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Sample records for south bay cross

  1. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  2. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  4. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. The onset of deglaciation of Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay, South Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Putten, N.; Verbruggen, C.

    Carbon dating of basal peat deposits in Cumberland Bay and Stromness Bay and sediments from a lake in Stromness Bay, South Georgia indicates deglaciation at the very beginning of the Holocene before c. 9500 14C yr BP. This post-dates the deglaciation of one local lake which has been ice-free since

  6. Recolonisation of the Robberg Peninsula (Plettenberg Bay, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus colony at Robberg Peninsula, Plettenberg Bay, on the south-east coast of South Africa, was driven to extinction by indiscriminate harvesting by the late 1800s. Seals only began to recolonise this site in the 1990s. This study describes the recolonisation process from 2000 to ...

  7. Shallow-water, nearshore current dynamics in Algoa Bay, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nearshore currents play a vital role in the transport of eggs and larval stages of fish. However, little is known about their complexity and the implications for dispersal of fish larvae. The study describes the complexity of the shallow nearshore environment in eastern Algoa Bay, on the south-east coast of South Africa, and its ...

  8. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  9. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. Ecosystem history of South Florida; Biscayne Bay sediment core descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    The 'Ecosystem History of Biscayne Bay and the southeast Coast' project of the U.S. Geological Survey is part of a multi-disciplinary effort that includes Florida Bay and the Everglades to provide paleoecologic reconstructions for the south Florida region. Reconstructions of past salinity, nutrients, substrate, and water quality are needed to determine ecosystem variability due to both natural and human-induced causes. Our understanding of the relations between the south Florida ecosystem and introduced forces will allow managers to make informed decisions regarding the south Florida ecosystem restoration and monitoring. The record of past ecosystem conditions can be found in shallow sediment cores. This U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report describes six shallow sediment cores collected from Biscayne Bay. The cores described herein are being processed for a variety of analytical procedures, and this provides the descriptive framework for future analyses of the included cores. This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  11. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... any one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  12. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay...

  13. Inhomogeneity of optical turbulence over False Bay (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullwer, Carmen; Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Gunter, Willi; Stein, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 on a 2 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) in Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease of Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenarios, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.7 km path from IMT to Kalk Bay, roughly 36° to the north of the three 2 km paths. The results are related to the inhomogeneous meteorological conditions over the Bay as assessed with the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Forecast and Research model WRF.

  14. Assessment for water quality by artificial neural network in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, artificial neural network such as a self-organizing map (SOM) was used to assess for the effects caused by climate change and human activities on the water quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea. SOM has identified the anthropogenic effects and seasonal characters of water quality. SOM grouped the four seasons as four groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn). The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on the water quality in Daya Bay. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities and hydrodynamics conditions. In spatial characteristics, the water quality in Daya Bay was divided into two groups by chemometrics. The monitoring stations (S3, S8, S10 and S11) were in these area (Dapeng Ao, Aotou Harbor) and northeast parts of Daya Bay, which are areas of human activity. The thermal pollution has been observed near water body in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (S5). The rest of the monitoring sites were in the south, central and eastern parts of Daya Bay, which are areas that experience water exchanges from South China Sea. The results of this study may provide information on the spatial and temporal patterns in Daya Bay. Further research will be carry out more research concerning functional changes in the bay ecology with respect to changes in climatic factor, human activities and bay morphology in Daya Bay.

  15. Vapor Intrusion Facility Points, South Bay CA, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  16. Phase 1 studies summary of major findings of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valoppi, Laura

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Project) is one of the largest restoration efforts in the United States. It is located in South San Francisco Bay of California. It is unique not only for its size—more than 15,000 acres—but also for its location adjacent to one of the nation’s largest urban areas, home to more than 4 million people (Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties). The Project is intended to restore and enhance wetlands in South San Francisco Bay while providing for flood management, wildlife-oriented public access, and recreation. Restoration goals of the project are to provide a mosaic of saltmarsh habitat to benefit marsh species and managed ponds to benefit waterbirds, throughout 3 complexes and 54 former salt ponds.Although much is known about the project area, significant uncertainties remain with a project of this geographic and temporal scale of an estimated 50 years to complete the restoration. For example, in order to convert anywhere from 50 to 90 percent of the existing managed ponds to saltmarsh habitat, conservation managers first enhance the habitat of managed ponds in order to increase use by waterbirds, and provide migratory, wintering, and nesting habitat for more than 90 species of waterbirds. Project managers have concluded that the best way to address these uncertainties is to carefully implement the project in phases and learn from the outcome of each phase. The Adaptive Management Plan (AMP) identifies specific restoration targets for multiple aspects of the Project and defines triggers that would necessitate some type of management action if a particular aspect is trending negatively. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologist Laura Valoppi served as the project Lead Scientist and oversaw implementation of the AMP in coordination with other members of the Project Management Team (PMT), comprised of representatives from the California State Coastal Conservancy, California Department of Fish and

  17. Review of suspended sediment in lower South Bay relevant to light attenuation and phytoplankton blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Manning, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Lower South Bay (LSB), a shallow subembayment of San Francisco Bay (SFB), is situated south of the Dumbarton Bridge, and is surrounded by, and interconnected with, a network of sloughs, marshes, and former salt ponds undergoing restoration (Figure ES.1). LSB receives 120 million gallons per day of treated wastewater effluent from three publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) that service San Jose and the densely populated surrounding region. During the dry season, when flows from creeks and streams are at their minimum, POTW effluent comprises the majority of freshwater flow to Lower South Bay. Although LSB has a large tidal prism, it experiences limited net exchange with the surrounding Bay, because much of the water that leaves on ebb tides returns during the subsequent flood tides. The limited exchange leads to distinctly different biogeochemical conditions in LSB compared to other SFB subembayments, including LSB having the highest nutrient concentrations and highest phytoplankton biomass.

  18. Investigation of Spatial and Temporal Trends in Water Quality in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Sun, Cui-Ci; Wang, Yu-Tu; Sun, Fu-Lin; Cheng, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to identify the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrochemical quality of the water column in a subtropical coastal system, Daya Bay, China. Water samples were collected in four seasons at 12 monitoring sites. The Southeast Asian monsoons, northeasterly from October to the next April and southwesterly from May to September have also an important influence on water quality in Daya Bay. In the spatial pattern, two groups have been identified, with the help of multidimensional scaling analysis and cluster analysis. Cluster I consisted of the sites S3, S8, S10 and S11 in the west and north coastal parts of Daya Bay. Cluster I is mainly related to anthropogenic activities such as fish-farming. Cluster II consisted of the rest of the stations in the center, east and south parts of Daya Bay. Cluster II is mainly related to seawater exchange from South China Sea. PMID:21776234

  19. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0417] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY.... Add Sec. 165.T09-0417 as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock...

  20. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available collec ted in a small bay near the holiday resort of Langebaan (long. 18,02 E, lat. 33,05 5) on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay. Saldanha Bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa some 110 km north of Cape Town, and forms a long narrow... per annum about 79% during April to September (i.e. winter rainfall). The region can therefore be regarded as semi-desert. The salinity of the sea water at Langebaan was 35 0/00. The average temperature range of the air in summer is from 16.5? C...

  1. A LEOPARD SEAL FROM HOUT BAY, SOUTH AFRICA Division of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 14 October 1969 a leopard seal Hydrurga leptonyx came ashore alive at Hout Bay, Cape. Province .... 5 mm in diameter: on histological examination these proved to be small nematodes Para- filaroides sp. ... Seals, sea lions and walruses.

  2. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  3. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  4. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The...

  5. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  6. Upwelling and ocean structures off Algoa Bay and the south-east ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This situation is investigated off Algoa Bay and along the south-east coast to Port Alfred, where measurements demonstrate that marked temperature variability occurs at the coastline, particularly in summer when temperature structures are more intense and easterly-component winds more common. There is no indication ...

  7. New species of the genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dautova, T.N.; Ofwegen, van L.P.; Savinkin, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    A total of eight Sinularia species is described and depicted, all from Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam (South China Sea). Six are new to science: S. capricornis, S. multiflora, S. pumila, S. sarmentosa, S. torta, and S. uva. Two other ones represent just new records for Vietnam: S. rigida (Dana, 1846) and S.

  8. An experimental study of radiative fluxes in the south Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time series measurements of radiative fluxes were made onboard INS Sagardhwani (SD) in the south Bay of Bengal near DS3 (13°N and 87°E) during the BOBMEX field experiment. An inter- comparison experiment conducted at DS3 showed that the radiative fluxes measured by Kipp and Zonen, Albedo meter and net ...

  9. Trends and habitat associations of waterbirds using the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; Strong, Cheryl; Krause, John; Wang, Yiwei; Takekawa, John Y.

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe aim of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (hereinafter “Project”) is to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay (SFB). However, hundreds of thousands of waterbirds use these ponds over winter and during fall and spring migration. To ensure that existing waterbird populations are supported while tidal marsh is restored in the Project area, managers plan to enhance the habitat suitability of ponds by adding islands and berms to change pond topography, manipulating water salinity and depth, and selecting appropriate ponds to maintain for birds. To help inform these actions, we used 13 years of monthly (October–April) bird abundance data from Project ponds to (1) assess trends in waterbird abundance since the inception of the Project, and (2) evaluate which pond habitat characteristics were associated with highest abundances of different avian guilds and species. For comparison, we also evaluated waterbird abundance trends in active salt production ponds using 10 years of monthly survey data.We assessed bird guild and species abundance trends through time, and created separate trend curves for Project and salt production ponds using data from every pond that was counted in a year. We divided abundance data into three seasons—fall (October–November), winter (December–February), and spring (March–April). We used the resulting curves to assess which periods had the highest bird abundance and to identify increasing or decreasing trends for each guild and species.

  10. Trace metal associations in the water column of South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Cloern, J.E.; Fries, T.L.; Davis, J.A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Spatial distributions of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were followed along a longitudinal gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in South San Francisco Bay (herein referred to as the South Bay). Dissolved Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations ranged from 24 to 66 nM, from 20 to 107 nM and from 1??2 to 4??7 nM, respectively, in samples collected on five dates beginning with the spring phytoplankton bloom and continuing through summer,1985. Dissolved Cu and Zn concentrations varied indirectly with salinity and directly with DOC concentration which ranged from 2??1 to 4??1 mg l-1. Available thermodynamic data strongly support the hypothesis that Cu speciation may be dominated by association with dissolved organic matter. Analogous control of Zn speciation by organic complexation was, however, not indicated in our computations. Computed free ion activity estimates for Cu, Zn and Cd were of the order of 10-10, 10-8 and 10-10 M, respectively. The availability of these metals may be among the factors regulating the growth of certain phytoplankton species within this region of the estuary. In contrast to dissolved Cu, dissolved Cd was directly related to the concentration of suspended particulate matter, suggesting a source of dissolved Cd coincident with elevated particle concentrations in the South Bay (e.g. runoff and solute desorption). Consistent with work in other estuaries, partitioning of all three trace metals onto suspended particulates was negatively correlated with salinity and positively correlated with increases in particulate organic carbon associated with the phytoplankton bloom. These results for the South Bay indicate that sorption processes influence dissolved concentrations of these trace metals, the degree of this influence varies among metals, and processes controlling metal distribution in this estuary appear to be more element-specific than spatially- or temporally-specific. ?? 1989.

  11. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  12. 33 CFR 334.220 - Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.220 Chesapeake Bay, south of Tangier Island, Va.; naval firing range. (a) The danger zone. Beginning... to latitude 37°45′00″, longitude 76°09′48″; thence to latitude 37°45′00″, longitude 76°08′51″; and...

  13. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from Winyah Bay, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.A.; Gardiner, W.W.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q.

    1993-10-01

    The navigational channels of Winyah Bay, Georgetown Harbor, South Carolina require dredging to enable normal shipping traffic to use these areas. Before dredging, environmental assessments must be conducted to determine the suitability of this dredged sediment for unconfined, open-water disposal. The Charleston, South Carolina District Office of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) requested that the Battelle/Marine Science Laboratory (MSL) collect sediment samples and conduct the required physical/chemical, toxicological, and bioaccumulation evaluations as required in the 1991 Implementation Manual. This report is intended to provide information required to address potential ecological effects of the Entrance Channel and Inner Harbor sediments proposed disposal in the ocean

  14. Paleomagnetic investigation of late Quaternary sediments of south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.

    1977-01-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations of the Late Quaternary sediments of South San Francisco Bay were determined from bore hole samples collected near Dumbarton Bridge. The sediments consist of estuarine muds and nonmarine sand deposits, floored by bedrock of the Mesozoic Franciscan Formation. - Beneath Dumbarton Bridge the entire sedimentary fill is normally polarized; therefore, the fill postdates the Brunhes-Matayama polarity reversal (700,000 y. B.P.). Magnetic time lines such as the Mono Lake excursion (24,000 y. B.P.) and the reversed Blake event (110,000 y B.P.) were not found in this bore hole. In addition to Holocene and modern deposits of San Francisco Bay, an older estuarine unit occurs in the stratigraphic section. The older unit was deposited during a period of high sea level, tentatively correlated with the Sangamon interglacial period. Because evidence of the Blake event is not present in the older estuarine unit, the proposed age of this unit could not be confirmed. Although the Holocene estuarine deposits of South San Francisco Bay carry stable remanent magnetization, a reliable record of geomagnetic secular variation could not be recovered because the water-saturated sdiment was deformed by drilling.

  15. Bathymetry and digital elevation models of Coyote Creek and Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Finlayson, David P.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fregoso, Theresa A.

    2012-01-05

    In 2010 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center completed three cruises to map the bathymetry of the main channel and shallow intertidal mudflats in the southernmost part of south San Francisco Bay. The three surveys were merged to generate comprehensive maps of Coyote Creek (from Calaveras Point east to the railroad bridge) and Alviso Slough (from the bay to the town of Alviso) to establish baseline bathymetry prior to the breaching of levees adjacent to Alviso and Guadalupe Sloughs as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (http://www.southbayrestoration.org). Since 2010 the USGS has conducted twelve additional surveys to monitor bathymetric change in this region as restoration progresses.The bathymetry surveys were conducted using the state-of-the-art research vessel R/V Parke Snavely outfitted with an interferometric sidescan sonar for swath mapping in extremely shallow water. This publication provides high-resolution bathymetric data collected by the USGS. For the 2010 baseline survey we have merged the bathymetry with aerial lidar data that were collected for the USGS during the same time period to create a seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. The series of bathymetry datasets are provided at 1 m resolution and the 2010 bathymetric/topographic DEM at 2 m resolution. The data are formatted as both X, Y, Z text files and ESRI Arc ASCII files that are accompanied by Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata.

  16. First results on the Experiment FESTER on optical turbulence over False Bay South Africa: Dependencies and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprung, D.; Van Eijk, A.M.J.; Sucher, E.; Eisele, C.; Seiffer, D.; Stein, K.

    2016-01-01

    The experiment FESTER (First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment) took place in 2015 to investigate the atmospheric influence on electro-optical systems performance across False Bay / South Africa on a long term basis. Several permanent stations for monitoring electro-optical propagation

  17. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving...

  18. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available and Comic/i for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (Received: 5.2. 1970) The Gordon?s Bay region occupies the north western corner of False Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point...

  19. Coastal upwelling by wind-driven forcing in Jervis Bay, New South Wales: A numerical study for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youn-Jong; Jalón-Rojas, Isabel; Wang, Xiao Hua; Jiang, Donghui

    2018-06-01

    The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was used to investigate an upwelling event in Jervis Bay, New South Wales (SE Australia), with varying wind directions and strengths. The POM was adopted with a downscaling approach for the regional ocean model one-way nested to a global ocean model. The upwelling event was detected from the observed wind data and satellite sea surface temperature images. The validated model reproduced the upwelling event showing the input of bottom cold water driven by wind to the bay, its subsequent deflection to the south, and its outcropping to the surface along the west and south coasts. Nevertheless, the behavior of the bottom water that intruded into the bay varied with different wind directions and strengths. Upwelling-favorable wind directions for flushing efficiency within the bay were ranked in the following order: N (0°; northerly) > NNE (30°; northeasterly) > NW (315°; northwesterly) > NE (45°; northeasterly) > ENE (60°; northeasterly). Increasing wind strengths also enhance cold water penetration and water exchange. It was determined that wind-driven downwelling within the bay, which occurred with NNE, NE and ENE winds, played a key role in blocking the intrusion of the cold water upwelled through the bay entrance. A northerly wind stress higher than 0.3 N m-2 was required for the cold water to reach the northern innermost bay.

  20. Residency, Habitat Use and Sexual Segregation of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Alison; O’Riain, M. Justin; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles

    2013-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection. In this study we investigated habitat use by white sharks in False Bay, South Africa, using acoustic telemetry. 56 sharks (39 female, 17 male), ranging in size from 1.7–5 m TL, were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on an array of 30 receivers for 975 days. To investigate the effects of season, sex and size on habitat use we used a generalized linear mixed effects model. Tagged sharks were detected in the Bay in all months and across all years, but their use of the Bay varied significantly with the season and the sex of the shark. In autumn and winter males and females aggregated around the Cape fur seal colony at Seal Island, where they fed predominantly on young of the year seals. In spring and summer there was marked sexual segregation, with females frequenting the Inshore areas and males seldom being detected. The shift from the Island in autumn and winter to the Inshore region in spring and summer by females mirrors the seasonal peak in abundance of juvenile seals and of migratory teleost and elasmobranch species respectively. This study provides the first evidence of sexual segregation at a fine spatial scale and demonstrates that sexual segregation in white sharks is not restricted to adults, but is apparent for juveniles and sub-adults too. Overall, the results confirm False Bay as a critical area for white shark conservation as both sexes, across a range of sizes, frequent the Bay on an annual basis. The finding that female sharks aggregate in the Inshore regions when recreational use peaks highlights the need for ongoing shark-human conflict mitigation strategies. PMID:23383052

  1. Waterbird egg mercury concentrations in response to wetland restoration in south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Watts, Trevor C.; Barr, Jarred R.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of 50–90 percent of 15,100 acres of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in the south San Francisco Bay, California, is planned as part of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. This large-scale habitat restoration may change the bioavailability of methylmercury. The South Bay already is known to have high methylmercury concentrations, with methylmercury concentrations in several waterbirds species more than known toxicity thresholds where avian reproduction is impaired. In this 2013 study, we continued monitoring bird egg mercury concentrations in response to the restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex to a potential tidal marsh in the future. The restoration of the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex began in autumn 2010, and the Pond A8 Notch was opened 5 feet (one of eight gates) to muted tidal action on June 1, 2011, and then closed in the winter. In autumn 2010, internal levees between Ponds A8, A7, and A5 were breached and water depths were substantially increased by flooding the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex in February 2011. In June 2012, 15 feet (three of eight gates) of the Pond A8 Notch was opened, and then closed in December 2012. In June 2013, 15 feet of the Pond A8 Notch again was opened, and the Pond A8/A7/A5 Complex was a relatively deep and large pond with muted tidal action in the summer. This report synthesizes waterbird data from the 2013 breeding season, and combines it with our prior study’s data from 2010 and 2011.

  2. Geochemical of trace elements in volcanics rocks Peninsula Fildes, Fildes Bay Rey Jorge island, south Shetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.; Vaz Chavez, N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present some geochemical data derived from the multielement analysis of three different types of volcanic rocks collected around Fildes Bay on King George Island, South Shetland. Volcanic rocks from Fildes Peninsula Group may be distinguished from those Marian Cove by their hydrothermal alteration. Apparently the correlation between NI ands Cr allows for the observation of the stratigraphic separation of samples of the same kind. Consequently, the correlation between Cu and As show a distinction between Marian Cove propylitised tuffites and both Brecciated Andesites and pyroclastic rock from Fildes Peninsula Group.

  3. Coral bleaching on high-latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celliers, Louis; Schleyer, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Coral bleaching, involving the expulsion of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the host cells, poses a major threat to coral reefs throughout their distributional range. The role of temperature in coral bleaching has been extensively investigated and is widely accepted. A bleaching event was observed on the marginal high-latitude reefs of South Africa located at Sodwana Bay during the summer months of 2000. This was associated with increased sea temperatures with high seasonal peaks in summer and increased radiation in exceptionally clear water. The bleaching was limited to Two-mile Reef and Nine-mile Reef at Sodwana Bay and affected -1 from May 1994 to April 2000. High maximum temperatures were measured (>29 deg. C). The lowest mean monthly and the mean maximum monthly temperatures at which coral bleaching occurred were 27.5 and 28.8 deg. C, respectively, while the duration for which high temperatures occurred in 2000 was 67 days at ≥27.5 deg. C (4 days at ≥28.8 deg. C). Increased water clarity and radiation appeared to be a synergistic cause in the coral bleaching encountered at Sodwana Bay

  4. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Tanner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study. Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay.

