dissipation rate varied with time ( 10-9 Wkg-1 to 10-8 Wkg-1) under the influence of internal waves. Energy was transferred from the diurnal internal tides to high frequency internal waves through nonlinear wave-wave interactions. This energy cascade process was accompanied by elevated shear and enhanced dissipation, which played an important role in the turbulent mixing in thermocline. Compare with the thermocline dissipation, dissipation below the thermocline was more stable and weak ( 10-10 Wkg-1). The observed dissipation rate during the measurement was well parameterized by the MacKinnon-Gregg parameterization (a model based on a reinterpretation of wave-wave interaction theory), whereas the Gregg-Henyey parameterization was not in good agreement with the observed dissipation rate.

  13. Magnetostratigraphy, paleomagnetic correlation, and deformation of pleistocene deposits in the south central Puget Lowland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Booth, D.B.; Troost, K.G.; Blakely, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results from Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the central Puget Lowland indicate that the region has experienced widespread deformation within the last 780 kyr. Three oriented samples were collected from unaltered fine-grained sediments mostly at sea level to determine the magnetostratigraphy at 83 sites. Of these, 47 have normal, 18 have reversed, and 18 have transitional (8 localities) polarities. Records of reversed- to normal-polarity transitions of the geomagnetic field were found in thick sections of silt near the eastern end of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, and again at Wingehaven Park near the northern tip of Vashon Island. The transitional horizons, probably related to the Bruhnes-Matuyama reversal, apparently fall between previously dated Pleistocene sediments at the Puyallup Valley type section (all reversed-polarity) to the south and the Whidbey Island type section (all normal-polarity) to the north. The samples, in general, are of sufficient quality to record paleosecular variation (PSV) of the geomagnetic field, and a statistical technique is used to correlate horizons with significant agreement in their paleomagnetic directions. Our data are consistent with the broad structures of the Seattle uplift inferred at depth from seismic reflection, gravity, and aeromagnetic profiles, but the magnitude of vertical adjustments is greatly subdued in the Pleistocene deposits.

  14. Strain distribution and model for formation of eastern Umtanum Ridge anticline, south-central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, E.H.

    1979-10-01

    Umtanum Ridge in south-central Washington is the topographic expression of a complex anticline within the Yakima Fold system in the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group. The Yakima Fold system, which is partly contained within the Hanford Site, is an example of a layered basalt sequence folded near the surface of the earth. The Pasco Basin stratigraphic nomenclature is used in this repot. Rockwelll Hanford Operations, under contract to the US Department of Energy, is investigating the feasibility of therminal high-level nuclear waste storage in mined repositories in basalt beneath the Hanford Site. Because thereis essentially no basalt within the Site that has not been involved in some folding, any potential location for a repository will be either on the limbs or near the hinge zone of a Yakima Fold structure. Umtanum Ridge is the best exposed Yakima Fold structure in the vicinity of the Site for studying the nature and three-dimensional style of deformation of a multilayered basalt sequence. The structural geometry, distribution of strain within the Umtanum structure and deformational mechanisms of the Umtanum Ridge are discussed.

  15. Little Ice Age glacial geomorphology and sedimentology of Portage Glacier, South-Central Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Córdova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of glacial landforms and deposits is important, as it isdifficult to observe processes under modern glaciers and ice-sheets. Thus landscapes and sediments that are the product of present glaciation can give insight into processes that occurred during Pleistocene times. This study investigates the genesis of little ice age glacial landforms present in Portage Glacier, South-Central Alaska. The present day moraine morphology and sedimentology in Portage Glacier valley reveals the presence of two types of till and moraines. The clast-rich sandy diamicton present on the 1852 moraine is interpreted to be a basal till indicating this feature is a pushmoraine representing an advance or a standstill position of Portage Glacier in 1852. The moderately sorted gray sandy boulder gravel present on the 1900 and 1922 moraines is interpreted to be an ice-marginal deposit (ablation till with a mixture of supraglacial and glaciofluvial sediments deposited by slumping and stream sortingprocesses. All of these features are interpreted to be ablation moraines representing glacier retreat and moraine building in 1900 and1922.

  16. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  17. Methane occurrence in groundwater of south-central New York State, 2012: summary of findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    A survey of methane in groundwater was undertaken to document methane occurrence on the basis of hydrogeologic setting within a glaciated 1,810-square-mile area of south-central New York that has not seen shale-gas resource development. The adjacent region in northeastern Pennsylvania has undergone shale-gas resource development from the Marcellus Shale. Well construction and subsurface data were required for each well sampled so that the local hydrogeologic setting could be classified. All wells were also at least 1 mile from any known gas well (active, exploratory, or abandoned). Sixty-six domestic wells and similar purposed supply wells were sampled during summer 2012. Field water-quality characteristics (pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) were measured at each well, and samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved gases, including methane and short-chain hydrocarbons. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane were measured in 21 samples that had at least 0.3 milligram per liter (mg/L) methane.

  18. Paleozoogeography of the Wine Mouse (Akodon oenos & Late Holocene Paleoenvironments in South-Central Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Julián Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cranial remains of the wine mouse (Akodon oenos are documented from an archaeological site in south-central Mendoza, Argentina (Agua de La Mula, 35º22' S, 68º15' W, which dates to the end of the late Holocene (1610 ± 60; 1260 ± 60; 1000 ± 50 C14 yr B.P.. The taxonomic status of this small rodent is currently being assessed, but these remains represent the first fossil record for the morphotaxon A. oenos. The species’ present distribution is restricted to a few records from Mendoza province. Analysis of the remains supports paleoenvironmental reconstruction using the small mammal assemblage recovered from this site. From the late Holocene into modernity temperature decreased and winter precipitation increased, resulting in advance of Patagonian steppe grading with altitude into Monte desert. Holocene climatic conditions may explain the relatively late human occupation of ecologically marginal environments in this region, which probably favored effective human occupation of the Payunia region at sites such as Agua de La Mula between 1600 and 1000 years B.P.

  19. The phylogeography and spatiotemporal spread of south-central skunk rabies virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Kuzmina

    Full Text Available The south-central skunk rabies virus (SCSK is the most broadly distributed terrestrial viral lineage in North America. Skunk rabies has not been efficiently targeted by oral vaccination campaigns and represents a natural system of pathogen invasion, yielding insights to rabies emergence. In the present study we reconstructed spatiotemporal spread of SCSK in the whole territory of its circulation using a combination of Bayesian methods. The analysis based on 241 glycoprotein gene sequences demonstrated that SCSK is much more divergent phylogenetically than was appreciated previously. According to our analyses the SCSK originated in the territory of Texas ~170 years ago, and spread geographically during the following decades. The wavefront velocity in the northward direction was significantly greater than in the eastward and westward directions. Rivers (except the Mississippi River and Rio Grande River did not constitute significant barriers for epizootic spread, in contrast to deserts and mountains. The mean dispersal rate of skunk rabies was lower than that of the raccoon and fox rabies. Viral lineages circulate in their areas with limited evidence of geographic spread during decades. However, spatiotemporal reconstruction shows that after a long period of stability the dispersal rate and wavefront velocity of SCSK are increasing. Our results indicate that there is a need to develop control measures for SCSK, and suggest how such measure can be implemented most efficiently. Our approach can be extrapolated to other rabies reservoirs and used as a tool for investigation of epizootic patterns and planning interventions towards disease elimination.

  20. The quantification and distribution of pollution Pb at a woodland in rural south central Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watmough, Shaun A.; Hutchinson, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    Lead concentrations and Pb isotope ratios were measured in the forest floor, mineral soil and vegetation at a white pine and a sugar maple stand in a woodland in south central Ontario. Lead concentrations decreased and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios increased with mineral soil depth reflecting the mixing of pollution and natural Pb sources. Lead concentrations and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios at 20-30 cm depth were ∼6-7 mg/kg and 1.31-1.32, respectively. Assuming an integrated 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio in deposition over time of 1.18, estimated from lichen measurements and published data for the region, approximately 65% of Pb in the surface (0-1 cm) mineral soil is from anthropogenic sources. Approximately 90% of pollution Pb is found in the 0-10 cm soil layer (Ah) and less than 3% of the pollution Pb is present in the forest biomass and mull-type forest floor combined. Despite low Pb concentrations in vegetation ( 2 , respectively. - The distribution of pollution lead was determined at a woodland through the use of stable leads isotopes

  1. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  2. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  3. Lithofacies analysis of the Simpson Group in south-central Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doveton, J.H.; Charpentier, R.R.; Metzger, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    This book discusses detailed stratigraphy and lithofacies of the oil-productive Middle Ordovician Simpson Group in south-central Kansas. The report presents results of studies of the Simpson Group in Barber, Comanche, Kiowa, and Pratt counties. The high density of exploration holes and their associated logs allowed a detailed stratigraphic subdivision to be made of shale, sandstone, and sandy carbonate units. The lateral changes in these units are depicted in a series of maps and cross sections and show distinctive lithofacies patterns that reflect a history of northward-moving marine transgression. Working with digital data from gamma-ray logs, the geologists used computer methods to generate a series of cross sections of the Simpson Group, based on the statistical moments of the log traces. Automated mapping displayed the shapes and disposition of shale and non-shale units as continuous features in three dimensions. The ground truth information from drill cuttings further refined interpretations of stratigraphy, lithofacies, and depositional history implied by these computer models

  4. Establishing a multi-proxy approach to alpine blockfield evolution in south-central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Marr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blockfields in high latitude mountain areas are a wide spread proxy for glaciation history. Their origin is debated since decades, especially in south-central Norway, where glaciation had a major global climate implication. Some authors explain old blockfield features by protection of cold-based ice, others claim they persisted as nunataks during the LGM (~20 kyr, or were formed throughout the Holocene. In order to clarify the origin of alpine blockfields we established a multi-method approach to combining lichenometry, stratigraphy, granulometry, and geochemistry (XRD, XRF. Our lichenometric dating results in conjunction with our factors indicate landscape stability for at least ~12.5 kyr. Frequent climatic shifts are evident in our profiles by varying color, LOI content and grain sizes. On the basis of geochemical analyses we were able to identify a long-term (chemical weathering history and in situ blockfield formation. The field evidences and the climatic setting of the study area leave the possibility that our location was not covered by cold-based ice during the Late-Quaternary.

  5. Water resources of the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stanley H.; Madison, R.J.; Zenone, Chester

    1978-01-01

    Hydrologic data for the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion of south-central Alaska are summarized to provide a basis for planning water resources development, identifying water problems and evaluating existing water quality and availability. Average annual precipitation, measured at a few coastal locations in this maritime climatic zone, ranges from 23 to 127 inches. Mean annual runoff for the Kodiak Island group ranges from 4 to 8 cfs/sq mi. A maximum instantaneous runoff of 457 cfs/sq mi has been determined from a small basin on Kodiak Island. Lowest measured stream discharges range from no flow to 0.91 cfs/sq mi. Surface water is the primary source of water supplies for the city of Kodiak and other communities. The geology of the subregion is characterized by metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks with only a thin mantle of unconsolidated material. A few small, alluvium-filled coastal valleys offer the most favorable conditions for ground-water development, but moderate yields (50-100 gal/min) have been obtained from wells in fractured bedrock. Water in streams and lakes generally has a dissolved-solids concentration less than 60 mg/L, and the water varies from a calcium-bicarbonate type to a sodium-chloride type. The chemical composition of ground waters has a dilute calcium-bicarbonate type in unconsolidated materials and a sodium-bicarbonate type in bedrock. The dissolved solids in the groundwater ranges from 170 to 250 mg/L. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Strain distribution and model for formation of eastern Umtanum Ridge anticline, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.H.

    1979-10-01

    Umtanum Ridge in south-central Washington is the topographic expression of a complex anticline within the Yakima Fold system in the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group. The Yakima Fold system, which is partly contained within the Hanford Site, is an example of a layered basalt sequence folded near the surface of the earth. The Pasco Basin stratigraphic nomenclature is used in this repot. Rockwelll Hanford Operations, under contract to the US Department of Energy, is investigating the feasibility of therminal high-level nuclear waste storage in mined repositories in basalt beneath the Hanford Site. Because thereis essentially no basalt within the Site that has not been involved in some folding, any potential location for a repository will be either on the limbs or near the hinge zone of a Yakima Fold structure. Umtanum Ridge is the best exposed Yakima Fold structure in the vicinity of the Site for studying the nature and three-dimensional style of deformation of a multilayered basalt sequence. The structural geometry, distribution of strain within the Umtanum structure and deformational mechanisms of the Umtanum Ridge are discussed

  7. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  8. Missing Magmas: A Multidisciplinary Effort to Understand a Seismic Anomaly in the Chilean Flat Slab (28°-33°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, J.; Bourke, J. R.; Naslund, H. R.; Nikulin, A.

    2017-12-01

    A gap in the volcanic arc across the Pampean section of the Chilean subduction zone (28-33°S) breaks up the otherwise predictable pattern of South American volcanism. This gap in the volcanic front, accompanied by diminished interplate seismic activity, correlates to the onset of flat slab subduction of the segmented Nazca Plate. We present results of a multidisciplinary study combining geophysical and petrologic observations, focused on the processes influencing subduction zone geometry in Central Chile and their impact on regional seismic and volcanic activity. Through a broad-scale receiver function survey obtained from existing permanent stations in Central Chile, we imaged the position of the subducting Nazca Plate beneath South America and created corresponding depth-converted images to further interpret the underlying structure. This survey reveals evidence of a highly anisotropic layer above the subducting slab beneath station GO03 of the Chilean National Seismic Network, possibly indicating an area of extensive hydration triggered by fluid release from the subducting plate. By imaging the interplate region to the north of the flat slab, we constrained the lateral extent of the anisotropic layer and made an attempt to correlate the character of the identified geophysical anomaly to geochemical patterns exhibited by active volcanoes in the region. A detailed compilation of available geochemical data was done to understand any existing cross-arc or along-arc variations that could be attributed to the geometry of the subducting slab over time, focused on trace element trends that are indicative of interactions with hydrated mantle. Our results indicate a correlation between the observed anisotropic layer and changes in the geochemistry of the closest spatial volcanism through time as the geometry of flat slab subduction evolved. By combining the receiver function results with initial petrologic observations, it is our goal to further constrain the inherent

  9. Soil respiration rate on the contrasting north- and south-facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Y.; Koike, T.; Matsuura, Y.; Mori, S.; Shibata, H.; Satoh, F.; Masuyagina, O.V.; Zyryanova, O.A.; Prokushkin, A.S.; Prokushkin, S.G.; Abaimov, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate global warming effects, we measured the soil respiration of the contrasting north- and south- facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia, located at Tura City in the Krasnoyarsk District, Russia. The north-facing slope is assumed to be the present condition while the south-facing slope may stand for the future warm condition. As a result of differences in solar radiation, there were clear differences between the north- and south- facing slopes in terms, for example, of the active layer as the growth rate of larch trees. The soil respiration rate was higher on the south-facing slope than on the north-facing slope. At the temperature of 15°C, soil respiration rate of the south-facing slope was ca. 6.2 μ mol CO 2 * m -2 s -1 , which was about 0.6 times lower than that of broad-leaved forests in Hokkaido. There was an exponential correlation between soil temperature at 10 cm depth and the efflux of CO 2 from the soil surface. Various conditions (soil temperature,. nitrogen content and soil water content) seemed to be more favorable for soil respiration on the south-facing slope. (author)

  10. Music preference in degus (Octodon degus): Analysis with Chilean folk music.

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Watanabe; Katharina Braun; Maria Mensch; Henning Scheich

    2018-01-01

    Most nonhuman animals do not show selective preference for types of music, but researchers have typically employed only Western classical music in such studies. Thus, there has been bias in music choice. Degus (Octodon degus), originally from the mountain areas of Chile, have highly developed vocal communication. Here, we examined music preference of degus using not only Western classical music (music composed by Bach and Stravinsky), but also South American folk music (Chilean and Peruvian)....

  11. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  12. Oceanography of the Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Luis Iriarte, José; Daneri, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the most extended fjord regions in the world that covers nearly 240,000 km 2 with an extremely complex coastline and topography in one of the least densely populated areas of the country (1-8 inhabitants every 10 km 2). In recent years, the area has been undergoing somewhat intense pressure since several commercial projects in hydroelectricity, tourism, and commercial salmon and mytilid cultures have been developed, or are in progress. Concomitantly, several large research programs have been devised to study the physical, chemical, and biological environment of Patagonia, such as the CIMAR FIORDO, and recently COPAS Sur-Austral based at Universidad de Concepcion, that attempts to close the bridge between oceanographic knowledge and its use by society. In this introductory article we summarize the collection of papers comprising this Special Issue of Continental Shelf Research. These papers deal with aspects of regional oceanography and geology, inorganic and organic geochemistry, ecology of pelagic and benthic organisms, and past changes in productivity.

  13. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  14. Seismic stratigraphy and late Quaternary shelf history, south-central Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J.L.; Clifton, H.E.; Mullins, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The south-central Monterey Bay shelf is a high-energy, wave-dominated, tectonically active coastal region on the central California continental margin. A prominent feature of this shelf is a sediment lobe off the mouth of the Salinas River that has surface expression. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles reveal that an angular unconformity (Quaternary?) underlies the entire shelf and separates undeformed strata above it from deformed strata below it. The Salinas River lobe is a convex bulge on the shelf covering an area of approximately 72 km2 in water depths from 10 to 90 m. It reaches a maximum thickness of 35 m about 2.5 km seaward of the river mouth and thins in all directions away from this point. Adjacent shelf areas are characterized by only a thin (2 to 5 m thick) and uniform veneer of sediment. Acoustic stratigraphy of the lobe is complex and is characterized by at least three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Acoustically, these sequences are relatively well bedded. Acoustic foresets occur within the intermediate sequence and dip seaward at 0.7?? to 2.0??. Comparison with sedimentary sequences in uplifted onshore Pleistocene marine-terrace deposits of the Monterey Bay area, which were presumably formed in a similar setting under similar processes, suggests that a general interpretation can be formulated for seismic stratigraphic patterns. Depositional sequences are interpreted to represent shallowing-upwards progradational sequences of marine to nonmarine coastal deposits formed during interglacial highstands and/or during early stages of falling sea level. Acoustic foresets within the intermediate sequence are evidence of seaward progradation. Acoustic unconformities that separate depositional sequences are interpreted as having formed largely by shoreface planation and may be the only record of the intervening transgressions. The internal stratigraphy of the Salinas River lobe thus suggests that at least several late Quaternary

  15. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. II.- August of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J.

    2001-12-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  16. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. III.- September of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J.

    2001-12-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  17. An assessment of fire occurrence regime and performance of Canadian fire weather index in south central Siberian boreal region

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, T.; Guo, X.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance in Eurasian boreal region, which acts as a major driver of the global carbon cycle. An effectiveness of wildfire management requires suitable tools for fire prevention and fire risk assessment. This study aims to investigate fire occurrence patterns in relation to fire weather conditions in the remote south central Siberia region. The Canadian Fire Weather Index derived from large-scale meteorol...

  18. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - July of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.

    2001-09-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  19. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. IV. - October of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  20. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. V. - November of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  1. Concentrations of selected pharmaceuticals and antibiotics in south-central Pennsylvania waters, March through September 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Crawford, J. Kent; Otto, Kim L.; Manning, Rhonda L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents environmental and quality-control data from analyses of 15 pharmaceutical and 31 antibiotic compounds in water samples from streams and wells in south-central Pennsylvania. The analyses are part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) to define concentrations of selected emerging contaminants in streams and well water in Pennsylvania. Sampling was conducted at 11 stream sites and at 6 wells in 9 counties of south-central Pennsylvania. Five of the streams received municipal wastewater and 6 of the streams received runoff from agricultural areas dominated by animal-feeding operations. For all 11 streams, samples were collected at locations upstream and downstream of the municipal effluents or animal-feeding operations. All six wells were in agricultural settings. A total of 120 environmental samples and 21 quality-control samples were analyzed for the study. Samples were collected at each site in March/April, May, July, and September 2006 to obtain information on changes in concentration that could be related to seasonal use of compounds.For streams, 13 pharmaceuticals and 11 antibiotics were detected at least 1 time. Detections included analytical results that were estimated or above the minimum reporting limits. Seventy-eight percent of all detections were analyzed in samples collected downstream from municipal-wastewater effluents. For streams receiving wastewater effluents, the pharmaceuticals caffeine and para-xanthine (a degradation product of caffeine) had the greatest concentrations, 4.75 μg/L (micrograms per liter) and 0.853 μg/L, respectively. Other pharmaceuticals and their respective maximum concentrations were carbamazepine (0.516 μg/L) and ibuprofen (0.277 μg/L). For streams receiving wastewater effluents, the antibiotic azithromycin had the greatest concentration (1.65 μg/L), followed by sulfamethoxazole (1.34 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.329

  2. Risk across disciplines: An interdisciplinary examination of water and drought risk in South-Central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrus, H.; Paimazumder, D.; Towler, E.; McPherson, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is a challenge faced by communities across the United States, exacerbated by growing demands on water resources and climate variability and change. The Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer (ASA) in south-central Oklahoma, situated in the heart of the Chickasaw Nation, is the state's only sole-source groundwater basin and sustains the Blue River, the state's only free-flowing river. The recent comprehensive hydrological studies of the aquifer indicate the need for sustainable management of the amount of water extracted. However, the question of how to deal with that management in the face of increasing drought vulnerability, diverse demands, and climate variability and change remains. Water management carries a further imperative to be inclusive of tribal and non-tribal interests. To examine this question, we are conducting an investigation of drought risk from multiple disciplines. Anthropological data comes from stakeholder interviews that were designed to investigate conflict over water management by understanding how people perceive risk differently based on different opinions about the structure of the resource, varying levels of trust in authorities, and unequal access to resources. . The Cultural Theory of Risk is used to explain how people view risks as part of their worldviews and why people who hold different worldviews disagree about risks associated with water availability. Meteorological analyses of longitudinal data indicate periods of drought that are noted in stakeholder interviews. Analysis of stream gauge data investigates the influence of climate variability on local hydrologic impacts, such as changing groundwater levels and streamflows, that are relevant to planning and management decisions in the ASA. Quantitative assessment of future drought risk and associated uncertainty and their effect on type and scale of future economic and social impacts are achieved by combining elements of statistical and dynamical downscaling to improve predictions of

  3. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  4. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven A; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = -0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river ecosystems.

  5. Atmospheric circulation associated with extreme generalized frosts persistence in central-southern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Gabriela V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion, Diamante (CICYTTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina); Berri, Guillermo J. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional - CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    Generalized frosts (GF) in central-southern South America have a strong impact due to their spatial extension, and they are especially important when they become persistent. This paper aims at identifying the atmospheric circulation features that determine the extreme GF persistence, i.e. very persistent and without persistence, and the differences between them, during the 1961-1990 winters. Since the GF without persistence group outnumbers the other one, two subgroups are composed with events selected from winters with maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence, respectively. Additionally, the individual event of July 1988 within the very persistent GF group is analyzed due to its exceptional persistence. GF persistence is mainly conditioned by two large-scale dynamic factors. One is the Rossby wave train propagation across the Pacific Ocean, and the other one is the location with respect to the continent and the magnitude of the confluence in the jet entrance region in subtropical latitudes. A predominantly meridional Rossby wave train propagation with a confluence region to the west of the continent prior to the event favors GF with intermediate (null) persistence depending on the greater (lesser) jet acceleration. This is conditioned by the magnitude of the confluence, which, in turn, depends on the disposition of the wave train propagation pattern. Instead, an essentially zonal propagation with a confluence region to the east of the continent favors the GF persistence for several days, yet if there is no confluence the event does not persist. The greatest persistence of an event combines the confluence/diffluence of the jet entrance/exit region, which depends on the disposition with respect to the continent of the zonally propagating Rossby wave trains. (orig.)

  6. Shrubline but not treeline advance matches climate velocity in montane ecosystems of south-central Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Roman J; Smeltz, T Scott; Sullivan, Patrick F; Rinas, Christina L; Timm, Katriina; Geck, Jason E; Tobin, S Carl; Golden, Trevor S; Berg, Edward C

    2016-05-01

    Tall shrubs and trees are advancing into many tundra and wetland ecosystems but at a rate that often falls short of that predicted due to climate change. For forest, tall shrub, and tundra ecosystems in two pristine mountain ranges of Alaska, we apply a Bayesian, error-propagated calculation of expected elevational rise (climate velocity), observed rise (biotic velocity), and their difference (biotic inertia). We show a sensitive dependence of climate velocity on lapse rate and derive biotic velocity as a rigid elevational shift. Ecosystem presence identified from recent and historic orthophotos ~50 years apart was regressed on elevation. Biotic velocity was estimated as the difference between critical point elevations of recent and historic logistic fits divided by time between imagery. For both mountain ranges, the 95% highest posterior density of climate velocity enclosed the posterior distributions of all biotic velocities. In the Kenai Mountains, mean tall shrub and climate velocities were both 2.8 m y(-1). In the better sampled Chugach Mountains, mean tundra retreat was 1.2 m y(-1) and climate velocity 1.3 m y(-1). In each mountain range, the posterior mode of tall woody vegetation velocity (the complement of tundra) matched climate velocity better than either forest or tall shrub alone, suggesting competitive compensation can be important. Forest velocity was consistently low at 0.1-1.1 m y(-1), indicating treeline is advancing slowly. We hypothesize that the high biotic inertia of forest ecosystems in south-central Alaska may be due to competition with tall shrubs and/or more complex climate controls on the elevational limits of trees than tall shrubs. Among tall shrubs, those that disperse farthest had lowest inertia. Finally, the rapid upward advance of woody vegetation may be contributing to regional declines in Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli), a poorly dispersing alpine specialist herbivore with substantial biotic inertia due to dispersal reluctance. © 2015

  7. Infestation of mammals by Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in south-central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tälleklint, L; Jaenson, T G

    1997-12-01

    Infestation by Ixodes ricinus ticks on rodents, hares and cervids was examined at Bogesund, 10 km north of Stockholm, in south-central Sweden during 1991-1994 and on varying hares (Lepus timidus) at Stora Karlsö and Gotska Sandön in the Baltic Sea during 1992-1993. At Bogesund, there were great differences between two consecutive years in the number of I. ricinus larvae infesting bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). The seasonal pattern of infestation by I. ricinus larvae and nymphs on bank voles was unimodal in 1991, with peaks in June-July and bimodal in 1992, with peaks in June and August. Male bank voles, compared to females and older voles, compared to young voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Apodemus mice, compared to bank voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Ixodes ricinus larvae engorged on Apodemus mice were heavier than larvae engorged on bank voles and resulted in larger nymphs. However, there was no difference in the proportions of viable nymphs resulting from larvae engorged on mice or voles. The ranges in the numbers of I. ricinus ticks infesting individual hosts were 1-451 for rodents, 16-2374 for hares and 428-2072 for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These ranges of tick numbers are estimated to represent potential blood losses from individual hosts of approximately 0.2-65% for rodents, 0.2-13% for hares and 0.3-9.0% for roe deer. Within the populations of all host species examined, the distributions of all stages of I. ricinus were clumped, with most host individuals harbouring few ticks and only a few individuals harbouring many ticks. The data suggest that, even though a small proportion of tick hosts may be severely affected, the direct effects of feeding by I. ricinus are unlikely to play an important role on mammal population dynamics.

  8. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  9. Prevalence of malaria infection in Butajira area, south-central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woyessa Adugna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, the Ethiopian government launched a massive expansion of the malaria prevention and control programme. The programme was aimed mainly at the reduction of malaria in populations living below 2,000 m above sea level. Global warming has been implicated in the increase in the prevalence of malaria in the highlands. However, there is still a paucity of information on the occurrence of malaria at higher altitudes. The objective of this study was to estimate malaria prevalence in highland areas of south-central Ethiopia, designated as the Butajira area. Methods Using a multi-stage sampling technique, 750 households were selected. All consenting family members were examined for malaria parasites in thick and thin blood smears. The assessment was repeated six times for two years (October 2008 to June 2010. Results In total, 19,207 persons were examined in the six surveys. From those tested, 178 slides were positive for malaria, of which 154 (86.5% were positive for Plasmodium vivax and 22 (12.4% for Plasmodium falciparum; the remaining two (1.1% showed mixed infections of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The incidence of malaria was higher after the main rainy season, both in lower lying and in highland areas. The incidence in the highlands was low and similar for all age groups, whereas in the lowlands, malaria occurred mostly in those of one to nine years of age. Conclusion This study documented a low prevalence of malaria that varied with season and altitudinal zone in a highland-fringe area of Ethiopia. Most of the malaria infections were attributable to Plasmodium vivax.

  10. Multidisciplinary Observations of Subduction (MOOS) Experiment in South-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Abers, G.; Freymueller, J.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic and geodetic data are being collected in the Kenai Peninsula and surrounding area of south central Alaska as part of the PASSCAL experiment MOOS. A total of 34 broadband seismic stations were deployed between the summers of 2007 and 2008. Seventeen of these stations continue to operate for an additional year and are scheduled to be removed in the summer of 2009. Numerous GPS campaign sites have and will be visited during the same time period. The MOOS seismic deployment provides coverage across the interplate coupled zone and adjacent transition zone in the shallow parts of the Alaskan subduction zone. It is a southern extension of an earlier broadband deployment BEAAR (Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range) to the north. When integrated with the previous BEAAR experiment, these data will allow high-resolution broadband imaging along a 600 km long transect over the Alaska subduction zone, at 10-15 km station spacing. The MOOS deployment allows us to test several hypotheses relating to the postulated subduction of the Yakutat Block and the nature of the coupled zone which ruptured in the great 1964 earthquake. The seismic and geodetic stations cover an area that includes part of the 1964 main asperity and the adjacent, less coupled, region to the southwest. Data gathered from this experiment will shed light on the nature of this boundary from both a geodetic and seismic (or earth structure) perspective. Shallow seismicity recorded by this network greatly improves the catalog of events in this area and helps to delineate active features in the subduction complex. Preliminary results from this project will be presented.

  11. Stratigraphic and compositional complexities of the late Quaternary Lethe tephra in South-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Ager, T.A.; Reger, R.D.; Pinney, D.S.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently discovered Lethe tephra has been proposed as a latest Pleistocene marker bed in Bristol Bay lowland NE to the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, on the basis of correlations involving a single "Lethe average" glass composition. Type deposits in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, however, are chemically heterogeneous-individual lapilli as well as aggregate ash deposits have glass compositions that range from the average mode to much higher SiO2 and K2O. Moreover, a lake-sediment core from the Cook Inlet region contains one ash deposit similar to "Lethe average" and other, closely underlying deposits that resemble a mixture of the average mode and high-Si high-K mode of proximal deposits. Synthesis of previously published radiocarbon ages indicates a major eruption mainly of "Lethe average" mode about 13,000 14C yr BP. As many as six deposits in the Cook Inlet region-five chiefly "Lethe average" mode-range from about 13,000 to 15-16,000 14C yr BP, and an early Holocene deposit in the Bristol Bay lowland extends the minimum age range of Lethe tephra throughout this region to 8000 14C yr BP. Because of the appearance of "Lethe average" composition in multiple deposits spanning thousands of years, we urge caution when using a Lethe-like composition as a basis for inferring a latest Pleistocene age of a tephra deposit in south-central Alaska. Linear variation plots suggest that magma mixing caused the Lethe heterogeneity; multiple magmas were involved as well in other large pyroclastic eruptions such as Katmai (Alaska) and Rotorua (New Zealand). Lethe is an example of a heterogeneous tephra that may be better compared with other tephras by use of plots of individual analytical points rather than by calculating similarity coefficients based on edited data. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  12. Indirect questioning method reveals hidden support for female genital cutting in South Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Gurmu, Eshetu; Cobo, Beatriz; Rueda, María M; Scott, Isabel M

    2018-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) has major implications for women's physical, sexual and psychological health, and eliminating the practice is a key target for public health policy-makers. To date one of the main barriers to achieving this has been an inability to infer privately-held views on FGC within communities where it is prevalent. As a sensitive (and often illegal) topic, people are anticipated to hide their true support for the practice when questioned directly. Here we use an indirect questioning method (unmatched count technique) to identify hidden support for FGC in a rural South Central Ethiopian community where the practice is common, but thought to be in decline. Employing a socio-demographic household survey of 1620 Arsi Oromo adults, which incorporated both direct and indirect direct response (unmatched count) techniques we compare directly-stated versus privately-held views in support of FGC, and individual variation in responses by age, gender and education and target female (daughters versus daughters-in-law). Both genders express low support for FGC when questioned directly, while indirect methods reveal substantially higher acceptance (of cutting both daughters and daughters-in-law). Educated adults (those who have attended school) are privately more supportive of the practice than they are prepared to admit openly to an interviewer, indicating that education may heighten secrecy rather than decrease support for FGC. Older individuals hold the strongest views in favour of FGC (particularly educated older males), but they are also more inclined to conceal their support for FGC when questioned directly. As these elders represent the most influential members of society, their hidden support for FGC may constitute a pivotal barrier to eliminating the practice in this community. Our results demonstrate the great potential for indirect questioning methods to advance knowledge and inform policy on culturally-sensitive topics like FGC; providing more

  13. Moisture Concentration Variation of Silages Produced on Commercial Farms in the South-Central USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of forage crops as silage offers opportunity to avoid the high risk of rain-damaged hay in the humid south-central USA. Recent developments with baled silage or baleage make silage a less expensive option than typical chopped silage. Silage has been important in the region primarily for dairy production, but baleage has become an option for the more extensive beef cattle industry in the region. Silage samples submitted to the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Forage Quality Lab from 2006 through 2013 were assessed for dry matter (DM and forage nutritive characteristics of chopped silage and baleage of the different forage types from commercial farms primarily in Louisiana and Mississippi. Of the 1,308 silage samples submitted, 1,065 were annual ryegrass (AR with small grains (SG, the warm-season annual (WA grasses, sorghums and pearl millet, and the warm-season perennial (WP grasses, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, providing the remaining samples. Concentration of DM was used to indicate an effective ensiling opportunity, and AR silage was more frequently within the target DM range than was the WA forage group. The AR samples also indicated a high-quality forage with average crude protein (CP of 130 g/kg and total digestible nutrient (TDN near 600 g/kg. The cooler winter weather at harvest apparently complicated harvest of SG silage with chopped SG silage lower in both CP and TDN (104 and 553 g/kg, respectively than either AR silage or baleage of SG (137 and 624 g/kg for CP and TDN, respectively. The hot, humid summer weather along with large stems and large forage quantities of the WA grasses and the inherently higher fiber concentration of WP grasses at harvest stage indicate that preservation of these forage types as silage will be challenging, although successful commercial silage samples of each forage type and preservation approach were included among samples of silages produced in the region.

  14. Childhood and Exile in Chilean Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Palacios

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the trauma of the Chilean dictatorship through the intersection between childhood and exile. It analyzes the role of childhood in Chilean exile cinema, focusing on documentaries produced throughout the 1970s and 80s. We will study the presence of childhood as a symbol in the political imaginary of exile, discuss the ways in which cinema recognizes and authorizes children’s testimony, and cover the dilemmas of desexilio and counter-nostalgia in films devoted to the theme of return. The article argues that Chilean exile cinema turns to childhood as a key experience to understand the cultural phenomenon of uprootment, its psychological and social repercussions, and its role in the formation of an exilic subjectivity.

  15. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  16. Geology of the State of Morelos and contiguous areas in south-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Carl F.