  5. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas is...

  6. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; hide

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  7. Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Saldanha Bay, South Africa: an indication of the potential risk of harmful algal blooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joyce, LB

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Africa bZoology Department, University Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa cCouncil for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 320, Stellenbosch 7759, South Africa Received 14 May 2004; received in revised form 21 July 2004; accepted... 15 August 2004 Abstract The distribution and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts from recent coastal sediments in Saldanha Bay, was investigated, and compared to the cyst assemblages of the adjacent coastal upwelling system as reflected in the sediments...

  8. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ...-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the... scoping with regard to the environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary... one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  10. 33 CFR 334.660 - Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico and Apalachicola Bay south of Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.660 Section 334... Apalachicola, Fla., Drone Recovery Area, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area. A rectangular...

  11. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  12. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun O. Adeniji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC-FID and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n-alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  13. Coral bleaching on high-latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, Louis; Schleyer, Michael H

    2002-12-01

    Coral bleaching, involving the expulsion of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the host cells, poses a major threat to coral reefs throughout their distributional range. The role of temperature in coral bleaching has been extensively investigated and is widely accepted. A bleaching event was observed on the marginal high-latitude reefs of South Africa located at Sodwana Bay during the summer months of 2000. This was associated with increased sea temperatures with high seasonal peaks in summer and increased radiation in exceptionally clear water. The bleaching was limited to Two-mile Reef and Nine-mile Reef at Sodwana Bay and affected <12% of the total living cover on Two-mile Reef. Montipora spp., Alveopora spongiosa and Acropora spp. were bleached, as well as some Alcyoniidae (Sinularia dura, Lobophytum depressum, L. patulum). A cyclical increase in sea temperature (with a period of 5-6 years) was recorded during 1998-2000 in addition to the regional temperature increase caused by the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The mean sea temperature increased at a rate of 0.27 deg. C year{sup -1} from May 1994 to April 2000. High maximum temperatures were measured (>29 deg. C). The lowest mean monthly and the mean maximum monthly temperatures at which coral bleaching occurred were 27.5 and 28.8 deg. C, respectively, while the duration for which high temperatures occurred in 2000 was 67 days at {>=}27.5 deg. C (4 days at {>=}28.8 deg. C). Increased water clarity and radiation appeared to be a synergistic cause in the coral bleaching encountered at Sodwana Bay.

  14. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Profiles of Water and Sediment of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, Abiodun O; Okoh, Omobola O; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-10-20

    Petroleum hydrocarbon profiles of water and sediment samples of Algoa Bay in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were assessed using standard analytical procedures. Water (from surface and bottom levels) and sediment samples were collected from five locations in the bay from February to June 2016. Extraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons from the water and sediment samples collected was achieved using liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques, respectively, followed by column clean up. Target compounds were analytically determined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and quantified by integrating the areas of both the resolved and unresolved components. Physicochemical properties of the water samples were also determined on site using a SeaBird 19plusV2 CTD SBE 55 device. Estimated limit of detection, limit of quantitation and relative standard deviation for the 35 n -alkane standards ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 μg/L, 0.30 to 0.69 μg/L and 3.61 to 8.32%, respectively. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) varied from 45.07 to 307 μg/L in the water and 0.72 to 27.03 mg/kg in the sediments. The mean concentrations of TPH in both the water and sediment samples from Algoa Bay revealed a slight level of pollution. The diagnostic indices used showed that the hydrocarbons in the area were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Hence, there is need for adequate regulation and control of all activities contributing to the levels of petroleum hydrocarbon in the marine environment for the safety of human, aquatic and wild lives in the area.

  15. Destruction of the Phoenix/Hibiscus and Barringtonia racemosa Communities at Richards Bay, Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of the Phoenix!Hibiscus and Barringtonia racemosa Communities described by Venter in 1972 on the southern shores of Richards Bay is reported. The cause was the artificial openingof a new mouth about 5,5 km south of the original mouth, which increased tidal range and salinity. These swamp communities occupied a narrow band about 6 ha in area behind the Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Community. An estimated 95 % of the communities was affected and only on the landward border were some isolated remnants of species such as Acrostichum aureum, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Phoenix reclinata detected .Young stands of  Phragmites australis, seedlings of  Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Avicennia marina and epipelic algae are recoIonizing the affected area.

  16. A numerical model investigation of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on water level variability in Great South Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vanessa C. C.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2018-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a large and intense storm with high winds that caused total water levels from combined tides and storm surge to reach 4.0 m in the Atlantic Ocean and 2.5 m in Great South Bay (GSB), a back-barrier bay between Fire Island and Long Island, New York. In this study the impact of the hurricane winds and waves are examined in order to understand the flow of ocean water into the back-barrier bay and water level variations within the bay. To accomplish this goal, a high resolution hurricane wind field is used to drive the coupled Delft3D-SWAN hydrodynamic and wave models over a series of grids with the finest resolution in GSB. The processes that control water levels in the back-barrier bay are investigated by comparing the results of four cases that include: (i) tides only; (ii) tides, winds and waves with no overwash over Fire Island allowed; (iii) tides, winds, waves and limited overwash at the east end of the island; (iv) tides, winds, waves and extensive overwash along the island. The results indicate that strong local wind-driven storm surge along the bay axis had the largest influence on the total water level fluctuations during the hurricane. However, the simulations allowing for overwash have higher correlation with water level observations in GSB and suggest that island overwash provided a significant contribution of ocean water to eastern GSB during the storm. The computations indicate that overwash of 7500–10,000 m3s−1 was approximately the same as the inflow from the ocean through the major existing inlet. Overall, the model results indicate the complex variability in total water levels driven by tides, ocean storm surge, surge from local winds, and overwash that had a significant impact on the circulation in Great South Bay during Hurricane Sandy.

  17. A numerical model investigation of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on water level variability in Great South Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vanessa C. C.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2018-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a large and intense storm with high winds that caused total water levels from combined tides and storm surge to reach 4.0 m in the Atlantic Ocean and 2.5 m in Great South Bay (GSB), a back-barrier bay between Fire Island and Long Island, New York. In this study the impact of the hurricane winds and waves are examined in order to understand the flow of ocean water into the back-barrier bay and water level variations within the bay. To accomplish this goal, a high resolution hurricane wind field is used to drive the coupled Delft3D-SWAN hydrodynamic and wave models over a series of grids with the finest resolution in GSB. The processes that control water levels in the back-barrier bay are investigated by comparing the results of four cases that include: (i) tides only; (ii) tides, winds and waves with no overwash over Fire Island allowed; (iii) tides, winds, waves and limited overwash at the east end of the island; (iv) tides, winds, waves and extensive overwash along the island. The results indicate that strong local wind-driven storm surge along the bay axis had the largest influence on the total water level fluctuations during the hurricane. However, the simulations allowing for overwash have higher correlation with water level observations in GSB and suggest that island overwash provided a significant contribution of ocean water to eastern GSB during the storm. The computations indicate that overwash of 7500-10,000 m3s-1 was approximately the same as the inflow from the ocean through the major existing inlet. Overall, the model results indicate the complex variability in total water levels driven by tides, ocean storm surge, surge from local winds, and overwash that had a significant impact on the circulation in Great South Bay during Hurricane Sandy.

  18. Body figure preference in South African adolescent females: A cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study sought to explore body figure preference in a cross cultural South African sample, given the established relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Methods: The sample comprised a community based, multi-racial adolescent population in both urban (n=1353) and rural ...

  19. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by

  20. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  1. Foraminiferal record of Holocene paleo-earthquakes on the subsiding south-western Poverty Bay coastline, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, B.W.; Sabaa, A.T.; Grenfell, H.R.; Cochran, U.A.; Clark, K.J.; Litchfield, N.J.; Wallace, L.M.; Marden, M.; Palmer, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Foraminiferal faunas in 29 short cores (maximum depth 7 m) of estuarine and coastal wetland sediment were used to reconstruct the middle-late Holocene (last 7 ka) elevational history on the southern shores of Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand. This coast is on the southwest side of a rapidly subsiding area beneath western Poverty Bay. Modern Analogue Technique paleo-elevation estimates based on fossil foraminiferal faunas indicate that the four study areas have gradual late Holocene (<3.5 ka) subsidence rates that increase from the southwest (mean c. 0.5 m ka - - 1 ) to northeast (mean c. 1.0 m ka -1 ). Only two rapid, possibly co-seismic, vertical displacement events are recognised: (1) c. 1.2 m of subsidence at 5.7 ± 0.4 ka (cal yr BP), which may have been generated by a subduction interface earthquake centred offshore and recorded in other published studies in northern Hawkes Bay, c. 35 km to the south; and (2) c. 1 m of uplift (relative sea-level fall) at c. 4.5 ± 0.3 ka, which might have been generated by rupture on an offshore upper plate fault that also uplifted coastal terraces at Pakarae and Mahia, 40 km to the north and south of the study area, or by rupture on the subduction interface penetrating beneath Poverty Bay. No sudden displacement events are recognised during the last 4 ka although subsidence, possibly aseismic, has continued. (author).

  2. Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnusalbacares Fishing Ground Forecasting Model Based On Bayes Classifier In The South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wei-feng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the yellowfin tuna (Thunnusalbacares,YFTlongline fishing catch data in the open South China Sea (SCS provided by WCPFC, the optimum interpolation sea surface temperature (OISST from CPC/NOAA and multi-satellites altimetric monthly averaged product sea surface height (SSH released by CNES, eight alternative options based on Bayes classifier were made in this paper according to different strategies on the choice of environment factors and the levels of fishing zones to classify the YFT fishing ground in the open SCS. The classification results were compared with the actual ones for validation and analyzed to know how different plans impact on classification results and precision. The results of validation showed that the precision of the eight options were 71.4%, 75%, 70.8%, 74.4%, 66.7%, 68.5%, 57.7% and 63.7% in sequence, the first to sixth among them above 65% would meet the practical application needs basically. The alternatives which use SST and SSH simultaneously as the environmental factors have higher precision than which only use single SST environmental factor, and the consideration of adding SSH can improve the model precision to a certain extent. The options which use CPUE’s mean ± standard deviation as threshold have higher precision than which use CPUE’s 33.3%-quantile and 66.7%-quantile as the threshold

  3. Cosmic noise absorption and ionospheric currents at the South Pole and Frobisher Bay: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, T.J.; Wolfe, A.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the conjugacy of auroral and ionospheric phenomena at very high latitudes are an important aspect of magnetospheric physics research. The extent to which auroral phenomena in opposite hemispheres are similar in occurrence and in the details of their temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics can be used to infer the commonality of the source(s) of the disturbances. At one extreme in this consideration is the questions of whether sources lie on open or closed magnetic field lines. The University of Maryland and AT ampersand T Bell Laboratories have operated riometers and fluxgate magnetometers, respectively, at South Pole since 1982. Corresponding measurements at Frobisher Bay were begun in mid-1985. Riometers record the absorption of cosmic radio noise in the ionosphere produced by the enhances precipitation of energetic charged particles. The studies of the riometer data relate mainly to the effects of the influx of magnetospheric electrons, which give rise to auroral absorption of the cosmic signals. Intense currents (electrojets) that often flow in the ionosphere in association with auroral absorption events produce magnetic field changes that can be recorded on the ground by appropriately sited magnetometers. This report presents some initial results of the comparison of the two data sets

  4. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter backscatter for quantification of suspended sediment concentration in South San Francisco Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Work, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    A data set was acquired on a shallow mudflat in south San Francisco Bay that featured simultaneous, co-located optical and acoustic sensors for subsequent estimation of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). The optical turbidity sensor output was converted to SSC via an empirical relation derived at a nearby site using bottle sample estimates of SSC. The acoustic data was obtained using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Backscatter and noise were combined to develop another empirical relation between the optical estimates of SSC and the relative backscatter from the acoustic velocimeter. The optical and acoustic approaches both reproduced similar general trends in the data and have merit. Some seasonal variation in the dataset was evident, with the two methods differing by greater or lesser amounts depending on which portion of the record was examined. It is hypothesized that this is the result of flocculation, affecting the two signals by different degrees, and that the significance or mechanism of the flocculation has some seasonal variability. In the earlier portion of the record (March), there is a clear difference that appears in the acoustic approach between ebb and flood periods, and this is not evident later in the record (May). The acoustic method has promise but it appears that characteristics of flocs that form and break apart may need to be accounted for to improve the power of the method. This may also be true of the optical method: both methods involve assuming that the sediment characteristics (size, size distribution, and shape) are constant.

  5. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Masok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  6. Diachronic Change within the Still Bay at Blombos Cave, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Archer

    Full Text Available Characteristically shaped bifacial points are stone artefacts with which the Middle Stone Age Still Bay techno-complex in Southern Africa is identified. Traditional approaches such as chaîne opératoire and two-dimensional metrics in combination with attribute analyses have been used to analyse variability within Still Bay point assemblages. Here we develop a protocol to extract and analyse high resolution 3-dimensional geometric morphometric information about Still Bay point morphology. We also investigate ways in which the independent variables of time, raw-material and tool size may be driving patterns of shape variation in the Blombos Cave point assemblage. We demonstrate that at a single, stratified Still Bay site points undergo significant modal changes in tool morphology and standardization. Our results caution against (1 treatment of the Still Bay as a static technological entity and (2 drawing demographic inferences stemming from grouping Still Bay point collections within the same cultural label.

  7. Storm-induced inner-continental shelf circulation and sediment transport: Long Bay, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Sylvester, Charlene S.; Voulgaris, George; Nelson, Tim; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2012-01-01

    Long Bay is a sediment-starved, arcuate embayment located along the US East Coast connecting both South and North Carolina. In this region the rates and pathways of sediment transport are important because they determine the availability of sediments for beach nourishment, seafloor habitat, and navigation. The impact of storms on sediment transport magnitude and direction were investigated during the period October 2003–April 2004 using bottom mounted flow meters, acoustic backscatter sensors and rotary sonars deployed at eight sites offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC, to measure currents, water levels, surface waves, salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentrations, and bedform morphology. Measurements identify that sediment mobility is caused by waves and wind driven currents from three predominant types of storm patterns that pass through this region: (1) cold fronts, (2) warm fronts and (3) low-pressure storms. The passage of a cold front is accompanied by a rapid change in wind direction from primarily northeastward to southwestward. The passage of a warm front is accompanied by an opposite change in wind direction from mainly southwestward to northeastward. Low-pressure systems passing offshore are accompanied by a change in wind direction from southwestward to southeastward as the offshore storm moves from south to north.During the passage of cold fronts more sediment is transported when winds are northeastward and directed onshore than when the winds are directed offshore, creating a net sediment flux to the north–east. Likewise, even though the warm front has an opposite wind pattern, net sediment flux is typically to the north–east due to the larger fetch when the winds are northeastward and directed onshore. During the passage of low-pressure systems strong winds, waves, and currents to the south are sustained creating a net sediment flux southwestward. During the 3-month deployment a total of 8 cold fronts, 10 warm fronts, and 10 low

  8. Seismic stratigraphy and late Quaternary shelf history, south-central Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, J.L.; Clifton, H.E.; Mullins, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The south-central Monterey Bay shelf is a high-energy, wave-dominated, tectonically active coastal region on the central California continental margin. A prominent feature of this shelf is a sediment lobe off the mouth of the Salinas River that has surface expression. High-resolution seismic-reflection profiles reveal that an angular unconformity (Quaternary?) underlies the entire shelf and separates undeformed strata above it from deformed strata below it. The Salinas River lobe is a convex bulge on the shelf covering an area of approximately 72 km2 in water depths from 10 to 90 m. It reaches a maximum thickness of 35 m about 2.5 km seaward of the river mouth and thins in all directions away from this point. Adjacent shelf areas are characterized by only a thin (2 to 5 m thick) and uniform veneer of sediment. Acoustic stratigraphy of the lobe is complex and is characterized by at least three unconformity-bounded depositional sequences. Acoustically, these sequences are relatively well bedded. Acoustic foresets occur within the intermediate sequence and dip seaward at 0.7?? to 2.0??. Comparison with sedimentary sequences in uplifted onshore Pleistocene marine-terrace deposits of the Monterey Bay area, which were presumably formed in a similar setting under similar processes, suggests that a general interpretation can be formulated for seismic stratigraphic patterns. Depositional sequences are interpreted to represent shallowing-upwards progradational sequences of marine to nonmarine coastal deposits formed during interglacial highstands and/or during early stages of falling sea level. Acoustic foresets within the intermediate sequence are evidence of seaward progradation. Acoustic unconformities that separate depositional sequences are interpreted as having formed largely by shoreface planation and may be the only record of the intervening transgressions. The internal stratigraphy of the Salinas River lobe thus suggests that at least several late Quaternary

  9. Human and riverine impacts on the dynamics of seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dongseon; Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-04-01

    We investigated seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea, which has been exposed to significant human influences, in each core month of four seasons for between 2010 and 2012. The survey data were analyzed using multivariate statistics analysis (cluster and factor analysis). As a result, we found that the Seomjin River (the fifth largest river in South Korea) and biological activity, including phytoplankton photosynthesis and bacterial decomposition, were the main factors determining the overall water quality of the bay. However, the impacts of these factors varied both spatially and seasonally, because the factors were linked with the geographical environments and seasonal variations in freshwater discharge. In particular, the Seomjin River was primarily responsible for nitrate, silicate, total alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon, and exhibited a significant impact in the summer. During the past 10 years, nutrient loads from the river and industrial complexes to the bay have decreased. The impacts of this decrease are visible in the phosphate concentration, which has fallen to a third of its initial value. We also examined the potential role of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen cycling in the study area.

  10. 33 CFR 334.670 - Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico south and west of Apalachicola, San Blas, and St. Joseph bays; air-to-air firing practice range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.670 Gulf of Mexico south and west of...