    1959-01-01

    The area described lies in south-central Mexico and embraces all but the southeastern corner and easternmost border of the State of Moreles, the second smallest State in the Mexican Republic. It includes small contiguous parts of the State of Mexico, in the northeastern corner, and of the State of Guerrero in the southwestern corner. Limiting geographic coordinates are 98 45 to 99 39 west longitude and 18 18 to 19 08 north latitude, the northern boundary being only 35 km south of Mexico City, capital of the Republic. The geological map does not cover the entire rectangle outlined, but is irregular in form and measures roughly 4150 sq. km, three-quarters of it representing two0thirds of the State of Moreles and the rest lying outside the State. The region ranges in altitude from 730 m above sea level at Iguala near the south edge of the map, to a general level of about 3000 m at the north edge, although individual peaks rise to 3900 m and Popocatepetl Volcano, a few kilometers east of the northeastern border of the map, rises to 5452 m above sea level. Annual rainfall ranges from a minimum of about 640 mm in the low country, to 1200 mm and more at altitudes above 2000 m. Most of it falls in summer between June and September. Winter frosts are rare below 1800 m. The climate is of savanna to steppe type; soils are thin and may be classified as belonging to the tachernoses group, with strong development of calcareous evaporates (caliche) at altitudes below 1800 m. The northern border of the area forms the southern half of the late Pliocene to Recent Neo-volcanic Belt of basic volcanism that crosses Mexico in the direction N. 80 W., and thus has constructional topography. The rest of the area belongs to the Balsas Basin physiographic province, which is characterized by maturely dissected terrain tributary to the large Balsas River. All but the southwestern corner of the area drains southward via the Amacuzac River into the Mexcala-Balsas River, and thence westward into

  17. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n = 44), North (n = 35), and South (n = 22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p = 0.0005) and Central vs South (p = 0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country. PMID:22952625

  18. Late Pleistocene to Holocene tephrostratigraphy of the Lonquimay Volcano, South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Burkert, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Lonquimay Volcanic Complex (LVC) in South Central Chile (38.38°S, 71.58°W) is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, which formed in response to the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. During the course of its magmatic evolution, the LVC produced explosive eruptions documented in the succession of widespread tephra deposits, as well as large lava flows that originated from the main edifice and several adjacent minor eruptive centers. The last eruptive phase in Lonquimays volcanic evolution occurred from 1988-1990. It led to the formation of the Navidad cinder cone with its associated 10.2 km long lava flow, and a widely distributed tephra blanket of andesitic composition (Moreno and Gardeweg, 1989). During recent field work we reinvestigated and complemented the LVC tephrostratigraphy as originally established by Polanco (1998)by detailed logging of 22 outcrops and collecting 126 stratigraphically controlled samples that were analyzed for their matrix glass, mineral and bulk rock compositions. This data set allows us to verify and extend the field-based correlations, and to establish a tephrostratigraphy for the LVC that comprises 15 stratigraphic units (LQA-LQO) and provides a framework for ongoing investigations of the petrogenetic evolution of the LVC. The stratigraphic record identifies at least 13 explosive eruptions of VEI > 3 that occurred since the last glaciation period (17150 a BP, McCulloch et al. 2000). Magmatic compositions of the tephra deposits range from basaltic scoriae (51wt% SiO2) to evolved dacitic pumice lapilli layers (67wt% SiO2), and thus have a wider compositional range than the chemically distinct andesitic lavas (57-63wt%) of the LVC. The vertical succession of tephra compositions reflects four periods of progressive magmatic differentiation, each successively tapped by several eruptions. The maximum degree of fractionation reached during these periods increases to younger ages. The

  19. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results Genetic variation was assessed with SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat), TRAP (Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) and AFLP (Amplified fragment length polymorphism) techniques. Phenotypic variation included seed morphological characteristics, seed oil content and fatty acid composition and early growth traits. Jaccard’s similarity and cluster analysis by UPGM (Unweighted Paired Group Method) with arithmetic mean and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) indicated higher variability in Central American accessions compared to Asian, African and South American accessions. Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0 to 0.65. In the set of Central American accessions. PIC values were higher than in other regions. Accessions from the Central American population contain alleles that were not found in the accessions from other populations. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA; P jatropha oil significantly differed (P < 0.05) between regions. Conclusions The pool of Central American accessions showed very large genetic variation as assessed by DNA-marker variation compared to accessions from other regions. Central American accessions also showed the highest phenotypic variation and should be considered as the most important source for plant breeding. Some variation in early growth traits was found within a group of accessions from Asia and Africa, while these accessions did not differ in a single DNA-marker, possibly indicating epigenetic variation. PMID:24666927

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting the Whale Shark Aggregation site in the South Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hozumi, Aya

    2015-12-01

    Motivation behind the spring whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregation in Al-Lith, on the Saudi Arabian coast of the South Central Red Sea, is uncertain. A plausible hypothesis is that whale sharks gather to feed on high prey density, leading to questions about the cause of the prey density. A bottom-up process fueled by nutrient input or accumulation from physical advection could create a peak in prey biomass. Wastewater discharged from an aquaculture facility could affect productivity or provide a chemosensory cue for whale sharks. Yet, basic physico-biological oceanography of this region is unresolved. Monthly profiles, long-term moorings, and spatial surveys were used to describe the temporal variability of potential prey biomass and water masses in this region for the first time. Plankton abundance of individuals larger than ~0.7 cm did not peak during whale shark season. Rather, a decrease coinciding the trailing end of whale shark detections was observed. Sites 180 m apart had differences in acoustic backscatter, suggesting small-scale biomass patchiness, supporting the small-scale variability in whale shark habitat selectivity. Red Sea Deep Water, a nutrient-rich water mass formed in the northern Red Sea, appeared in July at the same time the Tokar wind jet from the Sudanese mountain gap is the highest. Gulf of Aden Water, a nutrient-rich water mass from the Indian Ocean, arrived as episodes from May to September, contrary to previous expectations that the water arrives continuously. It is unlikely that these natural nutrient sources are directly responsible for the high prey density attracting the whale sharks. The aquaculture plume, observed at the aggregation site, had a distinct seasonality from the ambient waters. The plume’s highest salinity (>48) approached the extreme limits of coral tolerances. Nutrient concentrations (nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silica), suspended particulate matter, phytoplankton biomass, bacteria and cyanobacteria cell counts

  1. Music preference in degus (Octodon degus: Analysis with Chilean folk music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most nonhuman animals do not show selective preference for types of music, but researchers have typically employed only Western classical music in such studies. Thus, there has been bias in music choice. Degus (Octodon degus, originally from the mountain areas of Chile, have highly developed vocal communication. Here, we examined music preference of degus using not only Western classical music (music composed by Bach and Stravinsky, but also South American folk music (Chilean and Peruvian. The degus preferred the South American music to the Western classical music but did not show selective preference between the two Western classical music choices. Furthermore, the degus preferred the Chilean to the Peruvian music to some extent. In the second experiment, we examined preference for music vs. silence. Degus overall showed a preference for Chilean music over silence, but preferred silence over Western music. The present results indicate that the previous negative data for musical preference in nonhuman animals may be due to biased music selection (Krause, 2012. Our results suggest the possibility that the soundscape of an environment influences folk music created by native peoples living there and the auditory preference of other resident animals there.

  2. Chilean fuel elements fabrication progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, J.; Contreras, H.; Chavez, J.; Klein, J.; Mansilla, R.; Marin, J.; Medina, R.

    1993-01-01

    Due to HEU-LEU core conversion necessity for the Chilean MTR reactors, the Fuel Elements Plant is being implemented to LEU nuclear fuel elements fabrication. A glove box line for powder-compact processing designed at CCHEN, which supposed to operate under an automatic control system, is at present under initial tests. Results of first natural uranium fuel plates manufacturing runs are shown

  3. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...

  4. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  5. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2015-12-22

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  6. Determinants of Ownership Concentration and Tender Offer Law in the Chilean Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Marco

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes econometrically the determinants of ownership concentration in the Chilean stock market, with particular attention to the e¤ects of the Tender Offer Law (OPA law). Even though the central pourpose of OPAs Law is achieved, the tender offer mechanism increases the ownership concentration. The main reason for this effect has to do with the "residual OPA" obligation considered by the law.

  7. A profile of informal traders in four South African city central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The situation in South African cities is no exception as the unemployment rate ... 1. INTRODUCTION. In developing countries, state resources and formal employment opportunities .... like labour-force surveys in resource- constrained African ...

  8. Genetic structure of Quechua-speakers of the Central Andes and geographic patterns of gene frequencies in South Amerindian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, D; Simoni, L; Tarazona-Santos, E; Pastor, S; Pettener, D

    2000-09-01

    A sample of 141 Quechua-speaking individuals of the population of Tayacaja, in the Peruvian Central Andes, was typed for the following 16 genetic systems: ABO, Rh, MNSs, P, Duffy, AcP1, EsD, GLOI, PGM1, AK, 6-PGD, Hp, Gc, Pi, C3, and Bf. The genetic structure of the population was analyzed in relation to the allele frequencies available for other South Amerindian populations, using a combination of multivariate and multivariable techniques. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed independently for 13 alleles to identify patterns of gene flow in South America as a whole and in more specific geographic regions. We found a longitudinal cline for the AcP1*a and EsD*1 alleles which we interpreted as the result of an ancient longitudinal expansion of a putative ancestral population of modern Amerindians. Monmonnier's algorithm, used to identify areas of sharp genetic discontinuity, suggested a clear east-west differentiation of native South American populations, which was confirmed by analysis of the distribution of genetic distances. We suggest that this pattern of genetic structures is the consequence of the independent peopling of western and eastern South America or to low levels of gene flow between these regions, related to different environmental and demographic histories. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Application of DNA forensic techniques for identifying poached guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Chilean Patagonia*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Juan C; Saucedo, Cristian E; Corti, Paulo; González, Benito A

    2009-09-01

    Guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a protected and widely distributed ungulate in South America. A poacher, after killing guanacos in Valle Chacabuco, Chilean Patagonia, transported and stored the meat. Samples were retrieved by local police but the suspect argued that the meat was from a horse. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (774 pb), 15 loci microsatellites, and SRY gene were used to identify the species, number of animals and their population origin, and the sex of the animals, respectively. Analysis revealed that the samples came from a female (absence of SRY gene) Patagonian guanaco (assignment probability between 0.0075 and 0.0282), and clearly distinguishing it from sympatric ungulates (E-value = 0). Based on the evidence obtained in the field in addition to forensic data, the suspect was convicted of poaching and illegally carrying fire arms. This is the first report of molecular tools being used in forensic investigations of Chilean wildlife indicating its promising future application in guanaco management and conservation.

  10. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE CRUST AND UPPER MANTLE FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Senachin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the density of both the crust and mantle is one of the topical problems in modern geophysics. Gravity modeling in combination with seismic tomography is an important tool for detecting density inhomogeneities in the crust and mantle, which can cause stresses and thus significantly impact the regional tectonics [Pogorelov, Baranov, 2010], especially in zones wherein continental margins actively interact with subducting oceanic plates and the entire depth of the tectonosphere is subject to stresses. Associated processes lead to considerable horizontal and vertical stresses that often cause catastrophic events on a global scale. The challenge of studying the global tectonic processes in the Earth’s tectonosphere can be addressed by gravity modeling in combination with seismic surveying.Data from previous studies. I.L. Nersesov et al. [1975] pioneered in calculating the spatial pattern of mantle density inhomogeneities in Central Asia. Although the accuracy of their estimations was not high due to the limited database, their study yielded significant results considering the structure of the crust. Numerous subsequent geophysical projects have researched the crust to a level sufficient to develop regional models, that can give quite adequate information on the depths of external and internal boundaries of the crust and suggest the distribution patterns of seismic velocities and density values. With reference to such data, mantle density inhomogeneities can be studied with higher accuracy.This paper reports on the estimations of gravity anomalies in the crust and upper mantle in Central and South Asia. The study region represents the full range of crust thicknesses and ages, as well a variety of crust formation types [Christensen, Mooney, 1995]. We used the 3D gravity modeling software package 3SGravity developed by Senachin [2015a, 2015b] that considers the spherical shape of the Earth's surface, and estimated gravitional anomalies using

  11. Evaluating Ultraviolet Radiation Exposures Determined from TOMS Satellite Data at Sites of Amphibian Declines in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many amphibian species have experienced substantial population declines, or have disappeared altogether, during the last several decades at a number of amphibian census sites in Central and South America. This study addresses the use of satellite-derived trends in solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm) radiation exposures at these sites over the last two decades, and is intended to demonstrate a role for satellite observations in determining whether UV-B radiation is a contributing factor in amphibian declines. UV-B radiation levels at the Earth's surface were derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite data, typically acquired daily since 1979. These data were used to calculate the daily erythemal (sunburning) UV-B, or UV-B(sub ery), exposures at the latitude, longitude, and elevation of each of 20 census sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) dose, as well as the maximum values, have been increasing in both Central and South America, with higher levels received at the Central American sites. The annually averaged UV-B(sub ery) exposures increased significantly from 1979-1998 at all 11 Central American sites examined (r(exp 2) = 0.60 - 0.79; P= 6750 J/sq m*d) to the annual UV-B(sub ery) total has increased from approx. 5% to approx. 15% in Central America over the 19 year period, but actual daily exposures for each species are unknown. Synergy among UV-B radiation and other factors, especially those associated with alterations of water chemistry (e.g., acidification) in aqueous habitats is discussed. These findings justify further research concerning whether UV-B(sub ery) radiation plays a role in amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  12. U.S. Department of the Interior South Central Climate Science Center strategic science plan, 2013--18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Kim T.; Dalton, Melinda S.; Shipp, Allison A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) recognizes and embraces the unprecedented challenges of maintaining our Nation’s rich natural and cultural resources in the 21st century. The magnitude of these challenges demands that the conservation community work together to develop integrated adaptation and mitigation strategies that collectively address the impacts of climate change and other landscape-scale stressors. On September 14, 2009, DOI Secretary Ken Salazar signed Secretarial Order 3289 (amended February 22, 2010) entitled, “Addressing the Impacts of Climate Change on America’s Water, Land, and Other Natural and Cultural Resources.” The Order establishes the foundation for two partner-based conservation science entities to address these unprecedented challenges: Climate Science Centers (CSCs and Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs). CSCs and LCCs are the Department-wide approach for applying scientific tools to increase understanding of climate change and to coordinate an effective response to its impacts on tribes and the land, water, ocean, fish and wildlife, and cultural-heritage resources that DOI manages. Eight CSCs have been established and are managed through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center (NCCWSC); each CSC works in close collaboration with their neighboring CSCs, as well as those across the Nation, to ensure the best and most efficient science is produced. The South Central CSC was established in 2012 through a cooperative agreement with the University of Oklahoma, Texas Tech University, Louisiana State University, the Chickasaw Nation, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Oklahoma State University, and NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab; hereafter termed the ”Consortium” of the South Central CSC. The Consortium has a broad expertise in the physical, biological, natural, and social sciences to address impacts of climate change on land, water, fish and wildlife, ocean, coastal, and

  13. The Security Implications of Water: Prospects for Instability or Cooperation in South and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    and import enough fuels for its winter needs.” And,The World Bank, “ Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr...94 “ Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr Darya Basin,” World Bank Report...10. 95 All statistics are attributed from Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr Darya Basin,” World Bank

  14. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in Central and South American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Lilian; Morales, Sebastian; de Mayo, Tomas; Gonzalez-Hormazabal, Patricio; Carrasco, Valentina; Godoy, Raul

    2017-10-06

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. A major advance in the understanding of the genetic etiology of BC was the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes, which are considered high-penetrance BC genes. In non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, disease susceptibility may be explained of a small number of mutations in BRCA1/2 and a much higher proportion of mutations in ethnicity-specific moderate- and/or low-penetrance genes. In Central and South American populations, studied have focused on analyzing the distribution and prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations and other susceptibility genes that are scarce in Latin America as compared to North America, Europe, Australia, and Israel. Thus, the aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenic BRCA variants and other BC susceptibility genes. We conducted a comprehensive review of 47 studies from 12 countries in Central and South America published between 2002 and 2017 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of mutations and pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 and other BC susceptibility genes. The studies on BRCA1/2 mutations screened a total of 5956 individuals, and studies on susceptibility genes analyzed a combined sample size of 11,578 individuals. To date, a total of 190 different BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations in Central and South American populations have been reported in the literature. Pathogenic mutations or variants that increase BC risk have been reported in the following genes or genomic regions: ATM, BARD1, CHECK2, FGFR2, GSTM1, MAP3K1, MTHFR, PALB2, RAD51, TOX3, TP53, XRCC1, and 2q35.

  15. Prevalence of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV genotypes in south-central Sicily: a comparative study between 2003 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liborio Bellomo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue is about our Human Papilloma Virus (HPV DNA test. We have examined two cohorts of patients from south-central Sicily, who were tested for HPV -DNA derived from cervical sampling, respectively in 2003 and 2011. In 2003, the most represented genotypes were: 31, 16. Instead, in 2011 there was a higher prevalence for genotypes: 42, 16. It is remarkable to note that the 35 genotype, noticed in 2003, has never been found in the second most recent group.

  16. Correlation of Helicobacter pylori genotypes with gastric histopathology in the central region of a South-European country

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, N; Donato, MM; Romãozinho, JM; Luxo, C; Cardoso, O; Cipriano, MA; Marinho, C; Fernandes, A; Sofia, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outcome of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection results from interaction of multiple variables including host, environmental and bacterial-associated virulence factors. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of cagA, cagE, vacA, iceA and babA2 genotypes with gastric histopathology and disease phenotype in the central region of a South-European country. METHODS: This prospective study involved 148 infected patients (110 female; mean age 43.5 ± 13.4...

  17. Water resources in the Big Lost River Basin, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Thomas, C.A.; Dyer, K.L.

    1970-01-01

    The Big Lost River basin occupies about 1,400 square miles in south-central Idaho and drains to the Snake River Plain. The economy in the area is based on irrigation agriculture and stockraising. The basin is underlain by a diverse-assemblage of rocks which range, in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The assemblage is divided into five groups on the basis of their hydrologic characteristics. Carbonate rocks, noncarbonate rocks, cemented alluvial deposits, unconsolidated alluvial deposits, and basalt. The principal aquifer is unconsolidated alluvial fill that is several thousand feet thick in the main valley. The carbonate rocks are the major bedrock aquifer. They absorb a significant amount of precipitation and, in places, are very permeable as evidenced by large springs discharging from or near exposures of carbonate rocks. Only the alluvium, carbonate rock and locally the basalt yield significant amounts of water. A total of about 67,000 acres is irrigated with water diverted from the Big Lost River. The annual flow of the river is highly variable and water-supply deficiencies are common. About 1 out of every 2 years is considered a drought year. In the period 1955-68, about 175 irrigation wells were drilled to provide a supplemental water supply to land irrigated from the canal system and to irrigate an additional 8,500 acres of new land. Average. annual precipitation ranged from 8 inches on the valley floor to about 50 inches at some higher elevations during the base period 1944-68. The estimated water yield of the Big Lost River basin averaged 650 cfs (cubic feet per second) for the base period. Of this amount, 150 cfs was transpired by crops, 75 cfs left the basin as streamflow, and 425 cfs left as ground-water flow. A map of precipitation and estimated values of evapotranspiration were used to construct a water-yield map. A distinctive feature of the Big Lost River basin, is the large interchange of water from surface streams into the ground and from the

  18. Stream seepage and groundwater levels, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stream discharge and water levels in wells were measured at multiple sites in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, in August 2012, October 2012, and March 2013, as a component of data collection for a groundwater-flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This model is a cooperative and collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources. Stream-discharge measurements for determination of seepage were made during several days on three occasions: August 27–28, 2012, October 22–24, 2012, and March 27–28, 2013. Discharge measurements were made at 49 sites in August and October, and 51 sites in March, on the Big Wood River, Silver Creek, their tributaries, and nearby canals. The Big Wood River generally gains flow between the Big Wood River near Ketchum streamgage (13135500) and the Big Wood River at Hailey streamgage (13139510), and loses flow between the Hailey streamgage and the Big Wood River at Stanton Crossing near Bellevue streamgage (13140800). Shorter reaches within these segments may differ in the direction or magnitude of seepage or may be indeterminate because of measurement uncertainty. Additional reaches were measured on Silver Creek, the North Fork Big Wood River, Warm Springs Creek, Trail Creek, and the East Fork Big Wood River. Discharge measurements also were made on the Hiawatha, Cove, District 45, Glendale, and Bypass Canals, and smaller tributaries to the Big Wood River and Silver Creek. Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2006. Maps of the October 2012 water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer have similar topology to those on maps of October 2006 conditions. Between October 2006 and October 2012, water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer rose by

  19. Characterizing the subsurface geology in and around the U.S. Army Camp Stanley Storage Activity, south-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Charles D.; Clark, Allan K.

    2018-02-15

    Several U.S. Geological Survey projects, supported by the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, have used multi-disciplinary approaches over a 14-year period to reveal the surface and subsurface geologic frameworks of the Edwards and Trinity aquifers of central Texas and the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma. Some of the project achievements include advancements in hydrostratigraphic mapping, three-dimensional subsurface framework modeling, and airborne geophysical surveys as well as new methodologies that link geologic and groundwater flow models. One area where some of these milestones were achieved was in and around the U.S. Army Camp Stanley Storage Activity, located in north­western Bexar County, Texas, about 19 miles north­west of downtown San Antonio.

  20. Food habits of Pacific Marten from scats in south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J Wilk; Martin G Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying prey taken by Pacific Marten (Martes americana caurina) helps to understand local habitat requirements of the species. We collected 250 scat samples associated with at least 53 marten in a salvage-logged Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta)-Bitterbrush shrub (Purshia tridentata) forest in south-...

  1. Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae en la costa de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375 were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites. After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales se basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375 en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas. Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la

  2. Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deju, R.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented

  3. Animals′ Role in Proper Behaviour: Cheŵa Women′s Instructions in South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F Zubieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common role of animals in the Cheŵa culture of south-central Africa is twofold: they are regarded as an important source of food, and they also provide raw materials for the creation of traditional medicines. Animals, however, also have a nuanced symbolic role that impacts the way people behave with each other by embodying cultural protocols of proper — and not so proper — behaviour. They appear repeatedly in storytelling and proverbs to reference qualities that people need to avoid or pursue and learn from the moral of the story in which animals interplay with each other, just as humans do. For example, someone who wants to prevent the consequences of greed is often advised to heed hyena stories and proverbs. My contribution elaborates on Brian Morris's instrumental work in south-central Africa, which has permitted us to elucidate the symbolism of certain animals and the perception of landscape for Indigenous populations in this region. I discuss some of the ways in which animals have been employed to teach and learn proper behaviour in a particular sacred ceremony of the Cheŵa people which takes place in celebration of womanhood: Chinamwali.

  4. Radiated Seismic Energy of Earthquakes in the South-Central Region of the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Mendoza-Camberos, Antonio; Pérez-Vertti, Arturo

    2018-05-01

    We estimated the radiated seismic energy (ES) of 65 earthquakes located in the south-central region of the Gulf of California. Most of these events occurred along active transform faults that define the Pacific-North America plate boundary and have magnitudes between M3.3 and M5.9. We corrected the spectral records for attenuation using nonparametric S-wave attenuation functions determined with the whole data set. The path effects were isolated from the seismic source using a spectral inversion. We computed radiated seismic energy of the earthquakes by integrating the square velocity source spectrum and estimated their apparent stresses. We found that most events have apparent stress between 3 × 10-4 and 3 MPa. Model independent estimates of the ratio between seismic energy and moment (ES/M0) indicates that this ratio is independent of earthquake size. We conclude that in general the apparent stress is low (σa < 3 MPa) in the south-central and southern Gulf of California.

  5. Evaluation of natural gas supply options for south east and central Europe. Part 1: Indicator definitions and single indicator analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Carvalho, Maria G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Martins, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    The need for diversification of energy sources is an immanent goal in long term energy strategy. In particular, this is of great importance for the natural gas supply. In this respect, evaluation and assessment of potential natural gas resources and their relation to consumers is of great importance. The natural gas supply in Europe is one of the main issues of European energy strategy to be followed in the future. In particular, the natural gas supply in the southeast countries is important. This paper provides a framework for understanding how much natural gas is available for use in south east and central Europe as well as the links to the recent supply of natural gas and its transport. The analysis is focused on evaluation of the potential routes for natural gas supply to the south east and central European countries. The potential options included in this analysis are the Yamal Route; Nabucco Route; West Balkan Route; LNG NEUM Route and Gas by Wire Route. In this analysis, attention is focused on the following indicators for assessment of potential options: environmental indicator; NG cost indicator; NG transport and royalty indicator; investment indicator; and NG demand indicator. The first part of this paper is devoted to the definition of the indicators and to single indicator analysis. (author)

  6. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian basin and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From west to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag basin, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-west normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies

  7. Constructing Realities: Bullying Usages in Chilean Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bassaletti-Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports an exploratory research on the uses given in Chile to the Anglicism bullying. In order to do so, its evolution is reviewed from the early studies in the Nordic countries, to the treatment of the topic in the Chilean context. The focus of this work is based on socioconstructionism and in turn promotes the consideration of the characteristics of the socio-cultural and historical context of knowledge production with a postcolonial intention. To review the constructions on the subject, we selected Chilean videos at the YouTube virtual platform, using as methodology discourse analysis and dense description. In results can be observed two meanings of bullying: (i to refer to any kind of aggression and (ii as a homologous of abuse among schoolchildren. In response, it is realized the discrepancy with the proposed definitions from general academia and those used in the local environment in investigations, interventions, public policy and mass media in Chile.

  8. Technical efficiency in the Chilean agribusiness sector

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Aedo, Edinson; Lakner, Sebastian; Brümmer, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The reform-process towards a higher world-market orientation has a long tradition in Chile, with all its strengths and weaknesses. The food processing industry is highly competitive on the worldmarket. The following paper investigates the technical efficiency of the Chilean food processing industry between 2001 and 2007. We used a data-set from the 5,941 of firms in food processing industry. The observations are taken of the 'Annual National Industrial Survey'. The method of stochastic fronti...

  9. Memorial 1997 - ENDESA (Chilean Electricity Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive survey, in depth assessment of the activities overview of ENDESA, Chilean Electricity Company, highlighting economical information and including historical and technical aspects. Economics is its focal point, but other relevant data are shown, like technical data on hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants. Main activities developed by ENDESA are described, such in Chile as in the foreign. Data on power generation, transmission and transport are also presented and an economical balance of each colligated company are done and analysed

  10. Uniparental ancestry markers in Chilean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dutra Vieira-Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions. Newborns from seven hospitals in Independencia, Providencia, Santiago, Curicó, Cauquenes, Valdívia, and Puerto Montt communes, belonging to the Chilean regions of Santiago, Maule, and Los Lagos, were studied. The presence of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and two markers present in the non-recombinant region of the Y chromosome, DYS199 and DYS287, indicative of Native American and African ancestry, respectively, was determined. A high Native American matrilineal contribution and a low Native American and African patrilineal contributions were found in all three studied regions. As previously found in Chilean admixed populations, the Native American matrilineal contribution was lower in Santiago than in the other studied regions. However, there was an unexpectedly higher contribution of Native American ancestry in one of the studied communes in Santiago, probably due to the high rate of immigration from other regions of the country. The population genetic sub-structure we detected in Santiago using few uniparental markers requires further confirmation, owing to possible stratification for autosomal and X-chromosome markers.

  11. Geochemical Investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer, South-Central Oklahoma, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A geochemical reconnaissance investigation of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma was initiated in 2004 to characterize the ground-water quality at an aquifer scale, to describe the chemical evolution of ground water as it flows from recharge areas to discharge in wells and springs, and to determine the residence time of ground water in the aquifer. Thirty-six water samples were collected from 32 wells and springs distributed across the aquifer for chemical analysis of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and age-dating tracers. In general, the waters from wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer are chemically suitable for all regulated uses, such as public supplies. Dissolved solids concentrations are low, with a median of 347 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Two domestic wells produced water with nitrate concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nitrate maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 mg/L. Samples from two wells in the confined part of the aquifer exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) for chloride of 250 mg/L and the SMCL of 500 mg/L for dissolved solids. Water samples from these two wells are not representative of water samples from the other wells and springs completed in the unconfined part of the aquifer. No other water samples from the Arbuckle-Simpson geochemical reconnaissance exceeded MCLs or SMCLs, although not every chemical constituent for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established a MCL or SMCL was analyzed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson geochemical investigation. The major ion chemistry of 34 of the 36 samples indicates the water is a calcium bicarbonate or calcium magnesium bicarbonate water type. Calcium bicarbonate water type is found in the western part of the aquifer, which is predominantly limestone. Calcium magnesium bicarbonate water is found in the eastern part of the aquifer, which is predominantly a

  12. Central plane of the ring current responsible for geomagnetic disturbance in the South-American region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1981-01-01

    Using hourly values of H, D, Z from a network of South American stations, operative during the IGY-IGC, the latitude dependence of storm effects was studied. It was found that whereas there were considerable distortions due to conductivity anomalies under the Andes, there was also evidence of latitudinal excursions of overhead current system, not only from storm to storm but even during the course of the same storm

  13. A new geological framework for south-central Madagascar, and its relevance to the "out-of-Africa" hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.Y.; Macey, P.H.; Delor, C.; Amelin, Y.; Armstrong, R.A.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of south-central Madagascar, excluding the Vohibory region, consists of three geologic domains, from north to south: Antananarivo, Ikalamavony-Itremo, and Anosyen-Androyen. The northern Antananarivo domain represents the Neoarchean sector of the Greater Dharwar Craton amalgamated at 2.52-2.48. Ga. The Greater Dharwar Craton is overlain by several groups of Meso- to Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Ambatolampy, Manampotsy, Ampasary, Sahantaha, and Maha Groups) each with a common and diagnostic signature of Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.2-1.8. Ga). The central domain (Ikalamavony-Itremo) consists of two distinct parts. The Itremo Sub-domain, in the east, is a structurally intercalated sequence of Neoarchean gneiss and shallow marine metasedimentary rocks of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic age (Itremo Group), the latter with Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons ranging in age between 2.2 and 1.8. Ga. The Ikalamavony Sub-domain, to the west, contains abundant volcano-clastic metasediments and lesser quartzite (Ikalamavony Group), formed between 1.03. Ga and 0.98. Ga, and intruded by igneous rocks (Dabolava Suite) of Stenian-Tonian age. Structurally intercalated with these are sheets of Neoarchean gneiss (~2.5. Ga) and Neoproterozoic metaclastic rocks (Molo Group). Like the Itremo Group, quartzite of the Ikalamavony Group has detrital zircons of Paleoproterozoic age (2.1-1.8. Ga). The southern domain of Anosyen-Androyen consists of a newly recognized suite of Paleoproterozoic igneous rocks (2.0-1.8. Ga), and stratified supracrustal rocks also having Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons (2.3-1.8. Ga). The contact between the Anosyen-Androyen and Ikalamavony-Itremo domains, formerly known as the Ranotsara-Bongolava shear zone, is a tightly folded and highly flattened boundary that was ductilely deformed in Ediacaran time. It is roughly equivalent to the Palghat-Cauvery shear zone in south India, and it defines approximately the boundary between the Archean

  14. North–south palaeohydrological contrasts in the central Mediterranean during the Holocene: tentative synthesis and working hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Magny

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a multi-proxy approach and a strategy combining lacustrine and marine records along a north–south transect, data collected in the central Mediterranean within the framework of a collaborative project have led to reconstruction of high-resolution and well-dated palaeohydrological records and to assessment of their spatial and temporal coherency. Contrasting patterns of palaeohydrological changes have been evidenced in the central Mediterranean: south (north of around 40° N of latitude, the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by lake-level maxima (minima, during an interval dated to ca. 10 300–4500 cal BP to the south and 9000–4500 cal BP to the north. Available data suggest that these contrasting palaeohydrological patterns operated throughout the Holocene, both on millennial and centennial scales. Regarding precipitation seasonality, maximum humidity in the central Mediterranean during the middle part of the Holocene was characterised by humid winters and dry summers north of ca. 40° N, and humid winters and summers south of ca. 40° N. This may explain an apparent conflict between palaeoclimatic records depending on the proxies used for reconstruction as well as the synchronous expansion of tree species taxa with contrasting climatic requirements. In addition, south of ca. 40° N, the first millennium of the Holocene was characterised by very dry climatic conditions not only in the eastern, but also in the central- and the western Mediterranean zones as reflected by low lake levels and delayed reforestation. These results suggest that, in addition to the influence of the Nile discharge reinforced by the African monsoon, the deposition of Sapropel 1 has been favoured (1 by an increase in winter precipitation in the northern Mediterranean borderlands, and (2 by an increase in winter and summer precipitation in the southern Mediterranean area. The climate reversal following the Holocene climate optimum appears to

  15. Status and trends of land change in the Midwest–South Central United States—1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.; Auch, Roger F.; Karstensen, Krista A.

    2015-12-10

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1794–C is the third in a four-volume series on the status and trends of the Nation’s land use and land cover, providing an assessment of the rates and causes of land-use and land-cover change in the Midwest–South Central United States between 1973 and 2000. Volumes A, B, and D provide similar analyses for the Western United States, the Great Plains of the United States, and the Eastern United States, respectively. The assessments of land-use and land-cover trends are conducted on an ecoregion-by-ecoregion basis, and each ecoregion assessment is guided by a nationally consistent study design that includes mapping, statistical methods, field studies, and analysis. Individual assessments provide a picture of the characteristics of land change occurring in a given ecoregion; in combination, they provide a framework for understanding the complex national mosaic of change and also the causes and consequences of change. Thus, each volume in this series provides a regional assessment of how (and how fast) land use and land cover are changing, and why. The four volumes together form the first comprehensive picture of land change across the Nation.Geographic understanding of land-use and land-cover change is directly relevant to a wide variety of stakeholders, including land and resource managers, policymakers, and scientists. The chapters in this volume present brief summaries of the patterns and rates of land change observed in each ecoregion in the Midwest–South Central United States, together with field photographs, statistics, and comparisons with other assessments. In addition, a synthesis chapter summarizes the scope of land change observed across the entire Midwest–South Central United States. The studies provide a way of integrating information across the landscape, and they form a critical component in the efforts to understand how land use and land cover affect important issues such as the provision of

  16. Vegetative Propagation Trial of Prosopis africana (Guill. et Perr.) Taub. by Air Layering under Sudano-Sahelian Climate in the South-Central Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Abdou, Laouali; Karim, Saley; Habou, Rabiou; Mahamane, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Prosopis africana is a species of great socioeconomic importance but threatened with extinction in Niger because of overuse and regeneration problem. This study, conducted in the Maradi (Niger) area, precisely at El Gueza in the south of Gazaoua department, aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of P. africana by air layering under the Sudano-Sahelian climate of the south-central Niger. A ring of bark was taken on each selected branch and the wound was covered with a black plast...

  17. Tectonosedimentary model for the central Rand Goldfield, Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stewart, RA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available is oligomictic consisting of approximately 90"/;! white and S'Mi smoky vein quartz cla.sts and 5">ii blue opale.scent quartz clasts- Locaiisetl (typically ranges of less than 10m) dark-grey, fine-grained quaitzite matrix occurs. On average, the Main Reef Leader....ssociitted with higher goki grades relaiive to the lower conglomerate and the Main Reef (I). Rolfe. personal communication, 2(KH)). The high proportion {1S%) of blue opale.scent t|uarlz cla.sts in the hangingwall conglomerate band is t haractcristic of the South Reef...

  18. Compositional data supports decentralized model of production and circulation of artifacts in the pre-Columbian south-central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Marisa; Pereyra Domingorena, Lucas; Stoner, Wesley D; Scattolin, María Cristina; Korstanje, María Alejandra; Glascock, Michael D

    2017-05-16

    The circulation and exchange of goods and resources at various scales have long been considered central to the understanding of complex societies, and the Andes have provided a fertile ground for investigating this process. However, long-standing archaeological emphasis on typological analysis, although helpful to hypothesize the direction of contacts, has left important aspects of ancient exchange open to speculation. To improve understanding of ancient exchange practices and their potential role in structuring alliances, we examine material exchanges in northwest Argentina (part of the south-central Andes) during 400 BC to AD 1000 (part of the regional Formative Period), with a multianalytical approach (petrography, instrumental neutron activation analysis, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to artifacts previously studied separately. We assess the standard centralized model of interaction vs. a decentralized model through the largest provenance database available to date in the region. The results show: ( i ) intervalley heterogeneity of clays and fabrics for ordinary wares; ( ii ) intervalley homogeneity of clays and fabrics for a wide range of decorated wares (e.g., painted Ciénaga); ( iii ) selective circulation of two distinct polychrome wares (Vaquerías and Condorhuasi); ( iv ) generalized access to obsidian from one major source and various minor sources; and ( v ) selective circulation of volcanic rock tools from a single source. These trends reflect the multiple and conflicting demands experienced by people in small-scale societies, which may be difficult to capitalize by aspiring elites. The study undermines centralized narratives of exchange for this period, offering a new platform for understanding ancient exchange based on actual material transfers, both in the Andes and beyond.

  19. Diversity and effective population size of four horse breeds from microsatellite DNA markers in South-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Vázquez-Armijo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central region of Mexico has experienced a sizeable introduction of purebred horses for recreational aims. A study was designed to assess effective population sizes and genetic diversity and to verify the genetic integrity of four horse breeds. Using a 12-microsatellite panel, Quarter Horse, Azteca, Thoroughbred and Creole (CRL horses were sampled and analysed for diversity and genetic structure. Genetic diversity parameters showed high numbers of heterozygous horses but small effective population sizes in all breeds. Population structure results suggested some degree of admixture of CRL with the other reference breeds. The highly informative microsatellite panel allowed the verification of diversity in introduced horse populations and the confirmation of small effective population sizes, which suggests a risk for future breed integrity.

  20. Effects of ancient porosity and permeability on formation of sedimentary dolomites: Devonian Jefferson Formation (Frasnian), south-central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.M.; Dorobek, S.L.

    1987-08-01

    Petrographic and geochemical evidence indicates that multiple dolomitization and dolomite stabilization events affected the Devonian Jefferson Formation (Frasnian) in south-central Montana. Several types of dolomite occur, defined by cathodoluminescence: nonzoned, dully luminescent subhedral-anhedral mosaics (most common), euhedral nonzoned and zoned dolomites, zoned dolomite cements, and irregularly luminescent dolomites (dully luminescent with irregularly luminescent regions). The irregularly luminescent fabrics probably represent partial replacement of early dolomite phases with later dolomite phases. Nonzoned, Ca-enriched, euhedral dolomites occur in calcite-cemented, coarse-grained limestone layers. These permeable layers probably were conduits for early meteoric waters, that occluded porosity in the limestones and prevented later dolomite stabilization. Irregularly luminescent dolomites are interpreted as intermediate fabrics in the dolomite stabilization process. Later calcite cements which occlude intercrystalline porosity prevented further dolomite replacement. Total recrystallization of remaining dolomites and formation of final dully luminescent mosaics occurred prior to brecciation and stylolitization.

  1. EVALUATION OF FACTORS OF THE WORKPLACES IN MATE INDUSTRY (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. AT CENTRAL-SOUTH IN PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed in the maté process industry workplaces, located in central-south of the Parana State, Brazil, from June to August 2005. The climate conditions, noise and light level were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The results showed that the climate conditions through the Wet Bulle Globe Temperature (WBGT was in accordance with NR 15 standard, with a maximum of 17.0 ºC at 15:00 p.m. in the “Barbaquá” sector. The noise levels were above allowed by legislation in the “Barbaquá” sector at finally work day. The light conditions were not in accordance with NBR 5413/92 in the majority of the workplaces evaluated, mainly after the 18:00 p.m, when the artificial illumination became necessary.

  2. Specialized consulting in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high specialty, PEMEX. VI. December of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F.

    2002-01-01

    It is a report of a specialized consulting in radiological safety that to be carried the ININ to PEMEX for the South Central Hospital of High Specialty, to maintain the sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment of medical diagnostic, and guarantee these services with a program of quality assurance. To give fulfilment to that requests it is programmed a technical assistance monthly, with reports of results during the development of the service. In this document it is carried a report of the advances and results in the month of december of the 2001, where the following documents are analyzed: Manual of radiological safety, program of quality assurance, operation procedures, procedure of maintenance team, procedure of medical radiological control of the specialized personnel; also are annotate the obtained results and their observations. (Author)

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Central Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 194-square- kilometer (75-square-mile) area encompassing the central portion of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The survey was flown during February 10--27, 1987. These radiological measurements were used as baseline data for the central area and for determining the extent of man-made radionuclide distribution. Previous SRS surveys included small portions of the area; the 1987 survey was covered during the site- wide survey conducted in 1979. Man-made radionuclides (including cobalt-60, cesium-137, protactinium-234m, and elevated levels of uranium-238 progeny) that were detected during the survey were typical of those produced by the reactor operations and material processing activities being conducted in the area. The natural terrestrial radiation levels were consistent with those measured during prior surveys of other SRS areas. 1 refs., 4 figs

  4. Growing inter-Asian connections: Links, rivalries, and challenges in South Korean–Central Asian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical context, which emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, combined with Korea's growing economic prowess, enabled greater dynamism and diversification in Seoul's foreign policy-making. Growing pressure from energy-intensive economies coupled with new developments and investment in logistics and infrastructure has brought different parts of the Eurasian landmass closer together in recent years. Inter-Asian connections are especially growing. This article uses the case of deepening relations between Korea and the post-Soviet Central Asian republics as a vantage point to reflect on one such example of unfolding Asian inter-connectedness. In addition it sees Seoul's engagement in the region as a fitting example of Korea's broader ambitions to assert itself as a global economic player. The article shows that Korea's policy toward Central Asia has been primarily driven by energy needs and is defined by pragmatism. It finds that the economic dimension of the relationship has greatly overshadowed other aspects such as politics and security. In its pursuit of closer ties with the region Seoul has sought to turn structural weaknesses into added value and has attempted to develop a distinctive, non-threatening profile built around the lack of a political baggage and geopolitical ambitions, and the desire to share its experience of formerly impoverished turned leading economy. In turn, Central Asia's selective integration in the world economy has continued, also thanks to its ties with Korea. The Central Asian republics welcomed the opportunity to diversify their foreign relations, the sources of foreign investment and export routes. At the same time the opaque business environment, a leadership succession, which cannot be postponed for much longer, and Seoul's “no-strings attached” approach expose Korea to some risks as regime stability might not last forever.

  5. Critical Internal Factors Influencing The Centralization Of Stock Procurement Processes In A South African Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza; Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was threefold: 1) to examine the internal factors influencing centralization of stock procurement processes, 2) to assess the relationship between demographic factors and staff understanding of Information Communication Technology (ICT) with performance improvement, and 3) to examine the relationship between prevention of corruption with management commitment. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 82 members of staff from procurement division in a ...

  6. China’s Strategy Toward South and Central Asia: An Empty Fortress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    new states as well as the post-communist governments in Russia and Mongolia. By the mid-1990s, these efforts began to bear fruit, with the... Panda , “India’s Approach to Central Asia: Strategic Intent and Geo-political Calculus,” China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2009, pp...extremely slow to bear fruit (see Chapter Three for details). Nevertheless, Beijing is keen to diversify its energy sources and supply routes

  7. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-05-02

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without insurance. Health interventionists may use

  8. Incidence of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria: Data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Angela O; Efekemo, Oghenevwairhe P; Soluade, Mojisola G; Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A

    2018-08-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most economically important viral diseases of cassava, an important staple food for over 800 million people in the tropics. Although several Cassava mosaic virus species associated with CMD have been isolated and characterized over the years, several new super virulent strains of these viruses have evolved due to genetic recombination between diverse species. In this data article, field survey data collected from 184 cassava farms in 12 South Western and North Central States of Nigeria in 2015 are presented and extensively explored. In each State, one cassava farm was randomly selected as the first farm and subsequent farms were selected at 10 km intervals, except in locations were cassava farms are sporadically located. In each selected farm, 30 cassava plants were sampled along two diagonals and all selected plant was scored for the presence or absence of CMD symptoms. Cassava mosaic disease incidence and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria are explored using relevant descriptive statistics, box plots, bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. In addition, correlation analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are performed to understand the relationship between the numbers of whiteflies counted, uninfected farms, infected farms, and the mean of symptom severity in and across the States under investigation. The data exploration provided in this data article is considered adequate for objective assessment of the incidence and symptom severity of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in farmers' fields in these parts of Nigeria where cassava is heavily cultivated.

  9. Postoperative Central Nervous System Infection After Neurosurgery in a Modernized, Resource-Limited Tertiary Neurosurgical Center in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Swathi; Nair, M Nathan; Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Cai, Ling; Gu, Weiling; Vasudevan, Madabushi Chakravarthy

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are rare but serious complications after neurosurgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a modernized, resource-limited neurosurgical center in South Asia. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the medical records of all 363 neurosurgical cases performed between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, at a neurosurgical center in South Asia. Data from all operative neurosurgical cases during the 13-month period were included. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated that 71 of the 363 surgical cases had low CSF glucose or CSF leukocytosis. These 71 cases were categorized as PCNSIs. The PCNSIs with positive CSF cultures (9.86%) all had gram-negative bacteria with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Escherichia coli (n = 1), or Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). The data suggest a higher rate of death (P = 0.031), a higher rate of CSF leak (P < 0.001), and a higher rate of cranial procedures (P < 0.001) among the infected patients and a higher rate of CSF leak among the patients with culture-positive infections (P = 0.038). This study summarizes the prevalence, causative organism of PCNSI, and antibiotic usage for all of the neurosurgical cases over a 13-month period in a modernized yet resource-limited neurosurgical center located in South Asia. The results from this study highlight the PCNSI landscape in an area of the world that is often underreported in the neurosurgical literature because of the paucity of clinical neurosurgical research undertaken there. This study shows an increasing prevalence of gram-negative organisms in CSF cultures from PCNSIs, which supports a trend in the recent literature of increasing gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between width and length ratios of upper anterior teeth in young Chilean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troncoso-Pazos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge about the size and proportion of upper anterior teeth allows dental rehabilitation taking into consideration the local parameters of a population. The aim of this research is to determine the width, length and the relationship between width and length of central incisor, lateral incisor and canine teeth in both sexes in young Chilean population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed. Study subjects included 187 dentistry students from two Chilean cities (mean age 21.35±2.7 years, 52.9% men. The teeth width and height were measured and the width/height ratio was calculated. Differences in measurements according to sex was analyzed (p<0.05; STATA v.10.0. Results: The width and height of the teeth were statistically and proportionally larger in men (p<0.05. The width/height ratio of lateral and canine incisors was significantly higher in women (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a sample of young Chileans, upper anterior teeth were longer and wider in men. However, the width/height ratio of teeth was found to be significantly higher in women.

  11. Chilean model for long-term follow-up of phenylketonuria (PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Cornejo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chilean newborn screening program began in 1984 through of a covenant between the National Ministry of Health and the Chilean University through its Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA with the aim of implementing a pilot study for neonatal detection of phenylketonuria (PKU in Santiago’s central area. In 1989 a program for neonatal diagnosis of PKU and congenital hypothyroidism (HC was initiated by INTA along with Santiago´s occidental health ministry rural area, which covered 20% of newborn population. PKU and HC had an incidence of 1:14,640 and 1:2000 living newborns respectively. These findings allowed the establishment of a favorable cost/benefit ratio which validated the implementation of a program with National character. In 1992 the Chilean Ministry of Health ruled the initiation of PKU and HC newborn screening program and by 1998 the coverage across the country was achieved. INTA is the National Reference Center for confirmation and long term treatment for PKU and HC patients. A follow-up program consists of medical, nutritional, neurological and psychological outcome evaluations as well as periodic biochemical testing in order to guarantee normal patient growth and development. To date 184 children have been diagnosed with classic or moderate PKU, all of them follow a strict monitoring program.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of the atmosphere content in the Central Asia south regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazova, O.A.; Turaev, Eh.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    By the method of neutron activation analysis a atmospheric air elementary content of south regions of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan during the 'Afghan' dust-storm were studied. Comparison with data for atmospheric air before nad after this phenomenon was carried out.It shown, that during the 'Afghan' dust-storm the elements concentration of Au, La, Na, Sm, Hg, Cs, Zn, Co is increased in to 3-4 times. Concentration of Sc and Fe is increasing into 8-9 times. In the atmosphere with the storm beginning the Ce and Cr elements are appealing, its are absent before the 'Afghan' dust-storm. The surprise result, that Br element in air during the dust storm is disappearing

  13. South America Monsoon variability on millennial to multi-centennial time scale during the Holocene in central eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikis, N. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Cheng, H.; Karmann, I.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Wang, X.; Paula, M. S.; Novello, V. F.; Auler, A.

    2011-12-01

    A paleoprecipitation reconstruction based on high resolution and well-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records shows that the monsoon precipitation over central eastern Brazil underwent to strong variations on millennial to multi-centennial time-scales during the Holocene. This new record indicates that abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation are correlated to Bond events 6, 5 and 4 and also with 8.2 ky event during the early and mid-Holocene, with a mean amplitude of 1.5 % (PDB). The pacing and structure of such events are general consistent with variations in solar activity suggested by atmospheric Δ14 C records. In the late-Holocene, abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation peaking at 3.2, 2.7 and 2.3 ky B.P. are approximately synchronous with periods of low solar minima. In this regard, the most prominent event occurred during the late Holocene occurred at ~2.7 ky B.P. In addition, these positive anomalies of the precipitation recorded in central eastern Brazil are also in good agreement with variations in Titicaca lake level. The good correspondence between the speleothem and marine records imply that the variations in the north Atlantic sea surface temperature is the main forcing for abrupt millennial to multi-centennial precipitations variation within the region under influence of South American Monsoon.

  14. Marksmen and the bush: The affective micro-politics of landscape, sex and technology in precolonial South-Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. de Luna

    Full Text Available This essay explores what we can know about the micro-politics of knowledge production using the history of bushcraft as a case study. In many societies in central, eastern and southern Africa, practitioners of technologies undertaken away from the village, in the bush, enjoy a special status. Among the Botatwe-speaking societies of south-central Africa, the status accorded hunters, smelters and other technicians of the bush was crafted in the centuries around the turn of the first millennium by combining old ideas about the blustery character of fame and spirits, and the talk that engendered both with the observation that technicians working in the bush shared a kinesthetic experience of piercing, poking and prodding into action during the generative activities of working smelts and taking down game. Yet the micro-politics of bushcraft knowledge also involved the bodies and feelings of spearmen and metallurgists' wives, lovers, mothers, sisters, and sometimes those of the entire neighbourhood. The invention of a new landscape category, isokwe, and the novel status of these seasonal technicians marks the development of a new kind of virile masculinity available to some men; it was a status with deeply sensuous, material and social meanings for women as well.

  15. Overview of Iodine Deficiency Prevention Strategies in the South-Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region: 2009–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Gerasimov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal salt iodization (USI strategies gained strong momentum in countries of the Southern Europe and Central Asia (SECA region during the 2000–2009 decade. By the end of the first decade, several countries in the region had already reached the goal of optimum iodine nutrition; other countries were quickly approaching this goal, and in only a few countries the progress toward USI had remained slow. This paper reports an overview of the two Sub-Regional workshops (for countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia and South-Eastern Europe conducted in 2015 and 2016. Both workshops demonstrate that the SECA region remains on track in the pursuit of USI for sustainable IDD elimination. Notwithstanding the noted imperfections, none of the data or information from countries of the region suggested that the conquest of iodine deficiency is seriously threatened. However, more efforts should be made to develop and streamline USI strategies in Russia and Ukraine, two major countries that are lagging behind.

  16. Morphological diversity of cassava accessions of the south-central mesoregion of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, B W; Barelli, M A A; Hoogerheide, E S S; Corrêa, C L; Delforno, G I S; da Silva, C J

    2017-08-17

    Genetic variability of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Brazil is wide, being this the result of natural and cultural selection during pre- and post-domestication of the species in different environments. Given the number of species of the genus found in the region (38 of a total of 98 species), the central region of Brazil was defined as the primary center of cassava diversity. Therefore, genetic diversity characterization of cassava accessions is fundamental, both for farmers and for plant breeders, because it allows the organization of genetic resources and better utilization of available genetic diversity. This research aims to assess genetic divergence of cassava accessions from the south-central region of the State of Mato Grosso, based on multi-categorical morphological traits. For this purpose, 38 qualitative and quantitative morphological descriptors were used. Genetic diversity was expressed by the genetic similarity index, with subsequent clustering of accessions by the modified Tocher's procedure and UPGMA. Of 38 descriptors, only growth habit of stem showed no variability. Tocher and UPGMA methods were efficient and corroborated on group composition. Both methods were able to group accessions of different localities in distinct group consistency.

  17. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Souza Noel Simas Barbosa

    Full Text Available Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG. RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015. For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG and the levelized cost of water (LCOW are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  18. Hydro, wind and solar power as a base for a 100% renewable energy supply for South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Larissa de Souza Noel Simas; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Vainikka, Pasi; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid development levels (region, country, area-wide) and one integrated scenario that considers water desalination and industrial gas demand supplied by synthetic natural gas via power-to-gas (PtG). RE is not only able to cover 1813 TWh of estimated electricity demand of the area in 2030 but also able to generate the electricity needed to fulfil 3.9 billion m3 of water desalination and 640 TWhLHV of synthetic natural gas demand. Existing hydro dams can be used as virtual batteries for solar and wind electricity storage, diminishing the role of storage technologies. The results for total levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are decreased from 62 €/MWh for a highly decentralized to 56 €/MWh for a highly centralized grid scenario (currency value of the year 2015). For the integrated scenario, the levelized cost of gas (LCOG) and the levelized cost of water (LCOW) are 95 €/MWhLHV and 0.91 €/m3, respectively. A reduction of 8% in total cost and 5% in electricity generation was achieved when integrating desalination and power-to-gas into the system.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  20. Cold episodes in the Peruvian Central Andes: Composites, Types, and their Impacts over South America (1958-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Roundy, P. E.; Trasmonte, G.; Silva, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Mantaro basin (MB) is located in the central Peruvian Andes. Occasionally, cold episodes are observed during austral summer (January-March), that strongly damage crops. However, little is known about the causes and impacts of such cold episodes. The main goal of this study is thus to characterize cold episodes in the MB and assess their large-scale circulation and teleconnections over South America (SA) during austral summer. To identify cold events in the MB daily minimum temperature (Tmin) for the period 1958-2014 from Huayao station, located within the MB was used. A cold episode is defined when daily minimum temperature drops below its 10-percentile for at least one day. Additionally, to study the sensitivity between physical mechanisms associated with cold episodes and temperature, cold episodes are classified in three groups: Weak cold episodes (7.5 ≤ Tmin ≤ 10 percentile), strong cold episodes (Tmin ≤ 2.5 percentile), but excluding the 9 coldest events (Tmin ≤ 0 ͦ C), henceforth referred to as extraordinary cold episodes. Several gridded reanalysis were used to characterize the large-scale circulation, cloud cover and rainfall over SA associated with these events. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system by tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the development of cloud cover (e.g., positive OLR anomalies over MB). The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below 10-percentile. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil (NEB) registers negative OLR anomalies, strong convection and enhanced cloud cover because displacement of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) toward the northeast of

  1. Development of a Geologic Exploration Model foe the Permo-Pennsylvanian Petroleum System in South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2007-06-30

    presented: migration occurred (1) before mid-Jurassic erosion produced a major regional unconformity or (2) about 82 million years ago. Migration pre-Laramide occurred because oil in both the Bighorn Basin and the Powder River Basin are part of the same petroleum system. Geochemical analyses of oils from producing fields across the region show the oils are all similar and have the same source and generation history. No Phosphoria source rocks exist in the project area of south-central Montana, requiring that oil migrated from distant source areas, probably in central and southwestern Wyoming. Oil shows and production in the Tensleep are absent in the northern part of the project area. This appears to be controlled by the merging of the top of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Jurassic unconformity (top of the Triassic Chugwater Formation). There should be potential for the discovery of oil in Tensleep stratigraphic traps or combination traps everywhere south of the Jurassic-Pennsylvanian Isopach zero contour except where the Tensleep has been exposed by uplift and erosion. Known Tensleep fields in south-central Montana are generally small in area, which agrees with outcrop studies that show eolian dune sequences are generally quite small in lateral extent, on the order of 10 to 40 acres. Although existing fields are small in area, they are very productive; individual wells will probably make 300,000 to 500,000 barrels of oil. In the project area, hydrodynamic considerations are important. All the existing Tensleep fields have active water drives. In many cases, the reservoir pressure today is as it was when initially discovered. In areas of high structural complexity, such as the Lodge Grass-Crow Agency fault and the Lake Basin fault zone, significant structural closure may be necessary to trap oil because of the strong hydrodynamic influence exerted by the underlying Madison Formation aquifer.

  2. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  3. Petrogenesis and depositional history of felsic pyroclastic rocks from the Melka Wakena archaeological site-complex in South central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resom, Angesom; Asrat, Asfawossen; Gossa, Tegenu; Hovers, Erella

    2018-06-01

    The Melka Wakena archaeological site-complex is located at the eastern rift margin of the central sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), in south central Ethiopia. This wide, gently sloping rift shoulder, locally called the "Gadeb plain" is underlain by a succession of primary pyroclastic deposits and intercalated fluvial sediments as well as reworked volcaniclastic rocks, the top part of which is exposed by the Wabe River in the Melka Wakena area. Recent archaeological survey and excavations at this site revealed important paleoanthropological records. An integrated stratigraphic, petrological, and major and trace element geochemical study has been conducted to constrain the petrogenesis of the primary pyroclastic deposits and the depositional history of the sequence. The results revealed that the Melka Wakena pyroclastic deposits are a suite of mildly alkaline, rhyolitic pantellerites (ash falls, pumiceous ash falls and ignimbrites) and slightly dacitic ash flows. These rocks were deposited by episodic volcanic eruptions during early to middle Pleistocene from large calderas along the Wonji Fault Belt (WFB) in the central sector of the MER and from large silicic volcanic centers at the eastern rift shoulder. The rhyolitic ash falls, pumiceous ash falls and ignimbrites have been generated by fractional crystallization of a differentiating basaltic magma while the petrogenesis of the slightly dacitic ash flows involved some crustal contamination and assimilation during fractionation. Contemporaneous fluvial activities in the geomorphologically active Gadeb plain deposited overbank sedimentary sequences (archaeology bearing conglomerates and sands) along meandering river courses while a dense network of channels and streams have subsequently down-cut through the older volcanic and sedimentary sequences, redepositing the reworked volcaniclastic sediments further downstream.

  4. Appraisal of the Effectiveness of CODE; The Coordinated Delivery System for the South Central Research Library Council, January to December 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faibisoff, Sylvia G.

    A major concern of the South Central Research Library Council in establishing an interlibrary loan network was the development of a Coordinated Delivery system (CODE). Several means of delivery were considered--the U.S. mails, commercial trucking (Greyhound, United Parcel Service), and use of the public library system's delivery services. A…

  5. Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

    1999-04-02

    This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

  6. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  7. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    disaster response strategies and operations of Chilean agencies, including perceived or actual failures in disaster preparation that impacted the medical disaster response; post-disaster health and medical interventions to save lives and limit suffering; and the lessons learned by public health and medical personnel as a result of their experiences. Despite devastating damage to the health care and civic infrastructure, the health care response to the Chilean earthquake appeared highly successful due to several factors. Like other first responders, the medical community had the ability and resourcefulness to respond without centralized control in the early response phase. The health care community maintained patient care under austere conditions, despite many obstacles that could have prevented such care. National and international resources were rapidly mobilized to support the medical response. The Emergency Services Team sought to collect information on all phases of emergency management (preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) and determine what worked well and what could be improved upon. The Chileans reported being surprised that they were not as ready for this event as they thought they were. The use of mass care sheltering was limited, given the scope of the disaster, because of the resiliency of the population. The impacts of the earthquake and the tsunami were quite different, as were the needs of urban and rural dwellers, necessitating different response activities. The Volunteer Services Team examined the challenges faced in mobilizing a large number of volunteers to assist in the aftermath of a disaster of this scale. One of the greatest challenges expressed was difficulty in communication; the need for redundancy in communication mechanisms was cited. The flexibility and ability to work autonomously by the frontline volunteers was a significant factor in effective response. It was also important for volunteer leadership to know the emergency plans

  8. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed pollutant levels. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from

  9. Power structure in Chilean news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Jorge; Bollen, Johan; Elejalde, Erick; Ferres, Leo; Poblete, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Even democracies endowed with the most active free press struggle to maintain diversity of news coverage. Consolidation and market forces may cause only a few dominant players to control the news cycle. Editorial policies may be biased by corporate ownership relations, narrowing news coverage and focus. To an increasing degree this problem also applies to social media news distribution, since it is subject to the same socio-economic drivers. To study the effects of consolidation and ownership on news diversity, we model the diversity of Chilean coverage on the basis of ownership records and social media data. We create similarity networks of news outlets on the basis of their ownership and the topics they cover. We then examine the relationships between the topology of ownership networks and content similarity to characterize how ownership affects news coverage. A network analysis reveals that Chilean media is highly concentrated both in terms of ownership as well as in terms of topics covered. Our method can be used to determine which groups of outlets and ownership exert the greatest influence on news coverage.

  10. Concept of Dictatorship: Secondary chilean students’ conceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alejandra Vásquez Leyton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The military coup of september 11th in 1973 was the beggining of a hard dictatorship that placed Pinochet for 17 years in the chilean executive power. This fact, gave origin to many research that, from different visions, positions and ideas, intend to create an “historical conscience” among the citizens who lived in dictatorship and live in democracy today. Related to this, from the educational world, this research has a real importance as,  knowing ideas about dictatorship will allow to see the visión of this “sons of democracy” who perceive the effects of this histórical process. For chilean secondary students, the process of dictatorship was caracterised by violence because of the hard repression during the military regime to demonstrations and protest, enphasising that for them, Dictatorship and Transition are parts of the same historical period, as they relate the transition with facts and situations that happened in the military regime.

  11. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    We studied occurence and source parameters of several recent intermediate depth earthquakes. We concentrated on the Mw=7.7 salvadorian earthquake which took place on January 13, 2001. It was a good example of the high seismic risk associated to such kind of events which occur closer to the coast than the interplate thrust events. The Salvadorian earthquake was an intermediate depth downdip extensional event which occured inside the downgoing Cocos plate, next to the downdip flexure where the dip increases sharply before the slab sinks more steeply. This location corresponds closely to the position of the Mw=5.7 1996 and Mw=7.3 1982 downdip extensional events. Several recent intermediate depth earthquakes occured in subduction zones exhibiting a ``flat slab'' geometry with three distinct flexural bends where flexural stress may be enhanced. The Mw=6.7 Geiyo event showed a downdip extensional mechanism with N-S striking nodal planes. This trend was highly oblique to the trench (Nankai Trough), yet consistent with westward steepening at the SW lateral termination of the SW Japan flat slab. The Mw=6.8 Olympia earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone occured at the downdip termination of the Juan de Fuca slab, where plate dip increases from about 5o to over 30o. The N-S orientation of the focal planes, parallel to the trench indicated downdip extension. The location at the downdip flexure corresponds closely to the estimated positions of the 1949 M7.1 Olympia and 1965 M6.5 Seattle-Tacoma events. Between 1994 and 1999, in Central Mexico, an unusually high intermediate depth seismicity occured where several authors proposed a flat geometry for the Cocos plate. Seven events of magnitude between Mw=5.9 and Mw=7.1 occured. Three of them were downdip compressional and four where down-dip extensional. We can explain these earthquakes by flexural stresses at down-dip and lateral terminations of the supposed flat segment. Even if intermediate depth earthquakes occurence could

  12. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  13. Modelling the day to day wind variability offshore central Chile at about 30 deg. south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutllant, J.

    1994-07-01

    Cycles of strengthening and relaxation of the winds offshore 30 degrees S at central Chile, are related to the propagation of coastal-lows, a year-round phenomenon occurring with periodicities of about one in five days. Simple physical modelling of the day to day variability of the alongshore wind component at a coastal strip extending offshore up to the Rossby deformation radius of these wave perturbations, is presented in terms of the relevant horizontal pressure gradients and the ageostrophic components arising from the coastal-low propagation. The results of 5-day composites of 8 wind-events each, at the winter and summer halves of the annual cycle, respectively; lead to a good agreement between the observed phase-lag of the winds with respect to the pressure forcing field, stressing the importance of the ageostrophic wind components at the extremes of the pressure wave perturbation associated with the passage of coastal-lows over the Point Lengua de Vaca (30 15 S) area. A possible contribution of the upwelling-favorable wind enhancement at the time of the pressure rise and subsequent fall, ahead of the coastal-low, is postulated through an upwelling-front low-level jet, that would be carried onshore and closer to the surface by the combination of the enhanced coastal upwelling, the coastal depression of the subsidence inversion base and the coastal ageostrophic wind components during the passage of the leading edge of the coastal lows. (author). 26 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  14. Debris flow susceptibility assessment based on an empirical approach in the central region of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinhang; Lee, Seung-Rae

    2018-05-01

    Many debris flow spreading analyses have been conducted during recent decades to prevent damage from debris flows. An empirical approach that has been used in various studies on debris flow spreading has advantages such as simple data acquisition and good applicability for large areas. In this study, a GIS-based empirical model that was developed at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) is used to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Study sites are classified based on the types of soil texture or geological conditions, which can indirectly consider geotechnical or rheological properties, to supplement the weaknesses of Flow-R which neglects local controlling factors. The mean travel angle for each classification is calculated from a debris flow inventory map. The debris flow susceptibility is assessed based on changes in the flow-direction algorithm, an inertial function with a 5-m DEM resolution. A simplified friction-limited model was applied to the runout distance analysis by using the appropriate travel angle for the corresponding classification with a velocity limit of 28 m/s. The most appropriate algorithm combinations that derived the highest average of efficiency and sensitivity for each classification are finally determined by applying a confusion matrix with the efficiency and the sensitivity to the results of the susceptibility assessment. The proposed schemes can be useful for debris flow susceptibility assessment in both the study area and the central region of Korea, which has similar environmental factors such as geological conditions, topography and rainfall characteristics to the study area.

  15. Health status of the prisoners in a central jail of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil D; Kumar, Santosh A; Pattankar, Jayashree V; Reddy, Shrinivas B; Dhar, Murali

    2013-10-01

    Health care in prisons is one of the neglected health areas in our country. Looking into the health problems of prisons will show us a way for the approach in providing the heath care for prisoners. To assess the health status of convicted inmates of prison and to study their sociodemographic profile. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the inmates of central prison over a period of 1 year. Study population comprised of 300 convicted life-term prisoners. The inmates were interviewed using predesigned and pretested proforma. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by frequencies and percentages along with 95% confidence interval using statistical package SPSS18. In health status, 29 (9.6%) inmates suffered from acute upper respiratory tract infections and 15 (5%) from acute lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 54 (18%) inmates had ascariasis. Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue contributed to 26 (8.7%) of inmates. A total of 252 (84%) prisoners had anemia. In sociodemographic profile, it was found that rural people, unmarried, illiterates, lower socioeconomic status people were more likely to have committed the crime resulting in the conviction for life. As there is an increase in number of prisoners and morbidities among them, there is an urgent need for prison health care services in developing countries like India and provide training to the health care providers to manage the commonly existing health problems among prisoners in the prisons.

  16. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Two teachers from the town of San Pedro de Atacama, in the northern desert of the South American nation of Chile, arrive in Magdalena, New Mexico, Sunday, January 28, for a two-week visit that is part of a Sister Cities program sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), the nonprofit research corporation that operates the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). They will be accompanied by their town's mayor. Myriam Nancy Rivera Mercado, Head of the high school in San Pedro, Gabriela Fernanda Rodriguez Moraleda, a tourism teacher there, and San Pedro Mayor Sandra Berna Martinez will begin a visit that includes classroom observations in the Magdalena schools, a reception hosted by the Magdalena Village Council, and a Mayor's Breakfast with Magdalena Mayor Jim Wolfe. They also will meet local residents, tour the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge with a second-grade class, visit an area ranch, tour the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, and see Socorro's Community Arts Party. "These teachers will learn much about New Mexico, the United States, and our educational system, and will take this new knowledge back to their students and their community," said NRAO Education Officer Robyn Harrison. The visit is part of a Sister Cities program initiated and funded by AUI, which operates the NRAO for the U.S. National Science Foundation. Radio astronomy is a common link between San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena. San Pedro is near the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project now under construction with funding by major partners in North America, Europe, and Japan. Magdalena is near the site of NRAO's VLA radio telescope. In Magdalena, the Village Council and Mayor Wolfe formalized their participation in the Sister Cities program last September, and San Pedro ratified the program in December. In San Pedro, the ceremony ratifying the agreement was attended by U.S. Ambassador to Chile Craig K

  17. Dioxin-like chemicals in soil and sediment from residential and industrial areas in central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Claudine; Quinn, Laura P; Pieters, Rialet; Jordaan, Ilse; Visser, Maret; Kylin, Henrik; Borgen, Anders R; Giesy, John P; Bouwman, Henk

    2009-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a global concern due to their ubiquitous presence and toxicity. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding POPs from South Africa. Here we report and interpret concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar-biphenyls (PCBs) in soils and sediments collected from central South Africa. High resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the H4IIE-luc bio-assay were used to identify and quantify individual PCDD/F congeners and to report the total concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), respectively. TCDD-EQs determined by use of the bio-assay, and concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ (toxic equivalents) determined by chemical analysis, were similar. The limit of detection (LOD) for the bio-assay was 0.82 and 2.8 ng TCDD-EQ kg(-1), dw for sediment and soil, respectively. EQ20 concentrations determined by use of the bio-assay ranged from industrial area of Vanderbijlpark and the residential area of Klerksdorp contained the greatest concentrations. Based on the congener-specific HRGC/HRMS analyzes, concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ ranged from 0.12 to 32 ng WHO(2005)-TEQ kg(-1), dw in sediments, and between 0.34 and 20 ng WHO(2005)-TEQkg(-1), dw in soils. The sources, processes and threats that govern and are associated with the lesser concentrations in sediment and greater concentrations in soils need further investigation.

  18. Petrography and geochemistry of five granitic plutons from south central Uruguay: contribution to the knowledge of the Piedra Alta terrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Granitoid rocks in south-central Uruguay are largely concentrated in three east-west trending metamorphic belts, known as (from south to north) the Montevideo Belt, the San José Belt and the Arroyo Grande Belt. These belts are separated from one another by intervening bands of gneisses of granitic composition. The whole assemblage, the gneisses as well as the metamorphic belts and their associated granites, collectively constitute the Piedra Alta Terrane. Five of these granite plutons, two from the San José Belt and three from the Arroyo Grande Belt, have been studied in some detail and the chemical composition of 86 samples (major elements as well as a selected suite of trace elements) have been determined. These data, as well as Rb-Sr isotopic data, show that these plutons are typically composite in nature, and that the various units range in age from 1900 Ma to 2500 Ma. The older ages were obtained from the main units of the plutons themselves whereas the younger ages are from late dykes which were emplaced into the plutons and which are clearly not related to them. The plutons are predominantly, but not exclusively, of calc-alkaline affinity and are typically synorogenic whereas the dykes are post-orogenic and are either calc-alkaline or alkaline in composition. These data have been incorporated into a tectonic model for the Piedra Alta Terrane which is considerably different from that heretofore proposed. The essential features of the geological history of the area are: 1) development of an older ''basement'' of granitic gneisses 2) deposition, upon or adjacent to this gneisses basement, of a typical Archean greenstone belt assemblage (no komatiites so far reported) 3) Paleo-proterozoic metamorphism, followed by syn-tectonic to post-tectonic intrusion of the plutonic rocks 4) major tectonic dislocation(s) associated with the Transamazonian orogeny 5) dyke emplacement (post-orogenic to anorogenic) following the Transamazonian orogeny

  19. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  20. Late Pleistocene ecological, environmental and climatic reconstruction based on megafauna stable isotopes from northwestern Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guarda, Erwin; Domingo, Laura; Tornero, Carlos; Pino, Mario; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Sevilla, Paloma; Villavicencio, Natalia; Agustí, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope analyses have been performed on the bioapatite (δ13C; δ18O) and collagen (δ13C; δ15N) of four late Pleistocene South American megafaunal taxa (Notiomastodon platensis, Equus andium, cf. Hemiauchenia paradoxa and Xenarthra indet.) to evaluate paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions as well as paleoecological features of this time period. The analyzed megafauna was found at several locations in the northwestern Chilean Patagonia (38°-42°S, 74°-71°W). The bioapatite δ13C values indicated the presence of C3 vegetation ranging from forestal to woodland areas. The collagen δ15N values pointed to temperate and humid ecosystems, and to the consumption of shrubs, trees, grasses and sedges. Mean annual temperatures estimated from bioapatite δ18OPO4 values show a similarity to modern temperatures and suggested that the megafauna under study may have lived during warm stages (interstadials) of the late Pleistocene. When comparing our results with those obtained from other South American regions, we find that the diet of this particular Chilean megafauna appears to have been more influenced by resource availability than by the potential dietary range of the taxa.