  11. Temporal changes in TBT pollution in water, sediment, and oyster from Jinhae Bay after the total ban in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-09-15

    Temporal change in tributyltin (TBT) levels in Jinhae Bay, which has various TBT sources, was investigated in water, sediments, and oysters from 2003 to 2013 after its total ban in South Korea. The seawater TBT levels decreased over 500-fold from 1995/97 to 2008/09. The oyster TBT levels were about fourfold lower in 2012/13 than in 1995/97. However, the sediment TBT levels did not significantly change, even 10 years after the partial TBT ban on small ships and 7 years after the total TBT ban on all oceangoing vessels in Korea. The total ban of TBT use effectively reduced water and oyster TBT levels in Jinhae Bay, but TBT levels in water, oysters, and sediment remained above the global environmental quality standards established to protect marine organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is metal pollution a threat to the continued survival of the starfish in False Bay, South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan J. Reinecke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanisation and industrial development in the catchment area of False Bay in South Africa are increasing and concern was raised about the effect of environmental pollutants on intertidal fauna such as starfish. The aim of the present study was to obtain initial descriptive baseline data over several seasons during 2000–2001 of metal concentrations in water, sediment and body samples of the chosen cushion starfish Parvulastra exigua (Lamarck, 1816 that occurs widely in the intertidal zone of False Bay. Concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc were measured in samples of the cushion starfish, water and sediment at five localities along the coast of False Bay. The samples were chemically analysed for metals by atomic spectrophotometry. The highest individually measured concentrations of cadmium (Cd in starfish and sediment were found in the northern coastal region between Strand and Muizenberg where most industrial activity and human settlement occur. Large variation in concentrations of all metals occurred between localities and seasons. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in water and sediment were in a few instances slightly higher than the recommended levels or target values of the South African marine water and sediment quality norms but still lower than those in various developed countries. Indications are that the bay was at the time of this study still less contaminated by metals in comparison with the coastal waters of various other countries. The accumulation of nonessential metals such as cadmium and lead in both sediment and bodies of starfish was nevertheless such that it can be assumed that environmental concentrations in some parts of the bay could over time build up to levels that are detrimental to the species as well as their predators. This study provided evidence that the cushion starfish in False Bay is exposed to several metals of which some are potentially hazardous since they tend to gradually accumulate

  13. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    The bay of Cádiz is a densely populated and industrialized area, and an important centre of tourism which multiplies its population in the summer months. This bay is situated in the Gulf of Cádiz, the south-west Atlantic margin of the Iberian Peninsula. From a tectonic point of view this area can be defined as a diffuse plate boundary, comprising the eastern edge of the Gloria and Tydeman transforms (where the deformation is mainly concentrated in these shear corridors), the Gorringe Bank, the Horseshoe Abyssal plain, the Portimao and Guadalquivir banks, and the western termination of the arcuated Gibraltar Arc. This deformation zone is the eastern edge of the Azores - Gibraltar seismic zone, being the present day boundary between the Eurasian and African plates. The motion between the plates is mainly convergent in the Gulf of Cádiz, but gradually changes to almost pure transcurrent along the Gloria Fault. The relative motion between the two plates is of the order of 4-5 mm/yr. In order to define the different tsunamigenic zones and to characterize its worst tsunamigenic source we have used seismic, structural and geological data. The numerical model used to simulate the wave propagation and coastal inundation is the C3 (Cantabria, COMCOT and Tsunami-Claw) model. C3 is a hybrid finite difference-finite volume method which balances between efficiency and accuracy. For offshore domain in deep waters the model applies an explicit finite difference scheme (FD), which is computationally fast and accurate in large grids. For near coast domains in coastal areas, it applies a finite volume scheme (VOF). It solves correctly the bore formation and the bore propagation. It is very effective solving the run-up and the run down. A set of five worst case tsunamigenic sources has been used with four different sea levels (minimum tide, most probable low tide, most probable high tide and maximum tide), in order to produce the following thematic maps with the C3 model: maximum

  14. Radar efficiency and the calculation of decade-long PMSE backscatter cross-section for the Resolute Bay VHF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Swarnalingam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Resolute Bay VHF radar, located in Nunavut, Canada (75.0° N, 95.0° W and operating at 51.5 MHz, has been used to investigate Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE since 1997. PMSE are a unique form of strong coherent radar echoes, and their understanding has been a challenge to the scientific community since their discovery more than three decades ago. While other high latitude radars have recorded strong levels of PMSE activities, the Resolute Bay radar has observed relatively lower levels of PMSE strengths. In order to derive absolute measurements of PMSE strength at this site, a technique is developed to determine the radar efficiency using cosmic (sky noise variations along with the help of a calibrated noise source. VHF radars are only rarely calibrated, but determination of efficiency is even less common. Here we emphasize the importance of efficiency for determination of cross-section measurements. The significant advantage of this method is that it can be directly applied to any MST radar system anywhere in the world as long as the sky noise variations are known. The radar efficiencies for two on-site radars at Resolute Bay are determined. PMSE backscatter cross-section is estimated, and decade-long PMSE strength variations at this location are investigated. It was noticed that the median of the backscatter cross-section distribution remains relatively unchanged, but over the years a great level of variability occurs in the high power tail of the distribution.

  15. Illumina-based analysis the microbial diversity associated with Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Dong, Jun-De; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou; Wang, You-Shao

    2015-10-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the microbial diversity associated with seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in Xincun Bay, South China Sea, 16S rRNA gene was identified by highthrough sequencing method. Bacteria associated with seagrass T. hemprichii belonged to 37 phyla, 99 classes. The diversity of bacteria associated with seagrass was similar among the geographically linked coastal locations of Xincun Bay. Proteobacteria was the dominant bacteria and the α-proteobacteria had adapted to the seagrass ecological niche. As well, α-proteobacteria and Pseudomonadales were associated microflora in seagrass meadows, but the interaction between the bacteria and plant is needed to further research. Burkholderiales and Verrucomicrobiae indicated the influence of the bay from anthropogenic activities. Further, Cyanobacteria could imply the difference of the nutrient conditions in the sites. γ-proteobacteria, Desulfobacterales and Pirellulales played a role in the cycle of sulfur, organic mineralization and meadow ecosystem, respectively. In addition, the less abundance bacteria species have key functions in the seagrass meadows, but there is lack knowledge of the interaction of the seagrass and less abundance bacteria species. Microbial communities can response to surroundings and play key functions in the biochemical cycle.

  16. Occurrence of marine algal toxins in oyster and phytoplankton samples in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Zhijun; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tianjiu; Lu, Songhui

    2017-09-01

    The occurrence and seasonal variations of marine algal toxins in phytoplankton and oyster samples in Daya Bay (DYB), South China Sea were investigated. Two Dinophysis species, namely, D. caudata and D. acuminata complex, were identified as Okadaic acid (OA)/pectenotoxin (PTX) related species. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated that 2.04-14.47 pg PTX2 per cell was the predominant toxin in single-cell isolates of D. caudata. D. acuminata was not subjected to toxin analysis. The occurrence of OAs in phytoplankton concentrates of net-haul sample coincided with the presence of D. accuminata complex, suggesting that this species is most likely an OA producer in this sea area. OA, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1), PTX2, PTX2sa, gymnodimine (GYM), homoyessotoxin (homoYTX), and domoic acid (DA) demonstrated positive results in net haul samples. To our best knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of GYM, DA, and homoYTX in phytoplankton samples in Chinese coastal waters. Among the algal toxins, GYM demonstrated the highest frequency of positive detections in phytoplankton concentrates (13/17). Five compounds of algal toxins, including OA, DTX1, PTX2, PTX2sa, and GYM, were detected in oyster samples. DA and homoYTX were not detected in oysters despite of positive detections for both in the phytoplankton concentrates. However, neither the presence nor absence of DA in oysters can be determined because extraction conditions with 100% methanol used to isolate toxins from oysters (recommended by the EU-Harmonised Standard Operating Procedure, 2015) would likely be unsuitable for this water-soluble toxin. In addition, transformation of DA during the digestion process of oysters may also be involved in the negative detections of this toxin. GYM exhibited the highest frequency of positive results in oysters (14/17). OAs were only detected in the hydrolyzed oyster samples. The detection rates of PTX and PTX2sa in

  17. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  18. Influence of urbanization and industrialization on metal enrichment of sediment cores from Shantou Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Jiangang; Tao, Ran; Xu, Ronghua

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to investigate geochemical sources and to assess enrichment and pollution of metals in sediments from Shantou Bay, an area experiencing rapid economic development on the Southeastern Coast of China. The results indicated that the concentrations of the majority of metals showed a decrease with depth, with overall maximum values in the top layers, and that different sampling locations in the Bay received slightly different types of inputs. Three major sources were identified by correlation analysis and principal component analysis: river inputs, metropolitan, and port facilities discharge. Calculation of a pollution load index revealed overall low values, but the enrichment factor values for Pb and Cd were typically high for all cores. The mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and to some extent Cd exceeded the Effects-Range-Low values in the majority of the cases, indicating that there were possible ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Highlights: •Metals had downward decrease with overall maximum value at top layers. •River input, metropolitan and port facilities discharge are identified as major sources. •Pb and Cd are mainly enriched metals. •Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd had potential ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Shantou Bay was polluted by Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and showed an increase trend along time. River input, metropolitan and port facilities were identified as their sources based on multi-analysis

  19. Modeling the fate of p,p'-DDT in water and sediment of two typical estuarine bays in South China: Importance of fishing vessels' inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Xianming; Bao, Lian-Jun; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-05-01

    Antifouling paint applied to fishing vessels is the primary source of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to the coastal marine environments of China. With the aim to provide science-based support of potential regulations on DDT use in antifouling paint, we utilized a fugacity-based model to evaluate the fate and impact of p,p'-DDT, the dominant component of DDT mixture, in Daya Bay and Hailing Bay, two typical estuarine bays in South China. The emissions of p,p'-DDT from fishing vessels to the aquatic environments of Hailing Bay and Daya Bay were estimated as 9.3 and 7.7 kg yr(-1), respectively. Uncertainty analysis indicated that the temporal variability of p,p'-DDT was well described by the model if fishing vessels were considered as the only direct source, i.e., fishing vessels should be the dominant source of p,p'-DDT in coastal bay areas of China. Estimated hazard quotients indicated that sediment in Hailing Bay posed high risk to the aquatic system, and it would take at least 21 years to reduce the hazards to a safe level. Moreover, p,p'-DDT tends to migrate from water to sediment in the entire Hailing Bay and Daya Bay. On the other hand, our previous research indicated that p,p'-DDT was more likely to migrate from sediment to water in the maricultured zones located in shallow waters of these two bays, where fishing vessels frequently remain. These findings suggest that relocating mariculture zones to deeper waters would reduce the likelihood of farmed fish contamination by p,p'-DDT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oceanic variability in the western sector of Algoa Bay, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The city of Port Elizabeth lies in the western sector of Algoa Bay, and a number of projects have investigated the oceanic temperature, salinity and current structures in the vicinity. This paper analyses past results, and then incorporates measurements of salinity, sea temperatures and currents from projects over the years ...

  1. Saldanha Bay, South Africa I: the use of ocean colour remote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of ocean colour remote sensing in assessing the variability of phytoplankton biomass within Saldanha Bay is examined. Satellite estimates of chlorophyll a (Chl a) were obtained using the maximum peak-height (MPH) algorithm on full-resolution (300 m) data from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer ...

  2. The effects of coal dust on photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina in Richards Bay, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Chirkoot, D.

    2004-01-01

    Richards Bay, on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast, is the largest coal exporting port in South Africa. The coal is stored at the Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) prior to export. Dust from coal operations is a major problem in the Richards Bay area. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that coal dust adversely affects photosynthetic performance of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh., the dominant mangrove species in the harbour. Photosynthetic performance was determined on 10 trees by measuring carbon dioxide uptake and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at two elevation sites and on upper and lower leaf surfaces that were covered or uncovered with coal dust. Measurements were made on five clear, sunny days at saturating light (>1000 μmol m -2 s -1 ) and high temperature (28-30 deg. C). Coal dust significantly reduced carbon dioxide exchange of upper and lower leaf surfaces by 17-39%, the reduction being generally greater on the lower leaf surface that is covered by a dense mat of trichomes and salt glands. The reduction in carbon dioxide exchange by coal dust was higher at the high elevation site that supported isolated dwarfed trees. The chlorophyll fluorescence data indicated that leaves coated with dust exhibited significantly lower photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield, lower electron transport rate (ETR) through PSII and reduced quantum efficiency of PSII (F v F m ). The chlorophyll fluorescence data supported the gas exchange measurements and are consistent with reduced photosynthetic performance of leaves coated with coal dust. - Coal dust reduced photosynthetic performance of the mangrove, Avicennia marina

  3. Difference of nitrogen-cycling microbes between shallow bay and deep-sea sediments in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tiantian; Li, Meng; Niu, Mingyang; Fan, Xibei; Liang, Wenyue; Wang, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    In marine sediments, microorganisms are known to play important roles in nitrogen cycling; however, the composition and quantity of microbes taking part in each process of nitrogen cycling are currently unclear. In this study, two different types of marine sediment samples (shallow bay and deep-sea sediments) in the South China Sea (SCS) were selected to investigate the microbial community involved in nitrogen cycling. The abundance and composition of prokaryotes and seven key functional genes involved in five processes of the nitrogen cycle [nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox)] were presented. The results showed that a higher abundance of denitrifiers was detected in shallow bay sediments, while a higher abundance of microbes involved in ammonia oxidation, anammox, and DNRA was found in the deep-sea sediments. Moreover, phylogenetic differentiation of bacterial amoA, nirS, nosZ, and nrfA sequences between the two types of sediments was also presented, suggesting environmental selection of microbes with the same geochemical functions but varying physiological properties.

  4. A Case History of the Science and Management Collaboration in Understanding Hypoxia Events in Long Bay, South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Denise; Hernandez, Debra; Libes, Susan; Voulgaris, George; Davis, Braxton; Smith, Erik; Shuford, Rebecca; Porter, Dwayne; Koepfler, Eric; Bennett, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Communication of knowledge between the scientific and management communities is a difficult process complicated by the distinctive nature of professional career goals of scientists and decision-makers. This article provides a case history highlighting a collaboration between the science and management communities that resulted from a response to a 2004 hypoxia, or low dissolved oxygen, event in Long Bay, off Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. A working group of scientists and decision-makers was established at the time of the event and has continued to interact to develop a firm understanding of the drivers responsible for hypoxia formation in Long Bay. Several factors were found to be important to ensure that these collaborative efforts were productive: (1) genuine interest in collaboratively working across disciplines to examine a problem; (2) commitment by agency leadership, decision-makers, and researchers to create successful communication mechanisms; (3) respect for each others’ perspectives and an understanding how science and management are performed and that they are not mutually exclusive; (4) networking among researchers and decision-makers to ensure appropriate team members are involved in the process; (5) use of decision-maker input in the formulation of research and monitoring projects; and (6) commitment of resources for facilitation to ensure that researchers and decision-makers are communicating effectively.

  5. Effects of human disturbance on waterbird nesting and reproductive success at restoration pond SF2, south San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    To offset for the loss of managed pond habitat during restoration of wetlands to tidal marsh, the South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project is enhancing some of the remaining ponds by constructing islands for roosting and nesting waterbirds. Among these wetland habitats, the SBSP Restoration Project also is installing walking trails and viewing platforms in an effort to bring the public closer to nature. In winter of 2010–11, the SBSP Restoration Project constructed 30 islands in Pond SF2 and walking trails and viewing platforms around the edge of the pond. The restoration project partners acknowledged that human disturbance could detrimentally affect nesting and roosting waterbirds. Although optimal buffer distances and potential for human disturbance were unknown, islands in Pond SF2, nevertheless, were designed with built-in buffers of greater than 300 feet (91 meters) from a trail and 600 feet (182 meters) from a viewing platform in order to minimize potential human disturbances.

  6. Cultivation-dependent analysis of the microbial diversity associated with the seagrass meadows in Xincun Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-Feng; Ling, Juan; Wang, You-Shao; Chen, Biao; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Dong, Jun-De

    2015-10-01

    Microbial communities have largely existed in the seagrass meadows. A total of 496 strains of the bacteria in the seagrass meadows, which belonged to 50 genera, were obtained by the plate cultivation method from three sites of Xincun Bay, South China Sea. The results showed that Bacillales and Vibrionales accounted for the highest proportions of organisms in all communities. The diversity of the bacteria in the sediment was higher than that associated with seagrass. Thalassia hemperichii possessed the highest abundance of bacteria, followed by Enhalus acoroides and Cymodocea rotundata. Robust seasonal dynamics in microbial community composition were also observed. It was found that microbial activities were closely tied to the growth stage of the seagrass. The microbial distribution was the lowest in site 3. The abundance of the bacteria was linked to the interactions between bacteria and plants, the condition of plant and even the coastal water quality and the nutrition level in the sediment.

  7. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin-H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Net phytoplankton of the Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) in 1983

    OpenAIRE

    Ligowski, Ryszard

    1986-01-01

    Paper received 13 July 1985. Phytoplankton sampling from 13 stations situated in Admiralty Bay was carried out in March. April, May, October and November 1983. Wet settling volume of seston, its dry weight, number of cells under 1 m², and qualitative composition of phytoplankton were determined. It was found that amount of phytoplankton was decreasing in April and increasing again in November after the winter season. The share of benthic and periphyton species in the qualita...

  10. Phytoplankton distribution and their relationship to environmental variables in Sanya Bay, South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanying Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton quantification was conducted in Sanya Bay from January 2005 to February 2006. A submersible in situ spectrofluorometer, which permits the differentiation of four algal groups (green algae, diatoms and dinoflagellates, cryptophytes and cyanobacteria was used. Seasonal variation of total chlorophyll a concentration showed that high value appeared in summer and low concentration occurred in spring. Diatoms and dinoflagellates group was the predominant phytoplankton all year in the Bay. The stable stratification of phytoplankton vertical distribution came into being in July. During the stratification event, the total chlorophyll a concentration of deep layer was much higher than the surface; cyanobacteria and cryptophyta groups decreased and almost disappeared, however, the concentration of green algae and diatoms and dinoflagellates groups increased. In deep layer, the concentration of diatoms and dinoflagellates group increased sharply, which was about eight times more than that in the surface layer. The vertical profiles character of phytoplankton showed that from inshore stations to outer bay the stratification of phytoplankton vertical distribution gradually strengthened. Dissolved inorganic nutrient especially phosphate and inorganic nitrogen and cold-water upwelling were the main regulating factor for phytoplankton distribution.

  11. Speciation of Metals and Assessment of Contamination in Surface Sediments from Daya Bay, South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents, speciation, source factors and potential ecological risks of the selected metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and As were analyzed in surface sediments from Daya Bay (DYB. The results show that, with the exception of Pb, metal concentrations have decreased at all sites over the past decade. The distribution features of these concentrations represent a ring shape that descends from shore to bay by varying degrees. Speciation analysis showed that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and As exist mainly in the residual fraction and, thus, are of low bioavailability, while Cd and Pb were found to be abundant in the non-residual fraction and, thus, have high potential mobility. The ratio of heavy metals in non-residual form in descending order is Pb (78.83%, Cd (78.65%, Cu (48.54%, Zn (48.10%, Ni (38.31%, Cr (28.43% and As (27.76%. The ratio of Pb content is the highest, meaning the highest mobility of Pb. The metals’ potential ecological risks to the environment were also assessed using the methods of the mean effect range-median quotient and the criteria of risk assessment code. The results showed that Cd presents the highest risk, and Pb and Cu are generally considered to be medium risks in the sub-basins of Daya Bay. The principal component analysis (PCA revealed that natural coastal weathering and erosion of rock caused the highest input, followed by mariculture and industrial wastewater and, finally, domestic sewage discharge.

  12. Distribution of radionuclides in a marine sediment core off the waterspout of the nuclear power plants in Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Li, Haitao; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Zhang, Yusheng; Zhang, Hongbiao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    A sediment core was collected and dated using (210)Pbex dating method off the waterspout of nuclear power base of Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea. The γ-emitting radionuclides were analyzed using HPGe γ spectrometry, gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as other geochemical indicators were deliberated to assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation and to study the past environment changes. It suggested that NPP provided no new radioactivity source to sediment based on the low specific activity of (137)Cs. Two broad peaks of TOC, TC and LOI accorded well with the commercial operations of Daya Bay NPP (1994.2 and 1994.5) and LNPP Phase I (2002.5 and 2003.3), implying that the mass input of cooling water from NPP may result into a substantial change in the ecological environment and Daya Bay has been severely impacted by human activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2017-08-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  14. Anomalous Ba/Ca signals associated with low temperature stresses in Porites corals from Daya Bay, northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianran Chen; Kefu Yu; Shu Li; Tegu Chen; Qi Shi

    2011-01-01

    Barium to calcium (Ba/Ca) ratio in corals has been considered as a useful geochemical proxy for upwelling,river flood and other oceanic processes.However,recent studies indicated that additional environmental or biological factors can influence the incorporation of Ba into coral skeletons.In this study,Ba/Ca ratios of two Porites corals collected from Daya Bay,northern South China Sea were analyzed.Ba/Ca signals in the two corals were 'anomalous' in comparison with Ba behaviors seen in other near-shore corals influenced by upwelling or riverine runoff.Our Ba/Ca profiles displayed similar and remarkable patterns characterized by low and randomly fluctuating background signals periodically interrupted by sharp and large synchronous peaks,clearly indicating an environmental forcing.Further analysis indicated that the Ba/Ca profiles were not correlated with previously claimed environmental factors such as precipitation,coastal upwelling,anthropogenic activities or phytoplankton blooms in other areas.The maxima of Ba/Ca appeared to occur in the period of Sr/Ca maxima,coinciding with the winter minimum temperatures,which suggests that the anomalous high Ba/Ca signals were related to winter-time low sea surface temperature.We speculated that the Ba/Ca peaks in corals of the Daya Bay were most likely the results of enrichment of Ba-rich particles in their skeletons when coral polyps retracted under the stresses of anomalous winter low temperatures.In this case,Ba/Ca ratio in relatively high-latitude corals can be a potential proxy for tracing the low temperature stress.

  15. Export of a Winter Shelf Phytoplankton Bloom at the Shelf Margin of Long Bay (South Atlantic Bight, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Seim, H.; Edwards, C. R.; Lockhart, S.; Moore, T.; Robertson, C. Y.; Amft, J.