  1. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  2. The invasive species Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae) shows high dynamism in a fragmented landscape of south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Adison; Cely, Jenny Paola; Etter, Andrés; Miranda, Alejandro; Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Acevedo, Patricio; Salas, Christian; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Ulex europaeus (gorse) is an invasive shrub deemed as one of the most invasive species in the world. U. europaeus is widely distributed in the south-central area of Chile, which is considered a world hotspot for biodiversity conservation. In addition to its negative effects on the biodiversity of natural ecosystems, U. europaeus is one of the most severe pests for agriculture and forestry. Despite its importance as an invasive species, U. europaeus has been little studied. Although information exists on the potential distribution of the species, the interaction of the invasion process with the spatial dynamic of the landscape and the landscape-scale factors that control the presence or absence of the species is still lacking. We studied the spatial and temporal dynamics of the landscape and how these relate to U. europaeus invasion in south-central Chile. We used supervised classification of satellite images to determine the spatial distribution of the species and other land covers for the years 1986 and 2003, analysing the transitions between the different land covers. We used logistic regression for modelling the increase, decrease and permanence of U. europaeus invasion considering landscape variables. Results showed that the species covers only around 1 % of the study area and showed a 42 % reduction in area for the studied period. However, U. europaeus was the cover type which presented the greatest dynamism in the landscape. We found a strong relationship between changes in land cover and the invasion process, especially connected with forest plantations of exotic species, which promotes the displacement of U. europaeus. The model of gorse cover increase presented the best performance, and the most important predictors were distance to seed source and landscape complexity index. Our model predicted high spread potential of U. europaeus in areas of high conservation value. We conclude that proper management for this invasive species must take into account

  3. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel; Vezzoli, Luigina; Di Lorenzo, Riccardo; De Rosa, Rosanna; Acocella, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  4. Transient magmatic control in a tectonic domain: the central Aeolian volcanic arc (South Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2015-04-01

    The background stress field in volcanic areas may be overprinted by that produced by transient magmatic intrusions, generating local faulting. These events are rarely monitored and thus not fully understood, generating debate about the role of magma and tectonics in any geodynamic setting. Here we carried out a field structural analysis on the NNW-SSE strike-slip system of the central Aeolian Arc, Italy (Lipari and Vulcano islands) with ages constrained by stratigraphy to better capture the tectonic and magmatic evolution at the local and regional scales. We consider both islands as a single magmatic system and define 5 principal stratigraphic units based on magmatic and tectonic activity. We collected >500 measurements of faults, extension fractures and dikes at 40 sites, mostly NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE oriented with a dominant NS orientation. These structures are governed quasi exclusively by pure dip-slip motion, consistent with an E-W extension direction, with minor dextral and sinistral slip, the latter being mostly related to old deposits (>50 ka). We further reconstructed the evolution of the Vulcano-Lipari system during the last ~20 ka and find that it consists of an overall half-graben-like structure, with faults with predominant eastward dips. Field evidence suggests that faulting occurs often in temporal and spatial relation with magmatic events, suggesting that most of the observable deformation derived from transient magmatic activity, rather than from steady regional tectonics. To explain the dominant magmatic and episodic extension in a tectonic dominant domain, we propose a model where the regional N-S trending maximum horizontal stress, responsible for strike-slip activity, locally rotates to vertical in response to transient pressurization of the magmatic system and magma rise below Lipari and Vulcano. This has possibly generated the propagation of N-S trending dikes in the past 1 ka along a 10 km long by 1 km wide crustal corridor, with important

  5. Intimate Partner Violence in South Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarra Larrañaga, Maria Beatriz; Universidad de La Frontera; Póo Figueroa, Ana María; Universidad de la Frontera

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having exper...

  6. Intimate Partner Violence in South Chilean College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Vizcarra Larrañaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having experienced some psychological abuse, 26% reported physical violence at least once in their lifetime. Associated factors to receive physical violence were: sex, suffering psychological violence, favourable attitudes towards violence, and low religious participation. Associated factor to receive psychological violence was: sex, physical violence received, favourable attitudes towards the violence, and the length of the relationship. Discussion: Typical features of intimate partner violence in college life settings seem to favor its invisibility, thus turning it into a difficult phenomenon to approach and to prevent.

  7. On the forces that drive and resist deformation of the south-central Mediterranean: a mechanical model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2018-04-01

    The geodynamics of the Mediterranean comprises a transitional setting in which slab rollback and plate convergence compete to shape the region. In the central Mediterranean, where the balance of driving and resisting forces changes continuously and rapidly since the Miocene, both kinematic and seismo-tectonic observations display a strong variation in deformation style and, therefore possibly, lithospheric forces. We aim to understand the current kinematics in southern Italy and Sicily in terms of lithospheric forces that cause them. The strong regional variation of geodetic velocities appears to prohibit such simple explanation. We use mechanical models to quantify the deformation resulting from large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence, ESE retreat of the Calabrian subduction zone, pull by the Aegean slab, and regional variations in gravitational potential energy (topography). A key model element is the resistance to slip on major regional fault zones. We show that geodetic velocities, seismicity and sense of slip on regional faults can be understood to result from lithospheric forces. Our most important new finding is that regional variations in resistive tractions are required to fit the observations, with notably very low tractions on the Calabrian subduction contact, and a buildup towards a significant earthquake in the Calabrian fore-arc. We also find that the Calabrian net slab pull force is strongly reduced (compared to the value possible in view of the slab's dimensions) and that trench suction tractions are negligible. Such very small contributions to the present-day force balance in the south-central Mediterranean suggest that the Calabrian arc is now further transitioning towards a setting dominated by Africa-Eurasia plate convergence, whereas during the past 30 Myrs slab retreat continually was the dominant factor.

  8. Climate model performance and change projection for freshwater fluxes: Comparison for irrigated areas in Central and South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa M. Asokan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The large semi-arid Aral Region in Central Asia and the smaller tropical Mahanadi River Basin (MRB in India. Study focus: Few studies have so far evaluated the performance of the latest generation of global climate models on hydrological basin scales. We here investigate the performance and projections of the global climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5 for freshwater fluxes and their changes in two regional hydrological basins, which are both irrigated but of different scale and with different climate. New hydrological insights for the region: For precipitation in both regions, model accuracy relative to observations has remained the same or decreased in successive climate model generations until and including CMIP5. No single climate model out-performs other models across all key freshwater variables in any of the investigated basins. Scale effects are not evident from global model application directly to freshwater assessment for the two basins of widely different size. Overall, model results are less accurate and more uncertain for freshwater fluxes than for temperature, and particularly so for model-implied water storage changes. Also, the monsoon-driven runoff seasonality in MRB is not accurately reproduced. Model projections agree on evapotranspiration increase in both regions until the climatic period 2070–2099. This increase is fed by precipitation increase in MRB and by runoff water (thereby decreasing runoff in the Aral Region. Keywords: CMIP5 global climate models, Hydro-climate, Freshwater change, Central Asia, South Asia, Monsoon driven seasonality

  9. Spongicoloides sp. aff. a Spongicoloides galapagensis (Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae: una nueva especie para la carcinofauna chilena y primer registro de un estenopodido en aguas del margen continental de Chile Spongicoloides sp. aff. to Spongicoloides galapagensis (Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae: a new species for Chilean carcinofauna and the first record of aStenopodid for the Chilean margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo L Guzmán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para el margen continental de Chile una especie de camarón Stenopodidae, asociado a una esponja hexactinelida. Los especímenes fueron recolectados en dos sitios de Chile central (31°12'S, 71°52'W y 36°00'S, 73°38'W; 922 a 1000 m de profundidad. Las esponjas estaban adheridas al sustrato con probable origen en emanaciones de metano. Spongicoloides sp. aff. a S. gala-pagensis, es el primer registro de la familia en aguas del margen continental del Pacífico suroriental. Los ejemplares coinciden con los rangos de la variación morfológica de S. galapagensis, no obstante difieren en el número de branquias descrito.This is the first record of a species of Stenopodid shrimp along the Chilean margin, associated with a hexactinellid sponge. The specimens were collected at two sites in central Chile (31°12'S, 71°52'W and 36°00'S, 73°38'W; 922 to 1000 m depth. The sponges were attached to the substrate with probable origins in methane seepage. Spongicoloides sp. aff. to S. galapagensis constitutes the first record of the family for the eastern south Pacific continental margin. The specimens coincide with the ranges of morphological variation of S. galapagensis, although they differ in the number of brachia described.

  10. Effect of road salt application on seasonal chloride concentrations and toxicity in south-central Indiana streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kristin M; Royer, Todd V

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary information on road salt runoff is needed for management of water resources in regions experiencing urbanization and increased road density. We investigated seasonal Cl(-) concentrations among five streams in south-central Indiana that drained watersheds varying in degree of urbanization and ranging in size from 9.3 to 27 km(2). We also conducted acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex to assess the potential effects of the observed Cl(-) concentrations on aquatic life. Periods of elevated Cl(-) concentrations were observed during the winters of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at all sites except the reference site. The highest Cl(-) concentration observed during the study was 2100 mg L(-1) and occurred at the most urbanized site. The Cl(-) concentration at the reference site never exceeded 22 mg L(-1). The application of road salt caused large increases in stream Cl(-) concentrations, but the elevated Cl(-) levels did not appear to be a significant threat to aquatic life based on our toxicity testing. Only the most urbanized site showed evidence of salt retention within the watershed, whereas the other sites exported the road salt relatively quickly after its application, suggesting storm drains and impervious surfaces minimized interaction between soils and salt-laden runoff. During winter at these sites, the response in stream Cl(-) concentrations appeared to be controlled by the timing and intensity of road salt application, the magnitude of precipitation, and the occurrence of air temperatures that caused snowmelt and generated runoff.

  11. Trepanation in South-Central Peru during the early late intermediate period (ca. AD 1000-1250).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurin, Danielle S

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluates trepanations from five well-contextualized prehistoric sites in the south-central highlands of Andahuaylas, Peru. The emergence of trepanation in this region coincides with the collapse of the Wari Empire, ca. ad 1000. Thirty-two individuals from Andahuaylas, AMS radiocarbon dated to the early Late Intermediate Period (ca. ad 1000-1250), were found to have 45 total trepanations. Various surgical techniques were being employed concurrently throughout the region. Scraping trepanations evinced the highest survival rate; circular grooving, drilling and boring, and linear cutting were far less successful. Evidence of perioperative procedures like hair shaving, poultice application, and possible cranioplasty use aimed to ensure the survival of a trepanation recipient. Postmortem trepanations, also present in Andahuaylas, were likely executed on corpses as a means of better understanding cranial anatomy and improving techniques. Similarities in trepanation patterns throughout the region attest to common motivations to engage in surgery. Although moderate physical head trauma seems to be the impetus for intervention in many cases of trepanation, other motivations included physiological and possibly psychosomatic factors. Nevertheless, treatment was not for everyone. In Andahuaylas, trepanations were withheld from subadults, females, and those individuals who practiced cranial modification. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L′ubica Argalášová-Sobotová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 papers on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults were identified by literature search. The authors reviewed scientific international and local journals, conference proceedings, and local reports published in national languages. The major endpoints were high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction. The target populations were adults. Experimental and exposure-assessment studies, field, empirical studies, social surveys, and epidemiological studies are presented. The major sources of environmental noise were road and air traffic. The results were presented in tables and the most relevant articles were briefly discussed. The importance of this review is that it refers to some countries that no longer exist in the same political and governmental systems. The strength of this paper is that it includes publications that were not evaluated in earlier systematic reviews. Strategies for future noise-related research on national and global level are proposed.

  13. Structures within the oceanic crust of the central South China Sea basin and their implications for oceanic accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weiwei; Sun, Zhen; Dadd, Kelsie; Fang, Yinxia; Li, Jiabiao

    2018-04-01

    Internal structures in mature oceanic crust can elucidate understanding of the processes and mechanism of crustal accretion. In this study, we present two multi-channel seismic (MCS) transects across the northern flank of the South China Sea basin to reveal the internal structures related to Cenozoic tectono-magmatic processes during seafloor spreading. Bright reflectors within the oceanic crust, including the Moho, upper crustal reflectors, and lower crustal reflectors, are clearly imaged in these two transects. The Moho reflection displays varied character in continuity, shape and amplitude from the continental slope area to the abyssal basin, and becomes absent in the central part of the basin where abundant seamounts and seamount chains formed after the cessation of seafloor spreading. Dipping reflectors are distinct in most parts of the MCS data but generally confined to the lower crust above the Moho reflection. These lower crustal reflectors merge downward into the Moho without offsetting it, probably arising from shear zones between the crust and mantle characterized by interstitial melt, although we cannot exclude other possibilities such as brittle faulting or magmatic layering in the local area. A notable feature of these lower crustal reflector events is their opposite inclinations. We suggest the two groups of conjugate lower crustal reflector events observed between magnetic anomalies C11 and C8 were associated with two unusual accretionary processes arising from plate reorganizations with southward ridge jumps.

  14. Identifying and Characterizing Important Trembling Aspen Competitors with Juvenile Lodgepole Pine in Three South-Central British Columbia Ecosystems

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    Teresa A. Newsome

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical height ratios for predicting competition between trembling aspen and lodgepole pine were identified in six juvenile stands in three south-central British Columbia ecosystems. We used a series of regression analyses predicting pine stem diameter from the density of neighbouring aspen in successively shorter relative height classes to identify the aspen-pine height ratio that maximized R2. Critical height ratios varied widely among sites when stands were 8–12 years old but, by age 14–19, had converged at 1.25–1.5. Maximum R2 values at age 14–19 ranged from 13.4% to 69.8%, demonstrating that the importance of aspen competition varied widely across a relatively small geographic range. Logistic regression also indicated that the risk of poor pine vigour in the presence of aspen varied between sites. Generally, the degree of competition, risk to pine vigour, and size of individual aspen contributing to the models declined along a gradient of decreasing ecosystem productivity.

  15. Opinions of the commuters to receive oral health messages in South central railway zone India: A cross-sectional study

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    P Parthasarathi Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The railroads of India are the fourth most heavily used system in the world. Railways are one of the main modes of transport and millions of people travel by train daily. Aim: To know the opinions of commuters in receiving oral health messages in railways station through various methods and also their knowledge and practice regarding oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Using convenient sampling method data from the commuters was obtained by a pretested questionnaire through interview method from 14 railway stations of South Central Railway zone. Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare the opinions of commuters based on their gender to receive oral health messages. Results: A total of 596 (97.3% responded to the survey; a maximum of 297 (49.8% subjects strongly agreed to the statement that railway platforms should have informative posters on oral health. A maximum of 188 (31.5% commuters strongly agreed that prerecorded messages on oral health if played before the announcement of arrival and departure of train will be helpful to spread oral health awareness. Majority of 43% commuters (255 preferred to receive oral hygiene instructions printed on back side of the ticket followed by messages on television and through posters. Conclusion: Majority of the commuters preferred to receive oral health information in railways stations. Hence, efforts can be directed in spreading oral health information among public through railways.

  16. Mercury in mushrooms and soil from the Wieluńska Upland in south-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Bielawski, Leszek; Kawano, Masabide; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Chudzyński, Krzysztof

    2002-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies of 15 species of higher mushrooms and underlying soil substrate collected from Wieluńska Upland in northern part of Sandomierska Valley in south-central Poland in 1995. A total of 197 samples of caps, 197 stalks, 30 whole fruiting bodies and 227 soil (0-10 cm layer) were analyzed. Mean mercury concentrations in soil substrate corresponding to 15 mushroom species were between 28 +/- 17 and 85 +/- 62 ng/g dry matter (total range between 3.0-190 ng/g). The average cap to stalk concentration quotients of Hg were around 2 (range between 1.1 +/- 1.1 and 2.8 +/- 1.4). However, this quotient in Larch bolete (Suillus grevillei) was 4.4 +/- 6.3. Concentrations of Hg varied depending on the mushroom species. Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) and Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis) contained the greatest mean mercury concentrations both in caps (between 4500 +/- 1700 and 4400 +/- 2400 ng/g dry matter) and stalks (between 2800 +/- 1300 and 3000 +/- 2000 ng/g dry matter). Both the Parasol Mushroom and Horse mushroom were characterised also by a greater potential to bioconcentrate mercury from soils as evidenced by great bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which were between 170 +/- 160 and 130 +/- 120 for caps, and 110 +/- 97 and 89 +/- 92 for stalks. Mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of False death cap (Amanita citrina) increased (p Suillus luteus).

  17. Analysis of uranium metallogenic conditions and prospective prognosis on the south-central part of the Xikang-Yunnan Axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baochi; Qian Farong; Cai Yuqi; Zhang Daishi

    1996-08-01

    Three types of uranium mineralizations (i.e., sandstone type, sodium metasomatite type and Proterozoic epimetamorphic rock type) are distinguished in the south-central part of the Xikang-Yunnan Axis, and their major characteristics are expounded. It is proposed that the Early Proterozoic crust has three elevation stages: primitive old land formation stage, subsidence stage and base mental reconsolidation stage, and that the Middle Proterozoic Kunyang Group is different from typical carbonate-siliceous-politic sedimentary formation which contains many regional uranium-rich horizons. The primitive uranium contents of some rocks in the region have been studied for the first time, and proposed a new knowledge that some relative rocks be recognized as the uranium source rocks of the region. It is pointed out that there are two kinds of hydrothermal alterations, namely, alkaline alteration and acidic alteration, and some areas with development of alkaline alteration have promising uranium-metallogenic potential. As for the U-metallogenic prospect of the region, three conclusions are summarized: (1) This region does not have favourable geologic conditions for the Australian-Canadian type Proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposit; (2) The Proterozoic unconformity different from that of Australian-Canadian type does not have permission U-metallogenic potential either; (3) The alkaline (sodium) metasomatite type uranium mineralization in the region has some prospecting potential. Therefore on the basis of above-mentioned conclusions five relatively promising uranium-metallogenic prospects are selected. (4 refs.)

  18. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah P. Shutt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges.

  19. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  20. Noise and children's health: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children's health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children's health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children's health in relation to noise exposure.

  1. Application of the 137Cs technique to quantify soil redistribution rates in paleohumults from Central-South Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, P.; Sepulveda, A.; Trumper, R.E.; Castillo, A.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of the 137 Cs technique in obtaining spatial distributed information on mean soil redistribution rates in Central-South Chile. For this purpose four fields of Palehumult soil and contrasting land use and management were selected in the Coastal Mountain Range of the 9th Region: Crop fields under subsistence and commercial management and non-permanent prairies under subsistence and commercial management. The spatial distribution of the soil redistribution rates obtained by the 137 Cs method was similar to the one obtained by pedological observations. Also, annual sediment fluxes measured at experimental plots were similar to the erosion rates determined by the 137 Cs method at adjacent points. The 137 Cs technique is seen as an efficient method to obtain long-term soil redistribution rates under the climatic conditions and the soil type selected in Chile. In the future, it is necessary to study the applicability of the method under other climatic conditions and soil types occurring in Chile in which erosion is not so evident, and to adjust the method to optimise costs and benefits. (author) [es

  2. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs in the South Central region of the State of São Paulo

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    A.S. Zucatto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the proximity of sheep farmers to animals that are possibly diseased or releasing fecal oocysts into the environment and the marked pathogenicity in lambs, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and to molecularly characterize the infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs in the South Central region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 193 fecal samples were collected from sheep of several breeds, males and females, aged up to one year. Polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR was used to amplify DNA fragments from the subunit 18S rRNA gene and indicated 15% positivity; sequencing of amplified fragments was possible for 19 samples. Analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the identified species were Cryptosporidium xiaoi for 15 samples, constituting thus the first molecular characterization study of this Cryptosporidium species in Brazil. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum was identified for three samples and Cryptosporidium meleagridis for one sample; the latter two are considered zoonotic species.

  3. Five cases of acute Zika virus infection in French women of reproductive age returning from Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penot, P; Balavoine, S; Leplatois, A; Brichler, S; Leparc-Goffart, I; Alloui, A-C; Flusin, O; Guilleminot, J; Amellou, M; Molina, J-M

    2017-08-01

    The favorable season for Aedes albopictus circulation has started in Europe and may lead to autochthonous transmission of Zika virus. Health care providers should be familiar with evocative clinical presentations and able to give updated information to women of reproductive age infected by Zika virus. We report five laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infections imported to metropolitan France from Central and South America between January and April, 2016. The five young women were not connected and not pregnant; common presentation combined a rash with persistent arthralgia. Zika virus was identified by RT-PCR from serum or urines, between two and eight days after the onset of the symptoms. As the duration of potential materno-foetal infectivity is still unknown, we were unable to answer with certitude to the patients' questions about the time interval to respect before attempting a pregnancy: one of them became pregnant one month after the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

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    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.

  5. Heterogeneity of farms entering export supply chains: the case of fruit growers from central-south Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, J.; Nahuelhual, L.; Engler, A.; Echeverria, R.; Cofre, G.

    2013-06-01

    The increasing stringency of world food markets requires farmers to adjust farm structure and commercial strategies to remain integrated in export supply chains. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize different types of fresh fruit farms with regard to farm structural and commercial strategies for a representative sample of fresh fruit growers from central-south Chile exporting to world markets. A typology of farms was constructed based on multivariate analysis, according to which five types of farms were differentiated from five distinct factors. Cluster I comprised the smallest and uncertified farms (14.3% of the sample). The remaining four clusters comprised certified farms, but with different farm structural and commercial characteristics. Cluster II (15.1%) was composed of farms located further from market connections. Cluster III (23.9%) comprised farms with the highest number of fruit species, and consequently, more diversified in fruit production. Cluster IV (8.8%) was the smallest group, and comprised the largest firms. Finally, Cluster V (37.8%) was composed of highly specialized fruit farms, with the highest proportion of hectares dedicated to the production of a single fruit species. The results show the heterogeneity among fresh fruit farms and support the need for differentiated incentives and technological transfer schemes from the public sector and fruit companies in order to successfully keep farmers within export supply chains. (Author) 40 refs.

  6. Interactions between sedimentary evolution and prehistoric human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Paulo César Fonseca Giannini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina State, in Brazil, the articulation between natural and anthropic processes modeled a strongly domesticated landscape, shaped by the massive construction of shell mounds of monumental dimensions and millenarian permanence. In the coastal plain between Passagem da Barra (Laguna District and Figueirinha Lake (Jaguaruna District, 76 sambaquis were mapped, 48 of which have been dated. Systematic site surveys and radiocarbon datings allowed identifying patterns of spatial distribution in sambaquis according to the sedimentary context at the time of construction, stratigraphy and age. Based on these criteria, the following groups were recognized: five geological-geomorphological contexts of location; three stratigraphic patterns; and four phases of sambaqui occupation in the area, based on site number and type of constructive pattern. The model for sedimentary evolution and time-space distribution of sambaquis shows that sites were built in already emerged areas and that inland sites, away from the lagoons, may have not be preserved or they are not exposed due to the continuous sedimentary filling that characterized this region after the maximum Holocene transgression. The crossing of data, here proposed, shows the importance of integral approaches between archaeology and geosciences for the study of landscape evolution.

  7. Serum myostatin in central south Chinese postmenopausal women: Relationship with body composition, lipids and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yulin; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Hongbin; Ou, Yangna; Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Shuang; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

    2016-08-01

    Previous data suggest that myostatin has direct effects on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. The relationships between serum myostatin, body composition lipids and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women remain unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationships between serum myostatin, body composition, lipids and bone mineral density in central south Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 healthy postmenopausal women, aged 51-75 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum myostatin, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(25OH-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast to the osteoporotic women, the women without osteoporosis had higher BMI, fat mass and lean mass (Pmyostatin after adjusted by age. BMD at each site was positively correlated with age at menopause, fat mass and lean mass, and also negatively correlated with age and serum BAP. Serum myostatin was positively correlated with tryglicerides, not correlated with either body composition or BMD at each site. Our data indicated that serum myostatin concentration did not correlate with muscle and bone mass. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the role of myostatin in regulating the bone metabolism.

  8. Late Paleozoic-Middle Mesozoic uplift rate, cooling rate and geothermal gradient for south-central New York state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Apatite and zircon crystals were recovered from the Tioga metabentonite (Middle Devonian) at Cherry Valley, New York and from a metabentonite at the top of the Black River Group (Middle Ordovician) at Middleville, New York. Fission-track ages obtained from these minerals are younger than the stratigraphic ages of the units, indicating total or partial resetting of the mineral ages due to thermal annealing of fission-tracks. The age data allow for calculation of a mean uplift rate of 0.019 +- 0.009 mm/yr for the interval 193 to 155 Myr, and a mean cooling rate of 0.38 +- 0.11 0 C/Myr for the interval 354 to 155 Myr. An average geothermal gradient for the interval 354 to 155 Myr is 20 +- 11 C/km. The partially reset zircon age from the Black River metabentonite indicates that the Middle Ordovician rocks of south-central New York have been exposed to temperatures approaching approx. 175 C. This temperature, in conjunction with the calculated geothermal gradient, implies burial of these units to depths approaching 8 km. Such burial suggests that extensive Carboniferous sediments once covered southern New York, and that the Alleghenian Orogeny had a stronger sedimentalogical influence in the northern portion of the Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. (author)

  9. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2010-11-01

    Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

  10. Environmental factors in infancy and ulcerative colitis in the Central South of Chile: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneberger, Anja; Weiss, Eduardo Hebel; Calvo, Mario; Torres, Lilibeth; Wagner, Johanna; Kabesch, Michael; Radon, Katja

    2011-10-01

    Evidence for the role of the hygiene hypothesis and the development of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is unclear. We aimed to explore the association between environmental factors in infancy and UC. A hospital-based case-control study (52 UC cases, response: 77%, 174 age- , sex and place of living matched controls, response: 62%) was carried out in the Central South of Chile in 2009/2010. Patients or parents underwent a personal interview about early life experiences. High paternal education (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.5) as proxy for socioeconomic status was positively associated with case status in the final multivariate logistic regression model. Likewise, having older siblings was a risk factor for UC (aOR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.1.-4.4). The importance for some early life environmental factors in the development of UC was established. However, the role of the hygiene hypothesis could not be confirmed for all environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutt, Deborah P; Manore, Carrie A; Pankavich, Stephen; Porter, Aaron T; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-12-01

    As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  13. Flood-tracking chart for the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins in south-central Georgia and northern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates a flood-monitoring system in the Withlacoochee and Little River Basins. This system is a network of automated river stage stations (ten are shown on page 2 of this publication) that transmit stage data through satellite telemetry to the USGS in Atlanta, Georgia and the National Weather Service (NWS) in Peachtree City, Georgia. During floods, the public and emergency response agencies use this information to make decisions about road closures, evacuations, and other public safety issues. This Withlacoochee and Little River Basins flood-tracking chart can be used by local citizens and emergency response personnel to record the latest river stage and predicted flood-crest information along the Withlacoochee River, Little River, and Okapilco Creek in south-central Georgia and northern Florida. By comparing the current stage (water-surface level above a datum) and predicted flood crest to the recorded peak stages of previous floods, emergency response personnel and residents can make informed decisions concerning the threat to life and property.

  14. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  15. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Drought is a recurring extreme climate event characterized by a temporary deficit of precipitation, soil moisture, streamflow, or any combination of the three taking place at the same time. The immediate consequences of short-term (i.e. a few weeks duration) droughts are, for example, a fall in crop production, poor pasture growth and a decline in fodder supplies from crop residues, whereas prolonged water shortages (e.g. of several months or years duration) may, amongst others, lead to a reduction in hydro-electrical power production and an increase of forest fires. As a result, comprehensive drought risk management is nowadays critical for many regions in the world. Examples are many African and South-and Central American countries that strongly depend on rain-fed agriculture for economic development with hydroelectricity and biomass as main sources of energy. Drought risk is the probability of harmful consequences, or expected losses resulting from interactions between drought hazard, i.e. the physical nature of droughts, and the degree to which a population or activity is vulnerable to its effects. As vulnerability to drought is increasing globally and certain tasks, such as distributive policies (e.g. relief aid, regulatory exemptions, or preparedness investments), require information on drought severity that is comparable across different climatic regions, greater attention has recently been directed to the development of methods for a standardized quantification of drought hazard. In this study we, therefore, concentrate on a methodology for assessing the severity of historical droughts and on mapping the frequency of their occurrence. To achieve these goals, we use a new Meteorological Drought Severity Index (MDSI). The motivation is twofold: 1) the observation that primitive indices of drought severity directly measure local precipitation shortages and cannot be compared geographically; and that 2) standardized indices of drought do not take into account

  16. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  17. Trace Element Accumulation and Tissue Distribution in the Purpleback Flying Squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis from the Central and Southern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan Yan; Shen, Yu; Huang, Hui; Yang, Xian Qing; Zhao, Yong Qiang; Cen, Jian Wei; Qi, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis is a species of cephalopod that is becoming economically important in the South China Sea. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined in the mantle, arms, and digestive gland of S. oualaniensis from 31 oceanographic survey stations in the central and southern South China Sea. Intraspecific and interspecific comparisons with previous studies were made. Mean concentrations of trace elements analyzed in arms and mantle were in the following orders: Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr > As > Hg. In digestive gland, the concentrations of Cd and Cu exceed that of Zn. All the Pb concentrations were under the detected limit.

  18. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  19. Wine tourism : a review of the Chilean case

    OpenAIRE

    Kunc, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Wine tourism has become a thriving niche in global tourism industry with successful cases like Napa Valley in the USA with 19 million visitors per year. However, there are important disparities among wine regions. The paper analyses the case of the Chilean wine tourism, which is one of the regions with less wine tourists although it is very important in global wine industry, and its reasons for its low level of development. Chilean wine industry has been developing its infrastructure in wine ...

  20. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. IV. - October of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica a la clinica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX. IV.- Octubre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F

    2002-01-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  1. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. V. - November of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX. V.- Noviembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A; Vizuet G, J; Benitez S, J A; Garcia A, J; Rodriguez A, F

    2002-01-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Autho000.

  2. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. I. - July of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX I.- Julio de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J

    2001-09-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  3. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. II.- August of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX II.- Agosto de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J

    2001-12-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  4. Specialized consultant in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high speciality, PEMEX. III.- September of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad, PEMEX III.- Septiembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J. A.; Rodriguez A, F.; Garcia A, J

    2001-12-15

    The south central hospital of high speciality, dependent of PEMEX, It request consultant of the ININ to be able to maintain their sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment for the radiologic diagnostic.The proposal of the ININ was to be a program of technical attendance, schedule monthly to be able to solve the observations that are presented in the use of those equipment, and that the hospital can conserve its respective sanitary license.(Author)

  5. [Decentralization of health care and medical teaching: the Chilean experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro; Armas, Rodolfo

    2003-07-01

    In Chile there has been a close interaction between medical teaching and health care. In 1943, the University of Chile School of Medicine (founded in 1833) created Chairs in several public hospitals. The University of Chile School of Public Health (founded in 1943) played a key role in the creation in 1952 of a centralized National Health Service (NHS). The NHS had outpatient clinics and hospitals all over the country and was responsible for health care and for the promotion of health and disease prevention programs. In 1954, the NHS and the School of Medicine set up Residencies and General Practitioners programs aimed at improving the distribution of specialists and general practitioners throughout the country. In 1979, the NHS was replaced with 27 autonomous Health Services headed by the Ministry of Health, while the administration of primary care outpatient clinics was transferred to the municipal government. However, sanitary programs were still managed at the central level. Higher education also expanded and was decentralized. There are currently 60 universities and 17 medical schools, compared to eight and six, respectively, in 1981. The number of students in higher education has increased by 370% in 20 years. At the present time, the Chilean health case system is a predominantly public system with a strong and sizeable private system. Sixty two percent of the population is covered by public health insurance, while 27% is covered by private insurance. New and well equipped private clinics have multiplied. Private non profit institutions manage the prevention and treatment of work related injuries and diseases. Chile's outstanding health indicators (fertility rate: 17.2 x 1,000; mortality: 5.4 x 1,000; maternal mortality: 2.3 x 10,000; neonatal mortality: 4.5 x 1,000; life expectancy: 76 years) are a direct consequence of the improved social, cultural and economic condition of the general populations as well as of the sanitary programs sustained over the past

  6. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  7. Possible impacts of climate change on freezing rain in south-central Canada using downscaled future climate scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Freezing rain is a major atmospheric hazard in mid-latitude nations of the globe. Among all Canadian hydrometeorological hazards, freezing rain is associated with the highest damage costs per event. Using synoptic weather typing to identify the occurrence of freezing rain events, this study estimates changes in future freezing rain events under future climate scenarios for south-central Canada. Synoptic weather typing consists of principal components analysis, an average linkage clustering procedure (i.e., a hierarchical agglomerative cluster method, and discriminant function analysis (a nonhierarchical method. Meteorological data used in the analysis included hourly surface observations from 15 selected weather stations and six atmospheric levels of six-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP upper-air reanalysis weather variables for the winter months (November–April of 1958/59–2000/01. A statistical downscaling method was used to downscale four general circulation model (GCM scenarios to the selected weather stations. Using downscaled scenarios, discriminant function analysis was used to project the occurrence of future weather types. The within-type frequency of future freezing rain events is assumed to be directly proportional to the change in frequency of future freezing rain-related weather types The results showed that with warming temperatures in a future climate, percentage increases in the occurrence of freezing rain events in the north of the study area are likely to be greater than those in the south. By the 2050s, freezing rain events for the three colder months (December–February could increase by about 85% (95% confidence interval – CI: ±13%, 60% (95% CI: ±9%, and 40% (95% CI: ±6% in northern Ontario, eastern Ontario (including Montreal, Quebec, and southern Ontario, respectively. The increase by the 2080s could be even greater: about 135% (95% CI: ±20%, 95% (95% CI: ±13%, and 45% (95% CI: ±9

  8. The Partitioning of Carbon Biomass among the Pico- and Nano-plankton Community in the South Brazilian Bight during a Strong Summer Intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha M. Bergo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how pico- and nano-plankton respond to oceanographic conditions in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, we assessed the influence of a summer intrusion of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW on the spatial and vertical dynamics of planktonic abundance and carbon biomass across environmental gradients. Seawater samples were collected from six depths within the euphotic zone at nine oceanographic stations in a transect on the Brazilian continental shelf in January 2013. The abundance of pico- and nano-plankton populations was determined by flow cytometry, and carbon biomass was calculated based on conversion factors from the literature. The autotrophic Synechococcus spp., picoeukaryotes, and nanoeukaryotes were more abundant in the surface layers of the innermost stations influenced by Coastal Water (maximum of 1.19 × 105, 1.5 × 104, and 8.61 × 103 cell·mL−1, respectively, whereas Prochlorococcus spp. dominated (max. of 6.57 × 104 cell·mL−1 at the outermost stations influenced by Tropical Water and in the uplifting layers of the SACW around a depth of 100 m. Numerically, heterotrophic bacterial populations were predominant, with maximum concentrations (2.11 × 106 cell·mL−1 recorded in the surface layers of the inner and mid shelves in Coastal Water and the upper limits of the SACW. Nutrient-rich (high silicate and phosphate and relatively less saline waters enhanced the picoeukaryotic biomass, while Synechococcus and heterotrophic bacteria were linked to higher temperatures, lower salinities, and higher inputs of ammonia and dissolved organic carbon. The relative importance of each group to carbon biomass partitioning under upwelling conditions is led by heterotrophic bacteria, followed by picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, and when the SACW is not as influential, the relative contribution of each phytoplanktonic group is more evenly distributed. In addition to habitat preferences, the physical structure

  9. Come rain or shine: Multi-model Projections of Climate Hazards affecting Transportation in the South Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, E.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    This work develops detailed trends in climate hazards affecting the Department of Transportation's Region 6, in the South Central U.S. Firstly, a survey was developed to gather information regarding weather and climate hazards in the region from the transportation community, identifying key phenomena and thresholds to evaluate. Statistically downscaled datasets were obtained from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogues (MACA) project, and the Asynchronous Regional Regression Model (ARRM), for a total of 21 model projections, two coupled model intercomparisons (CMIP3, and CMIP5), and four emissions pathways (A1Fi, B1, RCP8.5, RCP4.5). Specific hazards investigated include winter weather, freeze-thaw cycles, hot and cold extremes, and heavy precipitation. Projections for each of these variables were calculated for the region, utilizing spatial mapping, and time series analysis at the climate division level. The results indicate that cold-season phenomena such as winter weather, freeze-thaw, and cold extremes, decrease in intensity and frequency, particularly with the higher emissions pathways. Nonetheless, specific model and downscaling method yields variability in magnitudes, with the most notable decreasing trends late in the 21st century. Hot days show a pronounced increase, particularly with greater emissions, producing annual mean 100oF day frequencies by late 21st century analogous to the 2011 heatwave over the central Southern Plains. Heavy precipitation, evidenced by return period estimates and counts-over-thresholds, also show notable increasing trends, particularly between the recent past through mid-21st Century. Conversely, mean precipitation does not show significant trends and is regionally variable. Precipitation hazards (e.g., winter weather, extremes) diverge between downscaling methods and their associated model samples much more substantially than temperature, suggesting that the choice of global model and downscaled data is particularly

  10. Knowledge and Understanding of the Hydrogeology of the Salt Basin in South-Central New Mexico and Future Study Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Chace, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Salt Basin covers about 2,400 square miles of south-central New Mexico and extends across the State line into Texas. As much as 57 million acre-feet of ground water may be stored within the New Mexico part of the Salt Basin of which 15 million acre-feet are potentially potable and recoverable. Recent work suggests that the volume of ground water in storage within the New Mexico portion of the Salt Basin may be substantially greater than 57 million acre-feet. In this report, aquifers contained in the San Andres, Bone Spring, and Victorio Peak Limestones and in the Yeso, Hueco, and Abo Formations are collectively referred to as the carbonate aquifer. Porosity and permeability of the major aquifer are primarily determined by the density and interconnectedness of fractures and karstic solution channels. The spatial variability of these fractures and karstic features leads to a large spatial variability in hydraulic properties in the carbonate aquifer. Ground water generally moves southward away from recharge areas along the northern border of the Salt Basin and generally moves eastward to southeastward away from areas of distributed recharge on the Otero Mesa and the Diablo Plateau. Ground water originating from these recharge areas generally moves toward the central valley. Present day discharge is mostly through ground-water withdrawal for agricultural irrigation. A zone of relatively low hydraulic gradient, corresponding to the location of the Otero Break, extends from near the Sacramento River watershed southward toward Dell City, Texas. Ground water in the carbonate aquifer generally is very hard and has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 500 to 6,500 milligrams per liter. Substantial variability exists in current estimates of (1) ground-water recharge, (2) natural ground-water discharge, (3) the volume of ground water in storage, (4) the volume of recoverable ground water, (5) the conceptual model of ground-water flow, (6) the distribution of ground

  11. Analyzing implementation dynamics using theory-driven evaluation principles: lessons learnt from a South African centralized chronic dispensing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai Priscilla; Marchal, Bruno; Mathys, Tania; Laing, Richard O; Ward, Kim

    2017-12-04

    Centralized dispensing of essential medicines is one of South Africa's strategies to address the shortage of pharmacists, reduce patients' waiting times and reduce over-crowding at public sector healthcare facilities. This article reports findings of an evaluation of the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) in one province. The objectives of this process evaluation were to: (1) compare what was planned versus the actual implementation and (2) establish the causal elements and contextual factors influencing implementation. This qualitative study employed key informant interviews with the intervention's implementers (clinicians, managers and the service provider) [N = 40], and a review of policy and program documents. Data were thematically analyzed by identifying the main influences shaping the implementation process. Theory-driven evaluation principles were applied as a theoretical framework to explain implementation dynamics. The overall participants' response about the CDU was positive and the majority of informants concurred that the establishment of the CDU to dispense large volumes of medicines is a beneficial strategy to address healthcare barriers because mechanical functions are automated and distribution of medicines much quicker. However, implementation was influenced by the context and discrepancies between planned activities and actual implementation were noted. Procurement inefficiencies at central level caused medicine stock-outs and affected CDU activities. At the frontline, actors were aware of the CDU's implementation guidelines regarding patient selection, prescription validity and management of non-collected medicines but these were adapted to accommodate practical realities and to meet performance targets attached to the intervention. Implementation success was a result of a combination of 'hardware' (e.g. training, policies, implementation support and appropriate infrastructure) and 'software' (e.g. ownership, cooperation between healthcare

  12. Depositional setting and early diagenesis of the dinosaur eggshell-bearing Aren Fm at Bastus, Late Campanian, south-central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Molina, Margarita; Kälin, Otto; Benito Moreno, María Isabel; López Martínez, Nieves; Vicens, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Aren Fm exposed north of Bastus in the Tremp Basin (south-central Pyrenees) preserves an excellent record of dinosaur eggs laid in a marine littoral setting. Different from other cases reported in literature, at the Bastus site the preferential nesting ground was original beach sand. The coastal deposits of Aren Fm can be grouped into four facies assemblages, representing respectively shoreface, beachface, beach ridge plain and backbarrier lagoon environments. Shoreface de...

  13. Legacy K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Lisa L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-04-06

    Sample descriptions and analytical data for more than 200 K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses from rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska are reported here. Samples were collected over a period of 20 years by Bruce R. Reed and Marvin A. Lanphere (both U.S. Geological Survey) as part of their studies of the batholith.

  14. Spatial Modeling Of Infant Mortality Rate In South Central Timor Regency Using GWLR Method With Adaptive Bisquare Kernel And Gaussian Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Prawono Sabat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR was regression model consider the spatial factor, which could be used to analyze the IMR. The number of Infant Mortality as big as 100 cases in 2015 or 12 per 1000 live birth in South Central Timor Regency. The aim of this study was to determine the best modeling of GWLR with fixed weighting function and Adaptive Gaussian Kernel in the case of infant mortality in South Central Timor District in 2015. The response variable (Y in this study was a case of infant mortality, while variable predictor was the percentage of neonatal first visit (KN1 (X1, the percentage of neonatal visit 3 times (Complete KN (X2, the percentage of pregnant get Fe tablet (X3, percentage of poor families pre prosperous (X4. This was a non-reactive study, which is a measurement which individuals surveyed did not realize that they are part of a study, with analysis unit in 32 sub-districts of South Central Timor Districts. Data analysis used open source program that was Excel, R program, Quantum GIS and GWR4. The best GWLR spatial modeling with Adaptive Gaussian Kernel weighting function, a global model parameters GWLR Adaptive Gaussian Kernel weighting function obtained by g (x = 0.941086 - 0,892506X4, GWLR local models with adaptive Kernel bisquare weighting function in the 13 Districts were obtained g(x = 0 − 0X4, factors that affect the cases of infant mortality in 13 sub-districts of South Central Timor Regency in 2015 was the percentage of poor families pre prosperous.

  15. Geological implications of recently derived vertical velocities of benchmarks of the south-central United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2005-05-01

    It has been long-recognized that the south-central United States of America bordering the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is actively subsiding, resulting in a slow, yet unrelenting inundation of the coast from south Texas to southwestern Alabama. Today's motions are but the latest chapter in the subsidence history of the GOM, a region that has accommodated the deposition of over 20 km of deltaic and continental margin sediments since mid Mesozoic time. Understanding the recent history of displacements and the processes responsible for subsidence are especially critical for near-term planning for coastal protection and restoration activities. Documentation of the true magnitude and geography of vertical motions of the surface through time has been hampered because previous measurement schemes did not employ reference datums of sufficient spatial and temporal precision. This situation has been somewhat improved recently through the recent analysis of National Geodetic Survey (NGS) 1st order leveling data from >2710 benchmarks in the region by Shinkle and Dokka (NOAA Technical Report 50 [2004]). That paper used original observations (not adjusted) and computed displacements and velocities related to NAVD88 for benchmarks visited during various leveling surveys from 1920 through 1995. Several important characteristics were observed and are summarized below. First, the data show that subsidence is not limited to areas of recent sediment accumulation such as the wetland areas of the modern delta (MRD) of the Mississippi River or its upstream alluvial valley (MAV), as supposed by most current syntheses. The entire coastal zone, as well as inland areas several hundred km from the shore, has subsided over the period of measurement. Regionally, vertical velocities range from less than -52 mm/yr in Louisiana to over +15 mm/yr in peripheral areas of eastern Mississippi-Alabama. The mean rate is ~-11 mm/yr in most coastal parishes of Louisiana. In the Mississippi River deltaic plain

  16. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  17. Delta lobe degradation and hurricane impacts governing large-scale coastal behavior, South-central Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, M.D.; Kulp, M.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Weathers, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (???0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ???1.6????????109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ???41,400 m2 to ???139,500 m 2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: Research in central, eastern and south-eastern Europe and newly independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries from South-East Europe (SEE, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Newly Independent States (NIS are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study. Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  19. Formation and preservation of greigite (Fe3S4) in a thick sediment layer from the central South Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxing; Mei, Xi; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Yanguang; Ge, Shulan

    2018-04-01

    Sediments from continental shelves are sensitive to changes in both oceanic and terrestrial conditions, and, therefore, magnetic minerals in such sediments are affected strongly by depositional and diagenetic processes. Here, we investigated systematically an N-S transect of three sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS) muddy area. Magnetic data indicate the presence of a horizontally distributed thick greigite-bearing layer. From an age model based on published magnetostratigraphy, accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating ages, sedimentary characteristics and foraminiferal analysis, this layer was deposited within marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-13, following an enhanced sulphidic period over MIS 21-19 when the YS Warm Current and the associated YS Cold Water Mass were strong and where underlying sediments have higher total organic carbon, total sulphur and trace element molybdenum contents. Trace element cadmium enrichment in the greigite-bearing layers is documented for the first time, which indicates that weakly sulphidic (i.e. with trace levels of free H2S) conditions existed before greigite formed in a sulphidic environment during early diagenesis. It also indicates that subsequent conditions free of oxygen and H2S after greigite formation are more favourable for its preservation. We propose that organic matter supply was controlled over an extended period by moderate primary productivity. The combined effects of palaeoclimate and local tectonic subsidence were crucial for the formation and preservation of the identified greigite. In brief, our study improves understanding of the formation and preservation mechanisms of greigite in continental shelf sediments and reveals mid-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes in the SYS.

  20. A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels are found on the NTS which are potential roost sites for bats. Multiple technqiues are being used to inventory and monitor the bat fauna on the NTS. These techniques include mistnetting at water sources with concurrent use of the Anabat II bat detection system, conducting road surveys with the Anabat II system, and conducting exit surveys at mine and tunnel entrances using the Anabat II system. To date, a total of 13 species of bats has been documented on the NTS, of which six are considered species of concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These include Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), spotted bat (Euderma maculatum), small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum), long-eared myotis (M. evotis), fringed myotis (M. thysanodes), and long-legged myotis (M. volans). Results from mistnet and Anabat surveys reveal that all bat species of concern except for the long-legged myotis are found exclusively in the Great Basin Desert portion of the NTS. The long-legged myotis is found throughout the NTS. The Anabat II system has greatly facilitated the monitoring of bats on the NTS, and allowed biologists to cost effectively survey large areas for bat activity. Information obtained from bat monitoring will be used to develop and update guidelines for managing bats on the NTS.

  1. Persistence of evapotranspiration impacts from mountain pine beetle outbreaks in lodgepole pine forests, south-central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Williams, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The current extent and high severity (percent tree mortality) of mountain pine beetle outbreaks across western North America have been attributed to regional climate change, specifically warmer summer and winter temperatures and drier summers. These outbreaks are widespread and have potentially persistent impacts on forest evapotranspiration. The few data-driven studies have largely been restricted by the temporal availability of remote sensing products. This study utilized multiple mountain pine beetle outbreak location datasets, both current and historical, within lodgepole pine stands in the south-central Rocky Mountains. The full seasonal evapotranspiration impact of outbreak events for decades after outbreak (0 to 60 years) and the role of outbreak severity in determining that impact were quantified. We found a 30% reduction in evapotranspiration peaking at 14-20 years post-outbreak during the spring snowmelt period, when water was not limited, but a minimal reduction in evapotranspiration during the remainder of the growing season (June - August). We also found a significant increase in evapotranspiration, relative to non-attacked stands, in intermediate aged stands (20-40 years post-disturbance) corresponding with a peak in LAI and therefore transpiration. During the snow-cover months evapotranspiration initially increased with needle fall and snag fall and corresponding increases in albedo and shortwave transmission to the surface. We found that changes in evapotranspiration during all seasons dissipated by 60 years post-attack. MODIS evapotranspiration values responded most strongly to mountain pine beetle driven changes in net radiation or available energy, and vegetation cover (e.g. LAI, fPAR and EVI). It also appears that the post-attack response of evapotranspiration may be sensitive to precipitation patterns and thus the consequences of a disturbance event may depend on the directionality of climate change conditions.

  2. Research on frost formation in air source heat pump at cold-moist conditions in central-south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Guangcai; Tang, Jinchen; Lv, Dongyan; Wang, Hongjin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ►A dynamic evaporator model is built up. ► The model involves the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air. ►A correlation considering d eq is shown below to predict frost accumulation: (M fr v 3 )/(Ψd eq 2 ) =((T a )/(T w ) ) 0.1 ((vτ)/(d eq ) ) 0.7 (l/(d eq ) ) 1.378 X a 1.228 . ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of system performance. ►The changing ratio can characterize the early development of frost accumulation. -- Abstract: A dynamic evaporator model of air source heat pump (ASHP), considering the ratio of the latent heat to sensible heat of wet air, is presented to analyze the performance of ASHP under frosting. The performance parameters, such as the heating capacity, COP and the outlet temperature of compressor, are simulated with CYCLEPAD. Then a semi-empirical correlation that predicts frost accumulation on the air-side of fin-tube heat exchanger is developed with dimensionless analysis and also modified by a test conducted under cold-moist conditions in winter. In addition, eight influence factors are considered involving the ambient conditions and structures of heat exchanger, whose effects are analyzed as well. Among them, the equivalent diameter of air flow cross-section in fin-tube d eq is especially proposed. Lastly, the relationships between the ratio, the performance parameters and the frost accumulation are discussed in this paper, followed by an evaluation of an optimal defrosting time interval to improve the ASHP’s energy efficiency and operational reliability at cold-moist conditions in central-south China.

  3. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise.

  4. Dendrohydrology and water resources management in south-central Chile: lessons from the Río Imperial streamflow reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alfonso; Muñoz, Ariel; González-Reyes, Álvaro; Aguilera-Betti, Isabella; Toledo, Isadora; Puchi, Paulina; Sauchyn, David; Crespo, Sebastián; Frene, Cristian; Mundo, Ignacio; González, Mauro; Vignola, Raffaele

    2018-05-01

    Streamflow in south-central Chile (SCC, ˜ 37-42° S) is vital for agriculture, forestry production, hydroelectricity, and human consumption. Recent drought episodes have generated hydrological deficits with damaging effects on these activities. This region is projected to undergo major reductions in water availability, concomitant with projected increases in water demand. However, the lack of long-term records hampers the development of accurate estimations of natural variability and trends. In order to provide more information on long-term streamflow variability and trends in SCC, here we report findings of an analysis of instrumental records and a tree-ring reconstruction of the summer streamflow of the Río Imperial ( ˜ 37° 40' S-38° 50' S). This is the first reconstruction in Chile targeted at this season. Results from the instrumental streamflow record ( ˜ 1940 onwards) indicated that the hydrological regime is fundamentally pluvial with a small snowmelt contribution during spring, and evidenced a decreasing trend, both for the summer and the full annual record. The reconstruction showed that streamflow below the average characterized the post-1980 period, with more frequent, but not more intense, drought episodes. We additionally found that the recent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode has significantly influenced streamflow. These findings agree with previous studies, suggesting a robust regional signal and a shift to a new hydrological scenario. In this paper, we also discuss implications of these results for water managers and stakeholders; we provide rationale and examples that support the need for the incorporation of tree-ring reconstructions into water resources management.

  5. Structured decision making for conservation of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Long Creek, Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Dunham, Jason B.; Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.

    2017-06-21

    With the decline of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), managers face multiple, and sometimes contradictory, management alternatives for species recovery. Moreover, effective decision-making involves all stakeholders influenced by the decisions (such as Tribal, State, Federal, private, and non-governmental organizations) because they represent diverse objectives, jurisdictions, policy mandates, and opinions of the best management strategy. The process of structured decision making is explicitly designed to address these elements of the decision making process. Here we report on an application of structured decision making to a population of bull trout believed threatened by high densities of nonnative brook trout (S. fontinalis) and habitat fragmentation in Long Creek, a tributary to the Sycan River in the Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon. This involved engaging stakeholders to identify (1) their fundamental objectives for the conservation of bull trout, (2) feasible management alternatives to achieve their objectives, and (3) biological information and assumptions to incorporate in a decision model. Model simulations suggested an overarching theme among the top decision alternatives, which was a need to simultaneously control brook trout and ensure that the migratory tactic of bull trout can be expressed. More specifically, the optimal management decision, based on the estimated adult abundance at year 10, was to combine the eradication of brook trout from Long Creek with improvement of downstream conditions (for example, connectivity or habitat conditions). Other top decisions included these actions independently, as well as electrofishing removal of brook trout. In contrast, translocating bull trout to a different stream or installing a barrier to prevent upstream spread of brook trout had minimal or negative effects on the bull trout population. Moreover, sensitivity analyses suggested that these actions were consistently identified as optimal across

  6. Metastasis in central nervous system: Clinicopathological study with review of literature in a tertiary care center in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Secondary central nervous system (CNS tumors are common in Western countries, but in Indian literature, scant data are available. With the advent of newer imaging techniques, the confirmatory histopathological diagnosis has become comparatively easier. Hereby, we have analyzed our data from a single tertiary care center in south India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2010, histopathologically diagnosed secondary CNS tumors were reviewed along with clinical, imaging, and relevant immunohistochemical findings. Meningeal, lymphoproliferative, and myeloproliferative tumors and autopsy data were not included in the study group. Results: There were 40 secondary CNS tumors. Male to female ratio was 2.3:1. Age range was wide (28-75 years. Majority of cases were seen in the fourth and fifth decade. Imaging-wise, (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging majority were single lesions ( n = 34, 85%. Most commonly, these single lesions were present in the cerebral hemisphere ( n = 20, 50% followed by cerebellum ( n = 10, 25%. Adenocarcinoma accounted for maximum number of cases ( n = 25, 62.5% with lungs being the most common primary. Conclusion: We have noted 25% metastatic adenocarcinomas in cerebellar location, which is higher when compared with available world literature. However, we also encountered a good number of cases (30% due to unknown primary. Though histopathological examination with use of immunohistochemical markers can reliably distinguish primary from secondary CNS tumors in addition to available clinical and imaging data, particularly in developing countries, still a better work-up with an array of immunohistochemical markers and newer imaging modalities is desirable.

  7. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  8. HTA and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe: Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mochón, Leticia; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Caro Martinez, Araceli; Martin Ruiz, Eva; Pérez Velasco, Román

    2017-03-31

    To gain knowledge and insights on health technology assessment (HTA) and decision-making processes in Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) countries. A cross-sectional study was performed. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed in a multi-stage process. The questionnaire was arranged according to 5 broad domains: (i) introduction/country settings; (ii) use of HTA in the country; (iii) decision-making process; (iv) implementation of decisions; and (v) HTA and decision-making: future challenges. Potential survey respondents were identified through literature review-with a total of 118 contacts from the 24 CESEE countries. From March to July 2014, the survey was administered via e-mail. A total of 22 questionnaires were received generating an 18.6% response rate, including 4 responses indicating that their institutions had no involvement in HTA. Most of the CESEE countries have entities under government mandates with advisory functions and different responsibilities for decision-making, but mainly in charge of the reimbursement and pricing of medicines. Other areas where discrepancies across countries were found include criteria for selecting technologies to be assessed, stakeholder involvement, evidence requirements, use of economic evaluation, and timeliness of HTA. A number of CESEE countries have created formal decision-making processes for which HTA is used. However, there is a high level of heterogeneity related to the degree of development of HTA structures, and the methods and processes followed. Further studies focusing on the countries from which information is scarcer and on the HTA of health technologies other than medicines are warranted. Reviews/comparative analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Slattery, Richard N.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey-in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Nature Conservancy, the Real Edwards Conservation and Reclamation District, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department-investigated streamflow gain and loss and water quality in the upper Nueces River Basin, south-central Texas, specifically in the watersheds of the West Nueces, Nueces, Dry Frio, Frio, and Sabinal Rivers upstream from the Edwards aquifer outcrop. Streamflow in these rivers is sustained by groundwater contributions (for example, from springs) and storm runoff from rainfall events. To date (2012), there are few data available that describe streamflow and water-quality conditions of the rivers within the upper Nueces River Basin. This report describes streamflow gain-loss characteristics from three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys (hereinafter referred to as "surveys") during 2008-10 in the upper Nueces River Basin. To help characterize the hydrology, groundwater-level measurements were made, and water-quality samples were collected from both surface-water and groundwater sites in the study area from two surveys during 2009-10. The hydrologic (streamflow, springflow, and groundwater) measurements were made during three reconnaissance-level synoptic measurement surveys occurring in July 21-23, 2008; August 8-18, 2009; and March 22-24, 2010. These survey periods were selected to represent different hydrologic conditions. Streamflow gains and losses were based on streamflow and springflow measurements made at 74 sites in the study area, although not all sites were measured during each survey. Possible water chemistry relations among sample types (streamflow, springflow, or groundwater), between surveys, and among watersheds were examined using water-quality samples collected from as many as 20 sites in the study area.

  10. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in children of Central South China: Clinical features, treatment, influencing factors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Weixi; Yin, Jinghua; Lu, Qianjin; Yin, Fei; He, Fang; Peng, Jing

    2017-11-15

    We analyzed the clinical manifestations of children with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis in Central South China and the factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment. A retrospective study of children (0-14years old) with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Central South China was carried out from March 2014 to November 2016. Demographics, clinical features, treatment, outcome, and the factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment were reviewed. Fifty-one patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were enrolled (age from 4months to 14years old; median age, 8years; 30 females). Forty-five patients (88%) presented with psychiatric symptoms, 40 (78%) with dyskinesia and movement disorders, 39 (77%) with sleep disturbances, 34 (67%) with seizures, 30 (59%) with a decreased level of consciousness (Glasgow scoreanti-NMDAR encephalitis in Central South China. Patients with decreased consciousness, PICU stay and autonomic instability were more likely to have no or limited response to first-line immunotherapy and to require second-line or even more aggressive immunotherapy. Children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in China have a much lower incidence of tumors, lower mortality rates, and a lower proportion of lethal autonomic instability than adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, India: evidence of an East, Central, and South African genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, N; Chaaithanya, I K; Senthil, G S; Shriram, A N; Bhattacharya, D; Jeevabharathi, G S; Sudeep, A B; Pradeepkumar, N; Vijayachari, P

    2011-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. In 2006, CHIKV infection struck the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago, with an attack rate of 60%. There were more than 10 cases with acute flaccid paralysis simulating the Guillian Barre Syndrome. The majority of the patients presented severe joint pain. The cause for such an explosive nature of the outbreak with increased morbidity was not known. The isolation of CHIKV was attempted and succeeded from nine subjects presenting clinical symptoms of Chikungunya fever. The cDNA of all the isolates was sequenced for partial E1 and nsP1 genes. Sequences were aligned based on the double locus sequence typing concept. The phylogenetic analysis shows that sequences of Andaman isolates grouped with the East, Central, and South African genotype of virus isolates from India, Sri Lanka, and Réunion. The genetic distance between Andaman isolates and the Réunion isolates was very small. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the origin of the isolates responsible for the first ever confirmed CHIKV outbreak in these islands to be the East, Central, and South African genotype. In this manuscript, we discuss the involvement of the East, Central, and South African strain with the Chikungunya fever outbreak in this archipelago and double locus sequence typing as a first time approach.

  12. From Little Rock Central High School to Laerskool Potgitersrus: Education and Racial Change in the United States and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Catsam, Derek

    2007-01-01

    In both South Africa and the United States South, education stands and has stood historically as a vital cultural and economic center for its people. In both cases school integration has proved to be profoundly contentious. Certainly much of the Civil Rights Movement in the U.S. was centered on integrating schools from the elementary school playground to the university campus. An interesting and important parallel between South Africa's segregationists and those in America also emerged in the...

  13. The impact of Chilean migration on employment in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariola Sanz, L

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the employment situation of Chilean migrant workers, their impact on labor markets in Patagonia, Argentina, and the government's past and projected responses to this phenomenon. In 1980, Chilean inhabitants of patagonia comprised 11% of the area's population. Chilean migration to patagonia was closely linked to economic activities that began to flourish in the 20th century, such as livestock raising, fruit and vegetable cultivation, and mining for coal and petroleum. No Chilean migrants work in a wide range of sectors. In Patagonia's southern provinces availability and ability to withstand rigorous climate conditions are the main factors which account for the prevalence of Chilean manpower. Chilean migrants do not in general displace local manpower. Legislation and the permeability of the border ensure that most workers enter the country as tourists. Clandestine migration is not an issue. Illegal migrants have provoked negative reactions for several reasons: 1) they comprise a marginal population without formal citizenship; 2) being employed as clandestine workers, they pay no social security, nor do their employers; 3) being illegal, they are obliged to accept lower wages and inferior working conditions which creates unfair competition within labor markets; and 4) as a result of these conditions, xenophobic and endophobic attitudes in relations with Argentine nationalists are reinforced. The government has attempted to solve these problems through various measures. Beginning in 1934, most foreigners entered Argentina with a tourist visa, becoming illegal when they stayed beyond authorized limits. Several measures over the years provided amnesty to illegal migrants. Currently, the law promotes immigration, monitors the admission of foreigners to the country and stipulates their rights and obligations. The law lists 115 articles on immigration promotion and on regulation of the movements of foreigners. Because of the present economic crisis in

  14. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in Peruvian and Chilean llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, Susan J; Boeder, Lisa; Rios-Phillips, Carolina; Alarcon, Virgilio

    2010-09-01

    Mycoplasma haemolamae is a hemotropic mycoplasma that affects red blood cells of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). It is variably associated with anemia, and most infections are subclinical. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay has facilitated detection of this infection in llamas and alpacas in the United States and other countries. Whether the infection occurs in camelids in South America has previously been unknown. The current study documents a 15.8% infection rate among 76 Peruvian llamas, a 19.3% infection rate among Peruvian alpacas at one site, and a 9.26% infection rate in 108 Chilean alpacas from selected herds. All of the camelids tested appeared to be clinically healthy. No gender or species predilection was found. Only 1 positive camelid younger than 18 months was found. Infection is not associated with anemia, and the mean packed cell volume (PCV) in positive Peruvian camelids was slightly higher than the mean PCV in negative Peruvian camelids. In the Chilean alpacas, the positive alpacas had a slightly lower PCV than the negative alpacas, although the mean PCV was not in the anemic range in any of the groups.

  15. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  16. Stochastic strong motion generation using slip model of 21 and 22 May 1960 mega-thrust earthquakes in the main cities of Central-South Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, S.; Ojeda, J.; DelCampo, F., Sr.; Pasten, C., Sr.; Otarola, C., Sr.; Silva, R., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    In May 1960 took place the most unusual seismic sequence registered instrumentally. The Mw 8.1, Concepción earthquake occurred May, 21, 1960. The aftershocks of this event apparently migrated to the south-east, and the Mw 9.5, Valdivia mega-earthquake occurred after 33 hours. The structural damage produced by both events is not larger than other earthquakes in Chile and lower than crustal earthquakes of smaller magnitude. The damage was located in the sites with shallow soil layers of low shear wave velocity (Vs). However, no seismological station recorded this sequence. For that reason, we generate synthetic acceleration times histories for strong motion in the main cities affected by these events. We use 155 points of vertical surface displacements recopiled by Plafker and Savage in 1968, and considering the observations of this authors and local residents we separated the uplift and subsidence information associated to the first earthquake Mw 8.1 and the second mega-earthquake Mw 9.5. We consider the elastic deformation propagation, assume realist lithosphere geometry, and compute a Bayesian method that maximizes the probability density a posteriori to obtain the slip distribution. Subsequently, we use a stochastic method of generation of strong motion considering the finite fault model obtained for both earthquakes. We considered the incidence angle of ray to the surface, free surface effect and energy partition for P, SV and SH waves, dynamic corner frequency and the influence of site effect. The results show that the earthquake Mw 8.1 occurred down-dip the slab, the strong motion records are similar to other Chilean earthquake like Tocopilla Mw 7.7 (2007). For the Mw 9.5 earthquake we obtain synthetic acceleration time histories with PGA values around 0.8 g in cities near to the maximum asperity or that have low velocity soil layers. This allows us to conclude that strong motion records have important influence of the shallow soil deposits. These records

  17. Anthropometric profile of elite Chilean Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sport is one of the most popular social events worldwide. It becomes interesting to characterize its practitioners, even more in some poorly studied groups such as Paralympic athletes. The main objective of this study is to determine the anthropometric profile of Chilean Elite Paralympic Athletes (CEPA through body composition and somatotype. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 subjects (93% of the classified to the Para-Panamerican Games Toronto 2015, who practiced table tennis (n=6, football 5 (n=11, swimming (n=8, rugby (n=7, powerlifting (n=6 and wheelchair tennis (n=3. The body composition and somatotype were assessed through the protocol described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Results: The CEPA reach an average for that classifies somatotype mostly as meso-endomorphic (5.3 - 7.8 - 0.5, a BMI of 27.4 kg/m2, and body composition for fat mass reaches 29.8% in women and 25.7% in men, while muscle mass gain 42.6% (women and 44.5% (men. Conclusions: The CEPA have a somatotype profile that classifies mostly as meso-endomorphic, body composition has a predominance muscle mass and high fat mass, although is similar to other Paralympics athletes.

  18. Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission dosimetric information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Vallejos, Patricia Andrea

    1997-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nuclear radiation that people who work with radioactive material is exposed to and its control by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. A full analysis of the System is presented with information about the Commission and the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety which runs the System. Ana analysis of the System is presented in order to obtain requirements. Management flow diagrams, the processes involved and current problems experienced by the users are described. A design logic is modeled producing Data Flow Diagrams (DFD). based on this physical design, or, Model of Physical Data, is prepared including tables, attributes, types of data, primary and foreign keys. A description is presented of how the System is implemented, the tools that are used and how the testing phase is carried out. The Dosimetry System meets the criteria for a Software Engineering project, where the basic cycle was used as a working methodology. The System developed supports the dosimetric control of people exposed to radioactive material. (author)

  19. Risk segmentation in Chilean social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hector; Chipulu, Maxwell; Ojiako, Udechukwu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how risk and social variables are likely to be impacted by an increase in private sector participation in health insurance provision. The study focuses on the Chilean health insurance industry, traditionally dominated by the public sector. Predictive risk modelling is conducted using a database containing over 250,000 health insurance policy records provided by the Superintendence of Health of Chile. Although perceived with suspicion in some circles, risk segmentation serves as a rational approach to risk management from a resource perspective. The variables that have considerable impact on insurance claims include the number of dependents, gender, wages and the duration a claimant has been a customer. As shown in the case study, to ensure that social benefits are realised, increased private sector participation in health insurance must be augmented by regulatory oversight and vigilance. As it is clear that a "community-rated" health insurance provision philosophy impacts on insurance firm's ability to charge "market" prices for insurance provision, the authors explore whether risk segmentation is a feasible means of predicting insurance claim behaviour in Chile's private health insurance industry.

  20. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    susceptibilities of rocks found in the study area, and estimated natural remanent magnetic intensities and directions, reasonable geologic models can be built. This indicates that the depth to bedrock map is reason-able and geologically possible.Finally, CDTs derived from the 1998 Santa Cruz Basin transient electromagnetic survey were used to help identify basin structure and some physical properties of the basin fill in the study area. The CDTs also helped to confirm depth to bedrock estimates in the Santa Cruz Basin, in particular a region of elevated bedrock in the area of Potrero Canyon, and a deep basin in the location of the Arizona State Highway 82 microbasin. The CDTs identified many concealed faults in the study area and possibly indicate deep water-saturated clay-rich sediments in the west-central portion of the study area. These sediments grade to more sand-rich saturated sediments to the south with relatively thick, possibly unsaturated, sediments at the surface. Also, the CDTs may indicate deep saturated clay-rich sediments in the Highway 82 microbasin and in the Mount Benedict horst block from Proto Canyon south to the international border.

  1. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-30

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  2. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K.; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A.; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  3. Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this

  4. Human Settlements in the South-Central U.S., Viewed at Night from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa; Evans, Cynthia; Stefanov, William; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Willis, Kimberly; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A recent innovation of astronauts observing Earth from the International Space Station (ISS) is documenting human footprints by photographing city lights at night time. One of the earliest night-time images from the ISS was the US-Mexico border at El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. The colors, patterns and density of city lights document the differences in the cultural settlement patterns across the border region, as well as within the urban areas themselves. City lights help outline the most populated areas in settlements around the world, and can be used to explore relative population densities, changing patterns of urban/suburban development, transportation networks, spatial relationship to geographic features, and more. The data also provides insight into parameters such as surface roughness for input into local and regional climate modeling and studies of light pollution. The ground resolution of night-time astronaut photography from the ISS is typically an order of magnitude greater than current Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data, and therefore can serve as a "zoom lens" for selected urban areas. Current handheld digital cameras in use on the ISS, optimized for greater light sensitivity, provide opportunities to obtain new detailed imagery of atmospheric phenomena such as airglow, aurora, and noctilucent clouds in addition to documenting urban patterns. ISS astronauts have taken advantage of increasingly sensitive digital cameras to document the world at night in unprecedented detail. In addition, the capability to obtain time-lapse imagery from fixed cameras has been exploited to produce dynamic videos of both changing surface patterns around the world and atmospheric phenomena. We will profile some spectacular images of human settlements over the South-Central U.S., and contrast with other images from around the world. More data can be viewed at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/Videos/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/. US-Mexico border is obvious by the different

  5. The Wallula fault and tectonic framework of south-central Washington, as interpreted from magnetic and gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig S.; Wells, Ray; Rohay, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    The Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB) in central Washington has accommodated regional, mostly north-directed, deformation of the Cascadia backarc since prior to emplacement of Miocene flood basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The YFTB consists of two structural domains. Northern folds of the YFTB strike eastward and terminate at the western margin of a 20-mGal negative gravity anomaly, the Pasco gravity low, straddling the North American continental margin. Southern folds of the YFTB strike southeastward, form part of the Olympic–Wallowa lineament (OWL), and pass south of the Pasco gravity low as the Wallula fault zone. An upper crustal model based on gravity and magnetic anomalies suggests that the Pasco gravity low is caused in part by an 8-km-deep Tertiary basin, the Pasco sub-basin, abutting the continental margin and concealed beneath CRBG. The Pasco sub-basin is crossed by north-northwest-striking magnetic anomalies caused by dikes of the 8.5 Ma Ice Harbor Member of the CRBG. At their northern end, dikes connect with the eastern terminus of the Saddle Mountains thrust of the YFTB. At their southern end, dikes are disrupted by the Wallula fault zone. The episode of NE–SW extension that promoted Ice Harbor dike injection apparently involved strike-slip displacement on the Saddle Mountains and Wallula faults. The amount of lateral shear on the OWL impacts the level of seismic hazard in the Cascadia region. Ice Harbor dikes, as mapped with aeromagnetic data, are dextrally offset by the Wallula fault zone a total of 6.9 km. Assuming that dike offsets are tectonic in origin, the Wallula fault zone has experienced an average dextral shear of 0.8 mm/y since dike emplacement 8.5 Ma, consistent with right-lateral stream offsets observed at other locations along the OWL. Southeastward, the Wallula fault transfers strain to the north-striking Hite fault, the possible location of the M 5.7 Milton-Freewater earthquake in 1936.

  6. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  7. Style and rate of quaternary deformation of the Hosgri Fault Zone, offshore south-central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathryn L.; Lettis, William R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Hall, N. Timothy; Keller, Mararget A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone is the southernmost component of a complex system of right-slip faults in south-central coastal California that includes the San Gregorio, Sur, and San Simeon Faults. We have characterized the contemporary style of faulting along the zone on the basis of an integrated analysis of a broad spectrum of data, including shallow high-resolution and deep penetration seismic reflection data; geologic and geomorphic data along the Hosgri and San Simeon Fault Zones and the intervening San Simeon/Hosgri pull-apart basin; the distribution and nature of near-coast seismicity; regional tectonic kinematics; and comparison of the Hosgri Fault Zone with worldwide strike-slip, oblique-slip, and reverse-slip fault zones. These data show that the modern Hosgri Fault Zone is a convergent right-slip (transpressional) fault having a late Quaternary slip rate of 1 to 3 mm/yr. Evidence supporting predominantly strike-slip deformation includes (1) a long, narrow, linear zone of faulting and associated deformation; (2) the presence of asymmetric flower structures; (3) kinematically consistent localized extensional and compressional deformation at releasing and restraining bends or steps, respectively, in the fault zone; (4) changes in the sense and magnitude of vertical separation both along trend of the fault zone and vertically within the fault zone; (5) strike-slip focal mechanisms along the fault trace; (6) a distribution of seismicity that delineates a high-angle fault extending through the seismogenic crust; (7) high ratios of lateral to vertical slip along the fault zone; and (8) the separation by the fault of two tectonic domains (offshore Santa Maria Basin, onshore Los Osos domain) that are undergoing contrasting styles of deformation and orientations of crustal shortening. The convergent component of slip is evidenced by the deformation of the early-late Pliocene unconformity. In characterizing the style of faulting along the Hosgri Fault Zone, we assessed

  8. Petrogenesis of incipient charnockite in the Ikalamavony sub-domain, south-central Madagascar: New insights from phase equilibrium modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Shaji, E.; Rambeloson, Roger A.