    2016-02-01

    A winter 2012 field study off Long Bay (seaward of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina) investigated exchange processes along the shelf margin. Topics addressed included mechanisms of nutrient input (upper slope to outer shelf), phytoplankton blooms and community characteristics (mid-to-outer shelf), and possible export of shelf bloom material (transport to and across the shelf break to the upper slope). Observations utilized three moorings (mid-shelf, shelf break, upper slope), two gliders and ship operations (repeat cruises with profiling, water sampling and towed body surveys) along with satellite SST and ocean color imagery and near-by NOAA buoy records. Here we focus on the late January to early February period, when a mid-shelf bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (which forms large gelatinous colonies) was transported to the shelf break. The presence of Phaeocystis colonies resulted in strong spiking in chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence profiles. A partitioning approach was adapted to estimate chl in colonies (spikes) and small forms (baseline signal) and to account for an apparent difference in measured in vivo fluorescence per unit chl (lower in colonies). Up to 40-50% of chl in the bloom (surface to bottom on the mid-shelf) was estimated to be in the colonies. In late January, there a pronounced seaward slumping of relatively dense mid-shelf water along the bottom under warmer surface water derived from the inshore edge of a broad jet of Gulf Stream water flowing southwestward along the upper slope. We describe the evolution of this event and the conditions which set up this mechanism for episodic near-bed transport of fresh bloom material produced on the shelf to the upper slope off Long Bay. Down-slope transport may have been enhanced in this case by the high phytoplankton biomass in gelatinous colonies, which appeared to be settling in the water column on the shelf prior to the transport event.

  16. Temperature profile and other data collected from XBT casts in South Pacific Ocean from BOTANY BAY and other platforms from 24 January 1991 to 20 November 1991 (NODC Accession 9400208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using XBT casts from BOTANY BAY and other platforms in South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 24 January...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of Corral Bay, south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Fleming, Hernan; P, Adalberto J Asencio; Gutierrez, Elena

    2004-03-01

    PAHs were measured in sediments and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from Carboneros and Puerto Claro, located in Corral Bay, Valdivia. According to the ratio of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene concentrations, these sites are medium polluted with PAHs originating mainly from pyrolytic sources. Fluoranthene was the major component measured in mussels (3.1-390 ng g(-1) dry weight) and sediments (6.9-74.1 ng g(-1) dry weight). In general, mussels were mainly exposed to the dissolved fraction of the lower molecular weight PAHs (tri- and tetra-aromatics) while the higher molecular ring systems (penta- and hexa-aromatics) were more bioavailable to sediments. Mussel PAHs content was relatively constant, with the exception of the 1999 summer season (March), when higher concentration values were found in both sites; however, PAHs residues in sediments showed a temporal variation.

  18. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals both in wild and mariculture food chains in Daya Bay, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yao-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of heavy metals both in the natural marine ecosystem (seawater, sediment, coral reef, phytoplankton, macrophyte, shrimp, crab, shellfish, planktivorous and carnivorous fish) and in the mariculture ecosystem (compound feed, trash fish, farmed pompano and snapper) were studied at Daya Bay, a typical subtropical bay in Southern China. The levels of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in sediment were 11.7, 10.2, 53.8 and 2.8 times than those in coral reef, respectively. Pb and Zn levels were markedly higher in phytoplankton than in macrophyte, probably caused by the larger specific surface area in phytoplankton. The highest levels of Zn (98.1), Pb (1.87) and Cd (5.11 μg g-1 dw) in wild organisms were all found in clam (Veremolpa scabra), indicating that these metals were apt to bioaccumulate in shellfish. The average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in wild fish were 3.7, 2.1, 0.4 and 22.2 times than those in farmed fish, confirming the "growth dilution" hypothesis in farmed fish. Heavy metal bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in algae, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in wild species and transfer factors (TFs) in organism were calculated and discussed. The results suggested that biologically essential Cu and Zn were easier to accumulate in fish than non-essential Cd. Concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd were several times higher in wild fish than in farmed fish whereas the opposite was observed for Pb. This metal also showed the highest transfer factor from food, which means that special attention must be given to fish feed production in relation to metal contamination.

  19. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-F2013227943] South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19... South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over 2,000 acres of... Pollution Control Plant located at 700 Los Esteros Road, San Jose, California. The details of the public...

  20. (Crustacea: Branchiura) from a bony fish in Algoa Bay, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Republic of South Af"ica. Received J December 1994; accepted 29 September 1995. The new species is characterized by the unique shape of the antennule, antenna and maxilla. In addition, huge scales are present on the mouth tube ...

  1. Enhancing Critical Consciousness through a Cross-Cultural Immersion Experience in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Mi; VanVoorhis, Richard W.; Ellenwood, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Using phenomenological approaches, the author explored the meanings and essences of a cross-cultural immersion experience in South Africa among counseling master's-level students. Five core themes--the meaning of being American, sociopolitical awareness, engagement with South Africans and their communities, appreciation of life, and commitment to…

  2. Distribution of radionuclides in a marine sediment core off the waterspout of the nuclear power plants in Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Li, Haitao; Fang, Hongda; Huang, Chuguang; Zhang, Yusheng; Zhang, Hongbiao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    A sediment core was collected and dated using 210 Pb ex dating method off the waterspout of nuclear power base of Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea. The γ-emitting radionuclides were analyzed using HPGe γ spectrometry, gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as other geochemical indicators were deliberated to assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation and to study the past environment changes. It suggested that NPP provided no new radioactivity source to sediment based on the low specific activity of 137 Cs. Two broad peaks of TOC, TC and LOI accorded well with the commercial operations of Daya Bay NPP (1994.2 and 1994.5) and LNPP Phase I (2002.5 and 2003.3), implying that the mass input of cooling water from NPP may result into a substantial change in the ecological environment and Daya Bay has been severely impacted by human activities. - Graphical abstract: A sediment core was collected and dated using 210 Pb ex dating method, off the waterspout of nuclear power base of Daya Bay, northeastern South China Sea. The γ-emitting radionuclides analyzed using the HPGe γ spectrometry, gross alpha and beta radioactivity as well as other geochemical indicators were deliberated to study the past environment changes and assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation. NPP provided no new radioactivity source to sediment, but the mass input of cooling water from nuclear power plants may result into a substantial change in the ecological environment and Daya Bay has been severely impacted by human activities. - Highlights: • A sediment core collected from Daya Bay, South China Sea was dated using 210 Pb ex method. • The γ-emitting radionuclides, gross α and β, TOC, TIC, TC, LOI were deliberated to assess the impact of nuclear power plants (NPP) operation. • The low activity of 137 Cs in sediment suggested NPP provided no new radioactivity source. • Two peaks of TOC, TC and LOI implied that the mass input of NPP cooling water may

  3. Shark Spotters: Successfully reducing spatial overlap between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and recreational water users in False Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Tamlyn; Kock, Alison; Waries, Sarah; O'Riain, M Justin

    2017-01-01

    White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are apex predators that play an important role in the structure and stability of marine ecosystems. Despite their ecological importance and protected status, white sharks are still subject to lethal control to reduce the risk of shark bites for recreational water users. The Shark Spotters program, pioneered in Cape Town, South Africa, provides a non-lethal alternative for reducing the risk of human-shark conflict. In this study we assessed the efficacy of the Shark Spotters program in reducing overlap between water users and white sharks at two popular beaches in False Bay, South Africa. We investigated seasonal and diel patterns in water use and shark presence at each beach, and thereafter quantified the impact of different shark warnings from shark spotters on water user abundance. We also assessed the impact of a fatal shark incident on patterns of water use. Our results revealed striking diel and seasonal overlap between white sharks and water users at both beaches. Despite this, there was a low rate of shark-human incidents (0.5/annum) which we attribute partly to the success of the Shark Spotters program. Shark spotters use visual (coloured flags) and auditory (siren) cues to inform water users of risk associated with white shark presence in the surf zone. Our results showed that the highest risk category (denoted by a white flag and accompanying siren) caused a significant reduction in water user abundance; however the secondary risk category (denoted by a red flag with no siren) had no significant effect on water users. A fatal shark incident was shown to negatively impact the number of water users present for at least three months following the incident. Our results indicate that the Shark Spotters program effectively reduces spatial overlap between white sharks and water users when the risk of conflict is highest.

  4. Eddy-induced cross-shelf export of high Chl-a coastal waters in the SE Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Rubio, Anna

    2017-12-08

    Different remote sensing data were combined to characterise a winter anticyclonic eddy in the southeastern Bay of Biscay and to infer its effects on cross-shelf exchanges, in a period when typical along shelf-slope currents depict a cyclonic pattern. While the joint analysis of available satellite data (infrared, visible and altimetry) permitted the characterisation and tracking of the anticyclone properties and path, data from a coastal high-frequency radar system enabled a quantitative analysis of the surface cross-shelf transports associated with this anticyclone. The warm core anticyclone had a diameter of around 50km, maximum azimuthal velocities near 50cms−1 and a relative vorticity of up to −0.45f. The eddy generation occurred after the relaxation of a cyclonic wind-driven current regime over the shelf-slope; then, the eddy remained stationary for several weeks until it started to drift northwards along the shelf break. The surface signature of this eddy was observed by means of high-frequency radar data for 20 consecutive days, providing a unique opportunity to characterise and quantify, from a Lagrangian perspective, the associated transport and its effect on the Chl-a surface distribution. We observed the presence of mesoscale structures with similar characteristics in the area during different winters within the period 2011–2014. Our results suggest that the eddy-induced recurrent cross-shelf export is an effective mechanism for the expansion of coastal productive waters into the adjacent oligotrophic ocean basin.

  5. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thirty-eight antibiotics were systematically investigated in marine environment. • The distribution of antibiotics was significantly correlated with COD and NO 3 –N. • Untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics. • Fluoroquinolones showed a strong sorption capacity onto sediments. • Oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O indicated high risks. - Abstract: In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163 ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318 ng/L (erythromycin–H 2 O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184 ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O posed high risks to aquatic organisms

  6. Investigation of the height dependency of optical turbulence in the surface layer over False Bay (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Detlev; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Günter, Willie; Griffith, Derek; Eisele, Christian; Sucher, Erik; Seiffer, Dirk; Stein, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric turbulence impacts on the propagation of electro-optical radiation. Typical manifestations of optical turbulence are scintillation (intensity fluctuations), beam wander and (for laser systems) reduction of beam quality. For longer propagation channels, it is important to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution (inhomogeneity) of the optical turbulence. In the framework of the First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment (FESTER) optical turbulence was measured between June 2015 and February 2016 over a 1.8 km over-water link over False Bay. The link ran from the Institute of Maritime Technology (IMT) at Simons Town to the lighthouse at Roman Rock Island. Three Boundary layer scintillometers (BLS900) allowed assessing the vertical distribution of optical turbulence at three different heights between 5 and 12 m above the water surface. The expected decrease with Cn2 with height is not always found. These results are analyzed in terms of the meteorological scenario, and a comparison is made with a fourth optical link providing optical turbulence data over a 8.69 km path from IMT to St. James, roughly perpendicular to the three 1.8 km paths.

  7. Crossing borders : development, learning and the North-South divide.

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, C.

    2006-01-01

    While the validity of categories like 'First' and 'Third' World or 'North' and 'South' has been increasingly questioned, there have been few attempts to consider how learning between North and South might be conceived. Drawing on a range of perspectives from development and postcolonial scholarship, this paper argues for the creative possibility of learning between different contexts. This involves a conceptualisation of learning that is at once ethical and indirect: ethical because it transc...

  8. Evaluation of social attraction measures to establish Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) nesting colonies for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California—2017 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Wang, Yiwei; Strong, Cheryl

    2018-05-31

    Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), historically one of the most numerous colonial-breeding waterbirds in South San Francisco Bay, California, have had recent decreases in the number of nesting colonies and overall breeding population size. The South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in South San Francisco Bay. This restoration will remove much of the historical island nesting habitat used by Forster’s terns, American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and other waterbirds. To address this issue, the SBSP Restoration Project organized the construction of new nesting islands in managed ponds that will not be restored to tidal marsh, thereby providing enduring island nesting habitat for waterbirds. In 2012, 16 new islands were constructed in Pond A16 in the Alviso complex of the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, increasing the number of islands in this pond from 4 to 20. However, despite a history of nesting on the four historical islands in Pond A16 before 2012, no Forster’s terns have nested in Pond A16 since the new islands were constructed.In 2017, we used social attraction measures (decoys and electronic call systems) to attract Forster’s terns to islands within Pond A16 to re-establish nesting colonies. We maintained these systems from March through August 2017. To evaluate the effect of these social attraction measures, we also completed waterbird surveys between April and August, where we recorded the number and location of all Forster’s terns and other waterbirds using Pond A16, and monitored waterbird nests. We compared bird survey and nest monitoring data collected in 2017 to data collected in 2015 and 2016, prior to the implementation of social attraction measures, allowing for direct evaluation of social attraction efforts on Forster’s terns.To increase the visibility and stakeholder involvement of this project, we engaged in

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Preschool Quality in South Korea and Sweden: ECERS Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Sonja; Giota, Joanna; Han, You-Me; Kwon, Jeong-Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore cross-cultural similarities and differences in preschool quality in South Korean and Swedish preschools as measured by two national adaptations of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). The approach adopted is that cross-cultural comparisons of preschool quality are both achievable and of great…

  10. A Crustal Cross Section over the Central North Iberian Margin: New Insights into the Bay of Biscay Inverted Hyperextended Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas Martínez, P.; Fernandez Viejo, G.; Pulgar, J. A.; Minshull, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay of Biscay is a V-shape failed arm of the Atlantic rift which was opened during the Mesozoic and partially closed during the Alpine orogeny in the Cenozoic, when the convergence of the Iberian and European Plates drove to the formation of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian realm in the North Iberian peninsula. A complete crustal cross section through the central part of the North Iberian Margin, representing the southern margin of the Bay of Biscay, is presented here from the interpretation of a high quality deep seismic reflection profile together with boreholes and well logs, acquired for oil and gas exploration purposes. The studied segment of this margin includes a basement high so called Le Danois Bank, and the Asturian basin, one of the sedimentary basins developed during the Mesozoic extensional processes, which was subsequently inverted during the Alpine orogeny. Most of the compression seems to have taken place through uplift of the continental platform and slope and the formation of an accretionary wedge at the bottom of the slope, so it is still possible to elucidate both extensional and compressional features. The basin appears as an asymmetric bowl bounded by synsedimentary normal faults with a maximum thickness of about 6 s TWT, which has been estimated to be equivalent to about 7 km. Depth migration of the seismic profile has revealed the presence of a deeper trough, with a maximum thickness of 13. 5 km at its main depocenter, which closely resembles the sedimentary thickness proposed for other contemporaneous proximal basins. These results support the high degree of extension and the exhumation processes proposed for this margin, deduced from refraction velocities and from the upper crustal and mantle rocks dredged at the slopes of Le Danois High. They will bring new insights to, and further constraints on, geodynamical models for this margin, where the amount of shortening linked with Cenozoic compression and the role of the rift structure during the

  11. Variability in the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales within the south-eastern Bay of Biscay, as observed by HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two high-frequency (HF radar stations were installed on the coast of the south-eastern Bay of Biscay in 2009, providing high spatial and temporal resolution and large spatial coverage of currents in the area for the first time. This has made it possible to quantitatively assess the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales for the period 2009–2010. The analysis was conducted using the Barnett–Preisendorfer approach to canonical correlation analysis (CCA of reanalysis surface winds and HF radar-derived surface currents. The CCA yields two canonical patterns: the first wind–current interaction pattern corresponds to the classical Ekman drift at the sea surface, whilst the second describes an anticyclonic/cyclonic surface circulation. The results obtained demonstrate that local winds play an important role in driving the upper water circulation. The wind–current interaction timescales are mainly related to diurnal breezes and synoptic variability. In particular, the breezes force diurnal currents in waters of the continental shelf and slope of the south-eastern Bay. It is concluded that the breezes may force diurnal currents over considerably wider areas than that covered by the HF radar, considering that the northern and southern continental shelves of the Bay exhibit stronger diurnal than annual wind amplitudes.

  12. Establishment and extinction of a population of South Georgian diving petrel (Pelecanoides georgicus) at Mason Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand, during the late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    A population of South Georgian diving petrels (Pelecanoides georgicus) (c. 130 g) became extinct at Mason Bay, on the west coast of Stewart Island, before European settlement. Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) bones with the diving petrel fossils provided an opportunity to determine whether the rats arrived before the petrels went extinct. Fifteen 14 C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ages on purified diving petrel bone gelatin from various parts of Mason Bay clustered unexpectedly in the 14th and 15th centuries AD, and none was older. Bayesian statistical analysis, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure, gave a 95% probability that the diving petrel colony was founded between 1338 and 1440 AD, lasted 40-310 years, and became extinct between 1475 and 1650 AD. Possible reasons for the late colonisation of Mason Bay by South Georgian diving petrels burrow are discussed. Bayesian analysis of five 14 C AMS determinations on Pacific rat bone gelatin did not exclude the possibility that the Pacific rat arrived before the diving petrel colony was established. However, the enriched δ 13 C of their bone gelatin suggests that the rats had a partially marine diet, and a terrestrial calibration procedure for their AMS ages was probably not appropriate. The Pacific rat is likely to have arrived after the diving petrel colony became established and probably caused the bird's extinction after a short period of coexistence. (author). 103 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  14. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  15. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water andd air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, B.; Hammond, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainity of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of bethic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water inteface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2--6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models

  16. Gas exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces in south San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Blayne; Hammond, Douglas E.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 concentrations in the water and sedimentary columns and radon exchange rates across the sediment-water and air-water interfaces have been measured in a section of south San Francisco Bay. Two independent methods have been used to determine sediment-water exchange rates, and the annual averages of these methods agree within the uncertainty of the determinations, about 20%. The annual average of benthic fluxes from shoal areas is nearly a factor of 2 greater than fluxes from the channel areas. Fluxes from the shoal and channel areas exceed those expected from simple molecular diffusion by factors of 4 and 2, respectively, apparently due to macrofaunal irrigation. Values of the gas transfer coefficient for radon exchange across the air-water interface were determined by constructing a radon mass balance for the water column and by direct measurement using floating chambers. The chamber method appears to yield results which are too high. Transfer coefficients computed using the mass balance method range from 0.4 m/day to 1.8 m/day, with a 6-year average of 1.0 m/day. Gas exchange is linearly dependent upon wind speed over a wind speed range of 3.2–6.4 m/s, but shows no dependence upon current velocity. Gas transfer coefficients predicted from an empirical relationship between gas exchange rates and wind speed observed in lakes and the oceans are within 30% of the coefficients determined from the radon mass balance and are considerably more accurate than coefficients predicted from theoretical gas exchange models.

  17. Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Burt Jones,; Peter Hamilton,; Xu, Jingping; George Robertson,; Rosenfeld, Leslie; John Largier,

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.

  18. Field guide to the Mesozoic accretionary complex along Turnagain Arm and Kachemak Bay, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Kusky, Timothy M.; Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    Turnagain Arm, just east of Anchorage, provides a readily accessible, world-class cross section through a Mesozoic accretionary wedge. Nearly continuous exposures along the Seward Highway, the Alaska Railroad, and the shoreline of Turnagain Arm display the two main constituent units of the Chugach terrane: the McHugh Complex and Valdez Group. In this paper we describe seven bedrock geology stops along Turnagain Arm, and two others in the Chugach Mountains just to the north (Stops 1-7 and 9), which will be visited as part of the May, 1997 field trip of the Alaska Geological Society. Outcrops along Turnagain Arm have already been described in two excellent guidebook articles (Clark, 1981; Winkler and others 1984), both of which remain as useful and valid today as when first published. Since the early 1980's, studies along Turnagain Arm have addressed radiolarian ages of chert and conodont ages of limestone in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and others, 1986, 1987); geochemistry of basalt in the McHugh Complex (Nelson and Blome, 1991); post-accretion brittle faulting (Bradley and Kusky, 1990; Kusky and others, 1997); and the age and tectonic setting of gold mineralization (Haeussler and others, 1995). Highlights of these newer findings will described both in the text below, and in the stop descriptions.Superb exposures along the southeastern shore of Kachemak Bay show several other features of the McHugh Complex that are either absent or less convincing along Turnagain Arm. While none of these outcrops can be reached via the main road network, they are still reasonably accessible - all are within an hour by motorboat from Homer, seas permitting. Here, we describe seven outcrops along the shore of Kachemak Bay that we studied between 1989 and 1993 during geologic mapping of the Seldovia 1:250,000- scale quadrangle. These outcrops (Stops 61-67) will not be part of the 1997 itinerary, but are included here tor the benefit of those who may wish to visit them later.