    2017-06-01

    Incipient charnockites representing granulite formation on a mesoscopic scale occur in the Ambodin Ifandana area of Ikalamavony sub-domain in south-central Madagascar. Here we report new petrological data from these rocks, and discuss the process of granulite formation on the basis of petrography, mineral equilibrium modeling, and fluid inclusion studies. The incipient charnockites occur as brownish patches, lenses, and layers characterized by an assemblage of biotite + orthopyroxene + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite within host orthopyroxene-free biotite gneiss with an assemblage of biotite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + magnetite + ilmenite. Lenses and layers of calc-silicate rock (clinopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + quartz + titanite + calcite) are typically associated with the charnockite. Coarse-grained charnockite occurs along the contact between the layered charnockite and calc-silicate rock. The application of mineral equilibrium modeling on the mineral assemblages in charnockite and biotite gneiss employing the NCKFMASHTO system as well as fluid inclusion study on coarse-grained charnockite defines a P-T range of 8.5-10.5 kbar and 880-900 °C, which is nearly consistent with the inferred P-T condition of the Ikalamavony sub-domain (8.0-10.5 kbar and 820-880 °C). The result of T versus H2O activity (a(H2O)) modeling demonstrates that orthopyroxene-bearing assemblage in charnockite is stable under relatively low a(H2O) condition of 0.42-0.43, which is consistent with the popular models of incipient-charnockite formation related to the lowering of water activity and stabilization of orthopyroxene through dehydration of biotite. The occurrence of calc-silicate rocks adjacent to the charnockite suggests that the CO2-bearing fluid that caused dehydration and incipient-charnockite formation might have been derived through decarbonation of calc-silicate rocks during the initial stage of decompression slightly after the peak

  9. Utilization of institutional delivery service at Wukro and Butajera districts in the Northern and South Central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality in the world. Institutional delivery is the key intervention in reducing maternal mortality and complications. However, the uptake of the service has remained low and the factors which contribute to this low uptake appear to vary widely. Our study aims to determine the magnitude and identify factors affecting delivery at health institution in two districts in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional household survey was conducted from January to February 2012 in 12 randomly selected villages of Wukro and Butajera districts in the northern and south central parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Data were collected using a pretested questionnaire from 4949 women who delivered in the two years preceding the survey. Results One in four women delivered the index child at a health facility. Among women who delivered at health facility, 16.1% deliveries were in government hospitals and 7.8% were in health centers. The factors that significantly affected institutional delivery in this study were district in which the women lived (AOR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.82), women age at interview (AOR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.62), women’s education (AOR: 3.53, 95% CI: 1.22, 10.20), wealth status (AOR: 16.82, 95% CI: 7.96, 35.54), women’s occupation (AOR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.24), antenatal care (4+) use (AOR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.42, 2.20), and number of pregnancies (AOR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18,0.35). We found that women who were autonomous in decision making about place of delivery were less likely to deliver in health facility (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.23,0.63). Conclusions Institutional delivery is still low in the Ethiopia. The most important factors that determine use of institutional delivery appear to be women education and household economic status. Women’s autonomy in decision making on place of delivery did not improve health facility delivery in our study population. Actions targeting the disadvantaged, improving

  10. Avian Influenza Virus Surveillance in South-Central Spain Using Fecal Samples of Aquatic Birds Foraging at Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Bárbara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic wild birds have been intensively studied to better understand their role in avian influenza virus (AIV maintenance and spread. To date, AIV surveillance has primarily focused on natural aquatic environments where different bird species aggregate and viral survival is enhanced. However, artificial habitats such as landfills are attracting substantial numbers of wild birds, AIV reservoir species included. The use of landfills as a predictable food source has significantly influenced population size, migratory traits, and feeding behavior of white storks (Ciconia ciconia and black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus among others. Considering the proximity of landfills to urban settlements and frequently poultry-farms, targeted monitoring of AIV in bird species that forage at landfills but are known to also frequent urban and agricultural habitats could be a useful means for monitoring of AIV, especially during periods of bird aggregation. During the wintering season 2014–2015, the prevalence of AIV in five avian species at two landfills in South-Central Spain was explored by rRT-PCR and species related temporal variation in AIV prevalence determined. We collected and tested 1,186 fresh fecal samples from white storks (N = 689, cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis, N = 116 and mixed flocks of gulls (N = 381 as well as cloacal and oral swabs from five birds found dead. Seven samples contained AIV, five from gulls and one each from a stork and a cattle egret. Overall, AIV prevalence was 0.60%. No significant temporal variation was observed in AIV prevalence. Prevalence differed significantly among the sampled taxonomic groups, being highest in gulls (1.31%. H16N3 subtype was detected from a cattle egret and H11N9 subtype from a white stork, whereas gulls harbored both subtypes in addition to H11N3 subtype. H16 subtype detection in a cattle egret evidences its host range may not be restricted to gulls. Our results indicate that wild

  11. Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic performance of two evergreen Nothofagus species in south central Chile Cambios estacionales en el desempeño fotosintético de dos especies siempreverdes de Nothofagus en el centro sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL ZÚÑIGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The evergreen Nothofagus dombeyi and Nothofagus nitida are important members of the temperate Chilean rainforest. They seldom grow together in nature. Nothofagus nitida is more susceptible to excess light and drought than N. dombeyi. We postulate that the different properties of the photosynthetic apparatus under common garden conditions of these species could explain their contrasting habitat preferences. The two species growing in a common garden in south central Chile were studied. The optimal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm of both species remained within normal values (»0.8 with the exception of a decrease in N. dombeyi at midday in summer, suggesting reversible reduction in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII. During summer the effective photochemical efficiency (F PSII, photochemical quenching (qP, photosynthesis (Amax, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rates (E in N. dombeyi were higher than in N. nitida. The highest increments in photoprotective pigments (zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin and lutein contents between predawn and midday were obtained in summer in N. dombeyi. In N. nitida a nocturnal retention of dissipative pigments, without a decrease in Fv/Fm, was found in winter. The results suggest that N. dombeyi showed a better photosynthetic performance than N. nitida under high light, high temperature, and drier conditions. These data support are consistent with the pioneer character of N. dombeyi and the semi-tolerant shade properties and more restricted distribution of N. nitida. These photosynthetic characteristics, along with their freezing and flooding resistance differences, may result from their habitat separationLas siempreverdes, Nothofagus dombeyi y Nothofagus nitida, representantes importantes de los bosques lluviosos templados de Chile, raramente crecen juntos en forma natural. Nothofagus nitida es más sensible al exceso de luz y déficit de agua que N. dombeyi. Se postula que diferentes propiedades

  12. The Gut Microbiota of Healthy Chilean Subjects Reveals a High Abundance of the Phylum Verrucomicrobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujio-Vejar, Sayaka; Vasquez, Yessenia; Morales, Pamela; Magne, Fabien; Vera-Wolf, Patricia; Ugalde, Juan A.; Navarrete, Paola; Gotteland, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fecal samples were collected from 41 young, asymptomatic, normal weight volunteers (age: 25 ± 4 years; ♀:48.8%; BMI: 22.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2) with low levels of plasma (IL6 and hsCRP) and colonic (fecal calprotectin) inflammatory markers. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was amplified and sequenced using MiSeq Illumina system. 109,180 ± 13,148 sequences/sample were obtained, with an α-diversity of 3.86 ± 0.37. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes (43.6 ± 9.2%) and Bacteroidetes (41.6 ± 13.1%), followed by Verrucomicrobia (8.5 ± 10.4%), Proteobacteria (2.8 ± 4.8%), Actinobacteria (1.8 ± 3.9%) and Euryarchaeota (1.4 ± 2.7%). The core microbiota representing the genera present in all the subjects included Bacteroides, Prevotella, Parabacteroides (phylum Bacteroidetes), Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Oscillospira, Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Coprococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus (phylum Firmicutes), Akkermansia (phylum Verrucomicrobia), and Collinsella (phylum Actinobacteria). Butyrate-producing genera including Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Oscillospira were detected. The family Methanobacteriaceae was reported in 83% of the subjects and Desulfovibrio, the most representative sulfate-reducing genus, in 76%. The microbiota of the Chilean individuals significantly differed from those of Papua New Guinea and the Matses ethnic group and was closer to that of

  13. The Gut Microbiota of Healthy Chilean Subjects Reveals a High Abundance of the Phylum Verrucomicrobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Fujio-Vejar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fecal samples were collected from 41 young, asymptomatic, normal weight volunteers (age: 25 ± 4 years; ♀:48.8%; BMI: 22.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2 with low levels of plasma (IL6 and hsCRP and colonic (fecal calprotectin inflammatory markers. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was amplified and sequenced using MiSeq Illumina system. 109,180 ± 13,148 sequences/sample were obtained, with an α-diversity of 3.86 ± 0.37. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes (43.6 ± 9.2% and Bacteroidetes (41.6 ± 13.1%, followed by Verrucomicrobia (8.5 ± 10.4%, Proteobacteria (2.8 ± 4.8%, Actinobacteria (1.8 ± 3.9% and Euryarchaeota (1.4 ± 2.7%. The core microbiota representing the genera present in all the subjects included Bacteroides, Prevotella, Parabacteroides (phylum Bacteroidetes, Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Oscillospira, Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Coprococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus (phylum Firmicutes, Akkermansia (phylum Verrucomicrobia, and Collinsella (phylum Actinobacteria. Butyrate-producing genera including Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Oscillospira were detected. The family Methanobacteriaceae was reported in 83% of the subjects and Desulfovibrio, the most representative sulfate-reducing genus, in 76%. The microbiota of the Chilean individuals significantly differed from those of Papua New Guinea and the Matses ethnic group and was closer to

  14. Geohydrology of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River Basin, south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.; Peck, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Major streams and tributaries located in the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee (ASO) River Basin of south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida drain about 8,000 square miles of a layered sequence of clastic and carbonate sediments and carbonate Coastal Plain sediments consisting of the surficial aquifer system, upper semiconfining unit, Upper Floridan aquifer, and lower confining unit. Streams either flow directly on late-middle Eocene to Oligocene karst limestone or carve a dendritic drainage pattern into overlying Miocene to Holocene sand, silt, and clay, facilitating water exchange and hydraulic connection with geohydrologic units. Geologic structures operating in the ASO River Basin through time control sedimentation and influence geohydrology and water exchange between geohydrologic units and surface water. More than 300 feet (ft) of clastic sediments overlie the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment, a broad area extending from the southwest to the northeast through the center of the basin. These clastic sediments limit hydraulic connection and water exchange between the Upper Floridan aquifer, the surficial aquifer system, and surface water. Accumulation of more than 350 ft of low-permeability sediments in the Southeast Georgia Embayment and Suwannee Strait hydraulically isolates the Upper Floridan aquifer from land-surface hydrologic processes in the Okefenokee Basin physiographic district. Burial of limestone beneath thick clastic overburden in these areas virtually eliminates karst processes, resulting in low aquifer hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient despite an aquifer thickness of more than 900 ft. Conversely, uplift and faulting associated with regional tectonics and the northern extension of the Peninsular Arch caused thinning and erosion of clastic sediments overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer southeast of the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment near the Florida-Georgia State line. Limestone dissolution in

  15. [Relation between suicidal ideation and parenting styles among a group of Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenzano U, Ramón; Valdés C, Macarena; Cáceres C, Eugenio; Santander R, Sylvia; Aspillaga H, Carolina; Musalem A, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    In Chile, there has been an increase in suicide rates from 1.1 to 2.6 per 100,000 among adolescents aged 10 to 14 years and from 4.4 to 8.9 per 100,000 among those aged 15 to 19 years To identify protective factors for suicidal ideation according to parenting styles, as described by Barber et al. The relation between suicidal ideation and parenting styles was assessed in a random sample of 2,346 Chilean school attending adolescents aged 13 to 20 years old (59% women) from three cities: Antofagasta (Northern Chile, II Region), Santiago (Central, Metropolitan Region) and Concepción (Southern, VIII Region). Participants were tested with the Chilean adaptation of the Cross National Adolescents Program (CNAP) Plus questionnaire developed by Barber et al. The relation between suicidal ideation and parenting styles was assessed using regression analyses. Correlations between suicidal ideation and parenting styles were mostly significant, yet weak. High odds ratios were observed among parents who had a strong psychological control, inconsistent control, lack of expression of affection and covered marital hostility. High adolescent self-esteem, a good relationship with parents, psychological parental autonomy, expression of physical affection, social support and paternal monitoring were protective factors against suicidal ideation.

  16. [Age of onset of puberty in Chilean boys according to testicular volume and Tanner stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Ximena; García, Roberto; Riquelme, Joel; Codner, Ethel

    2015-03-01

    A secular trend towards a younger age of puberty onset has been reported in Chilean girls. To evaluate the age of onset of puberty and prevalence of early puberty in Chilean boys. A pediatric endocrinologist examined 319 children attending schools in central Santiago. Pubertal development was assessed by testicular volume (TV) and genital inspection (GI) using Tanner graduation. Precocious and early puberty development was diagnosed if TV ≥ 4 ml or GI > stage 2 occurred in boys younger than 9 years and at 9-10 years of age, respectively. Pubertal onset occurred at 10.2 ± 1.5 years according to TV and at 11.1 ± 1.6 years according to GI (p puberty was observed in 23.8% of children according to TV and 9.5% according to GI. However, no child of less than 11 years old had a TV ≥ 4 ml, genital changes and pubic hair simultaneously. Late pubertal stages occurred at the same age according to both criteria used. Body mass index z score was not associated with the age of pubertal onset. Testicular enlargement occurs one year earlier than changes in genitalia according to inspection. Testicular growth, but not late stages of puberty, are occurring one year earlier than previously reported in Chile 10 years ago.

  17. Removal of helminth eggs by centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho: health implications for direct and indirect exposure to the effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Reddy, Poovendhree; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater may contain contaminants harmful to human health; hence, there is the need for treatment before discharge. Centralized wastewater treatment systems are the favored treatment options globally, but these are not necessarily superior in reduction of pathogens as compared to decentralized wastewater treatment systems (collectively called DEWATS). This study was therefore undertaken to assess the soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Taenia sp. egg reduction efficiency of selected anaerobic baffled reactors and planted gravel filters compared to centralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho. The risk of ascariasis with exposure to effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants was also assessed using the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) approach. Eggs of Ascaris spp., hookworm, Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., and Toxocara spp. were commonly detected in the untreated wastewater. The DEWATS plants removed between 95 and 100% of the STH and Taenia sp. eggs, with centralized plants removing between 67 and 100%. Helminth egg concentrations in the final effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants were consistently higher than those in the WHO recommended guideline (≤ 1 helminth egg/L) for agricultural use resulting in higher risk of ascariasis. Therefore, in conclusion, DEWATS plants may be more efficient in reducing the concentration of helminth eggs in wastewater, resulting in lower risks of STH infections upon exposure.

  18. River profile response to normal fault growth and linkage: an example from the Hellenic forearc of south-central Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean F.; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2017-02-01

    Topography is a reflection of the tectonic and geodynamic processes that act to uplift the Earth's surface and the erosional processes that work to return it to base level. Numerous studies have shown that topography is a sensitive recorder of tectonic signals. A quasi-physical understanding of the relationship between river incision and rock uplift has made the analysis of fluvial topography a popular technique for deciphering relative, and some argue absolute, histories of rock uplift. Here we present results from a study of the fluvial topography from south-central Crete, demonstrating that river longitudinal profiles indeed record the relative history of uplift, but several other processes make it difficult to recover quantitative uplift histories. Prior research demonstrates that the south-central coastline of Crete is bound by a large ( ˜ 100 km long) E-W striking composite normal fault system. Marine terraces reveal that it is uplifting between 0.1 and 1.0 mm yr-1. These studies suggest that two normal fault systems, the offshore Ptolemy and onshore South-Central Crete faults, linked together in the recent geologic past (ca. 0.4-1 My BP). Fault mechanics predict that when adjacent faults link into a single fault the uplift rate in footwalls of the linkage zone will increase rapidly. We use this natural experiment to assess the response of river profiles to a temporal jump in uplift rate and to assess the applicability of the stream power incision model to this setting. Using river profile analysis we show that rivers in south-central Crete record the relative uplift history of fault growth and linkage as theory predicts that they should. Calibration of the commonly used stream power incision model shows that the slope exponent, n, is ˜ 0.5, contrary to most studies that find n ≥ 1. Analysis of fluvial knickpoints shows that migration distances are not proportional to upstream contributing drainage area, as predicted by the stream power incision model

  19. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adler

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia, Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and i AA homozygote (n = 650, giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588; the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559, mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819; the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410. Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791, between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17. We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  20. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in Poland compared with that in other Central, Eastern and South-Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Grażyna; Clark, Jeremy S C; Loniewska, Beata; Czerska, Ewa; Salkic, Nermin N; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2012-05-01

    The 1691G>A FV variant has been described as a common genetic risk factor in venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to provide a further frequency value for 1691G>A FV in Poland and to collate summary data from Central (Poland, Czech, Slovakia), Eastern (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine) and South-Eastern (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria) European countries. For this purpose in 2007 the 1691G>A FV variant was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism from DNA collected in 2005-2006. We studied 650 subjects: 400 newborns and 250 older individuals (mean age 46.1 y) from Poland and compared results with reports from other countries, as well as with the frequency trend of 845G>A HFE across South-Eastern European countries using centroid cities. From our 1691G>A FV study we identified 626 GG homozygotes, 23 GA heterozygotes, and 1 AA homozygote (n = 650), giving an A allele frequency of 1.9%, and a summed frequency value for Poland of 2.0% (n = 1588); the frequency in Central European countries was 3.9% (n = 4559), mostly due to the high value in the Czech Republic: 5.1% (n = 2819); the South-Eastern European countries had 2.5% (n = 2410). Among the Eastern European countries the 1691G>A FV allele frequency was 1.9% (n=791), between the South-Eastern and Eastern European countries there was no significant difference (p=0.17). We confirm that the 1691G>A FV allele frequency in Poland, as well as other countries compared, is significantly lower than that in Czech.

  1. Surficial Geologic Map of the Worcester North-Oxford- Wrentham-Attleboro Nine-Quadrangle Area in South- Central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of nine 7.5-minute quadrangles (417 mi2 total) in south-central Massachusetts (fig. 1). Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and in resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, or organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for water resources, construction aggregate resources, earth-surface hazards assessments, and land-use decisions. The mapped distribution of surficial materials that lie between the land surface and the bedrock surface is based on detailed geologic mapping of 7.5-minute topographic quadrangles, produced as part of an earlier (1938-1982) cooperative statewide mapping program between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (now Massachusetts Highway Department) (Page, 1967; Stone, 1982). Each published geologic map presents a detailed description of local geologic map units, the genesis of the deposits, and age correlations among units. Previously unpublished field compilation maps exist on paper or mylar sheets and these have been digitally rendered for the present map compilation. Regional summaries based on the Massachusetts surficial geologic mapping

  2. Evaulation of remote sensing, geological and geophysical data for south-central New York and northern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Pohn, H.A.; Phillips, J.D.; Krohn, M.D.; Purdy, T.L.; Merin, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of the relationship between lineaments observed on Landsat satellite images and the geologic framework of a portion of the Allegheny Plateau of south-central New York and northern Pennsylvania. The area is underlain by a relatively thick sequence of salt and other evaporites in the Silurian Salina Group and is a potential site for deep-storage of solid nuclear waste. A combination of remote sensing techniques, detailed geologic mapping and geophysical investigations were applied to the problem. Because of the premature termination of the Department of Energy contract, only a portion of the total work was completed. The completed portion of the project included 1) digital contrast enhancement of several Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images, 2) analysis of lineament patterns from a Landsat MSS-7 mosaic, 3) field mapping of bedrock joint patterns, 4) compilation and analysis of surface and subsurface structure and isopach maps, 5) collection and digital analysis of aeromagnetic data for southern New York, 6) compilation and analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data for much of New York and Pennsylvania, and 7) analysis of seismic reflection survey lines for selected portions of New York and Pennsylvania. We identified eight major lineaments or lineament zones and studied them in detail. They typically represent linear alignments of the most conspicuous or prominent physiographic features observable on Landsat images. The Cortland-Ithaca, Watkins Glen-Tanghannock, Seneca Lake-Elmira, Painted Post-Blossburg and Endicott-Syracuse conspicuous lineaments include the Corning-Bath, Van Etten-Towanda, Van Etten-Candor and Van Etten-Odessa lineaments. In addition, a major fault system--the West Danby fault zone--was further defined by geologic and geophysical investigations during our study; the fault zone was not recognizable on satellite images. The lineaments and lineament zones were categorized by their azimuthal trends. Those with a northerly

  3. Changes in Channel Geometry through the Holocene in the Le Sueur River, South-Central Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targos, Courtney Ann

    Paleochannels preserved on terraces via meander cutoffs during an incisional period record the channel geometry and thus discharge at distinct points in time throughout a river's history. We measured paleochannel geometry on terraces throughout the Le Sueur River in south-central Minnesota, to track how channel geometry has changed over the last 13,400 years. A rapid drop in base level 13,400 yr B.P. triggered knickpoint migration and valley incision that is ongoing today. Since the 1800's, the area has developed rapidly with an increase in agriculture and associated drainage, directly impacting river discharge by increasing water input to the river. Five paleochannels were identified on terraces along the Le Sueur River from 1m-resolution lidar data. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to obtain a subsurface image across paleomeanders to estimate the geometry of paleochannels. Paleochannel geometry and estimated discharge were then compared to modern conditions to assess how much change has occurred. Three lines were run across each paleochannel perpendicular to the historic water flow. Each of the 15 lines were processed using the EKKO Project 2 software supplied by Sensors and Software to sharpen the images, making it easier to identify the paleochannel geometry. Paleodischarge was determined using the Law of the Wall and Manning's Equation, using modern slope and roughness conditions. OSL samples were collected from overbank deposits on terraces to determine the time of channel abandonment, and supplemented with terrace ages obtained from a numerical model of valley incision. Paleodischarge coupled with depositional ages provide a history of flow conditions on the Le Sueur River. Results show an increase in channel widths from the time paleochannels were occupied to modern channel dimensions from an average of 20 meters to 35 meters. The change was not constant through time, as all paleochannels analyzed on terraces had similar-sized channels. The best way

  4. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined

  5. Sediment deposition and trends and transport of phosphorus and other chemical constituents, Cheney Reservoir watershed, south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Sediment deposition, water-quality trends, and mass transport of phosphorus, nitrogen, selected trace elements, and selected pesticides within the Cheney Reservoir watershed in south-central Kansas were investigated using bathymetric survey data and reservoir bottom-sediment cores. Sediment loads in the reservoir were investigated by comparing 1964 topographic data to 1998 bathymetric survey data. Approximately 7,100 acre-feet of sediment deposition occurred in Cheney Reservoir from 1965 through 1998. As of 1998, sediment had filled 27 percent of the reservoir's inactive conservation storage pool, which is less than the design estimate of 34 percent. Mean annual sediment deposition was 209 acre-feet per year, or 0.22 acre-feet per year per square mile, and the mean annual sediment load was 453 million pounds per year. During the 3-year period from 1997 through 1999, 23 sediment cores were collected from the reservoir, and subsamples were analyzed for nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen species), selected trace elements, and selected organic pesticides. Mean concentrations of total phosphorus in reservoir bottom sediment ranged from 94 milligrams per kilogram at the upstream end of the reservoir to 710 milligrams per kilogram farther downstream near the reservoir dam. The mean concentration for all sites was 480 milligrams per kilogram. Total phosphorus concentrations were greatest when more silt- and clay-sized particles were present. The implications are that if anoxic conditions (inadequate oxygen) occur near the dam, phosphorus could be released from the sediment and affect the drinking-water supply. Analysis of selected cores also indicates that total phosphorus concentrations in the reservoir sediment increased over time and were probably the result of nonpoint-source activities in the watershed, such as increased fertilizer use and livestock production. Mean annual phosphorus loading to Cheney Reservoir was estimated to be 226,000 pounds per year on the basis

  6. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in streambed-sediment quality and its relation to historical water quality was assessed to provide guidance for the development of total maximum daily loads and the implementation of best-management practices in the Little Arkansas River Basin, south-central Kansas. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at 26 sites in 2007, sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay), and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclides beryllium-7, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. At eight sites, streambed-sediment samples also were collected and analyzed for bacteria. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations in the streambed sediment varied substantially spatially and temporally, and positive correlations among the three constituents were statistically significant. Along the main-stem Little Arkansas River, streambed-sediment concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus generally were larger at and downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. The largest particulate nitrogen concentrations were measured in samples collected in the Emma Creek subbasin and may be related to livestock and poultry production. The largest particulate phosphorus concentrations in the basin were measured in samples collected along the main-stem Little Arkansas River downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content in the water and streambed-sediment samples typically decreased as streamflow increased. This inverse relation may be caused by an increased contribution of sediment from channel-bank sources during high flows and (or) increased particle sizes transported by the high flows. Trace element concentrations in the streambed sediment varied from site to site and typically were less than threshold-effects guidelines for possible adverse biological effects

  7. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  8. The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A ...

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    the concern for the long-term financial viability of existing government operated pension ... Thus, this study comparatively evaluates the Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean pension ... Keywords: Demographic crisis, Pension reform, Public policy .... care which employers owe their employees on retirement or in case of death.

  9. The Moral Dimension in Chilean Higher Education's Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leihy, Peodair; Salazar, Jose M.

    2017-01-01

    Chilean higher education has expanded greatly in recent decades, primarily through drawing on the private contributions of students and families, and an increased number and variety of institutions. In the context of attempts to address criticism that the sector is not free, public or high-quality enough, this article examines the association…

  10. Leadership in a Culture of Fitness in the Chilean Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    their system.” For example, glucose levels above normal not only indicate a risk for diabetes , but for a leader the impact of high blood glucose may...controversy, as can be expected, this stance has led to intermittent signs of animosity from both Peru and Bolivia. 23 The Chilean Army Home Page, http

  11. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José L; Ho-Urriola, Judith A; González, Andrea; Smalley, Susan V; Domínguez-Vásquez, Patricia; Cataldo, Rodrigo; Obregón, Ana M; Amador, Paola; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Hodgson, M Isabel

    2011-10-11

    Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P food responsiveness" (P Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  12. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador Paola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ. Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile.

  13. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic condition.…

  14. The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian, Swedish and Chilean Pension Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Schemes and Reforms. ... Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... While Chile and Nigeria completely moved from a defined benefit system to a defined contribution system, Sweden chose a “hybrid”, a model which has received wide acclaim by ...

  15. A critical review of the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cruz, Francisco Javier; Acevedo Ferrer, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the Chilean civil nuclear liability regime. The Nuclear Security Act (Law 18.302), enacted in 1984, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified ed by Chile in 1989, are the fundamental laws of the current regime. Although Chile has no nuclear power plants, it is still important to analyze how the Chilean legislation would protect citizens from nuclear damages. This paper does not consider the policy reasons for and against the promotion of atomic energy. Rather, it critically examines the current status of the Chilean nuclear regime. Undoubtedly, if in the future Chile chooses to include nuclear sources in its energy mix, it will not be enough to introduce some isolated legal amendments, but it will be necessary to build a new Chilean Energy Regime which includes nuclear energy. In that scenario, though, it will be useful to know and understand how the current nuclear liability regime works. From this point of view, the reforms this article proposes to the current nuclear liability regime might be helpful to academics and policy makers alike

  16. Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations in the southern Chilean glacial fjord complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ríos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic associations were investigated at 29 sampling stations with a semi-quantitative Agassiz trawl, ranging from the South Patagonian Icefield to the Straits of Magellan in the South Chilean fjord system. A total of 1,895 individuals belonging to 131 species were collected. 19 species belong to colonial organisms, mainly Bryozoa (17 species and Octocorallia (2 species. The phylum Echinodermata was the most diverse in species number (47 species, with asteroids (25 species and ophiuroids (13 species being the best represented within this taxon. Polychaeta was the second dominant group in terms of species richness (46 species. Multidimensional scaling ordination (MDS separated two station groups, one related to fjords and channels off the South Patagonian Icefield and the second one to stations surrounding the Straits of Magellan. 45 species account for 90% of the dissimilarity between these two groups. These differences can mainly be explained by the influence of local environmental conditions determined by processes closely related to the presence/absence of glaciers. Abiotic parameters such as water depth, type of sediment and chemical features of the superficial sediment were not correlated with the numbers of individuals caught by the Agassiz trawl in each group of sampling stations.

  17. Making Cultura Count inside and out of the Classroom: Public Art & Critical Pedagogy in South Central Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luis-Genaro

    2012-01-01

    In this article, artist, educator, and activist Luis-Genaro Garcia describes the development and impact of the "May Day service learning project" on his advanced painting class in a high school in South Los Angeles. The project emerged from students' interests: their ideas, concerns for their community, socio-political consciousness, and…

  18. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  19. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  20. 16 Years, 16 Cruises, 1.6 Billion Soundings: a Compilation of High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry of the Active Plate Boundary Along the Chilean Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Flueh, E. R.; Hasert, M.; Behrmann, J. H.; Voelker, D.; Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile, a country stranding the active plate boundary between the South-American and the Nazca Plate is afflicted by recurrent earthquakes and hazardous volcanic eruptions. The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred here, and volcanic hazards are frequent. Consequently, this area has been studied by geoscientists for many years to improve the understanding of subduction zone processes. Swath bathymetry mapping of the ocean floor has proven to bear a large potential for the interpretation of subduction-related processes, such as tectonic deformation of the marine forearc, release and migration of fluids as well as earthquake-triggered mass wasting. Multibeam bathymetry data of 16 major cruises of German, British, and Chilean research vessels recorded between 1995 and December 2010, in total more than 10,000 data files comprising about 1.6 billion soundings, have now been carefully reprocessed, compiled and merged into a unifying set of high-resolution bathymetric maps of the Chilean continental margin from latitude 40°S to 20°S. The imprint of subsurface processes on the surface morphology is well displayed in the case of the Chilean continental margin. The 3,500 km long Chilean convergent margin is not uniform, as various segments with different tectonic characteristics can be distinguished. Major factors that control margin morphology and thus the style of subduction are (1) relief and structure of the incoming oceanic plate, (2) supply of trench sediment, (3) turbidite transport within the trench, and (4) the input of terrigeneous sediments down the continental slope. A major segment boundary occurs at latitude 32°-33° S where the hotspot-related volcanic chain of Juan Fernandez is presently subducting. South of the area of ridge subduction the trench is filled with turbidites, and accretionary ridges develop across the base of the slope along most of the segment, whereas north of this boundary the turbiditic infill is reduced and subduction erosion is

  1. Credit risk determinants in Sub-Saharan banking systems: Evidence from five countries and lessons learnt from Central East and South East European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychia Nikolaidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have grown notably over the past decades due to benign macroeconomic, regulatory and financial trends. Nonetheless, downside risks remain elevated by structural issues, commodity price fluctuations, reversal of capital flows and spill-over effects from external shocks in a manner similar to the Central East and South East European (CESEE countries. In the light of the 2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis, great attention has been given to understanding the causes of banking instability with most of the research focusing on advanced economies and, to a lesser extent, large emerging markets while little attention has been paid to the bank-based financial sectors of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, there is scarcity of studies aiming at knowledge-sharing among different emerging economies. This paper aims to identify the determinants of bank credit risk by focusing on five SSA countries: Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Uganda. Using the ARDL approach to cointegration, findings indicate that increased money supply conditions have a decreasing effect on NPLs in all counties, banking industry-specific variables play a significant role in the case of South Africa and Uganda while NPLs are driven by country-specific variables in the case of Kenya, South Africa and Zambia. The effect of the Global Financial Crisis is evidenced indirectly. Drawing on evidence from CESEE countries with long experience in banking crises, reforms and financial deepening process, the paper provides lessons for SSA countries and offers policy recommendations in the direction of strengthening banks’ balance sheets to ensure financial stability.

  2. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D associated with indicators of body fat and insulin resistance in prepubertal chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, G; Corvalán, C; Aguirre, C; de Romaña, D L; Uauy, R

    2016-01-01

    Consistent data on the relation between vitamin D, body fat and insulin resistance (IR) in children are lacking. (1) To evaluate the association between serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and key indicators of: adiposity (total and central), IR, and (2) to estimate serum 25(OH)D cut-offs that best reflect IR and total and central adiposity in children. Prepubertal children (n=435, ~53% girls; ~age 7 years) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated for potential associations between serum 25(OH)D and indicators of: (1) total adiposity (body mass index by age (BAZ), body fat (including three-component model)), central adiposity (waist circumference and trunk fatness); (2) IR (homeostasis model assessment of IR) and insulin sensitive (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) using standardized multiple regression models with standardized coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall, mean serum 25(OH)D was 32.1±9.2 ng ml(-1), while 19.4% of children were obese (BAZ⩾2 s.d.). Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with indicators of total and central adiposity and with IR indicators. Effect sizes were moderate in girls (~0.3 for adiposity and IR indicators), while, weaker values were found in boys. Serum 25(OH)D estimated cut-offs that best predicted total, central adiposity and IR were~30 ng ml(-1). Children with suboptimal serum 25(OH)D (risk (two to three times) of being obese (high BAZ, body fat percent and/or central adiposity); and three to four times greater risk for IR. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with adiposity (total and central) and IR indicators in prepubertal Chilean children. The conventional cut-off of vitamin D sufficiency (⩾30 ng ml(-1)) was adequate to assess obesity and IR risk in this age group.

  3. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742, and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457. The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1

  4. Similar speleothem δ18O signals indicating diverging climate variations in inland central Asia and monsoonal south Asia during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liya; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution and precisely dated speleothem oxygen isotope (δ18O) records from Asia have provided key evidence for past monsoonal changes. It is found that δ18O records of stalagmites from Kesang Cave (42°52'N, 81°45'E, Xinjiang, China) in inland central Asia were very similar to those from Qunf Cave (17°10'N, 54°18'E, southern Oman) in South Asia, shifting from light to heavy throughout the Holocene, which was regarded as a signal that strong Asian summer monsoon (ASM) may have intruded into the Kesang Cave site and/or adjacent areas in inland central Asia to produce heavy rainfall during the high insolation times (e.g. the early Holocene). However, this is in contrast to conclusions based on other Holocene proxy records and modeling simulations, showing a persistent wetting trend in arid central Asia during the Holocene with a dryer condition in the early Holocene and the wettest condition in the late Holocene. With an analysis of model-proxy data comparison, we revealed a possible physical mechanism responsible for the Holocene evolution of moisture/precipitation in Asian summer monsoon (ASM)-dominated regions and that in the inland central Asia. It is revealed that a recurrent circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) pattern in the summertime mid-latitude circulation of the Northern Hemisphere was closely related to the ASM and the climate of inland central Asia, acting as a bridge linking the ASM to insolation, high-latitude forcing (North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST)), and low-latitude forcing (tropical Ocean SST). Also, the CGT influence speleothem δ18O values in South Asia via its effect on the amount of precipitation. In addition, the moisture source from the Indian Ocean is associated with relatively high δ18O values compared with that from the North Atlantic Ocean, leading to increased precipitation δ18O values. Hence, the CGT has probably been the key factor responsible for the in-phase relationship in speleothem δ18O values (Kesang Cave

  5. Specialized consulting in radiological safety to the south central hospital of high specialty, PEMEX. VI. December of 2001; Asesoria especializada en seguridad radiologica al hospital central sur de alta especialidad. PEMEX. VI. Diciembre de 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.; Garcia A, J.; Rodriguez A, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-01-15

    It is a report of a specialized consulting in radiological safety that to be carried the ININ to PEMEX for the South Central Hospital of High Specialty, to maintain the sanitary license for the use of X-ray equipment of medical diagnostic, and guarantee these services with a program of quality assurance. To give fulfilment to that requests it is programmed a technical assistance monthly, with reports of results during the development of the service. In this document it is carried a report of the advances and results in the month of december of the 2001, where the following documents are analyzed: Manual of radiological safety, program of quality assurance, operation procedures, procedure of maintenance team, procedure of medical radiological control of the specialized personnel; also are annotate the obtained results and their observations. (Author)

  6. Technical Efficiency in the Chilean Agribusiness Sector - a Stochastic Meta-Frontier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Larkner, Sebastian; Brenes Muñoz, Thelma; Aedo, Edinson Rivera; Brümmer, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The Chilean economy is strongly export-oriented, which is also true for the Chilean agribusiness industry. This paper investigates the technical efficiency of the Chilean food processing industry between 2001 and 2007. We use a dataset from the 2,471 of firms in food processing industry. The observations are from the ‘Annual National Industrial Survey’. A stochastic meta-frontier approach is used in order to analyse the drivers of technical efficiency. We include variables capturing the effec...

  7. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  8. High Resolution Airborne InSAR DEM of Bagley Ice Valley, South-central Alaska: Geodetic Validation with Airborne Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, R. R.; Lingle, C. S.; Echelmeyer, K. A.; Valentine, V. B.; Elsberg, D.

    2001-12-01

    Bagley Ice Valley, in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains of south-central Alaska, is an integral part of the largest connected glacierized terrain on the North American continent. From the flow divide between Mt. Logan and Mt. St. Elias, Bagley Ice Valley flows west-northwest for some 90 km down a slope of less than 1o, at widths up to 15 km, to a saddle-gap where it turns south-west to become Bering Glacier. During 4-13 September 2000, an airborne survey of Bagley Ice Valley was performed by Intermap Technologies, Inc., using their Star-3i X-band SAR interferometer. The resulting digital elevation model (DEM) covers an area of 3243 km2. The DEM elevations are orthometric heights, in meters above the EGM96 geoid. The horizontal locations of the 10-m postings are with respect to the WGS84 ellipsoid. On 26 August 2000, 9 to 18 days prior to the Intermap Star-3i survey, a small-aircraft laser altimeter profile was acquired along the central flow line for validation. The laser altimeter data consists of elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid and orthometric heights above GEOID99-Alaska. Assessment of the accuracy of the Intermap Star-3i DEM was made by comparison of both the DEM orthometric heights and elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid with the laser altimeter data. Comparison of the orthometric heights showed an average difference of 5.4 +/- 1.0 m (DEM surface higher). Comparison of elevations above the WGS84 ellipsoid showed an average difference of -0.77 +/- 0.93 m (DEM surface lower). This indicates that the X-band Star-3i interferometer was penetrating the glacier surface by an expected small amount. The WGS84 comparison is well within the 3 m RMS accuracy quoted for GT-3 DEM products. Snow accumulation may have occurred, however, on Bagley Ice Valley between 26 August and 4-13 September 2000. This will be estimated using a mass balance model and used to correct the altimeter-derived surface heights. The new DEM of Bagley Ice Valley will provide a reference

  9. Selatan—Sur—South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Campbell

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Kumpulan puisi dalam Bahasa Indonesia oleh IAN CAMPBELL/Poetry compilation in Indonesian by the Australian poet Ian Campbell. This collection of poems explores the notion of the 'south' from locations in Indonesia, Australia, Chile and Argentina, locations in which the poems were written. Explaining his topographical approach in these poems, Campbell says: "One of the poems, titled in the Indonesian original 'Lejano sur' (Ke Kejauhan Selatan, appears alongside an English version, called 'Further South.' This short poem takes Borges's short story 'Sur' and a reference to Avenida Rivadavia that he includes in 'Sur' as its starting point for crossing into 'the South' from the centre of Buenos Aires. I then explore ideas of southness - as paradoxically moving 'south' away from North into a region where 'the natural elements are supreme'. Recent Chilean poetry eg 'Despedidas Antárticas' by Julio Carrasco (2006 picks up this idea of 'towards the essence' better than recent Australian poetry. Only Tom Griffiths, the historian, has recently explored this in prose. There are Borgesian images of dust/lack of clarity, then we head into a region where eg Torre del Paine, admittedly on the Chilean side of the Andes, come to mind. The stress on the elements - stone, wind, fire - is an allusion to the way Indonesian poet, Acep Zamzam Noor, portrays these elements in a poem 'Batu dan Angin' (Stone and Wind which has strong sufi/meditative elements. We head into the polar area, which because of climate change, is now melting. But there is also an allusion to Douglas Stewart's play 'Fire on the Snow' about the 1911 Scott expedition and the value of 'human failure'. Even the 'essence' is melting and is no longer stable."

  10. Oral Manifestations of Tropical Infectious Diseases of Central and South America. Part II. Bacterial and Mycotic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-24

    resemble pulmonary tuberculosis , in which 8% of the patients develop ora l or pha ryngea l lesions. In patients with disseminated paracocc idioido...ions , par t icularl y Mexico , Panama , and northern South America .1 The disease occurs most fre- quentl y before the age of ten years and is rare...30-50 years of age.7’’8 Infect i on most comon l y occurs through inhalation of spores resulting in a pulmonary infection which may or may not become

  11. [PREVALENCE OF DEHYDRATION BEFORE TRAINING IN PROFESIONAL CHILEAN SOCCER PLAYERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Astudillo, Sebastian; Álvarez, Cristian; Zapata-Lamana, Rafael; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    there is a lack of studies concerning hydration status before training in professional soccer player. to describe hydration status before regular training practices in professional soccer players. a total of 156 male soccer players (age 25.4 ± 5.2 y) from six professional Chilean clubs were included. No hydration or food intake recommendations were made before experiment, with the aim to assess hydration status under athlete's regular "real" conditions. Body mass, height and urine specific gravity (USG) measurements were performed before training practices. 98% of athletes showed dehydration (between moderate and severe) before regular training practices. dehydration is the most prevalent hydration status in professional Chilean soccer players before training, which may negatively affect athlete's performance and may increase their risk of heat-related injuries. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. [Analysis of foods advertised to childhood audience on chilean television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Catalina

    2017-01-01

    To examine food advertising aimed at childhood's audience broadcast on Chilean television. Cross-sectional study. Food advertising broadcast by 4 open signal TV channels was recorded for 12 hours daily on twelve days randomly selected. Notices were classified according to food groups and level of processing. The frequency of food advertisement aimed to childhood audience was compared with those for adults. Nutrient profile of foods advertised was described. In 144 hours of recording appeared 530 food advertisement; 53.2% were aimed to childhood audience. The most advertised foods were sugary dairy (28.4%), sweetened beverages (25.5%), and sweetened cereals (17.7%). Of the foods advertised to childhood audience, 75% exceeds the criterion for free sugars. Chilean television advertises ultra-processed foods that exceed the limits of free sugars.

  13. Stepwise introduction of the 'Best Care Always' central-line-associated bloodstream infection prevention bundle in a network of South African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G A; Brink, A J; Messina, A P; Feldman, C; Swart, K; van den Bergh, D

    2017-09-01

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) remains a major international problem. The 'Best Care Always!' (BCA) campaign was launched in South Africa to reduce preventable HCAI, including central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). The intervention took place in 43 Netcare Private Hospitals, increasing later to 49 with 958 intensive care units (ICUs) and 439 high-care (HC) beds and 1207 ICUs and 493 HC beds, respectively. Phase 1, April 2010 to March 2011, ICU infection prevention and control (IPC) nurse-driven change: commitment from management and doctors and training of IPC nurses. Bundle compliance and infections per 1000 central-line-days were incorporated as standard IPC measures and captured monthly. Phase 2, April 2011 to March 2012, breakthrough collaborative method: multiple regional learning sessions for nursing leaders, IPC nurses and unit managers. Phase 3, April 2012 to May 2016: sustained goal-setting, benchmarks, ongoing audits. A total of 1,119,558 central-line-days were recorded. Bundle compliance improved significantly from a mean of 73.1% [standard deviation (SD): 11.2; range: 40.6-81.7%] in Phase 1 to a mean of 90.5% (SD: 4.7; range: 76.5-97.2%) in Phase 3 (P = 0.0004). The CLABSI rate declined significantly from a mean of 3.55 (SD: 0.82; range: 2.54-5.78) per 1000 central-line-days in Phase 1 to a mean of 0.13 (SD: 0.09; range: 0-0.33) (P hospitals resulted in significant decreases in CLABSI. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  15. Supply Management Analysis of the Chilean Navy Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    52 LIST OF REFERENCES Armada de Chile, N. (1986). Manual de Logistica de la Armada de Chile [Manual of logistics of the Chilean Navy]. Chile... transportation • Quality control • Demand and supply planning • Receiving, materials handling, and storage 11 • Material or inventory control...Order purchasing • Production planning, scheduling, and control • Warehousing and distribution • Shipping • Outbound transportation • Customer

  16. Obesity: A Strategic and Leadership Challenge for the Chilean Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    lifestyle, physical activity, and nutrition that continue around the world, increasing to one billion obese individuals by 2030.2 It is clear that these...statistics continue to reveal a disturbing and increasing trend upwards every year. Figure 2. Overweight and Obesity in Children Under 6 Years...problem is that most Chileans have not substantially improved the quality and amount of breakfast and dinner while increasing their fast food intake

  17. IDENTITIES AND CONCEPTIONS OF BORDER AREA POPULATIONS IN EAST-CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE – THEMATIC ASPECTS AND QUESTIONS OF AN ACTUAL RESEARCH FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried HELLER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article will be structured as follows: Firstly, it will be described what is to be understood by the term ‘identity’. After that, this article will explore the significance of the topic ‘identities of population’ regarding the political, social, economic and cultural developments in the border areas of East-Central and South-East Europe. Because identities are not essentially but constructed phenomena, the next chapter will deal with the role of conceptions of the border area populations for the building of identity. The then following remarks on categories of border areas shall suggest that a great variety of border areas needs to be considered if one is occupied with the subject of this article. From these explanations the article’s relation to application will be derived, and groups of questions as well as detailed questions will be developed.

  18. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  19. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Reelfoot rift is one segment of a late Proterozoic(?) to early Paleozoic intracontinental rift complex in the south-central United States. The rift complex is situated beneath Mesozoic to Cenozoic strata of the Mississippi embayment of southeastern Missouri, northeastern Arkansas, and western Tennessee and Kentucky. The rift portion of the stratigraphic section consists primarily of synrift Cambrian and Ordovician strata, capped by a postrift sag succession of Late Ordovician to Cenozoic age. Potential synrift source rocks have been identified in the Cambrian Elvins Shale. Thermal maturity of Paleozoic strata within the rift ranges from the oil window to the dry gas window. Petroleum generation in Elvins source rocks likely occurred during the middle to late Paleozoic. Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks unconformably overlie various Paleozoic units and define the likely upper boundary of the petroleum system.

  20. Water-quality assessment of south-central Texas : comparison of water quality in surface-water samples collected manually and by automated samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ging, Patricia B.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water sampling protocols of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program specify samples for most properties and constituents to be collected manually in equal-width increments across a stream channel and composited for analysis. Single-point sampling with an automated sampler (autosampler) during storms was proposed in the upper part of the South-Central Texas NAWQA study unit, raising the question of whether property and constituent concentrations from automatically collected samples differ significantly from those in samples collected manually. Statistical (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) analyses of 3 to 16 paired concentrations for each of 26 properties and constituents from water samples collected using both methods at eight sites in the upper part of the study unit indicated that there were no significant differences in concentrations for dissolved constituents, other than calcium and organic carbon.

  1. Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Farley, S.

    2008-01-01

    We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed in other Alaskan peninsular populations. We detected no significant inbreeding and found no evidence of population substructuring on the Kenai Peninsula. We observed a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM) or the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation. Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska. ?? 2008 NRC.

  2. Characterization and reclamation assessment for the Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Bledsoe, H.

    1993-10-01

    The contamination of subsurface terrestrial environments by organic contaminants is a global phenomenon. The remediation of such environments requires innovative assessment techniques and strategies for successful clean-ups. Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility at Savannah River Site was characterized to determine the extent of subsurface diesel fuel contamination using innovative approaches and effective bioremediation techniques for clean-up of the contaminant plume have been established.

  3. New stratigraphic, chronologic, and magnetic fabric constraints for Neogene and Quaternary ignimbrites in the Central Andes (South Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rupelle, A.; Thouret, J. C.; Cubukcu, H. E.; Jicha, B.; Bréard, E.; Gerbe, M.-C.; Le Pennec, J.-L.; Diot, H.; Boivin, P.

    2012-04-01

    Central Andean deformation history in southern Peru is recorded in Neogene volcanic units of Ocoña and Cotahuasi canyons that cut across the western Cordillera. Acceleration (100 km3) Nazca (c.24.6 Ma), Alpabamba (19.4-18.0 Ma), and Huaylillas (14.25-12.7 Ma) ignimbrite sheets preceded the canyon incision, whereas sheets of smaller volume (Peru, stratigraphy, chronology, AMS, fabric, Neogene, Quaternary.

  4. Discovery of Jurassic ammonite-bearing series in Jebel Bou Hedma (South-Central Tunisian Atlas): Implications for stratigraphic correlations and paleogeographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrouni, Néjib; Houla, Yassine; Soussi, Mohamed; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Ali, Walid Ben; Nasri, Ahmed; Bouaziz, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Recent geological mapping undertaken in the Southern-Central Atlas of Tunisia led to the discovery of Jurassic ammonite-bearing series in the Jebel Bou Hedma E-W anticline structure. These series represent the Southernmost Jurassic rocks ever documented in the outcrops of the Tunisian Atlas. These series which outcrop in a transitional zone between the Southern Tunisian Atlas and the Chott basin offer a valuable benchmark for new stratigraphic correlation with the well-known Jurassic series of the North-South Axis of Central Tunisia and also with the Jurassic subsurface successions transected by petroleum wells in the study area. The preliminary investigations allowed the identification, within the most complete section outcropping in the center of the structure, of numerous useful biochronological and sedimentological markers helping in the establishment of an updated Jurassic stratigraphic framework chart of South-Western Tunisia. Additionally, the Late Jurassic succession documents syn-sedimentary features such as slumping, erosion and reworking of sediments and ammonite faunas that can be considered as strong witnesses of an important geodynamic event around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. These stratigraphic and geodynamic new data make of the Jurassic of Jebel Bou Hedma a key succession for stratigraphic correlation attempt between Atlas Tunisian series and those currently buried in the Chott basin or outcropping in the Saharan platform. Furthermore, the several rich-ammonite identified horizons within the Middle and Upper Jurassic series constitute reliable time lines that can be useful for both paleogeographic and geodynamic reconstructions of this part of the North African Tethyan margin but also in the refinement of the potential migration routes for ammonite populations from the Maghrebian Southern Tethys to Arabia.

  5. Glaciolacustrine deposits formed in an ice-dammed tributary valley in the south-central Pyrenees: New evidence for late Pleistocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Carlos; Arenas, Concha; Pardo, Gonzalo; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Rhodes, Edward J.; Bartolomé, Miguel; García-Ruiz, José M.; Martí-Bono, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    Combined geomorphic features, stratigraphic characteristics and sedimentologic interpretation, coupled with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates, of a glacio-fluvio-lacustrine sequence (Linás de Broto, northern Spain) provide new information to understand the palaeoenvironmental significance of dynamics of glacier systems in the south-central Pyrenees during the Last Glacial Cycle (≈130 ka to 14 ka). The Linás de Broto depositional system consisted of a proglacial lake fed primarily by meltwater streams emanating from the small Sorrosal glacier and dammed by a lateral moraine of the Ara trunk glacier. The resulting glacio-fluvio-lacustrine sequence, around 55 m thick, is divided into five lithological units consisting of braided fluvial (gravel deposits), lake margin (gravel and sand deltaic deposits) and distal lake (silt and clay laminites) facies associations. Evolution of the depositional environment reflects three phases of progradation of a high-energy braided fluvial system separated by two phases of rapid expansion of the lake. Fluvial progradation occurred during short periods of ice melting. Lake expansion concurred with ice-dam growth of the trunk glacier. The first lake expansion occurred over a time range between 55 ± 9 ka and 49 ± 11 ka, and is consistent with the age of the Viu lateral moraine (49 ± 8 ka), which marks the maximum areal extent of the Ara glacier during the Last Glacial Cycle. These dates confirm that the maximum areal extent of the glacier occurred during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3 in the south-central Pyrenees, thus before the Last Glacial Maximum. The evolution of the Linás de Broto depositional system during this maximum glacier extent was modulated by climate oscillations in the northern Iberian Peninsula, probably related to latitudinal shifts of the atmospheric circulation in the southern North-Atlantic Ocean, and variations in summer insolation intensity.

  6. The relative contribution of income inequality and imprisonment to the variation in homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadanovsky, Paulo; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2009-11-01

    Homicide rates vary widely across and within different continents. In order to address the problem of violence in the world, it seems important to clarify the sources of this variability. Despite the fact that income inequality and imprisonment seem to be two of the most important determinants of the variation in homicide rates over space and time, the concomitant effect of income inequality and imprisonment on homicide has not been examined. The objective of this cross-sectional ecological study was to investigate the association of income inequality and imprisonment with homicide rates among Developed (OECD), South and Central American countries. A novel index was developed to indicate imprisonment: the Impunity Index (the total number of homicides in the preceding decade divided by the number of persons in prison at a single slice in time). Negative binomial models were used to estimate rate ratios of homicides for young males and for the total population in relation to Gini Index and Impunity Index, controlling for infant mortality (as a proxy for poverty levels), Gross Domestic Product per-capita, education, percentage of young males in the population and urbanization. Both low income inequality and low impunity (high imprisonment of criminals) were related to low homicide rates. In addition, we found that countries with lower income inequality, lower infant mortality (less poverty), higher average income (GDP per-capita) and higher levels of education had low impunity. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that both low income inequality and imprisonment of criminals, independent of each other and of other social-structural circumstances, may greatly contribute to the reduction in homicide rates in South and Central American countries, and to the maintenance of low levels of homicides in OECD countries. The Impunity Index reveals that countries that show greater commitment to education and to distribution of income also show greater commitment to

  7. Scope and Limits of an anamnestic questionnaire in a control-induced low-endemicity helminthiasis setting in south-central Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Thomas; Ouattara, Mamadou; Silué, Kigbafori D; N'Goran, Dje N; Adiossan, Lukas G; Bogoch, Isaac I; N'Guessan, Yao; Koné, Siaka; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are two high-burden neglected tropical diseases. In highly endemic areas, control efforts emphasize preventive chemotherapy. However, as morbidity, infection, and transmission begin to decrease, more targeted treatment is likely to become more cost-effective, provided that comparatively cheap diagnostic methods with reasonable accuracy are available. Adults were administered an anamnestic questionnaire in mid-2010 during a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Questions pertaining to risk factors and signs and symptoms for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were included. The individuals' helminth infection status and their belonging to three different anthelmintic treatment groups were compared with the questionnaire results (i) to inform the local health authorities about the epidemiological and clinical footprint of locally prevailing helminthiases, and (ii) to explore the scope and limits of an anamnestic questionnaire as monitoring tool, which eventually could help guiding the control of neglected tropical diseases in control-induced low-endemicity settings. Our study sample consisted of 195 adults (101 males, 94 females). We found prevalences of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mansoni of 39.0%, 2.7%, 2.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. No Ascaris lumbricoides infection was found. Helminth infection intensities were generally very low. Seven, 74 and 79 participants belonged to three different treatment groups. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) associations between some risk factors, signs, and symptoms, and the different helminth infections and treatment groups. However, the risk factors, signs, and symptoms showed weak diagnostic properties. The generally low prevalence and intensity of helminth infection in this part of

  8. Geology and taphonomy of the L'Espinau dinosaur bonebed, a singular lagoonal site from the Maastrichtian of South-Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevilla, V.; Vicente, A.; Battista, F.; Sellés, A. G.; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Martín-Closas, C.; Anadón, P.; Vila, B.; Razzolini, N. L.; Galobart, À.; Oms, O.

    2017-06-01

    The L'Espinau site is a dinosaur bonebed from the Upper Cretaceous of the South-Central Pyrenees (north-eastern Spain) that have provided hundreds of bone remains attributed to hadrosauroids, together with a rich assemblage of herpetofauna, fish and microflora. Magnetostratigraphy calibrated the site with the early late Maastrichtian, and the combined sedimentology, stable isotope geochemistry and palaeoecology revealed that this fossil site formed in a lagoon, in which a mixed freshwater-brackish palaeoenvironment was developed. This setting displays a south-north charophyte zonation from freshwater (Clavator brachycerus-dominated assemblage) to brackish or eurihaline conditions (Feistiella malladae-dominated assemblage), revealing a palaeoenvironment change towards the coast. Sedimentology and taphonomy (bidirectional arrangement of long bones, abrasion and disarticulation) indicate that the L'Espinau site is the result of a cohesive mass flow event originated very close to the sea. This process entrained and mixed fauna from both the terrestrial and the brackish/marine environment of a lagoon. An increasing of the water runoff (e.g. by intense rainfall) reworking poorly consolidated sediments is considered here as the most probable triggering mechanism. Mass flow-hosted bonebeds are commonly linked to fluvial palaeoenvironments, so our study case is a rare example of bones accumulating near the sea. This study adds evidence that hadrosauroids inhabited littoral environments during the Maastrichtian in the southern Pyrenean area.

  9. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments in the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, and correlation with the main Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzförster, Frank; Stollhofen, Harald; Stanistreet, Ian G.

    1999-07-01

    The dissected landscape of the Waterberg-Erongo area, central Namibia, exposes Karoo-equivalent strata deposited in basins that occur throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Although many are of economic interest, including coal-bearing strata, their depositional history is not well understood. This study of the Waterberg-Erongo area provides detailed lithostratigraphical data, which suggest sedimentation from the late Early Triassic to the Early Jurassic in a fault-bounded depository. Subsidence and sediment supply were controlled predominantly by the northeast-southwest trending Waterberg-Omaruru Fault Zone, which defines the northwestern margin of the depository. Facies development and thickness distribution of the Karoo strata in the Waterberg-Erongo area, perhaps the most continuous of any of the Karoo basins, indicate a northeastwardly-migrating depocentre alongside that fault, in response to major extensional movements in the early pre-South Atlantic rift zone. Periodic fault movements repeatedly caused basinward progradation of the alluvial facies, which are reflected by stacked fining-upward cycles in the lithological record. On a broader scale, the results of this study suggest that the northward propagation of the rift zone between Southern Africa and South America, was partially accommodated by transfer lineaments. Local depocentres developed along these lineaments, such as those in the Waterberg-Erongo area, with localised enhanced subsidence greater than that revealed in other Namibian onshore exposures, dominated by the rifting itself.

  10. Vegetative Propagation Trial of Prosopis africana (Guill. et Perr. Taub. by Air Layering under Sudano-Sahelian Climate in the South-Central Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laouali Abdou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis africana is a species of great socioeconomic importance but threatened with extinction in Niger because of overuse and regeneration problem. This study, conducted in the Maradi (Niger area, precisely at El Gueza in the south of Gazaoua department, aims to evaluate the vegetative propagation capacity of P. africana by air layering under the Sudano-Sahelian climate of the south-central Niger. A ring of bark was taken on each selected branch and the wound was covered with a black plastic filled with a damp mixture of soil and wood debris. The chosen parameters are the diameter class and the position on the branch. In all, 60 branches were treated and followed for 130 days: 28.33% produced shoots and there was no significant difference between the diameter classes and between the positions. These results show that propagating trees of the species by air layering is possible and this technique can be used to multiply and keep this species, which will reduce the regeneration problem linked to a low seed germination rate.

  11. [Evaluation of antimicrobial consumption en 15 Chilean hospitals: Results of a collaborative work, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Isabel; Rosales, Ruth; Cabello, Ángela; Bavestrello, Luis; Labarca, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption is a central part in programs of antibiotic stewardship. However, in Chile there are no national data on antibiotic consumption representing a significant number of hospitals by clinical services. In 2013 a survey was sent to multiple Chilean hospitals to evaluate antimicrobial consumption in medical services (MS), surgery services (SS) and critical care units (ICU). We used the standardized methodology recommended by the WHO, using the number of DDD/100 days beds. In the MS and SS beta-lactam and no beta-lactam antibiotics commonly used were evaluated. In the ICU consumption vancomycin, linezolid, imipenem, merope-nem, colistin and tigecycline was evaluated. Fifteen hospitals reported the density of antimicrobial consumption. Ceftriaxone and cloxacillin were the most commonly used antibiotics in general services (average cloxacillin 4,9 DDD/100 bed days in MS and 8,0 DDD/100 in SS; ceftriaxone 13,5 DDD/100 in MS and 16,7 DDD/100 in SS). In the SS there was also a significant consumption of metronidazole (average 14,5 DDD/100 bed days). In the ICU there was an important variability of consumption of selected antibiotics. This study reports the average and range of antibiotic consumption in MS, SS, and ICU from a significant number of hospitals in the country, during 2013. This information allows hospitals to compare their consumption of antibiotics with a significant sample of Chilean hospitals. Analysis of this information should consider a careful interpretation according to the sample shown here and the reality of each hospital.

  12. Field guide to the Mesozoic arc and accretionary complex of South-Central Alaska, Indian to Hatcher Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Oswald, P.J.; Hults, Chad P.

    2015-01-01

    This field trip traverses exposures of a multi-generation Mesozoic magmatic arc and subduction-accretion complex that had a complicated history of magmatic activity and experienced variations in composition and deformational style in response to changes in the tectonic environment. This Mesozoic arc formed at an unknown latitude to the south, was accreted to North America, and was subsequently transported along faults to its present location (Plafker and others, 1989; Hillhouse and Coe, 1994). Some of these faults are still active. Similar tectonic, igneous, and sedimentary processes to those that formed the Mesozoic arc complex persist today in southern Alaska, building on, and deforming the Mesozoic arc. The rocks we will see on this field trip provide insights on the three-dimensional composition of the modern arc, and the processes involved in the evolution of an arc and its companion accretionary complex.

  13. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  14. Diversity and distibution of Braconidae, a family of parasitoid wasps in the Central European peatbogs of South Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Belokobylskij, S.; van Achterberg, C.; Monaghan, M. T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 16 (2010), s. 1-21 ISSN 1536-2442 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505; GA AV ČR IAA600070501 Grant - others:European Science Foundation(BE) 1667; Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 07-04-00454; EU Synthesys(GB) GB-TAF-2063; EU Synthesys(PL) PL-TAF-3266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Central Europe * Hymenoptera * Braconidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2010

  15. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Chilean Oak: Influence of Brønsted Acid Sites of Chilean Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Alejandro Martín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the Chilean natural zeolite as catalyst on bio-oil upgrade processes. The aim of this study was to analyze chemical composition of bio-oil samples obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of Chilean native oak in order to increase bio-oil stability during storage. In order to identify chemical compounds before and after storage, biomass pyrolysis was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at 623 K and bio-oil samples were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS. A bio-oil fractionation method was successfully applied here. Results indicate that bio-oil viscosity decreases due to active sites on the zeolite framework. Active acids sites were associated with an increment of alcohols, aldehydes, and hydrocarbon content during storage. Higher composition on aldehydes and alcohols after storage could be attributed to the occurrence of carbonyl reduction reactions that promotes them. These reactions are influenced by zeolite surface characteristics and could be achieved via the direct contribution of Brønsted acid sites to Chilean natural zeolite.

  16. Biogeographic patterns of Chilean littoral fishes Patrones biogeográficos de los peces litorales de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PATRICIO OJEDA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the biogeographic patterns of the Chilean littoral fish fauna, including latitudinal trends in teleost and chondrichthyan fish species richness, their distribution range patterns, and their level of endemism, both to the Chilean coast and the Southeastern Pacific. We determined the number and percentage of fish taxa within four different groups based on their biogeographic affinities. This was done, both for teleost and chondrichthyan fishes, at the species, genus and family level. In order to recognise the existence of biogeographic regions, we applied cluster and ordination analyses to the distribution data, using objective bootstrapping techniques at the three taxonomic levels used. We found that littoral fish diversity remains fairly constant along the coast down to around 40º S, declining south of this latitude. We detected two biogeographic regions along the Chilean coast, with a break between them at 40º S. These results lend support to previously recognized biogeographic provinces or faunistic units. These two biogeographic regions are a reflection of the mixed origin of the Chilean littoral ichthyofauna, consisting of northern warm-temperate fishes of subtropical origin and southern cold-temperate fishes of subantarctic origin. While the percentage of fishes endemic to the Chilean coast is not high (18%, a large percentage of teleost species inhabiting Chilean littoral waters are endemic to the Southeastern Pacific (44%. Dispersal and evolutionary history, rather that other factors, seem to explain the observed patterns of distribution of this particular fish fauna. This study represents a necessary first step towards understanding the biogeography of Southeastern Pacific marine fishesEn este estudio, analizamos los patrones biogeográficos de los peces litorales chilenos, incluyendo las tendencias latitudinales en riqueza de especies de peces teleosteos y condrictios, sus rangos de distribución, y nivel de

  17. Fe-O stable isotope pairs elucidate a high-temperature origin of Chilean iron oxide-apatite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Gajos, Norbert; Bindeman, Ilya; Barra, Fernando; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    values of coexisting Los Colorados magnetite and actinolite separates (630 °C) as well as Fe numbers of actinolite grains (610-820 °C) are consistent with this interpretation. We also present Fe isotope data from magmatic magnetite of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, where δ56Fe ranges from 0.28 ± 0.04‰ to 0.86 ± 0.07‰. Based on these data and comparison to published Fe and O stable isotope values of igneous magnetite, we propose extending the magmatic/high-temperature δ56Fe range to 0.86‰. Considering that the Chilean IOAs and Kiruna deposit are representative of IOA deposits worldwide, the Fe and O stable isotope data indicate that IOAs are formed by high-temperature (magmatic) processes.

  18. Discovery of modern (post-1850 CE) lavas in south-central British Columbia, Canada: Origin from coal fires or intraplate volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canil, Dante; Mihalynuk, Mitch; Lacourse, Terri

    2018-01-01

    We describe three unusual lavas in the Northern Cordillera in south-central British Columbia, Canada, occurring as spatter, scoria and blocks over small 400 m2 areas. The lavas coat and weld cobbles and pebbles in glacial till and are vesicular and glassy with microlites of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, and xenocrysts of quartz, feldspar or clinopyroxene. Chemically the lavas are basaltic trachyandesite (55-61 wt% SiO2) with trace element patterns similar to average British Columbia upper crust, except for having higher V and lower Zr, Hf, Nb, Th and U. Melting experiments and plagioclase-melt thermometry on the glasses, and phase equilibrium in simple systems, require liquidus temperatures of 1150-1300 °C. Interaction of the liquids with carbonaceous matter at low pressure formed Fe metal spherules and SiC. Radiocarbon ages of charcoal and dendrochronology show the lavas are modern, emplaced in the last 120 years. The similar bulk composition of these lavas to several other Quaternary-aged volcanic centers in the North American Cordillera, some of which show recent seismic activity, could suggest a possible tectonic origin, but the deposits are unusually small and show no central vent for emplacement. Conversely, the balance of evidence would suggest an origin from coal fires or hot gas venting, but is less consistent with the observed calc- and per-alkaline lava compositions, and the lack of known local coal-bearing strata as a heat source. Other anthropogenic origins for the lavas are considered less plausible.

  19. Seasonal use of conservation reserve program lands by white-tailed deer in east-central South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey H.; Jenkins, Kurt J.

    1993-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP_, a provision of the 1985 Food Security Act, subsidizes landowners to take highly erodible lands out of cultivation and seed them to perennial cover for 10years. In eastern South Dakota, 0.5 million ha were enrolled in the CRP from 1985 to 1990 (Agric. Stabilization and Conserv. Serv., Brookings, S.D., unpubl. Data), which represents the largest change in conservation land-use practices in the region since the 1956 Soil Bank Program (Goetz 1987).Although the CRP is anticipated to produce substantial benefits for some wildlife species, particularly ground-nesting birds, its significance to white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northern Great Plains agricultural region is poorly understood. Higgins et al. (1987) speculated that proliferation of CRP grasslands may provide a missing habitat component in intensively managed farmland, thereby enhancing several species of wildlife, including white-tailed deer. Deer managers in the region have expressed concerns that improved cover associated with DRP plantings on private land could attract deer and reduce hunter success rates or lead to increased depredation of adjacent croplands or stored winter forages (L. Rice, S.D. Dep. Game, Fish, and Parks, Rapid City, pers. comm., 1989). Our objectives were to describe variation in deer use of CRP lands by season, diel period, and deer activity class as a means of assessing seasonal importance of CRP fields to white-tailed deer in agricultural Midwest.

  20. Chilean Family Reminiscing about Emotions and Its Relation to Children's Self-Regulation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Nolivos, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the relation between Chilean parents' narrative participatory styles (i.e., the way in which parents scaffold children's participation in conversations) and children's self-regulation skills. A total of 210 low-income Chilean parent-child dyads participated in the study. Dyads were videotaped talking about a…

  1. Prestige and alcohol in South Mexican fiesta: drinking with saint patrons in the central valleys of Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jadwiga Zamorska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and alcohol are the key elements of celebrating a Mexican fiesta. I show that drinking at patronal feasts can be the way of constructing a respectful position, as presented in the ethnographic material collected in the three suburban communities of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca (in the years 2012–13. I discuss the relation between drinking alcohol at fiestas, participation and collective identity. I analyse the issue of prestige in the context drinking at fiestas and its relation to gender. I also discuss the role of alcohol in ritual exchanging of gifts at the patronal feasts which were under study and its relation with prestige. Other questions being analysed include the problem of refusing drink and the Catholic and non-Catholic critiques of patronal feasts as based on perceptions of excessive drinking.

  2. Fiscal 1994 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Investigation on the trend of coal demand in Central and South American countries; 1994 nendo kaigaitan kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Chunanbei shokoku ni okeru sekitan jukyu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Focusing on the present status and future of coal demand in Central/South American countries and the coal trade between Central/South American countries and the U.S., the paper described the present status and future of coal demand there and the effects on Japan. Export of Colombian coal will amount to approximately 30-35 million tons in 2000. Venezuelan coal 10-20 million tons. The U.S. imported good-quality general coal low in sulfur content, 3.08 tons from Columbia and 1.39 tons from Venezuela. Coal export from the U.S. to Central/South America was mostly of raw material coal, 5 million tons in 1993 and 5.39 million tons in 1994. General coal was 180,000 tons. The U.S. has no plans of increasing US coal export to Central/South America. But it is safely predicted that Columbia and Venezuela will increase coal export to Europe in the future. It will bring about decrease in export of US coal to Europe, which connects with increasing pressure for the coal trade amount of Japan. 21 figs., 47 tabs.

  3. Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The paper version of Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was...

  4. Benthic faunal assemblages from the Holocene middle shelf of the South Evoikos Gulf, central Greece, and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimina Louvari, Markella; Tsourou, Theodora; Drinia, Hara; Anastasakis, George

    2013-04-01

    South Evoikos Gulf is an elongate, WNW - ESE trending basin, 60 km long and 15 km wide. Its floor slopes towards the south-east where the basin connects with the Aegean Sea across a 55 m deep sill. The hydrographic network of the area is characterized by Asopos river the small Lilas River and some other ephemeral streams. A sedimentary record spanning the last 13000 calyr BP was recovered at N 38°12'23.1228" E 24°8'14.2404", water depth 70 m, in this gulf. A total of 52 samples from the lower half of the core were quantitatively analyzed for micropalaeontological (benthic foraminifera and ostracods) study in order to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental conditions. This work contributes to the evaluation of the modern environmental problems in South Evoikos Gulf (hypoxia, ecosystem changes, subaquatic vegetation die-off, metal pollution) within the context of the palaeoenvironmental record. In the investigated core, the benthic microfaunal assemblages indicate a marine coastal environment with a gradual transition from a circalittoral to an infralittoral restricted environment. The basal part of the record is characterized by Haynesina depressula Assemblage, which is composed of Haynesina depressula, Textularia agglutinans and Bulimina aculeata.The abundance of Haynesina depressula could be associated with normal marine conditions, but always with periodic brackish water influence. The species composed this assemblage, which are almost all typically infaunal, characterize sediments with a high or medium-high muddy fraction, rich in organic matter available for the organisms that live within the sediment, and low salinity bottom water. Samples from the upper unit of the core indicate a nearshore, inner-shelf facies less than 50 m deep. Common inner-shelf species in these samples include Ammonia beccarii together with Bulimina marginata (Sgarrella & Moncharmont Zei, 1993). The highest abundance of A. beccarii is found between 15 and 20 m water-depth in samples with

  5. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon, Central Nevada, USA

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    Pedro M. Monarrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors. This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance, ecological patterns, and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada. Twelve bulk samples were collected. Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation. Beginning in the Late Anisian, we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam, epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy, quiet, inner shelf depositional environment. Through time, epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness. During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment. Finally, we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment. In sum, we observe the dominance of modern taxa (i.e., bivalves with Paleozoic ecologies (i.e., epifaunal, followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies (i.e., infaunal, thick shells and then a return to Paleozoic taxa (i.e., brachiopods and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  6. Varicella zoster virus infection of the central nervous system – 10 year experience from a tertiary hospital in South India

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    Ronald Albert Benton Carey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Varicella zoster virus is an exclusively human neurotrophic virus. The primary infection with the virus causes varicella. The virus remains latent in nervous tissue and upon secondary activation causes a variety of syndromes involving the central nervous system (CNS including meningoencephalitis and cerebellitis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we looked at the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcomes of patients who were admitted with varicella zoster of the CNS from 2005 to 2014. Results: There were 17 patients. Fever was present in 13 patients, seizures in 9 patients and headache and vomiting in 4 patients each. A generalized varicella rash was present in 8 out of 17 patients. A single dermatomal herpes zoster was present in seven patients. Two patients had no rash. Varicella zoster polymerase chain reaction (PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was done in 5 patients of which 4 were positive and 1 was negative. Nine patients had diabetes with an average glycated hemoglobin of 8.6%. Total number of deaths was five. Conclusions: Patients with diabetes who develop varicella or herpes zoster may be at risk for CNS complications. The diagnosis of varicella encephalitis has to rest on a combination of clinical findings and CSF PCR, as neither the rash nor the PCR is sensitive enough to diagnose all the cases with varicella encephalitis.