  19. SAMMY, Multilevel R-Matrix Fits to Neutron and Charged-Particle Cross-Section Data Using Bayes' Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The purpose of the code is to analyze time-of-flight cross section data in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, where the incident particle is either a neutron or a charged particle (p, alpha, d,...). Energy-differential cross sections and angular-distribution data are treated, as are certain forms of energy-integrated data. In the resolved resonance region (RRR), theoretical cross sections are generated using the Reich-Moore approximation to R-matrix theory (and extensions thereof). Sophisticated models are used to describe the experimental situation: Data-reduction parameters (e.g. normalization, background, sample thickness) are included. Several options are available for both resolution and Doppler broadening, including a crystal-lattice model for Doppler broadening. Self-shielding and multiple-scattering correction options are available for analysis of capture cross sections. Multiple isotopes and impurities within a sample are handled accurately. Cross sections in the unresolved resonance region (URR) can also be analyzed using SAMMY. The capability was borrowed from Froehner's FITACS code; SAMMY modifications for the URR include more exact calculation of partial derivatives, normalization options for the experimental data, increased flexibility for input of experimental data, introduction of user-friendly input options. In both energy regions, values for resonance parameters and for data-related parameters (such as normalization, sample thickness, effective temperature, resolution parameters) are determined via fits to the experimental data using Bayes' method (see below). Final results may be reported in ENDF format for inclusion in the evaluated nuclear data files. The manner in which SAMMY 7 (released in 2006) differs from the previous version (SAMMY-M6) is itemized in Section I.A of the SAMMY users' manual. Details of the 7.0.1 update are documented in an errata SAMMY 7.0.1 Errata (http://www.ornl.gov/sci

  20. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A new ceramic assemblage from Caution Bay, south coast of mainland PNG : the linear shell edge-impressed tradition from Bogi 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, B.; McNiven, I.J.; Leavesley, M.; Barker, B.; Mandui, H.; Richards, T.; Skelly, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the ceramics from Squares A and B of Bogi 1, a newly excavated site at Caution Bay, south coast of mainland Papua New Guinea. A dense cultural horizon dated from c. 2150 to c. 2100 calBP and preceded by earlier cultural deposits contains previously undescribed ceramics of limited decorative variability almost exclusively focused on Anadara shell edge impressions below finger-grooved lips, which we term the Linear Shell Edge-Impressed Tradition. Here we present the chrono-stratigraphic evidence for this decorative tradition and how it relates to previously described shell-impressed ceramics from the broader region. (author). 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Conflict reduction in cross-functional projects in South African automotive firms

    OpenAIRE

    T. Mueller; H. Parker; A. Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore whether certain organisational control mechanisms can reduce conflict associated with cross-functional projects. Methodology: This is an exploratory study and individuals who had recently engaged in a cross-functional process improvement or change implementation project at automotives firm in South Africa were surveyed. The information collected from the survey was analysed using exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysi...

  3. Boron Isotopic Fractionation and Trace Element Incorporation in Various Species of Modern Corals in Sanya Bay, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haizhen Wei; Shaoyong Jiang; Yingkai Xiao; N Gary Hemming

    2014-01-01

    The boron isotope paleo-pH proxy has been extensively studied due to its potential for understanding past climate change, and further calibrations were considered for accurate applications of the proxy because of significant variability related to biocarbonate microstructure. In this work, we studied the boron isotopic fractionation between modern marine corals and their coexisting seawater collected along shallow area in Sanya Bay, South China Sea. The apparent partition coefficient of boron (KD) ranged from 0.83×10-3 to 1.69×10-3, which are in good agreement with previous studies. As the an-alyzed coral skeleton (~5 g) spanned the growth time period of 1-2 years, we discussed the boron iso-topic fractionation between pristine corals and modern seawater using the annual mean seawater pH of 8.12 in this sea area. Without taking the vital effect into account, (11B/10B)coral values of all living corals spread over the curves of (11B/10B)borate vs. (11B/10B)sw with theα4-3 values ranging from 0.974 to 0.982. After calibrating the biological effect on the calcifying fluid pH, the field-based calcification on calcify-ing fluid pH (i.e.,Δ(pHbiol-pHsw)) for coral species of Acropora, Pavona, Pocillopora, Faviidae, and others including Proites are 0.42, 0.33, 0.36, 0.19, respectively, and it is necessary to be validated by coral cul-turing experiment in the future. Correlations in B/Ca vs. Sr/Ca and B/Ca vs. pHbiol approve tempera-ture and calcifying fluid pH influence on skeletal B/Ca. Fundamental understanding of the thermody-namic basis of the boron isotopes in marine carbonates and seawater will strengthen the confidence in the use of paleo-pH proxy as a powerful tool to monitor atmospheric CO2 variations in the past.

  4. Microplastic sampling with the AVANI trawl compared to two neuston trawls in the Bay of Bengal and South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Liboiron, Max; Kiessling, Tim; Charron, Louis; Alling, Abigail; Lebreton, Laurent; Richards, Heather; Roth, Barent; Ory, Nicolas C; Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Meerhoff, Erika; Box, Carolynn; Cummins, Anna; Thiel, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Many typical neuston trawls can only be used during relatively calm sea states and slow tow speeds. During two expeditions to the Bay of Bengal and the eastern South Pacific we investigated whether the new, high-speed AVANI trawl (All-purpose Velocity Accelerated Net Instrument) collects similar amounts and types of microplastics as two established scientific trawl designs, the manta trawl and the DiSalvo neuston net. Using a 335 μm net, the AVANI trawl can collect microplastics from the sea surface at speeds up to 8 knots as it "skis" across the surface, whereas the manta and DiSalvo neuston trawls must be towed slowly in a less turbulent sea state and often represent shorter tow lengths. Generally, the AVANI trawl collected a greater numerical abundance and weight of plastic particles in most size classes and debris types than the manta trawl and DiSalvo neuston net, likely because these trawls only skim the surface layer while the AVANI trawl, moving vertically in a random fashion, collects a "deeper" sample, capturing the few plastics that float slightly lower in the water column. However, the samples did not differ enough that results were significantly affected, suggesting that studies done with these different trawls are comparable. The advantage of the AVANI trawl over traditional research trawls is that it allows for collection on vessels underway at high speeds and during long transits, allowing for a nearly continuous sampling effort over long distances. As local surface currents make sea surface abundance widely heterogeneous, widely spaced short-tow trawls, such as the manta and DiSalvo trawls, can catch or miss hotspots or meso-scale variability of microplastic accumulations, whereas the AVANI trawl, if utilized for back-to-back tows of intermediate distances (5-10 km), can bridge variable wind conditions and debris concentrations potentially reducing variance and provide a greater resolution of spatial distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Case Study: The Myanmar and Bangladesh Maritime Boundary Dispute in the Bay of Bengal and Its Implications for South China Sea Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi A. Balaram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to review the pertinent Myanmar and Bangladesh history in overlapping maritime territorial claims leading up to the September 2011 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS case: Dispute Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary Between Bangladesh and Myanmar in the Bay of Bengal. It will dissect the legal proceedings as primary source documents and apply the relevant judgement findings to analyse the implications for the respective countries and for South China Sea maritime boundary disputes. While the judgements of this case set certain legal precedents that may be more easily applied to bilateral disputes, the implications, nevertheless, impinge on multilateral claims as well. To the extent that the Bangladesh-Myanmar ITLOS judgement provides a pathway to third-party, independent, and peaceful resolution to the potentially explosive and escalating tensions in the South China Sea, this paper argues that findings are relevant, but limited.

  6. Rethinking the Hermit Kingdom: US Social Studies Teachers' Cross-Cultural Professional Development in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonjung; Shin, Eui-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of 34 US social studies teachers who participated in a cross-cultural professional development in South Korea, and the impact of the programme on the participant teachers' perceptions and practices of global education. Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this mixed-method study takes a critical look at (a) how…

  7. Modelling cross-gender and sexual relations : Exploring the Soul Buddyz Edutainment Initiative in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cousins (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHIV/AIDS among youth is a serious problem in South Africa. Cross-gender relations and associated constructs surrounding masculinity/femininity and sexuality are increasingly recognized as at the heart of the issue. Growing attention has thus been given to developing initiatives geared

  8. Summer at the beach: spatio-temporal patterns of white shark occurrence along the inshore areas of False Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Alison A; Photopoulou, Theoni; Durbach, Ian; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles L; O'Riain, M Justin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding white shark ( Carcharodon carcharias ) habitat use in coastal areas adjacent to large cities, is an important step when formulating potential solutions to the conservation conflict that exists between humans and large predatory sharks. In this study, we present the findings of a 2.5-year study of white shark occurrence and movement patterns adjacent to the City of Cape Town in False Bay, South Africa, with a focus on spring and summer months. Fifty-one white sharks were monitored annually at three offshore and twelve inshore sites by VR2 acoustic receivers, over 975 days from 1 May 2005 to 31 December 2007. Occurrence patterns at inshore sites during spring and summer were analysed using a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM) with a spatial term (longitude, latitude), time of day and year included as explanatory variables for site use. We found that sharks occurred more frequently at inshore sites along the northern and northwestern shores, compared to the rest of the bay, and they transitioned most frequently between four adjacent beach sites that encompass the most popular recreational water use areas in Cape Town. There was significant diel variation, with higher shark occurrence around midday, and a peak in shark occurrence in 2005, when human-shark interactions also peaked. However, we found no effect of shark size on occurrence patterns at inshore sites. White sharks showed the highest levels of occurrence at specific inshore sites between Muizenberg and Strandfontein beach, and thus inclusion of these sites within False Bay's marine protected area (MPA) network or recognition as Ecological or Biological Significant Areas (EBSAs) should be a future consideration. These insights into white shark habitat use at inshore sites in False Bay are important for successfully applying the principles of marine spatial planning (MSP) and for making science-based policy decisions. Furthermore, this information can be used to reduce potential shark

  9. A cross-cultural comparison of clinical supervision in South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eunjung; Ellis, Michael V

    2013-06-01

    We investigated similarities and differences in clinical supervision in two cultures: South Korea and the United States The study had two parts: (1) a test of the cross-cultural equivalence of four supervision measures; and (2) a test of two competing models of cultural differences in the relations among supervisory style, role difficulties, supervisory working alliance, and satisfaction with supervision. Participants were 191 South Korean and 187 U.S. supervisees currently engaged in clinical supervision. The U.S. measures demonstrated sufficient measurement equivalence for use in South Korea. Cultural differences moderated the relations among supervisory styles, role difficulties, supervisory working alliance, and supervision satisfaction. Specifically, the relations among these variables were significantly stronger for U.S. than for South Korean supervisees. Implications for theory, research, and practice were discussed.

  10. Structure and petroleum potential of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Major structural features of the Yakutat segment, the segment of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska, are delineated by multichannel seismic reflection data. A large structural high is centered on Fairweather Ground and lies generally at the edge of the shelf from Cross Sound to west of the Alsek Valley. A basement uplift, the Dangerous River zone, along which the seismic acoustic basement shallows by up to two kilometers, extends north from the western edge of Fairweather Ground towards the mouth of the Dangerous River. The Dangerous River zone separates the Yakutat segment into two distinct subbasins. The eastern subbasin has a maximum sediment thickness of about 4 km, and the axis of the basin is near and parallel to the coast. Strata in this basin are largely of late Cenozoic age (Neogene and Quaternary) and approximately correlate with the onshore Yakataga Formation. The western subbasin has a maximum of at least 9 km of sediment, comprised of a thick (greater than 4.5 km) Paleogene section overlain by late Cenozoic strata. The Paleogene section is truncated along the Dangerous River zone by a combination of erosion, faulting, and onlap onto the acoustic basement. Within the western subbasin, the late Cenozoic basin axis is near and parallel to the coast, but the Paleogene basin axis appears to trend in a northwest direction diagonally across the shelf. Sedimentary strata throughout the Yakutat shelf show regional subsidence and only minor deformation except in the vicinity of the Fairweather Ground structural high, near and along the Dangerous River zone, and at the shoreline near Lituya Bay. Seismic data across the continental slope and adjacent deep ocean show truncation at the continental slope of Paleogene strata, the presence of a thick (to 6 km) undeformed or mildly deformed abyssal sedimentary section at the base of the slope that in part onlaps the slope, and a relatively narrow zone along the slope or at

  11. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  12. Knowledge of the abortion legislation among South African women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myer Landon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to ensure that legalized abortion in South Africa improves reproductive health, women must know that abortion is a legal option in the case of unwanted pregnancy. This study investigated knowledge of abortion legislation eight years after the introduction of legal abortion services in one province of South Africa. Methods In 2004/2005, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 831 sexually-active women attending 26 public health clinics in one urban and one rural health region of the Western Cape Province. Results Thirty-two percent of women did not know that abortion is currently legal. Among those who knew of legal abortion, few had knowledge of the time restrictions involved. Conclusion In South Africa there is an unmet need among women for information on abortion. Strategies should be developed to address this gap so that women are fully informed of their rights to a safe and legal termination of pregnancy.

  13. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7–8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  14. Developing a community owned wind farm, with social and economic benefits for a low-income community, at St Helena Bay, Western Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, J. [Seeland Development Trust (South Africa); Chown, D. [Genesis Eco-Energy, Cape Town (South Africa); Townsend, N. [Oxfam (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the development of a wind farm at St. Helena Bay in South Africa that involved the collaboration of the Seeland Development Trust, Genesis Eco-Energy and Oxfam. Some of the challenges that have emerged were presented along with the solutions that have been found to those problems, many of which are applicable to other communities attempting to undertake a similar project. The primary objective of this project was to develop a substantially community owned, renewable energy power project, from which revenues will be used to contribute to a range of social and economic development projects. The project, which is in the early stages of development, will have additional benefits, such as job creation, reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, development of alternative financial models for the development of renewable energy and the demonstration of renewable energy as an economically viable opportunity in South Africa. The project site was acquired by the Seeland Development Trust under the South African Government's land restitution process, and is to be used to address issues of poverty, economic development and job creation. This paper described the unique partnership of a local community, a private sector company and a global charity, and presented the business and ownership models that have been developed to achieve the overall objective of the wind energy project.

  15. Cross-border transmission capacity allocation mechanisms in South East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    South East Europe (SEE) is moving rapidly toward the creation of a regional electricity market and wholesale electricity market/power exchange that will improve competitive performance and increase liquidity and reliability. We describe the current applied and future possible congestion management methods in Europe including the SEE region. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a regional electricity and cross-border trade within the region and neighboring countries, and concludes with a brief discussion of policy issues. (author)

  16. Chesapeake Bay plume dynamics from LANDSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Fedosh, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT images with enhancement and density slicing show that the Chesapeake Bay plume usually frequents the Virginia coast south of the Bay mouth. Southwestern (compared to northern) winds spread the plume easterly over a large area. Ebb tide images (compared to flood tide images) show a more dispersed plume. Flooding waters produce high turbidity levels over the shallow northern portion of the Bay mouth.

  17. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Petroleum pollution in surface sediments of Daya Bay, South China, revealed by chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Chen, Shaoyong

    2008-10-01

    Nine surface sediments collected from Daya Bay have been Soxhlet-extracted with 2:1 (v/v) dichloromethane-methanol. The non-aromatic hydrocarbon (NAH) fraction of solvent extractable organic matter (EOM) and some bulk geochemical parameters have been analyzed to determine petroleum pollution of the bay. The NAH content varies from 32 to 276 μg g -1 (average 104 μg g -1) dry sediment and accounts for 5.8-64.1% (average 41.6%) of the EOM. n-Alkanes with carbon number ranging from 15 to 35 are identified to be derived from both biogenic and petrogenic sources in varying proportions. The contribution of marine authigenic input to the sedimentary n-alkanes is lower than the allochthonous input based on the average n-C 31/ n-C 19 alkane ratio. 25.6-46.5% of the n-alkanes, with a mean of 35.6%, are contributed by vascular plant wax. Results of unresolved complex mixture, isoprenoid hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes also suggest possible petroleum contamination. There is strong evidence of a common petroleum contamination source in the bay.

  19. A comparative study of the accumulation of metals in the barnacle (Tetraclita serrata and the black mussel (Choromytilis meridionalis in False Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan J. Reinecke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods to monitor the South African coastal waters offer major challenges. Knowledge and availability of suitable species that may serve as biomonitors will be valuable to obtain information to support good management decisions. It is therefore important to identify local species that show the basic characteristics required for biomonitoring. The aim of this study was to compare, as part of a wider seasonal field study of metals in the intertidal zone of False Bay, South Africa, the body loads of copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn in the black mussel (C. meridionalis and the barnacle (T. serrata, and to compare these with environmental concentrations. Also to draw conclusions about the animals’ relative abilities to accumulate priority metals. Specimens of both species were collected over several seasons at different points in False Bay and analysed chemically. The mean body load (soft tissue and shell of metals was higher in the black mussel than in the barnacle during all seasons. A comparison between the body loads and environmental concentrations in water and sediment showed that the priority metals Cd, Ni and Pb are accumulated strongly by both C. meridionalis and T. serrata. The mean Cd body loads varied between 6.43 µg/g and 14.73 µg/g for the various seasons but was not statistically significantly different between seasons. Metal concentrations were in most cases highest during winter. Multiple regression analysis showed a strong correlation between body load of metals in the black mussel and the environmental concentration for most seasons, which indicates that the black mussel can be useful as an active rather than a passive biomonitor. The concept of biomonitoring has merit because it may show long-term tendencies, but it does not offer an absolute measure of immediate, varying pollution levels. It could serve as an additional management tool in a national marine programme for the

  20. Ecology of Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from shallow rocky environments in the Cantabrian Sea (South Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Serrano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The syllids inhabiting 12 hard bottom macrobenthic habitats were studied. A total of 38 species belonging to 19 genera were identified. Differences in density, species richness, and diversity among habitats were analysed, as well as the relationships between these ecological parameters and depth range, slope and in-bay/out-bay gradient. The effect of environmental variables on syllid distribution was studied using canonical ordination. A high faunistic homogeneity has been found, since all biotopes were dominated by a low number of eurytopic species (Syllis armillaris, S. gracilis and S. variegata. Habitat complexity, determined by physical disturbance, is the main structuring factor in syllid populations. Biotopes with the highest structural complexity displayed a high number of companion species increasing ecological indices and denoting a well-structured habitat. On the other hand, communities such as in upper intertidal habitats, mainly controlled by physical environmental variables, showed a poorer syllid fauna, dominated by ubiquitious species and a few stenotopic species well-adapted to those environments. However, this is not the case in some other intertidal biotopes, such as in Corallina, whose tangled structure prevents drying and provides shelter from predation, allowing a richer and more diverse syllid fauna.

  1. The impact of post-merger cross-shareholdings on South African merger control policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Charter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a concentration of EU and US standards in the South African economy. In addition, a number of large industries have been undergoing consolidation. As a result, the phenomenon of cross-holdings, both within and across industries, is not unusual. In cases where the level of cross-holding falls short of joint control, the competition authorities have at times sought to apply the co-ordinated effects doctrine or some variation thereof hoping to lessen potential competition. More recently, the Tribunal has also considered the possible unilateral effects of the acquisition of a minority stake in a rival. A number of cases has emerged that to a greater or lesser degree explores the impact of crossholdings and cross-directorships on the competitive behaviour of the firms concerned. This paper includes a review of some of these decisions with a view to determining whether any clear policy seems likely to emerge from the competition authorities. The authorities’ approach to date, reveals an evolution from reflex suspicion to a more reasoned, fact-based outlook. Cross-holdings and directorships are treated in the same way as any other evidence relevant to an analysis of a given merger. However, despite the Tribunal’s willingness to wrestle with various economic theories, the most recent decision suggests that the acquisition of a non-controlling cross-holding in a company may not fall under the analysis of South African merger regulation at all. Should that position change, following clarification by the Tribunal or an unequivocal ruling of the Competition Appeal Court, the body of case law goes some way to indicating the type and manner of analysis the authorities will employ.

  2. Chlorophyll data collected from the old outfall site in the south sector of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, February 2001 to May 2004 (NODC Accession 0002805)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Kaneohe Bay received increasing amounts of sewage from the 1950s through 1977. Most sewage was diverted from the bay in 1977 and early 1978. Data were collected...

  3. Origins of cryptic variation in the Ediacaran-Fortunian rhyolitic ignimbrites of the Saldanha Bay Volcanic Complex, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Stevens, G.; Frei, D.; Joseph, C. S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Saldanha eruption centre, on the West Coast of South Africa, consists of 542 Ma, intracaldera, S-type, rhyolite ignimbrites divided into the basal Saldanha Ignimbrite and the partly overlying Jacob's Bay Ignimbrite. Depleted-mantle Nd model ages suggest magma sources younger than the Early Mesoproterozoic, and located within the Neoproterozoic Malmesbury Group and Swartland complex metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that form the regional basement. The Sr isotope systematics suggest that the dominant source rocks were metavolcaniclastic rocks and metagreywackes, and that the magmas formed from separate batches extracted from the same heterogeneous source. No apparent magma mixing trends relate the Saldanha to the Jacob's Bay Ignimbrites, or either of these to the magmas that formed the Plankiesbaai or Tsaarsbank Ignimbrites in the neighbouring Postberg eruption centre. The magmas were extracted from their source rocks carrying small but significant proportions of peritectic and restitic accessory minerals. Variations in the content of this entrained crystal cargo were responsible for most of the chemical variations in the magmas. Although we cannot construct a cogent crystal fractionation model to relate these groups of magmas, at least some crystal fractionation occurred, as an overlay on the primary signal due to peritectic assemblage entrainment (PAE). Thus, the causes of the cryptic chemical variation among the ignimbrite magmas of the Saldanha centre are variable, but dominated by the compositions of the parent melts and PAE. The preservation of clear, source-inherited chemical signatures, in individual samples, calls into question the common interpretation of silicic calderas as having been formed in large magma reservoirs, with magma compositions shaped by magma mingling, mixing, and fractional crystallization. The Saldanha rocks suggest a more intimate connection between source and erupted magma, and perhaps indicate that silicic magmas are too

  4. Historical occurrence of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in streams of the Santa Cruz Mountain region of California: response to an Endangered Species Act petition to delist coho salmon south of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Spence; Walter G. Duffy; John Carlos Garza; Bret Harvey; Susan M. Sogard; Laurie A. Weitkamp; Thomas H. Williams; David A. Boughton

    2011-01-01

    In November 2003, the National Marine Fisheries Service received a petition from Homer T. McCrary to redefine the southern extent of the Central California Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (CCC Coho Salmon ESU) to exclude populations that spawn in coastal watersheds south of the entrance to San Francisco Bay (i.e., the Golden Gate). The petitioner’s...

  5. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer (km) south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2014. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. 

  6. Influence of cross-cultural leadership on organizational culture: Arcelormittal, Newcastle, a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Feldman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the influence of cross cultural leadership on organisational culture. This is assessed by using the GLOBE project’s dimensions of culture which are an extension to Hofstede model of culture. These are; power distance, uncertainty avoidance, human orientation, individuality vs. collectivism, egalitarianism, assertiveness, long term orientation and performance orientation. As more organisations in South Africa become more culturally diverse, it is important to determine where the organisational culture stems from? This is essential in addressing cross cultural conflicts and in efforts to create a winning culture in the workplace. The case study involves Arcelormittal South Africa (AMSA, and will hopefully contribute positively in identifying salient cultural implications in managerial positions such as for example, high employee turnover and cultural clashes which hinder individual performance. A qualitative research design was used in this study to determine participants’ perspectives on organisational culture and leadership. Two instruments were used for primary data collection in this research. The first one was designed by the researcher to capture the demographics data for this particular study. The second instrument used was the GLOBE survey questionnaire which captured 8 dimensions of culture and was specifically designed to encompass questions relevant to the business environment. A convenience sampling methodology was used with a target population of 115 managers classified as middle management of AMSA. The research revealed that there is a general shift from a Eurocentric approach to leadership which is congruent with high individualism and low human orientation. The influence of cross cultural leadership is thus indicated by the preference for higher degree of human orientation and collectivism amongst managers, which is associated with the Afrocentric leadership style and the black ethnic

  7. Levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fishes from the Pearl River estuary and Daya Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingli; Qiu Yaowen; Zhang Gan; Zheng, Gene J.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Fifty fish samples were collected from the Pearl River estuary (PRE) and Daya Bay, South China and were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Except the high concentrations of DDT observed in fishes, the concentrations of HCHs, chlordanes and PBDEs were low when compared to other regions. BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE congener and the BDE-209 concentrations were relatively low, despite its high concentration in surface sediments. The absence of significant increase of DDT, HCH, chlordane and PBDE concentrations towards higher δ 15 N values, as well as the lack of a significant correlation (p 15 N, may indicate a weak biomagnification of these chemicals in the food webs. Good agreement was observed between their concentrations and lipid contents of the organisms. Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms in the studied subtropical waters. - Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms of subtropical waters

  8. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and waters from bivalve mollusk cultivations in the South Bay of Santa Catarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Roberta Juliano; Miotto, Letícia Adélia; Miotto, Marília; Silveira Junior, Nelson; Cirolini, Andréia; Silva, Helen Silvestre da; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Vieira, Cleide Rosana Werneck

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to identify and quantify potentially pathogenic Vibrio from different cultivations of bivalve shellfish in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and water regions in the South Bay, as well as correlate the incidence of these microorganisms with the physicochemical parameters of marine waters. Between October 2008 and March 2009, 60 oyster and seawater samples were collected from six regions of bivalve mollusk cultivation, and these samples were submitted for Vibrio counts. Twenty-nine (48.3%) oyster samples were revealed to be contaminated with one or more Vibrio species. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus counts in the samples ranged from oyster and from oyster, respectively. Of the 60 seawater samples analyzed, 44 (73.3%) showed signs of contamination with one or more vibrio species. The counts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the samples ranged from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL(-1) to 1.7 log10MPN·100mL(-1) seawater and from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL(-1) to 2.0 log10 MPN·100mL(-1) seawater, respectively. A positive correlation between V. vulnificus counts and the seawater temperature as well as a negative correlation between the V. parahaemolyticus counts and salinity were observed. The results suggest the need to implement strategies to prevent vibrio diseases from being transmitted by the consumption of contaminated bivalve shellfish.

  9. Characterizing the parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Pearl River Estuary, Daya Bay and northern South China Sea: Influence of riverine input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Ke; Wang, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Zou, Shichun; Li, Yan; Yang, Qingshu; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-01-01

    Distributions of 31 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 29 alkyl PAHs in surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), Daya Bay (DYB) and northern South China Sea (SCS) were examined to study the influence of riverine input. It was found that the contributions of riverine input to sediment PAHs in PRE was much higher than other areas. However, higher proportion of alkyl PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs in DYB and the northern SCS was observed, indicating their different sources. Nevertheless, the sediment PAHs in PRE were heterogeneous and affected by the hydrodynamic conditions. The high molecular weight PAHs were dominant in PRE and enriched in the depositional area of suspended particular matter (SPM). Moreover, the concentration of PAHs in SPM was similar to those in surface sediments and dominated in water columns. Therefore, SPM played a very important role in transportation and distribution of PAHs in PRE. - Highlights: • EPA 16 PAHs contributed a small amount of total PAHs. • Alkyl PAHs showed different behaviors from parent PAHs. • High weight PAHs preferably indicated riverine input. • PAHs distribution in sediment was related with the suspended particle deposition. - Suspended particular matter played a very important role in distribution of PAHs in tide-dominated estuary and alkyl PAHs showed different behavior from parent PAHs

  10. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. First Investigation of Microbial Community Composition in the Bridge (Gadeok Channel) between the Jinhae-Masan Bay and the South Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Junhyung; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Oh, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ju-Hyoung; Kim, Myung Kyum; Cho, Hyeyoun; Yoon, Joo-Eun; Kim, Soyeon; Markkandan, Kesavan; Park, Ki-Tae; Kim, Il-Nam

    2018-02-01

    Microbial community composition varies based on seasonal dynamics (summer: strongly stratified water column; autumn: weakly stratified water column; winter: vertically homogeneous water column) and vertical distributions (surface, middle, and bottom depths) in the Gadeok Channel, which is the primary passage to exchange waters and materials between the Jinhae-Masan Bay and the South Sea waters. The microbial community composition was analyzed from June to December 2016 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The community was dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria (45%), Bacteroidetes (18%), Cyanobacteria (15%), Verrucomicrobia (6%), and Actinobacteria (6%). Alphaproteobacteria (29%) was the most abundant microbial class, followed by Flavobacteria (15%) and Gammaproteobacteria (15%) in all samples. The composition of the microbial communities was found to vary vertically and seasonally. The orders Flavobacteriales and Stramenopiles showed opposing seasonal patterns; Flavobacteriales was more abundant in August and December while Stramenopiles showed high abundance in June and October at all depths. The genus Synechococcus reached extremely high abundance (14%) in the June surface water column, but was much less abundant in December water columns. Clustering analysis showed that there was a difference in the microbial community composition pattern between the strongly stratified season and well-mixed season. These results indicate that the seasonal dynamics of physicochemical and hydrologic conditions throughout the water column are important parameters in shaping the microbial community composition in the Gadeok Channel.

  12. Conflict reduction in cross-functional projects in South African automotive firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mueller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore whether certain organisational control mechanisms can reduce conflict associated with cross-functional projects. Methodology: This is an exploratory study and individuals who had recently engaged in a cross-functional process improvement or change implementation project at automotives firm in South Africa were surveyed. The information collected from the survey was analysed using exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis. Findings: The results of this study indicate that of the three control mechanisms examined, formalisation in project structure had the strongest association with a reduction in conflict. Reward systems that reward both the team as well as the individual were also found to have a significant association with a reduction in conflict. Use of performance measurement systems aimed at achieving strategic alignment did not have an association with conflict reduction in the organisation. Implications: These findings yield the following implications for management practice. Firstly managers need to be conscious that initiatives such as process improvement projects that require individuals from different functions to work together can often result in conflict. Secondly, this conflict can be reduced by formalizing roles and responsibilities and decreasing ambiguity in the project. Thirdly, design of reward systems that incentivise both the cross-functional team as well as the individual can also help to reduce conflict. Contribution and value: This study has shed light on the role of certain organisational control mechanisms on reducing conflict associated with cross-functional projects. It has also contributed to our understanding of how formalisation in project structure influences conflict in comparison to how performance measurement and reward systems influence conflict.

  13. On the Antarctic Slope Front and Current crossing of the South Scotia Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A. H.; Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Jordà, G.; Wiederwohl, C.; Álvarez, M.

    2012-04-01

    To unveil the contorted path followed by the Antarctic Slope Current connecting the Weddell and Scotia Seas, hydrographic stations with unprecedented spatial resolution were occupied on a series of sections across the slope and multiple channels in the double-pronged western portion of the South Scotia Ridge. Fieldwork consisted of two cruises from the ESASSI (January 2008) and ACROSS (February 2009) programs, the Spanish and USA/Argentina components of the International Polar Year core project SASSI (Synoptic Antarctic Shelf-Slope Interaction study). In this region the Antarctic Slope Current can be located by the pronounced in-shore deepening of isopycnals over the continental slope, rendering the strong subsurface temperature and salinity gradients characteristic of the Antarctic Slope Front. Before reaching the gaps in the southern Ridge near 51°W and 50°W, the ASC carries about 3 Sv of upper layer waters, but it splits into shallow and deep branches upon turning north through these two gaps. The shallower branch enters the Hesperides Trough at 51°W, then shows a tight cyclonic loop back to that longitude roughly following the slope's 700-m isobath, and turns again westward through a similar gap in the northern Ridge. In the Scotia Sea the westward-flowing Antarctic Slope Current is found as far west as the Elephant Island along slightly deeper levels of slope (1100 m) before it is blocked by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of the Shackleton Fracture Zone (56°W). The deeper branch of the ASC in the Powell Basin crosses the southern Ridge near 50°W and roughly follows the 1600-m isobath before entering the Scotia Sea through the Hesperides Gap farther to the east (49°W). Thereafter the deeper waters carried westward by this branch become undistinguishable from those circulating farther offshore. Repeat cross-slope sections at both southern and northern flanks of the South Scotia Ridge showed significant temporal variability in the characteristics

  14. Eddy-induced cross-shelf export of high Chl-a coastal waters in the SE Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Rubio, Anna; Caballero, Ainhoa; Orfila, Alejandro; Herná ndez-Carrasco, Ismael; Ferrer, Luis; Gonzá lez, Manuel; Solabarrieta, Lohitzune; Mader, Julien

    2017-01-01

    with similar characteristics in the area during different winters within the period 2011–2014. Our results suggest that the eddy-induced recurrent cross-shelf export is an effective mechanism for the expansion of coastal productive waters into the adjacent

  15. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  16. Genograms and Family Sculpting: An Aid to Cross-Cultural Understanding in the Training of Psychology Students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti-Mercer, Maria C.; Cleaver, Glenda

    2000-01-01

    Describes a specific training method developed in a family therapy course at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, where genograms and family sculpting were used to improve cross-cultural understanding among psychology masters students. Discusses the theoretical implications of the group training process for the training of psychologists in…

  17. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio in oysters (Crassostrea gigas and waters from bivalve mollusk cultivations in the South Bay of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Juliano Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This research aimed to identify and quantify potentially pathogenic Vibrio from different cultivations of bivalve shellfish in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and water regions in the South Bay, as well as correlate the incidence of these microorganisms with the physicochemical parameters of marine waters. Methods Between October 2008 and March 2009, 60 oyster and seawater samples were collected from six regions of bivalve mollusk cultivation, and these samples were submitted for Vibrio counts. Results Twenty-nine (48.3% oyster samples were revealed to be contaminated with one or more Vibrio species. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus counts in the samples ranged from < 0.5 log10 Most Probable Number (MPN g–1 to 2.3 log10 MPN g–1 oyster and from < 0.5 log10 MPN g–1 to 2.1 log10 MPN g–1 oyster, respectively. Of the 60 seawater samples analyzed, 44 (73.3% showed signs of contamination with one or more vibrio species. The counts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the samples ranged from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL–1 to 1.7 log10MPN·100mL–1 seawater and from < 0.3 log10 MPN·100mL–1 to 2.0 log10 MPN·100mL–1 seawater, respectively. A positive correlation between V. vulnificus counts and the seawater temperature as well as a negative correlation between the V. parahaemolyticus counts and salinity were observed. Conclusions The results suggest the need to implement strategies to prevent vibrio diseases from being transmitted by the consumption of contaminated bivalve shellfish.

  18. Wind-enhanced resuspension in the shallow waters of South San Francisco Bay: Mechanisms and potential implications for cohesive sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Andreas; Lacy, Jessica R.; Hsu, Kevin; Hoover, Daniel; Gladding, Steve; Stacey, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the driving forces of sediment dynamics at the shoals in South San Francisco Bay. Two stations were deployed along a line perpendicular to a 14 m deep channel, 1000 and 2000 m from the middle of the channel. Station depths were 2.59 and 2.19 m below mean lower low water, respectively. We used acoustic Doppler velocimeters for the simultaneous determination of current velocities, turbulence, sediment concentration and fluxes. Maximum current shear velocities were 0.015 m s−1 at the station further from the channel (closer to the shore) and 0.02 m s−1 at the station closer to the channel. Peak wave-induced shear velocities exceeded 0.015 m s−1 at both stations. Maximum sediment concentrations were around 30 g m−3 during calm periods (root mean square wave height −3 and sediment fluxes were 5 times higher than in calm conditions (0.02 g m−2 s−1 versus >0.10 g m−2 s−1) at the station further from the channel 0.36 m above the bed. Closer to the channel, sediment concentrations and vertical fluxes due to wind wave resuspension were persistently lower (maximum concentrations around 50 g m−3 and maximum fluxes around 0.04 g m−2 s−1). Most resuspension events occurred during flood tides that followed wave events during low water. Although wave motions are able to resuspend sediment into the wave boundary layer at low tide, the observed large increases in sediment fluxes are due to the nonlinear interaction of wind waves and the tidal currents.

  19. Long-term dynamics of a high-latitude coral reef community at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S. N.; Schleyer, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Dynamics in reef cover, mortality and recruitment success of a high-latitude coral community in South Africa were studied over 20 yr with the aim to detect the effects of climate change. Coral communities at this locality are the southernmost on the African continent, non-accretive, attain high biodiversity and are dominated by soft corals. Long-term monitoring within fixed transects on representative reef was initiated in 1993 and has entailed annual photo-quadrat surveys and hourly temperature logging. Although sea temperatures rose by 0.15 °C p.a. at the site up to 2000, they have subsequently been decreasing, and the overall trend based on monthly means has been a significant decrease of 0.03 °C p.a. Despite this, minor bleaching was encountered in the region during the 1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event, again in the summer of 2000/2001 and in 2005. A significant decreasing trend of 0.95% p.a. in soft coral cover has been evident throughout the monitoring period, attributable to significant decreases in Sinularia and Lobophytum spp. cover. In contrast, hard coral cover gradually and significantly increased up to 2005, this being largely attributable to increases in cover by Acropora spp. Recruitment success and mortality of both soft and hard corals has displayed high inter-annual variability with increasing but non-significant trends in the last 5 yr. The reduction in soft coral cover has been more consistent and greater than that of hard corals, but it is difficult at this stage to attribute this to changes in water quality, acidification-linked accretion or temperature.

  20. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  1. The Holocene History of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Reynisson, Njall

    2013-01-01

    Marine sediments analyzed from cores taken in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, located in the Labrador Sea, captured oceanographic and climatic changes from the end of the Younger Dryas through the Holocene. Placentia Bay is an ideal site to capture changes in both the south-flowing Labrador Current ...

  2. [Health Information Behavior of the South Tyrolean Population: An Epidemiological Cross-Sectional Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögele, Anna; Becker, Ulrich; Gögele, Anna; Schneider, Antonius; Engl, Adolf

    2018-06-04

    Investigation of the health information behavior, self-rated health, confidence in health issues and specific attitudes to health among the South Tyrolean population. Our study is an epidemiological cross-sectional study; data were collected via telephone interviews, using a questionnaire developed for this purpose that covered various aspects of information and health-related behavior. For the elaboration of the typology of the most distinctive stereotypes in terms of health information and health-related behavior, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed. We assessed 504 correct telephone interviews. The majority of the respondents considered themselves health-conscious and preferred heterogeneous information media. The most used information media for health issues were mass media, i. e. newspapers or magazines and television or radio. The internet was used less as a source of information. Younger individuals assessed themselves to be healthier than older people, and older women aged 65 years or more were the most health-impaired group. Respondents had greatest confidence in their general practitioner, their own feeling or experience. Thus, in terms of health information and health behavior, the following four classes of people could be distinguished, namely "internet information elite", "robust fatalists", "stricken" and "health-conscious mainstreamers". Our results show that the South Tyrolean population has a high level of health consciousness and gathers health information from various media. The characterization of different patient typologies of information processing in combination with health-related behavior indicates that information about health and illness should be appropriately addressed to the respective stereotype. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among South African Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi EO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes to the burden of chronic diseases and it is a public health challenge. The rate of overweight and obesity in South Africa is dramatically on the increase and disturbingly high. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among adults in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa; which information is lacking. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional survey utilised the WHO STEPwise approach in collecting data on demographic and behavioural factors from 1077 adults attending the three largest out-patient clinics in the Buffalo City Metropolitan municipality, Eastern Cape. Height and weight were measured in accordance with standard procedure. Obesity and overweight were defined according to WHO criteria. We performed bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictors of obesity. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 24% and 46%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was higher among female (53.4% compared to males (27.4%. Obesity was strongly associated with pre-diabetes (250/54.7%, RR=2, 95% CI 1.6-2.6, p=0.001, diabetes (145/59.4%, RR=2.1, 95%CI 1.6-2.9, p=0.001 and hypertension (276/56.2%, RR=2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, p=0.0001. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, only age (AOR= 2.0, 95%CI= 1.3-3.0, sex (AOR= 3.8, 95%CI= 2.7-5.3, being married (AOR=2.3, 95%CI= 1.7-3.2, hypertension (AOR=2.0, 95%CI= 1.5-2.8, diabetes (AOR=1.4, 95%CI=1.0-2.0 and no cigarette smoking (AOR= 2.8, 95%CI= 1.7-4.5 were the independent and significant predictors of obesity among the participants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity was high and strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policies targeting obesity and cardiovascular risk factors should be prioritised by the Eastern Cape and South African government in order to mitigate the burden of non-communicable diseases.