  7. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

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    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  8. Nebela jiuhuensis nov. sp. (Amoebozoa; Arcellinida; Hyalospheniidae): A New Member of the Nebela saccifera - equicalceus - ansata Group Described from Sphagnum Peatlands in South-Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmin; Man, Baiying; Kosakyan, Anush; Lara, Enrique; Gu, Yansheng; Wang, Hongmei; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2016-09-01

    Hyalospheniids are among the most common and conspicuous testate amoebae in high-latitude peatlands and forest humus. These testate amoebae were widely studied as bioindicators and are increasingly used as models in microbial biogeography. However, data on their diversity and ecology are still very unevenly distributed geographically: notably, data are lacking for low-latitude peatlands. We describe here a new species, Nebela jiuhuensis, from peatlands near the Middle Yangtze River reach of south-central China with characteristic morphology. The test (shell) has hollow horn-like lateral extensions also found in N. saccifera, N. equicalceus (=N. hippocrepis), and N. ansata, three large species restricted mostly to Sphagnum peatlands of Eastern North America. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) data confirm that N. jiuhuensis is closely related to the morphologically very similar North American species N. saccifera and more distantly to N. ansata within the N. penardiana group. These species are all found in wet mosses growing in poor fens. Earlier reports of morphologically similar specimens found in South Korea peatlands suggest that N. jiuhuensis may be distributed in comparable peatlands in Eastern Asia (China and Korea). The discovery of such a conspicuous new species in Chinese peatlands suggests that many new testate amoebae species are yet to be discovered, including potential regional endemics. Furthermore, human activities (e.g., drainage, agriculture, and pollution) have reduced the known habitat of N. jiuhuensis, which can thus be considered as locally endangered. We, therefore, suggest that this very conspicuous micro-organism with a probably limited geographical distribution and specific habitat requirement should be considered as a flagship species for microbial biogeography as well as local environmental conservation and management. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Seismic imaging of the southern California plate-boundary around the South-Central Transverse Ranges using double-difference tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, P. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Guo, H.

    2017-12-01

    We derive P and S seismic velocities within and around the South-Central Transverse Ranges section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), using a new double-difference tomography algorithm incorporating both event-pair and station-pair differential times. The event-pair data can determine high-resolution relative earthquake locations and resolve fine-scale structure in seismogenic zones, whereas station-pair data allow for better absolute locations and higher resolution of structure near the surface where stations are most dense. The tomographic results are based on arrival times of P and S waves generated by 17,753 M>1 local events from 1/1/2010 to 6/30/2015 recorded by 259 stations within a 222 km x 164 km region. The resulting P and S velocity models include low velocities along major fault segments and across-fault velocity contrasts. For example, at depths 50 km parallel to the SAF around Coachella Valley but offset to the NE by 13 km. This is interpreted to mark a dipping section of the SAF that separates granites at depth in the SW from gneisses and schists in the NE. Analysis of fault zone head waves propagating along these sections of the SAF and SJFZ show that major bimaterial interfaces are associated with the observed velocity contrasts. Additional features within the models include elongated low velocity anomalies extending from the SJFZ trifurcation area, which itself has associated low velocity at great depth (>14 km), to the Elsinore Fault in the SW. Moreover, a deep (>13 km) velocity contrast appears beneath the SBB with an east-west strike oblique to both the northern SJFZ and SAF traces. The latter is potentially related to the ancestral Banning Fault, which dips to the north, separating low velocity Pelona schist in the north from high velocity granites in the south.

  10. Epidemiology of intestinal parasite infections in three departments of south-central Côte d’Ivoire before the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial

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    Gaoussou Coulibaly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d’Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples. Stool samples were examined for helminth and intestinal protozoa infections using the Kato-Katz technique and a formalin-ether concentration method. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, practices and beliefs with regard to hygiene, sanitation and intestinal parasitic diseases were collected using a questionnaire administered to household heads. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to analyse associations between parasite infections and risk factors. Overall, 4,305 participants had complete parasitological and questionnaire data. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (21.2%, while Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium showed prevalences below 10%. Infections with pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis were similarly prevalent in the three departments. Hookworm infection was associated with open defecation and participants' age and sex. Entamoeba coli infection was negatively associated with the use of tap water at home (odds ratio (OR = 0.66; p = 0.032. Disposal of garbage in close proximity to people’s home was positively associated with G. intestinalis (OR = 1.30; p = 0.015. Taken together, helminth and intestinal protozoa infections

  11. The Biology of the Triatomine Bugs Native to South Central Texas and Assessment of the Risk They Pose for Autochthonous Chagas Disease Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Edward J; Lawrence, Gena; Gorchakov, Rodion; Alamgir, Hasanat; Dotson, Ellen; Sissel, Blake; Sarkar, Sahotra; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-10-01

    Triatomine bugs are a group of hematophagous arthropods that can serve as biological vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi , the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Because of differences in the biology and feeding habits among triatomine species, some are more likely than others to be involved in zoonotic and/or human-to-human transmission cycles of T. cruzi . In an attempt to assess the risk for Chagas disease exposure in south-central Texas, human habitations across Texas Health Service Region 8 (HSR 8) and surrounding counties were surveyed for triatomines to characterize the geographic distribution, species-specific biology, and T. cruzi -infection prevalence better. Between May 2010 and August 2013, a total of 545 triatomines representing all 5 known indigenous species (Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma indictiva, Triatoma lecticularia, Triatoma sanguisuga, and Triatoma protracta woodi) were collected from 59 sites across the region. Triatoma gerstaeckeri was the species most commonly found in domestic and peridomestic ecotopes across Texas HSR 8, representing over 80% of the triatomines collected. Adult T. gerstaeckeri exhibited a seasonal dispersal pattern that began in late April, peaked in mid-May, and then continued into August. On homes with available crevices in the exterior walls, adult T. gerstaeckeri were observed emerging from or entering these protective microhabitats, suggesting possible opportunistic colonization of some exterior walls compartments. Laboratory testing of triatomine hindgut contents for T. cruzi by PCR demonstrated the adult T. gerstaeckeri-infection prevalence across Texas HSR 8 to be 64%. Monitoring peridomestic adult T. gerstaeckeri over the seasonal dispersal peak demonstrated statistically significant increases in both their T. cruzi -infection prevalence (P < 0.01) and tendency to invade human dwellings (P < 0.01) in the later aspect of the emergence peak. In addition to the adult insects, variably sized

  12. Scope and Limits of an anamnestic questionnaire in a control-induced low-endemicity helminthiasis setting in south-central Côte d'Ivoire.

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    Thomas Fürst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are two high-burden neglected tropical diseases. In highly endemic areas, control efforts emphasize preventive chemotherapy. However, as morbidity, infection, and transmission begin to decrease, more targeted treatment is likely to become more cost-effective, provided that comparatively cheap diagnostic methods with reasonable accuracy are available. METHODOLOGY: Adults were administered an anamnestic questionnaire in mid-2010 during a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Questions pertaining to risk factors and signs and symptoms for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were included. The individuals' helminth infection status and their belonging to three different anthelmintic treatment groups were compared with the questionnaire results (i to inform the local health authorities about the epidemiological and clinical footprint of locally prevailing helminthiases, and (ii to explore the scope and limits of an anamnestic questionnaire as monitoring tool, which eventually could help guiding the control of neglected tropical diseases in control-induced low-endemicity settings. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study sample consisted of 195 adults (101 males, 94 females. We found prevalences of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mansoni of 39.0%, 2.7%, 2.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. No Ascaris lumbricoides infection was found. Helminth infection intensities were generally very low. Seven, 74 and 79 participants belonged to three different treatment groups. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed statistically significant (p<0.05 associations between some risk factors, signs, and symptoms, and the different helminth infections and treatment groups. However, the risk factors, signs, and symptoms showed weak diagnostic properties. CONCLUSIONS

  13. Scope and Limits of an Anamnestic Questionnaire in a Control-Induced Low-Endemicity Helminthiasis Setting in South-Central Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Thomas; Ouattara, Mamadou; Silué, Kigbafori D.; N’Goran, Dje N.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Bogoch, Isaac I.; N’Guessan, Yao; Koné, Siaka; Utzinger, Jürg; N’Goran, Eliézer K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are two high-burden neglected tropical diseases. In highly endemic areas, control efforts emphasize preventive chemotherapy. However, as morbidity, infection, and transmission begin to decrease, more targeted treatment is likely to become more cost-effective, provided that comparatively cheap diagnostic methods with reasonable accuracy are available. Methodology Adults were administered an anamnestic questionnaire in mid-2010 during a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d’Ivoire. Questions pertaining to risk factors and signs and symptoms for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were included. The individuals’ helminth infection status and their belonging to three different anthelmintic treatment groups were compared with the questionnaire results (i) to inform the local health authorities about the epidemiological and clinical footprint of locally prevailing helminthiases, and (ii) to explore the scope and limits of an anamnestic questionnaire as monitoring tool, which eventually could help guiding the control of neglected tropical diseases in control-induced low-endemicity settings. Principal Findings Our study sample consisted of 195 adults (101 males, 94 females). We found prevalences of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mansoni of 39.0%, 2.7%, 2.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. No Ascaris lumbricoides infection was found. Helminth infection intensities were generally very low. Seven, 74 and 79 participants belonged to three different treatment groups. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) associations between some risk factors, signs, and symptoms, and the different helminth infections and treatment groups. However, the risk factors, signs, and symptoms showed weak diagnostic properties. Conclusions/Significance The generally

  14. Earthquake Complex Network applied along the Chilean Subduction Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F.; Pasten, D.; Comte, D.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years the earthquake complex networks have been used as a useful tool to describe and characterize the behavior of seismicity. The earthquake complex network is built in space, dividing the three dimensional space in cubic cells. If the cubic cell contains a hypocenter, we call this cell like a node. The connections between nodes follows the time sequence of the occurrence of the seismic events. In this sense, we have a spatio-temporal configuration of a specific region using the seismicity in that zone. In this work, we are applying complex networks to characterize the subduction zone along the coast of Chile using two networks: a directed and an undirected network. The directed network takes in consideration the time-direction of the connections, that is very important for the connectivity of the network: we are considering the connectivity, ki of the i-th node, like the number of connections going out from the node i and we add the self-connections (if two seismic events occurred successive in time in the same cubic cell, we have a self-connection). The undirected network is the result of remove the direction of the connections and the self-connections from the directed network. These two networks were building using seismic data events recorded by CSN (Chilean Seismological Center) in Chile. This analysis includes the last largest earthquakes occurred in Iquique (April 2014) and in Illapel (September 2015). The result for the directed network shows a change in the value of the critical exponent along the Chilean coast. The result for the undirected network shows a small-world behavior without important changes in the topology of the network. Therefore, the complex network analysis shows a new form to characterize the Chilean subduction zone with a simple method that could be compared with another methods to obtain more details about the behavior of the seismicity in this region.

  15. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The new 'Hazardous Waste Management Regulation' was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a 'Hazardous Waste Management Plan' if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory

  17. Classification and sedimentary characteristics of lacustrine hyperpycnal channels: Triassic outcrops in the south Ordos Basin, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Benzhong; Wang, Junhui; Gong, Chenglin; Yin, Yu; Chao, Chuzhi; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Guodong; Yan, Qi

    2018-06-01

    Subaquatic channels are known as active conduits for the delivery of terrigenous sediments into related marine and lacustrine basins, as well as important targets for hydrocarbon exploration. Compared to submarine channels, lacustrine subaqueous channels created by hyperpycnal flows are understudied. Using well-exposed outcrops collected from three different locations in the southern Ordos Basin, central China, morphologies and architecture of a channelized hyperpycnal system were studied and classified. Six facies associations represent sedimentary processes from strong erosion by bedload dominated hyperpycnal flows, to transitional deposition jointly controlled by bedload and suspended-load dominated hyperpycnal flows, finally to deposition from suspended-load dominated hyperpycnal flows. On the basis of channel morphologies, infilling sediments and sedimentary processes, the documented channels can be classified into four main categories, which are erosional, bedload dominated, suspended-load dominated, and depositional channels. In very proximal and very distal locations, erosional channels and depositional channels serve as two end-members, while in middle areas, bedload-dominated channels and suspended-load dominated channels are transitional types. Erosional channels, as a response to strong erosion from bedload dominated hyperpycnal flows on upper slope, were mainly filled by mud interbedded with thin sand beds. As flow energy decreases, bedload dominated channels develop on middle slopes, which are characterized mainly by under- to balanced sediment infillings with cross-bedded sandstones and/or minor massive sandstones. Compared to bedload dominated channels, suspended-load dominated channels mainly develop in deeper water, and were filled mainly by massive or planar-laminated sandstones. Depositional channels, as a response to suspended-load dominated hyperpycnal flows in deep-water areas, are characterized by thin-medium bed classical turbidites with

  18. Investigation of the 27 February 2010 Mw 8.8 Chilean earthquake integrating aftershock analysis, back-projection imaging and cGPS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévédé, E.; Satriano, C.; Bukchin, B.; Lancieri, M.; Fuenzalida, A.; Vilotte, J.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Vigny, C.; Socquet, A.; Aranda, C.; Campos, J. A.; Scientific Team of the Lia Montessus de Ballore (Cnrs-Insu, U. Chile)

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 8.8 earthquake in central Chile ruptured more than 400 km along the subduction bound between the Nazca and the South American plates. The aftershock distribution clearly shows that this earthquake filled a well-known seismic gap, corresponding to rupture extension of the 1835 earthquake. The triggered post-seismic activity extends farther north of the gap, partially overlapping the 1985 and the 1960 Valparaiso earthquakes. However, the analysis of continuous GPS (cGPS) recordings, and back projection imaging of teleseismic body wave energy, indicate that the rupture stopped south of Valparaiso, around -33.5 degrees of latitude. An important question is how far the rupture actually extended to the north and the potential relation between the northernmost aftershock activity and remaining asperities within the ruptured zone of the previous Valparaiso earthquakes. The extension of the rupture offshore, towards west, also deserves further investigation. The aftershock distribution and the back propagation analysis support the hypothesis that, in the northern part, the rupture may have reached the surface at the trench. In this work, we performed a CMT and depth location study for more than 10 of the immediate largest aftershocks using teleseismic surface wave analysis constrained by P-wave polarity. In parallel, a detailed analysis of aftershocks in the northern part of the rupture, between 2010-03-11 and 2010-05-13, have been performed using the data from the station of the Chilean Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN), and of the post-seismic network, deployed by the French CNRS-INSU, GFZ, IRIS, and Caltech. We accurately hand-picked 153 larger events, which have been located using a non-linear probabilistic code, with improved depth location. Focal mechanisms have been computed for the larger events. Those results have been integrated with the analysis of cGPS and teleseismic back projection, and the overall kinematic of the Maule earthquake is discussed as

  19. THE RESPONSE OF MONTEREY BAY TO THE 2010 CHILEAN EARTHQUAKE

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    Laurence C. Breaker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary frequencies contained in the arrival sequence produced by the tsunami from the Chilean earthquake of 2010 in Monterey Bay were extracted to determine the seiche modes that were produced. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD were employed to extract the primary frequencies of interest. The wave train from the Chilean tsunami lasted for at least four days due to multipath arrivals that may not have included reflections from outside the bay but most likely did include secondary undulations, and energy trapping in the form of edge waves, inside the bay. The SSA decomposition resolved oscillations with periods of 52-57, 34-35, 26-27, and 21-22 minutes, all frequencies that have been predicted and/or observed in previous studies. The EEMD decomposition detected oscillations with periods of 50-55 and 21-22 minutes. Periods in the range of 50-57 minutes varied due to measurement uncertainties but almost certainly correspond to the first longitudinal mode of oscillation for Monterey Bay, periods of 34-35 minutes correspond to the first transverse mode of oscillation that assumes a nodal line across the entrance of the bay, a period of 26- 27 minutes, although previously observed, may not represent a fundamental oscillation, and a period of 21-22 minutes has been predicted and observed previously. A period of ~37 minutes, close to the period of 34-35 minutes, was generated by the Great Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 in Monterey Bay and most likely represents the same mode of oscillation. The tsunamis associated with the Great Alaskan Earthquake and the Chilean Earthquake both entered Monterey Bay but initially arrived outside the bay from opposite directions. Unlike the Great Alaskan Earthquake, however, which excited only one resonant mode inside the bay, the Chilean Earthquake excited several modes suggesting that the asymmetric shape of the entrance to Monterey Bay was an important factor and that the

  20. Misconception p value among Chilean and Italian academic psychologists

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    Laura Badenes-Ribera

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The p value misconceptions are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals’ decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italians, 30 Chileans, questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with original research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  1. Decision-making in probability and statistics Chilean curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elicer, Raimundo

    2018-01-01

    Probability and statistics have become prominent subjects in school mathematics curricula. As an exemplary case, I investigate the role of decision making in the justification for probability and statistics in the current Chilean upper secondary mathematics curriculum. For addressing this concern......, I draw upon Fairclough’s model for Critical Discourse Analysis to analyse selected texts as examples of discourse practices. The texts are interconnected with politically driven ideas of stochastics “for all”, the notion of statistical literacy coined by statisticians’ communities, schooling...

  2. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuardo B, E. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Dept. de Aplicaciones Nucleares)

    1983-11-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 ..mu..R/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found.

  3. Preliminary measurements of gamma radiation in Chilean Antarctic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo B, E.

    1983-01-01

    Natural and artificial gamma radiation, 1 m above the soil, is being investigated in 4 Chilean Antartic Stations. The measurements are performed with different types of TLD detectors. Preliminary results in the Tte. Marsh Station are reported and discussed. An average exposition of 3,5 μR/h was found during a 108 days period. This exposition corresponds to an annual dose of about 40 mrad, 8% of the annual dose limit for individual of the public. The presence of low energy artificial radioisotopes was not found. (Author)

  4. Memorial 1997 - ENDESA (Chilean Electricity Company); ENDESA - Memoria 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    This report provides a comprehensive survey, in depth assessment of the activities overview of ENDESA, Chilean Electricity Company, highlighting economical information and including historical and technical aspects. Economics is its focal point, but other relevant data are shown, like technical data on hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants. Main activities developed by ENDESA are described, such in Chile as in the foreign. Data on power generation, transmission and transport are also presented and an economical balance of each colligated company are done and analysed 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  5. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M; Gartstein, Maria A; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development.

  6. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development. PMID:29333175

  7. The role of remote wind forcing in the subinertial current variability in the central and northern parts of the South Brazil Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Marcelo; Castro, Belmiro Mendes

    2018-05-01

    Data analysis of continental shelf currents and coastal sea level, together with the application of a semi-analytical model, are used to estimate the importance of remote wind forcing on the subinertial variability of the current in the central and northern areas of the South Brazil Bight. Results from both the data analysis and from the semi-analytical model are robust in showing subinertial variability that propagates along-shelf leaving the coast to the left in accordance with theoretical studies of Continental Shelf Waves (CSW). Both the subinertial variability observed in along-shelf currents and sea level oscillations present different propagation speeds for the narrow northern part of the SBB ( 6-7 m/s) and the wide central SBB region ( 11 m/s), those estimates being in agreement with the modeled CSW propagation speed. On the inner and middle shelf, observed along-shelf subinertial currents show higher correlation coefficients with the winds located southward and earlier in time than with the local wind at the current meter mooring position and at the time of measurement. The inclusion of the remote (located southwestward) wind forcing improves the prediction of the subinertial currents when compared to the currents forced only by the local wind, since the along-shelf-modeled currents present correlation coefficients with observed along-shelf currents up to 20% higher on the inner and middle shelf when the remote wind is included. For most of the outer shelf, on the other hand, this is not observed since usually, the correlation between the currents and the synoptic winds is not statistically significant.

  8. Sedimentary Record of the Back-Arc Basins of South-Central Mexico: an Evolution from Extensional Basin to Carbonate Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Rojas, M. I.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Lawton, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous depositional systems of southwestern Oaxaquia, in south-central Mexico, were controlled by tectonic processes related to the instauration of a continental arc and the accretion of the Guerrero arc to mainland Mexico. The Atzompa Formation refers to a succession of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone that crop out in southwestern Mexico with Early Cretaceous fauna and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages. The sedimentary record shows a transition from early fluvial/alluvial to shallow marine depositional environments. The first stage corresponds to juvenile fluvial/alluvial setting followed by a deep lacustrine depositional environment, suggesting the early stages of an extensional basin. The second stage is characterized by anabranched deposits of axial fluvial systems flowing to the NE-SE, showing deposition during a period of rapid subsidence. The third and final stage is made of tidal deposits followed, in turn, by abrupt marine flooding of the basin and development of a Barremian-Aptian carbonate ramp. We interpret the Tentzo basin as a response to crustal extension in a back-arc setting, with high rates of sedimentation in the early stages of the basin (3-4 mm/m.y), slower rates during the development of starved fluvial to tidal systems and carbonate ramps, and at the top of the Atzompa Formation an abrupt deepening of the basin due to flexural subsidence related to terrane docking and attendant thrusting to the west. These events were recorded in the back-arc region of a continental convergent margin (Zicapa arc) where syn-sedimentary magmatism is indicated by Early Cretaceous detrital and volcanic clasts from alluvial fan facies west of the basin. Finally, and as a response to the accretion of the Guerrero superterrane to Oaxaquia during the Aptian, a carbonate platform facing toward the Gulf of Mexico was established in central to eastern Oaxaquia.

  9. A critical evaluation of the upper ocean heat budget in the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data for the south central equatorial Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hailong; Liu Xiangcui [State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang Minghua [Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lin Wuyin, E-mail: lhl@lasg.iap.ac.cn [Atmospheric Sciences Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Coupled ocean-atmospheric models suffer from the common bias of a spurious rain belt south of the central equatorial Pacific throughout the year. Observational constraints on key processes responsible for this bias are scarce. The recently available reanalysis from a coupled model system for the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data is a potential benchmark for climate models in this region. Its suitability for model evaluation and validation, however, needs to be established. This paper examines the mixed layer heat budget and the ocean surface currents-key factors for the sea surface temperature control in the double Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in the central Pacific-from 5 deg. S to 10 deg. S and 170 deg. E to 150 deg. W. Two independent approaches are used. The first approach is through comparison of CFSR data with collocated station observations from field experiments; the second is through the residual analysis of the heat budget of the mixed layer. We show that the CFSR overestimates the net surface flux in this region by 23 W m{sup -2}. The overestimated net surface flux is mainly due to an even larger overestimation of shortwave radiation by 44 W m{sup -2}, which is compensated by a surface latent heat flux overestimated by 14 W m{sup -2}. However, the quality of surface currents and the associated oceanic heat transport in CFSR are not compromised by the surface flux biases, and they agree with the best available estimates. The uncertainties of the observational data from field experiments are also briefly discussed in the present study.

  10. Chilean clinic serves more than medical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, C L

    1993-10-01

    The experience of staff in treating adolescent pregnancy and the formidable problems (medical, educational, nutritional, and emotional) these girls face are discussed. The implementing agency was the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva del Adolescente (CEMERA) in Santiago, Chile. One 15-year old girl is reported to have felt comfortable at CEMERA because of friendships with other similarly pregnant girls. The director, Dr. Ramiro Molina, established CEMERA with a comprehensive approach to adolescent reproductive health; there was also sex education, medical student training, and research. The program began in 1981 as a research project and included a center of 1990. Presently, CEMERA treats about 1800 low-income adolescents/year, of whom 80% are female. The problem of teenage sexuality and pregnancy was identified in a 1988 survey, which revealed that 70% of first births in the 15-24 year old age group were out of wedlock, and 20% or fewer used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. The program currently not only provides care for adolescents, but also gives workshops and assistance to partners and parents, and contraceptive counseling to young men and women. Most services are free. There has been an increase in clinics addressing adolescent reproductive health from 2 in 1981 to more than 95 presently; most of the health personnel in the current settings have been trained by CEMERA CEMERA is located in converted row houses in central Santiago, and provides an informal setting less threatening to adolescents. The traditional white medical clothes are not used very often.

  11. Hydrothermal Fe-Si-Mn oxide deposits from the Central and South Valu Fa Ridge, Lau Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhilei; Zhou Huaiyang; Yang Qunhui; Sun Zhixue; Bao Shenxu; Yao Huiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Fe-Mn crust in the HHF has seawater contribution, whereas the Fe-Si oxide in the MHF is dominated by hydrothermal fluid → The Nd isotope of diffuse flow Fe-Si-Mn deposits indicates the obvious hydrothermal origin. → The Mn/Fe ratio in hydrothermal deposit may be a good indicator of propagating activities of the Valu Fa Ridge. - Abstract: A series of samples from the Hine Hina hydrothermal field (HHF) and the Mariner hydrothermal field (MHF) in the Central and Southern Valu Fa Ridge (VFR), Lau Basin were examined to explain the source origin and formation of the hydrothermal Fe-Si-Mn oxide deposits. The mineralogy was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Moessbauer spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). For the Fe-Mn oxide crusts in the HHF, varying amounts of volcanic fragments and some seawater contributions were recognized, along with higher concentrations of Mn, Al, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Mo, elevated ΣREE and negative Ce anomalies. In contrast, the Si-rich oxide samples of the MHF were enriched in Cu, Pb and Ba, indicative of proximity to a hydrothermal jet. Moreover, conductive cooling of hydrothermal fluid evoked the Si-rich deposit formation in the MHF. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data provided further constraints regarding the source and formation of the Fe-Si-Mn deposits in the VFR by showing that the samples of the HHF are a mixture of three components, namely, hydrothermal fluid, seawater and volcanic materials, whereas the samples of the MHF were dominated by hydrothermal fluids. The seawater had a minor influence on the Nd isotope data, and the Pb isotope data exhibited a close association with the substrate rock and preformed volcaniclastic layers in this area. The occurrence of relatively high Mn/Fe ratios in the hydrothermal deposits of this area may be a good indicator of the propagating activities of the VFR over geological time.

  12. Going further South: new data on the breeding of Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774 in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Görföl

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We collected data on the reproduction of Nyctalus noctula in Hungary by mist-netting and monitoring bat boxes. The capture or observation of juveniles and lactating females were considered evidence of breeding. A total of 1413 N. noctula were mist-netted in four study areas, corresponding to 24 new breeding locations for Hungary. In southern Hungary, one breeding colony with 20-25 individuals was observed in a bat box in a protected park, while another was found in the hollow of a white poplar. Twenty lactating females and 3 juveniles were mist-netted in the Zemplén Mountains. Our data document the regular breeding of the species in Hungary, the breeding area being wider than previously reported. Further breeding colonies are likely to be located in the floodplain forests of some main rivers, such as the Tisza and the Danube. Riassunto Sempre più a sud: nuovi dati sull’areale riproduttivo di Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774 in Europa centrale Tramite cattura con reti e il monitoraggio di cassette nido, sono stati raccolti dati inediti sulla riproduzione di Nyctalus noctula in Ungheria. Sono stati considerati prove certe di attività riproduttiva la cattura o l’osservazione di giovani o di femmine in allattamento. Sono stati censiti 1413 esemplari, per un totale di 24 nuovi siti di riproduzione ungheresi. Nell’Ungheria meridionale sono state osservate due nursery, una, con 20-25 individui, in una cassetta nido posizionata in un’area protetta e una nella cavità di un pioppo bianco. Venti femmine in allattamento e 3 giovani sono stati catturati nelle Zemplén Mountains. I dati raccolti dimostrano che la specie si riproduce regolarmente in Ungheria e che il suo areale riproduttivo è più esteso di quanto precedentemente segnalato. Ulteriori colonie riproduttive potrebbero essere localizzate nelle foreste ripariali dei principali fiumi

  13. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  14. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848 along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A González-Wevar

    Full Text Available Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°-41° S each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°-53° S exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior.

  15. Terrigenous sediment supply along the Chilean continental margin: modern regional patterns of texture and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Wefer, G.

    The regional patterns of texture and composition of modern continental slope and pelagic sediments off Chile between 25°S and 43°S reflect the latitudinal segmentation of geological, morphological, and climatic features of the continental hinterland. Grain-size characteristics are controlled by the grain-size of source rocks, the weathering regime, and mode of sediment input (eolian off northern Chile vs fluvial further south). Bulk-mineral assemblages reveal a low grade of maturity. Regional variations are governed by the source-rock composition of the different geological terranes and the relative source-rock contribution of the Coastal Range and Andes, as controlled by the continental hydrology. The relative abundance of clay minerals is also predominantly influenced by the source-rock composition and partly by continental smectite neoformation. Latitudinal variations of illite crystallinities along the Chilean continental slope (and west of the Peru-Chile trench) clearly reflect modifications of the weathering regime which correspond to the strong climatic zonation of Chile.

  16. The role of seasonal migration in the near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Extended: In 1980 the caribou (Rangifer tarandus on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands represented a healthy geographic population of an Arctic-island caribou ecotype on the southern tier of Canadian Arctic Islands. Those caribou exhibited complex patterns of seasonal range occupancy, involving annual seasonal migrations between and among the three islands and Boothia Peninsula (Miller et al., 1982, 2005; Miller, 1990. A large segment of the population migrated annually from the islands to Boothia Peninsula in early winter, wintered there, and then returned to the islands in the following late winter and spring. There is no evidence for large-scale emigration of caribou anywhere in the study area (Gunn et al., 2006. Caribou on Boothia Peninsula occur as two distinct ecotypes that are genetically different from the Arctic-island ecotype that occurred on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands (e.g., Zittlau, 2004. Both the Boothia Peninsula ecotype and the Mainland ecotype calve mostly on northern Boothia Peninsula, northwest and northeast sections respectively (Gunn et al., 2000. After summering on the peninsula, most individuals of both ecotypes migrate south of the Boothia Isthmus onto adjacent mainland areas (Gunn et al., 2000. As a result, there were about the same number of caribou wintering on Boothia Peninsula when migrant caribou from Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands wintered there, as in summer when the migrant Arctic-island caribou had returned to Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands and the migrant Boothia Peninsula and Mainland caribou ecotypes had returned from their winter ranges farther south on the mainland to their calving areas and summer ranges on Boothia Peninsula. We treat both caribou ecotypes on Boothia Peninsula as just one geographic population for our assessment. The Arctic-island caribou ecotype on Prince of Wales, Russell, and Somerset islands declined about 98% from the

  17. Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology of the Pallatanga fault (Central Ecuador), a major structure of the South-American crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Stéphane; Audin, Laurence; Winter, Thierry; Alvarado, Alexandra; Pilatasig Moreno, Luis; Taipe, Mercedes; Reyes, Pedro; Kauffmann, Paul; Yepes, Hugo

    2015-05-01

    The Pallatanga fault (PF) is a prominent NNE-SSW strike-slip fault crossing Central Ecuador. This structure is suspected to have hosted large earthquakes, including the 1797 Riobamba event which caused severe destructions to buildings and a heavy death toll (more than 12,000 people), as well as widespread secondary effects like landsliding, liquefaction and surface cracking. The scope of this study is to evaluate the seismic history of the fault through a paleoseismological approach. This work also aims at improving the seismotectonic map of this part of the Andes through a new mapping campaign and, finally, aims at improving the seismic hazard assessment. We show that the PF continues to the north of the previously mapped fault portion in the Western Cordillera (Rumipamba-Pallatanga portion) into the Inter-Andean Valley (Riobamba basin). Field evidences of faulting are numerous, ranging from a clear geomorphological signature to fault plane outcrops. Along the western side of the Riobamba basin, the strike-slip component seems predominant along several fault portions, with a typical landscape assemblage (dextral offsets of valleys, fluvial terrace risers and generation of linear pressure ridges). In the core of the inter-Andean valley, the main fault portion exhibits a vertical component along the c. 100 m-high cumulative scarp. The presence of such an active fault bounding the western suburbs of Riobamba drastically increases the seismic risk for this densely inhabited and vulnerable city. To the east (Peltetec Massif, Cordillera Real), the continuation of the Pallatanga fault is suspected, but not definitely proved yet. Based on the analysis of three trenches, we state that the Rumipamba-Pallatanga section of the PF experienced 4 (maybe 5) Holocene to Historical strong events (Mw > 7). The coseismic behavior of the fault is deduced from the occurrence of several colluvial wedges and layers associated with the fault activity and interbedded within the organic

  18. Impact of Operating Room Environment on Postoperative Central Nervous System Infection in a Resource-Limited Neurosurgical Center in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Swathi; Vasudevan, Madabushi Chakravarthy; Nair, Mani Nathan; Joyce, Cara; Germanwala, Anand V

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are serious complications following neurosurgical intervention. We previously investigated the incidence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a resource-limited, neurosurgical center in south Asia. This follow-up study was conducted to analyze differences in PCNSIs at the same institution following only one apparent change: the operating room air filtration system. This was a retrospective study of all neurosurgical cases performed between December 1, 2013, and March 31, 2016 at our center. Providers, patient demographic data, case types, perioperative care, rate of PCNSI, and rates of other complications were reviewed. These results were then compared with the findings of our previous study of neurosurgical cases between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. All 623 neurosurgical operative cases over the study period were reviewed. Four patients (0.6%) had a PCNSI, and no patients had a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. In the previous study, among 363 cases, 71 patients (19.6%) had a PCNSI and 7 (1.9%) had a positive CSF culture (all Gram-negative organisms). The differences in both parameters are statistically significant (P system inside the neurosurgical operating rooms; this environmental change occurred during the 5 months between the 2 studies. This study demonstrates the impact of environmental factors in reducing infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating Crustal Scale Fault Systems Controlling Volcanic and Hydrothermal Fluid Processes in the South-Central Andes, First Results from a Magnetotelluric Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.; Mitchell, T. M.; Moorkamp, M.; Araya, J.; Cembrano, J. M.; Yanez, G. A.; Hammond, J. O. S.

    2017-12-01

    At convergent plate boundaries, volcanic orogeny is largely controlled by major thrust fault systems that act as magmatic and hydrothermal fluid conduits through the crust. In the south-central Andes, the volcanically and seismically active Tinguiririca and Planchon-Peteroa volcanoes are considered to be tectonically related to the major El Fierro thrust fault system. These large scale reverse faults are characterized by 500 - 1000m wide hydrothermally altered fault cores, which possess a distinct conductive signature relative to surrounding lithology. In order to establish the subsurface architecture of these fault systems, such conductivity contrasts can be detected using the magnetotelluric method. In this study, LEMI fluxgate-magnetometer long-period and Metronix broadband MT data were collected at 21 sites in a 40km2 survey grid that surrounds this fault system and associated volcanic complexes. Multi-remote referencing techniques is used together with robust processing to obtain reliable impedance estimates between 100 Hz and 1,000s. Our preliminary inversion results provide evidence of structures within the 10 - 20 km depth range that are attributed to this fault system. Further inversions will be conducted to determine the approximate depth extent of these features, and ultimately provide constraints for future geophysical studies aimed to deduce the role of these faults in volcanic orogeny and hydrothermal fluid migration processes in this region of the Andes.

  20. Nocturnal arboreality in snakes in the swamplands of the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana and Big Thicket National Preserve of Southeast Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin

    2017-01-01

    The southeastern United States is home to a diverse assemblage of snakes, but only one species, the Rough Greensnake (Opheodrys aestivus), is considered specialized for a predominantly arboreal lifestyle. Other species, such as Ratsnakes (genus Pantherophis) and Ribbonsnakes/Gartersnakes (genus Thamnophis), are widely known to climb into vegetation and trees. Some explanations given for snake climbing behavior are foraging, thermoregulation, predator avoidance, and response to flood. Reports of arboreality in snake species typically not associated with life in the trees (such as terrestrial, aquatic, and even fossorial species) usually come from single observations, with no knowledge of prevalence of the behavior. Here, we report on arboreality of snake species detected during 8 years of night surveys in the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana and 5+ years of night surveys in Big Thicket National Preserve in southeast Texas. We recorded a total of 1,088 detections of 19 snake species between the two study areas, with 348 detections above ground level (32%). The Rough Greensnake and Western Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis proximus) accounted for nearly 75% of total arboreal detections among the two study areas. However, with one exception, all snake species detected more than once between both study areas had at least one arboreal detection. These observations demonstrate that snakes with widely varying natural histories may be found in the trees at night, and for some species, this behavior may be more common than previously believed.

  1. Seasonal mercury concentrations and δ15N and δ13C values of benthic macroinvertebrates and sediments from a historically polluted estuary in south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Muñoz, Claudia; Rudolph, Ignacio; Servos, Mark; Barra, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The Lenga Estuary is one of the most industrialized sites in south central Chile where the historic operation of chlor-alkali plants resulted in large quantities of mercury (Hg) being deposited into the estuary. This historical contamination may still represent a risk to the biota in the estuary. To investigate this four macroinvertebrates, Neotrypaea uncinata (ghostshrimp), Elminius kingii (barnacle), Hemigrapsus crenulatus (shore crab) and Perinereis gualpensis (ragworm) were collected seasonally from three different sites in the Lenga Estuary and one in a reference estuary (Tubul Estuary), and analyzed for Hg and stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). Mercury concentrations in Lenga sediments ranged from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 13 ± 3 mg/kg, while those in Tubul sediments ranged from 0.02 ± 0.01 to 0.07 ± 0.09 mg/kg. Total Hg concentrations of invertebrates were significantly different between estuaries (p0.05). In contrast, organic Hg concentrations were different by species and season with shore crab muscle tissues exhibiting the greatest perce