  5. Dimensions of the South Oaks Gambling Screen in Finland: A cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Rosenström, Tom; Edgren, Robert; Volberg, Rachel; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari

    2017-06-01

    The underlying structure of problematic gambling behaviors, such as those assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), remain unknown: Can problem gambling be assessed unidimensionally or should multiple qualitatively different dimensions be taken into account, and if so, what do these qualitative dimensions indicate? How significant are the deviations from unidimensionality in practice? A cross-sectional random sample of Finns aged 15-74 (n = 4,484) was drawn from the Population Information Registry and surveyed in 2011-2012. Analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models. Altogether, 14.9% of the population endorsed at least one of the 20 SOGS items, but nine items had low endorsement rates (≤ 0.2%). CFA and MIRT techniques suggested that individuals differed from each other in two positively correlated (r = 0.70) underlying dimensions: "impact on self primarily" and "impact on others also". This two-factor correlated-factors model can be reinterpreted as a bifactor model with one general gambling-problem factor and two specific factors with similar interpretation as in the correlated-factors model but with non-overlapping items. The two specific factors may provide clinically useful information without extra costs of assessment. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cross-cultural standardization of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkil, S; Satish, S; Mathew, S S; Dinesh, N; Kumar, C T S; Lombardo, L E; Glahn, D C; Frangou, S

    2012-08-01

    Despite the central role of cognition for mental disorders most studies have been conducted in western countries. Similar research from other parts of the world, particularly India, is very limited. As a first step in closing this gap this cross-cultural comparability study of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition (STAN) battery was conducted between USA and India. One hundred healthy adults from Kerala, India, were administered six language independent subtests of the Java Neuropsychological Test (JANET) version of the STAN, assessing aspects of general intellectual ability (Matrix Reasoning), attention (Identical Pairs Continuous Performance, 3 Symbol Version Test; IPCPTS), working memory (Spatial Capacity Delayed Response Test; SCAP), response inhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time; SSRT), Emotional Recognition and Risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task; BART). Test results were compared to a demographically matched US sample. Overall test performance in the Kerala sample was comparable to that of the US sample and commensurate to that generally described in studies from western countries. Our results support the metric equivalence of currently available cognitive test batteries developed in western countries for use in India. However, the sample was restricted to individuals who were literate and had completed basic primary and secondary education.

  7. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  8. SUBJECTIVITIES OF SURVIVAL: CONCEPTUALISING JUST RESPONSES TO DISPLACEMENT, CROSS-BORDER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holscher, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the implications for social work of displacement, migration and structural violence in urban South Africa. To this end, I explore the life stories of five cross-border migrants. I find that all five form part of South Africa’s larger pool of surplus populations but face additional, citizenship-based forms of exclusion. Even though generally self-reliant, all of them experienced cumulative agency constraints and felt vulnerable. Against this background, I propose that current, refugee-centred services should be expanded and that interventions should be carefully balanced to attend to structural issues, inter-group conflict and the range of vulnerabilities articulated by cross-border migrants.

  9. Grade 4 children’s engagements in cross-sex relationships: A case from one South African Farm School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonhlanhla P Maphanga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores Grade 4 school children’s experiences of cross-sex relationships in a co- educational farm school in uMgungundlovu district in South Africa. The aim is to understand if and how constructions of gender bear on young children’s social relations at the school. Informed by children’s geographies and new sociology of childhood studies, this study uses data from semi-structured interviews and photo-voice imagery based on a qualitative narrative study of three girls and three boys aged between 9 and 12 years. The study found that children’s experiences of cross-sex relationships were deeply entrenched in traditional discourses of masculinities and femininities. These rigidly constructed discourses of gender were found to constrain possibilities and fluidities with which children navigated places and spaces of cross- sex relationships in the school. The hegemonic regulatory power of gender norms was a yardstick, informing children’s organisation and performances of cross-sex relationships even if some children had developed creative ways of subverting dominant gender norms in how they navigated in cross-sex relationships. The study argues for the liberalisation of gender norms, in order to allow children to freely – without being constrained by their genitalia – take subject positions of gender in cross-sex relationships. This would promote sustainable equitable gender relations, as children learn how to engage in cross-sex relationships, beyond the constraining prescripts of dominant masculinities and femininities.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the South African Pain Catastrophizing Scale (SA-PCS among patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Linzette D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain catastrophization has recently been recognized as a barrier to the healthy development of physical functioning among chronic pain patients. Levels of pain catastrophization in chronic pain patients are commonly measured using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Objective To cross-culturally adapt and validate the South African PCS (SA-PCS among English-, Afrikaans- and Xhosa-speaking patients with fibromyalgia living in the Cape Metropole area, Western Cape, South Africa. Methods The original PCS was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with international standards to develop an English, Afrikaans and Xhosa version of the SA-PCS using a repeated measures study design. Psychometric testing included face/content validity, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha-α, test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlations-ICC, sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity (by comparing the adapted SA-PCS to related constructs. Results The cross-culturally adapted English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS showed good face and content validity, excellent internal consistency (with Chronbach’s α = 0.98, 0.98 and 0.97 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, as a whole, respectively, excellent test-retest reliability (with ICC’s of 0.90, 0.91 and 0.89 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively; as well as satisfactory sensitivity-to-change (with a minimum detectable change of 8.8, 9.0 and 9.3 for the English, Afrikaans and Xhosa SA-PCS, respectively and cross-sectional convergent validity (when compared to pain severity as well as South African versions of the Tampa scale for Kinesiophobia and the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Conclusion The SA-PCS can therefore be recommended as simple, efficient, valid and reliable tool which shows satisfactory sensitivity-to-change and cross-sectional convergent validity, for use among English, Afrikaans and Xhosa-speaking patients with

  11. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  12. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  13. Is the biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal light limited?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Narvekar, J.; Nuncio, M.; Kumar, A.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardessai, S.; Gauns, M.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.

    Recent measurements of chlorophyll, primary productivity (PP) and nutrients along the central Bay of Bengal (BOB) during summer, fall and spring intermonsoons showed that the northern bay becomes less productive compared to the south in summer...

  14. Cryptosporidiosis and Isosporiasis among HIV-positive individuals in south Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Mekonnen; Teshome, Wondu; Petros, Beyene; Endeshaw, Tekola

    2014-02-22

    Cryptosporidium spp and I. belli are intestinal opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. A decline in the incidence of these opportunistic infections due to HAART was reported. We aim to investigate these parasites among HAART naïve and experienced HIV patients in south Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was carried out among 268 HIV- positive patients between January and September, 2007. Interview with questionnaires and document reviews were used to collect data. Stool samples were obtained from each patient and parasites were examined by direct, formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain for Cryptosporidium spp and I. belli. Univariate and multivariate analysis were carried out. Level of significance was set at p-value of 0.05. A total of 268 patients participated in the study. The mean age was 34.0 (±1 SD of 8.34) years. Females constituted 53.4% (143) of the study participants. Half of the study participants were on HAART; majorities (85.8%) of such patients were within the first year of treatment. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp was 34.3% (92/268) and I. belli was 1.5% (4/268). Dual infection was detected in two patients (0.75%). The crude analysis revealed significant reduction in the odds of Cryptosporidium spp infection among patients who have started HAART (crude OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.35, 0.98). The adjusted analysis remained in the same direction but has lost significance (Adj OR 0.65, 95%CI 0.35, 1.24). No differences in the risk of developing infection with Cryptosporidium spp were observed between groups based on most recent CD4 counts, sex, duration on HAART and age (p > 0.05 for all variables). Patients with Cryptosporidium spp were more likely to report vomiting [Adj OR 2.34 (95% CI 1.22, 5.41)], weight loss [Adj OR 2.10 (95% CI 1.15, 3.81)] and chronic diarrhea [Adj OR 3.35 (95%CI 1.05, 10.63)]. There is high burden of infection with Cryptosporidium spp among HIV infected individuals in southern Ethiopia but that of I

  15. Adherence to self-administered tuberculosis treatment in a high HIV-prevalence setting: a cross-sectional survey in Homa Bay, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Nackers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good adherence to treatment is crucial to control tuberculosis (TB. Efficiency and feasibility of directly observed therapy (DOT under routine program conditions have been questioned. As an alternative, Médecins sans Frontières introduced self-administered therapy (SAT in several TB programs. We aimed to measure adherence to TB treatment among patients receiving TB chemotherapy with fixed dose combination (FDC under SAT at the Homa Bay district hospital (Kenya. A second objective was to compare the adherence agreement between different assessment tools. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey amongst a series of new TB patients receiving 6 months of standard TB chemotherapy with FDC under SAT. Adherence was assessed at home with urine testing for Isoniazid (INH, pill count, interviewer-administered questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS. RESULTS: In November 2008 and in June 2009, 212 of 279 eligible patients were assessed for adherence. Overall, 95.2% [95%CI: 91.3-97.7] of the patients reported not having missed a tablet in the last 4 days. On the VAS, complete adherence was estimated at 92.5% [95%CI: 88.0-95.6]. INH urine test was positive for 97.6% [95%CI: 94.6-99.2] of the patients. Pill count could be assessed among only 70% of the interviewed patients. Among them, it was complete for 82.3% [95%CI: 75.1-88.1]. Among the 212 surveyed patients, 193 (91.0% were successfully treated (cured or treatment completed. The data suggest a fair agreement between the questionnaire and the INH urine test (k = 0.43 and between the questionnaire and the VAS (k = 0.40. Agreement was poor between the other adherence tools. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SAT, together with the FDC, allows achieving appropriate adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a high TB and HIV burden area. The use of a combination of a VAS and a questionnaire can be an adequate approach to monitor adherence to TB treatment in routine program

  16. [Attitudes towards psychotherapy in South Korea and Germany : A cross-cultural comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W; Shin, M A; Schmid-Ott, G

    2018-01-01

    Due to the relatively recent introduction of psychotherapy in South Korea and against the background of collectivist and Confucian values, it has been suggested that South Koreans harbor more negative attitudes towards psychotherapy compared to Germans and that the social acceptance of psychotherapy is lower. We compared the attitudes of 99 women from South Korea with 98 German women using the questionnaire on attitudes towards psychotherapeutic treatment (FEP). For the study of the South Korean women we translated the questionnaire into the Korean language. The results of the psychometric analysis suggest that the Korean version of the FEP is of acceptable quality. South Korean women reported a significantly more negative attitude towards psychotherapy compared to German women. Furthermore, South Korean women anticipated a more skeptical social attitude towards psychotherapy compared to Germans. The presented results suggest the relevance of cultural imprinting in psychotherapy. They are discussed with respect to culture-specific self-concepts, concepts of disease and healing expectations and the increase of individualistic values in the Korean society.

  17. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period. PMID:22834485

  18. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002-2009: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim A; Yang, Hong; Rivett, Ulrike; Gundry, Stephen W

    2012-07-27

    In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002-2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002-2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000-02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  19. Public perception of drinking water safety in South Africa 2002–2009: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Jim A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low and middle income countries, public perceptions of drinking water safety are relevant to promotion of household water treatment and to household choices over drinking water sources. However, most studies of this topic have been cross-sectional and not considered temporal variation in drinking water safety perceptions. The objective of this study is to explore trends in perceived drinking water safety in South Africa and its association with disease outbreaks, water supply and household characteristics. Methods This repeated cross-sectional study draws on General Household Surveys from 2002–2009, a series of annual nationally representative surveys of South African households, which include a question about perceived drinking water safety. Trends in responses to this question were examined from 2002–2009 in relation to reported cholera cases. The relationship between perceived drinking water safety and organoleptic qualities of drinking water, supply characteristics, and socio-economic and demographic household characteristics was explored in 2002 and 2008 using hierarchical stepwise logistic regression. Results The results suggest that perceived drinking water safety has remained relatively stable over time in South Africa, once the expansion of improved supplies is controlled for. A large cholera outbreak in 2000–02 had no apparent effect on public perception of drinking water safety in 2002. Perceived drinking water safety is primarily related to water taste, odour, and clarity rather than socio-economic or demographic characteristics. Conclusion This suggests that household perceptions of drinking water safety in South Africa follow similar patterns to those observed in studies in developed countries. The stability over time in public perception of drinking water safety is particularly surprising, given the large cholera outbreak that took place at the start of this period.

  20. Dune Mining and the Nhlabane Estuary, South Africa: the Effect of a Dredger Crossing on the Zoobenthic Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivier, L.; Cyrus, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Nhlabane Estuary, located on the north-east coast of South Africa, is situated in a titanium dune mining lease area. During 1993, a mining dredger and concentrator crossed the middle reaches of the estuary. For this purpose, two berm walls were constructed across the estuary. Two impacts stemmed from the crossing. A series of fine sediment intrusions into the estuary from the berm wall area occurred during late 1993 and early 1994 and caused a rapid decline in benthic densities and number of taxa. Recovery of the affected area was slow and characterized by initial proliferation of opportunistic colonizers. The berm walls, which divided the estuary in half, were kept in place for nearly three years and caused changes in water quality and the benthic community of the upper and lower halves of the estuary. Artificial breaching of the estuary in August 1995 and removal of the berm walls in May 1996 initiated recovery of the estuary. The success of a second dredger crossing, scheduled for January 1999, depends on addressing the mistakes made during the first crossing and on the speed with which the carefully planned crossing operation, berm wall removal and estuary rehabilitation proceed

  1. The Danish-German police cooperation cross Danish-German land border in Schleswig-/South Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    including members of the national minorities. However, the 'opening' of the now 'internal EU border' after the Danish implementation of the Schengen Agreement in March 2001 as well as a massive growth in the demand of labour in South Jutland from 2004-2009, led to a rapid increase in the cross...... patterns of migration. A larger number of Danish bikers, including members of Hell's Angels have for instance in the recent years moved to Schleswig-Holstein. Danish and German police co-operate on combating gang related crime including crime committed by gangs of bikers. However, while Germany allows...

  2. A method for examining the geospatial distribution of CO2 storage resources applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brandon N. Ashby,

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates geospatial modification of the USGS methodology for assessing geologic CO2 storage resources, and was applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin. The study provides detailed evaluation of porous intervals within these reservoirs and utilizes GIS to evaluate the potential spatial distribution of reservoir parameters and volume of CO2 that can be stored. This study also shows that incorporating spatial variation of parameters using detailed and robust datasets may improve estimates of storage resources when compared to applying uniform values across the study area derived from small datasets, like many assessment methodologies. Geospatially derived estimates of storage resources presented here (Pre-Punta Gorda Composite = 105,570 MtCO2; Dollar Bay = 24,760 MtCO2) were greater than previous assessments, which was largely attributed to the fact that detailed evaluation of these reservoirs resulted in higher estimates of porosity and net-porous thickness, and areas of high porosity and thick net-porous intervals were incorporated into the model, likely increasing the calculated volume of storage space available for CO2 sequestration. The geospatial method for evaluating CO2 storage resources also provides the ability to identify areas that potentially contain higher volumes of storage resources, as well as areas that might be less favorable.

  3. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Surface Water Nutrient, Suspended Sediment, and Chlorophyll a Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A one 1000 ml (one Liter) water sample was collected every 20 days at 2 hour and 4 minute intervals for 2 complete tidal cycles (26 hours) with an ISCO automated...

  4. Bird surveys at McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, Northwest Territories, in 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, B J; Dickson, D L; Dickson, H L

    1992-03-01

    McKinley Bay is a shallow protected bay along the eastern Beaufort Sea coast which provides an important habitat for diving ducks. Since 1979, the bay has been the site of a winter harbor and support base for oil and gas exploraton in the Beaufort Sea. Aerial surveys for bird abundance and distribution were conducted in August 1991 as a continuation of long-term monitoring of birds in McKinley Bay and Hutchison Bay, a nearby area used as a control. The main objectives of the 1991 surveys were to expand the set of baseline data on natural annual fluctuations in diving duck numbers, and to determine if numbers of diving ducks had changed since the initial 1981-85 surveys. On the day with the best survey conditions, the population of diving ducks at McKinley bay was estimated at ca 32,000, significantly more than 1981-85. At Hutchison Bay, there were an estimated 11,000 ducks. As in previous years, large numbers of diving ducks were observed off Atkinson Point at the northwest corner of McKinley Bay, at the south end of the bay, and in the northeast corner near a long spit. Most divers in Hutchison Bay were at the west side. Diving ducks, primarily Oldsquaw and scoter, were the most abundant bird group in the study area. Observed distribution patterns of birds are discussed with reference to habitat preferences. 16 refs., 7 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and protozoan load in South African women: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waaij, Dewi J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Trichomonas vaginalis is thought to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and protozoan load of T. vaginalis infection in South African women. Methods A cross-sectional study of 604 women was conducted at 25 primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa (Mopani district). T. vaginalis DNA was detected in vaginal and rectal swabs. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the T. vaginalis infection was investigated in relation to demographic characteristics, medical history and behavioural factors. The T. vaginalis load was determined as the logarithm of DNA copies per microlitre sample solution. Results Collected vaginal and rectal swabs were tested for T. vaginalis DNA. Prevalence of vaginal T. vaginalis was 20% (95% CI 17.0% to 23.4%) and rectal 1.2% (95% CI 0.6% to 2.4%). Most women (66%) with a vaginal infection were asymptomatic. Factors associated with T. vaginalis infection were a relationship status of single (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.0; pvaginalis infection were more likely to have concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infection than those without vaginal infection (12%vs3%; pvaginalis load was observed among women with observed vaginal discharge compared with those without vaginal discharge (p=0.025). Conclusions Vaginal trichomoniasis is highly prevalent in rural South Africa, especially among single women and those with HIV infection, and often presents without symptoms. PMID:28993385

  6. Cross-Cultural Beliefs about Memory and Aging for Self and Others: South Korea and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Young-Sun; Anas, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    Young adults in Canada (N = 161) and South Korea (N = 165) rated either themselves or typical others at target ages 25, 45, and 65 years. In both countries, poorer memory was anticipated with each increase in age on all 3 memory belief factors: capacity, change, and locus. Both groups demonstrated a self-protective bias about age-related decline,…

  7. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michelle; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) is a screening questionnaire that focuses on parents' perceptions of children's speech in different contexts. Originally developed in English, it has been translated into 60 languages and the validity and clinical utility of the scale has been documented in a range of countries. In South Africa, there are…

  8. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Cognitive Attributions of Smoking in Thai and South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Park, Sunhee; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Park, Hyunju; Kemeny, Maria; Philips, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the cognitive attributions of smoking has the potential to advance youth smoking prevention efforts; however, research on this subject is limited in Asian countries. We attempted to determine the degree to which cognitive attributions of smoking differ among adolescents in 2 Asian countries, Thailand and South Korea.…

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Behavioral Inhibition in Toddlers: East-West-North-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Chen, Xinyin; Hastings, Paul; Sanson, Ann; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Chung, Ock-Boon; Park, Sung-Yun; Doh, Hyun Sim; Chen, Huichang; Sun, Ling; Yoon, Chong-Hee; Cui, Liyin

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioral inhibition in toddlers was examined in five cultures. Participants in this study included 110 Australian, 108 Canadian, 151 Chinese, 104 Italian, and 113 South Korean toddlers and their mothers who were observed during a structured observational laboratory session. Matched procedures were used in each country, with…

  10. International cross-border migration in the South-East Baltic: factors, structure, consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemelyanova Larisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an integrated research encompassing both the study of migration processes in the South-East Baltic (volume, structure, directions and the analysis of factors affecting migration mobility of the population as well as the assessment of migration influence on the socioeconomic development of three border territories.

  11. Multivariate Analyses and Evaluation of Heavy Metals by Chemometric BCR Sequential Extraction Method in Surface Sediments from Lingdingyang Bay, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sediments in estuary areas are recognized as the ultimate reservoirs for numerous contaminants, e.g., toxic metals. Multivariate analyses by chemometric evaluation were performed to classify metal ions (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cd in superficial sediments from Lingdingyang Bay and to determine whether or not there were potential contamination risks based on the BCR sequential extraction scheme. The results revealed that Cd was mainly in acid-soluble form with an average of 75.99% of its total contents and thus of high potential availability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources, while Cr, As, Ni were enriched in the residual fraction which could be considered as the safest ingredients to the environment. According to the proportion of secondary to primary phases (KRSP, Cd had the highest bioavailable fraction and represented high or very high risk, followed by Pb and Cu with medium risks in most of samples. The combined evaluation of the Pollution Load Index (PLI and the mean Effect Range Median Quotient (mERM-Q highlighted that the greatest potential environmental risk area was in the northwest of Lingdingyang Bay. Almost all of the sediments had a 21% probability of toxicity. Additionally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed that the survey region was significantly affected by two main sources of anthropogenic contributions: PC1 showed increased loadings of variables in acid-soluble and reducible fractions that were consistent with the input from industrial wastes (such as manufacturing, metallurgy, chemical industry and domestic sewages; PC2 was characterized by increased loadings of variables in residual fraction that could be attributed to leaching and weathering of parent rocks. The results obtained demonstrated the need for appropriate remediation measures to alleviate soil pollution problem due to the more aggregation of potentially risky metals. Therefore, it is of crucial significance to implement the targeted

  12. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  13. Risk correlates for physical-mental multimorbidities in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, I; Rathod, S; Kathree, T; Selohilwe, O; Bhana, A

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study was to identify the risk correlates for coexisting common mental disorders (CMDs) in the chronic care population in South Africa, with the view to identifying particularly vulnerable patient populations. The sample comprised 2549 chronic care patients enrolled in the baseline and endline rounds of a facility detection survey conducted by the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care in three large facilities in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda district in the North West province of South Africa. Participants were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) and for alcohol misuse using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Data were analysed according to the number of morbidities, disorder type (physical or mental) and demographic variables. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more disorders (physical and/or mental). Just over one-third of the sample reported two or more physical conditions. Women were more at risk of being depressed than were men, with men more at risk of alcohol misuse. Those who were employed were at lower risk of having coexisting CMDs, while being younger, HIV positive, and food deprived were all found to be associated with higher risk for having coexisting CMDs. In the face of the large treatment gap for CMDs in South Africa, and the role that coexisting CMDs can play in exacerbating the burden of chronic physical diseases, mental health screening and treatment interventions should target HIV-positive, younger patients living in circumstances where there is household food insecurity.

  14. Investment-centred transitioning from agrarian-tourism economy to manufacturing in cross river state, south-eastern/south-south, Nigeria: A theoretical perspective and background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embattled by ministries, departments and agencies of Nigeria’s federal government, that worked together with neighbouring (Akwa Ibom State government to remove Cross River State from the country’s oil-producing states entitled to receipt of larger statutory allocations compared to their counterparts, Cross River State Government’s policy of promoting regional development through attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI since 2009 is receiving praises. This article presents contexts, core-periphery theoretical perspectives, and comments elucidating intricacies of FDI-centred sub-national regional development strategizing in the context of phenomenal globalization of neoliberal capitalism. It is argued that the core-periphery theory’s current status promises ‘depressed’ sub-national regions the development strategies they require for transiting from backwardness to growth. This assertion derives from the theory’s encouragement of Nigeria’s ‘depressed’ sub-national regions to aspire towards applying innovative policies/instruments capable of reversing undesirable circumstances that sometimes surpass standards previously/currently attained by counterparts placed higher on the development ladder.

  15. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  16. Some Aspects of South African Cross-Border Insolvency Relief: The Lehane Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair David Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lehane matter wound its way through the Cape Provincial Division of the High Court and reached the Supreme Court of Appeal. Mr Dunne, the Irish debtor who had taken up residence in the United States of America, ran an international web of companies, including Lagoon Beach Hotel, which operated a Cape Town hotel. He filed for chapter 7 bankruptcy in the United States and soon was also bankrupted by the Irish High Court. The Irish official assignee, Lehane, applied to the Cape court for recognition and assistance, and succeeded at every stage of the South African proceedings. Initially, Steyn J recognised Lehane as the foreign trustee as though a sequestration order had been granted against Mr Dunne in terms of the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936, thus diverging from the approach taken by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Singularis Holdings Ltd v PricewaterhouseCoopers (Bermuda. Subsequently, Yekiso J's approach to applying the Insolvency Act without derogating from its generality opens up the possibility of applying section 21 of the Insolvency Act to significant effect against Mrs Dunne's South African property. Yet the territorialist restriction in Yekiso J's order that only creditors with causes of action which arose in South Africa were entitled to claim against the insolvent estate excluded many foreign creditors, even those from the Republic of Ireland (Eire. Of the many issues raised by the Lagoon Beach Hotel company, two chosen for discussion in this case note are the possible application of the automatic stay under section 362 of the United States Bankruptcy Code 1978 to the South African proceedings, and the standing of Lehane because of the litigants' dispute whether Mr Dunne was domiciled in the United States or Ireland. Yekiso J and subsequently Leach JA held that the American automatic stay did not govern the South African proceedings. Significantly, the American and the Irish trustees were co-operating with respect to

  17. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turid Hillestad Nel

    Full Text Available The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources.

  18. The Small Mammal Sequence from the c. 76 - 72 ka Still Bay Levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa - Taphonomic and Palaeoecological Implications for Human Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Turid Hillestad; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The Still Bay, c. 76-72 ka, a prominent techno-tradition during the Middle Stone Age of southern Africa, has yielded innovative technologies, symbolic material culture, and shows evidence of expansion of hunting techniques and subsistence strategies. In this paper we present the results of the first systematic, taphonomic and palaeoenvironmental study of micromammals from the Still Bay levels at Blombos Cave. Our taphonomic analysis indicates that the micromammals were accumulated by avian predators occupying the cave. Post-depositional processes affecting the micromammal assemblage include organic waste decomposition and conditions associated with a limestone cave environment. The palaeoenvironmental reconstruction shows that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a at Blombos Cave had diverse micromammal communities occupying a variety of habitats and with rainfall pattern equal to present. The transition from MIS 5a to 4 is indicated by less diverse micromammal assemblages, increase in grassland and scrub vegetation, shifts in seasonal precipitation, and a decline in shrubs associated with fynbos. The onset of the glacial conditions associated with MIS 4 is visible in the micromammal assemblage. However humans occupying Blombos Cave during this c. 5 ka period showed an ability to cope with changing environmental conditions and were able to adapt and utilise a variety of available resources.

  19. Sepetiba Bay: an integrated study of an harbour location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de; Moreira, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Several aspects of the construction of an iron-ore and coal terminal in Sepetiba bay (RJ, Brazil) in the region of south of Madeira Island, are presented. The studies include a general view of the geomorphology of the region, analyses of current measurements, water circulation and sedimentology of the bay by conventional methods and by radioactive tracers. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Children's health retention in South Korea and the United States: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Betsy M; Chang, Nahn Joo; Choi, Sang Soon

    2003-12-01

    In recent decades, great strides have been made globally in decreasing child mortality. However, given that many countries still do not have basic healthcare, additional emphasis is being placed on health promotion activities among industrialized nations. As cultural differences of individual countries impact these health promotion practices, the cultural characteristics influencing children and families in two countries, South Korea and the United States, were compared. Major child health risk factors were examined, and health retention strategies tailored to the cultural characteristics and needs of the populations of each country are proposed, using the Neuman Systems Model as a guideline.

  1. Postglobal Teacher Preparation: Border Thinking along the Global South through International Cross-Cultural Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahatzad, Jubin; Sasser, Hannah L.; Phillion, JoAnn; Karimi, Nastaran; Deng, Yuwen; Akiyama, Reiko; Sharma, Suniti

    2013-01-01

    Preservice teachers' international cross-cultural experiences can provide opportunities for the exploration of epistemic frontiers. In this article we suggest that postglobal teacher preparation take a critically reflective approach that engages preservice teachers in border thinking, which allows for other ways of knowing while studying abroad.…

  2. 77 FR 43514 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and adding an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI,'' in the...

  3. 76 FR 31846 - Safety Zone; 28th Annual Humboldt Bay Festival, Fireworks Display, Eureka, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 28th Annual Humboldt Bay Festival, Fireworks Display, Eureka, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard... support of the 28th Annual Humboldt Bay Festival Fireworks Display on the specified waters off the South... Humboldt Bay Festival Fireworks Display. The fireworks display is for entertainment purposes. This safety...

  4. A cross-cultural comparison of hospice development in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Anne P; Chen, Li-Kuang; Hwang, Eunju; Ono, Yuzuho; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2010-03-01

    By 2050, one out of four people in Eastern Asia will be aged 65 and above. Thus, preparing to care for an older population is imperative. Addressing quality care for elders includes consideration of palliative and end-of-life care. A comparative study of the development of hospice and palliative care services in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, is presented, based on an extensive literature review. Both commonalities and differences were found. This article provides information on the origins and administration of hospice services in these three cases, as well as the degree of government involvement. Cultural and religious aspects are also considered, and obstacles to the spread of hospice services are discussed. This review compares experiences with hospice services and identifies factors that influence people's perceptions and adoption of hospice. Stronger financial support for hospice and palliative care through the government and insurance programs would help increase the availability and use of services. Also, the need for continuing education of healthcare providers, patients, families, and the community is urgent. However, promotion of understanding of better pain management and the worth of hospice and palliative care must be conducted in ways that are sensitive to the cultural values and traditions in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Only when hospice and palliative care can be viewed as an admirable choice for one's loved ones, overcoming issues of truth telling, filial piety, worries about how one is judged, and religious considerations, will it become more widely accepted.

  5. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37, (BRNETH00740037) on Town Highway 74, crossing South Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ronda L.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BRNETH00740037 on Town Highway 74 crossing South Peacham Brook, Barnet, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  6. Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Robyn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL. Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness.

  7. Qualitative cross-sectional study of the perceived causes of depression in South Asian origin women in Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Samanthika; Ahmad, Farah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore how South Asian origin women in Toronto, Canada, understand and explain the causes of their depression. Design Cross-sectional in-depth qualitative interviews. Setting Outpatient service in Toronto, Ontario. Participants Ten women with symptoms of depression aged between 22 and 65 years of age. Seven were from India, two from Sri Lanka and one from Pakistan. Four were Muslim, three Hindu and three Catholic. Two participants had university degrees, one a high school diploma and seven had completed less than a high school education. Eight were married, one was unmarried and one a widow. Results Three main factors emerged from the participant narratives as the causes of depression: family and relationships, culture and migration and socioeconomic. The majority of the participants identified domestic abuse, marital problems and interpersonal problems in the family as the cause of their depression. Culture and migration and socioeconomic factors were considered contributory. None of our study participants reported spiritual, supernatural or religious factors as causes of depression. Conclusion A personal–social–cultural model emerged as the aetiological paradigm for depression. Given the perceived causation, psycho-social treatment methods may be more acceptable for South Asian origin women. PMID:22337816

  8. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo--Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2016-02-01

    Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean.

  9. Latest results from Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobel, Vit; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment was designed to measure θ 13, the smallest mixing angle in the three-neutrino mixing framework, with unprecedented precision. The experiment consists of eight functionally identical detectors placed underground at different baselines from three pairs of nuclear reactors in South China. Since Dec. 2011, the experiment has been running stably for more than 4 years, and has collected the largest reactor anti-neutrino sample to date. Daya Bay is able to greatly improve the precision on θ 13 and to make an independent measurement of the effective mass splitting in the electron antineutrino disappearance channel. Daya Bay can also perform a number of other precise measurements, such as a high-statistics determination of the absolute reactor antineutrino flux and spectrum, as well as a search for sterile neutrino mixing, among others. The most recent results from Daya Bay are discussed in this paper, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experiment.

  10. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Park, Keeho

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep). The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  11. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Kye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  12. Cross-sectional study of female sex workers in Soweto, South Africa: Factors associated with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In South Africa, the rate of HIV in the sex worker (SW) population is exceedingly high, but critical gaps exist in our understanding of SWs and the factors that make them vulnerable to HIV. This study aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in Soweto, South Africa, and to describe their sexual behavior and other factors associated with HIV infection. Methods A cross-sectional, respondent-driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methodology was used to enroll 508 FSWs based in Soweto. Data were collected using a survey instrument, followed by two HIV rapid tests. Raw and RDS adjusted data were analyzed using a chi-squared test of association and multivariate logistic regression to show factors associated with HIV infection. Findings HIV prevalence among FSWs was 53.6% (95% CI 47.5–59.9). FSWs were almost exclusively based in taverns (85.6%) and hostels (52.0%). Less than a quarter (24.4%) were under 25 years of age. Non-partner violence was reported by 55.5%, 59.6% of whom were HIV-infected. Advancing age, incomplete secondary schooling, migrancy and multiple clients increased the likelihood of HIV acquisition: >30 years of age was associated with a 4.9 times (95% CI 2.6–9.3) increased likelihood of HIV; incomplete secondary schooling almost tripled the likelihood (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6–5.0); being born outside of the Gauteng province increased the likelihood of HIV 2.3 times (95% CI 1.3–4.0); and having more than five clients per day almost doubled the likelihood (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2). Conclusion Our findings highlight the extreme vulnerability of FSWs to HIV. Advancing age, limited education and multiple clients were risk factors associated with HIV, strongly driven by a combination of structural, biological and behavioral determinants. Evidence suggests that interventions need to be carefully tailored to the varying profiles of SW populations across South Africa. Soweto could be considered a microcosm of South Africa in

  13. Cross tropopause flux observed at sub-daily scales over the south Indian monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth Kumar, A.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Sunilkumar, S. V.; Parameswaran, K.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of deep convection on the thermal structure and dynamics of the tropical tropopause at sub daily scales is investigated using data from radiosondes launched over two sites in the Indian Monsoon region (Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.9°E)) conducted between December 2010 and March 2014. The data from these soundings are classified into 5 convective categories based on the past, present and future cloudiness over the launching region after the radiosonde has reached tropopause altitude. They are denoted as category 1 (no convection), category 2 (convection may occur in any of the next 3 h), category 3 (convection occurred prior 3 h), category 4 (convection terminated within 3 h of launching) and category 5 (convection persistent throughout the considered period). The anomalies from the background in temperature, relative humidity and wind speed are grouped into the aforementioned five different convective categories for both the stations. Cooling and moisture anomalies are found during the active convection (category 5). The horizontal wind speed showed a strong anomaly indicating the presence of synoptic scale features. Vertical wind obtained simultaneously from the MST radar over Gadanki clearly showed strong updraft during the active convection. The ozone profiles from ozonesondes launched during the same period are also segregated according to the above convective categories. During the active convection, high and low ozone values are found in the upper troposphere and the lower troposphere, respectively. The cross tropopause ozone mass flux and vertical wind at the tropopause and convective outflow level estimated from the ozonesonde, and MST radar/ERA-Interim data showed positive values indicating the transport of ozone between troposphere and stratosphere during deep convection. Similarly, the total mass flux crossing the cold point tropopause over Gadanki showed upward flux during the active convection. The variability of

  14. Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved South Asian communities: Cross-sectional analysis of data from Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Neuman (Melissa); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Kuddus (Abdul); D. Osrin (David); N. Shah More (Neena); N. Nair (Nirmala); P. Tripathy (Prasanta); C. Sikorski (Catherine); N. Saville (Naomi); A. Sen (Aman); T. Colbourn (Tim); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); N. Seward (Nadine); A. Manandhar; B. Shrestha (Bhim); A. Costello (Anthony); A. Prost (Audrey)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To describe the prevalence and determinants of births by caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved communities in South Asia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: 81 community-based geographical clusters in four locations in Bangladesh, India

  15. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  16. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M; Gartstein, Maria A; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development.

  18. East-West, Collectivist-Individualist: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Temperament in Toddlers from Chile, Poland, South Korea, and the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassner, Ariye M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Park, Curie; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Lecannelier, Felipe; Putnam, Samuel P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined toddler temperament across Chilean, South Korean, Polish, and US samples, providing an opportunity to examine both collectivist-individualist and East-West contrasts. The effect of culture on the three factor and 18 dimension scores provided by the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were investigated. Results provide evidence of cross-cultural differences between the four samples. Chilean toddlers scored significantly higher than US, Polish, and South Korean children on the overall factor of Negative Affectivity, as well as higher than the Polish and South Korean samples on the Surgency factor. South Korean toddlers scored significantly higher on the factor of Effortful Control, and two related dimensions, than US, Polish, or Chilean samples. Results are discussed in terms of the apparent roles of individualism/collectivism and East-West distinctions in shaping temperament development. PMID:29333175

  19. Addison's disease symptoms--a cross sectional study in urban South Africa.

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    Ian Louis Ross

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addison's disease is a potentially life-threatening disorder, and prompt diagnosis, and introduction of steroid replacement has resulted in near normal life-expectancy. There are limited data describing the clinical presentation of Addison's disease in South Africa. It is hypothesised that patients may present in advanced state of ill-health, compared to Western countries. PATIENTS: A national database of patients was compiled from primary care, referral centres and private practices. 148 patients were enrolled (97 white, 34 mixed ancestry, 5 Asian and 12 black. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were elicited using questionnaires. Biochemical data were obtained from folder reviews and laboratory archived results. RESULTS: The majority of the cohort was women (62%. The median and inter-quartile age range (IQR of patients at enrolment was 46.0 (32.0-61.0 years, with a wide range from 2.8-88.0 years. The median and IQR age at initial diagnosis was 34.0 (20.0-45.0 years (range 0.02-77.0 years, indicating that at the time of enrolment, the patients, on average, were diagnosed with Addison's disease 12 years previously. Hyperpigmentation was observed in 76%, nausea and vomiting occurred in more than 40%, and weight loss was noted in 25%. Loss of consciousness as a presenting feature was recorded in 20%. with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of (14-28% and shock occurred in 5% CI (1.5-8.5%. Case-finding was recorded at 3.1 per million. CONCLUSIONS: The usual constellation of hyperpigmentation, nausea, vomiting and weight loss suggests Addison's disease, but a significant proportion present with an advanced state of ill-health and Addisonian crises. A lower prevalence rate, compared to Western countries is suggested.

  20. Addison's disease symptoms--a cross sectional study in urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ian Louis; Levitt, Naomi S

    2013-01-01

    Addison's disease is a potentially life-threatening disorder, and prompt diagnosis, and introduction of steroid replacement has resulted in near normal life-expectancy. There are limited data describing the clinical presentation of Addison's disease in South Africa. It is hypothesised that patients may present in advanced state of ill-health, compared to Western countries. A national database of patients was compiled from primary care, referral centres and private practices. 148 patients were enrolled (97 white, 34 mixed ancestry, 5 Asian and 12 black). Demographic and clinical data were elicited using questionnaires. Biochemical data were obtained from folder reviews and laboratory archived results. The majority of the cohort was women (62%). The median and inter-quartile age range (IQR) of patients at enrolment was 46.0 (32.0-61.0) years, with a wide range from 2.8-88.0 years. The median and IQR age at initial diagnosis was 34.0 (20.0-45.0) years (range 0.02-77.0) years, indicating that at the time of enrolment, the patients, on average, were diagnosed with Addison's disease 12 years previously. Hyperpigmentation was observed in 76%, nausea and vomiting occurred in more than 40%, and weight loss was noted in 25%. Loss of consciousness as a presenting feature was recorded in 20%. with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of (14-28%) and shock occurred in 5% CI (1.5-8.5%). Case-finding was recorded at 3.1 per million. The usual constellation of hyperpigmentation, nausea, vomiting and weight loss suggests Addison's disease, but a significant proportion present with an advanced state of ill-health and Addisonian crises. A lower prevalence rate, compared to Western countries is suggested.

  1. Addison’s Disease Symptoms – A Cross Sectional Study in Urban South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ian Louis; Levitt, Naomi S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Addison’s disease is a potentially life-threatening disorder, and prompt diagnosis, and introduction of steroid replacement has resulted in near normal life-expectancy. There are limited data describing the clinical presentation of Addison’s disease in South Africa. It is hypothesised that patients may present in advanced state of ill-health, compared to Western countries. Patients A national database of patients was compiled from primary care, referral centres and private practices. 148 patients were enrolled (97 white, 34 mixed ancestry, 5 Asian and 12 black). Methods Demographic and clinical data were elicited using questionnaires. Biochemical data were obtained from folder reviews and laboratory archived results. Results The majority of the cohort was women (62%). The median and inter-quartile age range (IQR) of patients at enrolment was 46.0 (32.0–61.0) years, with a wide range from 2.8–88.0 years. The median and IQR age at initial diagnosis was 34.0 (20.0–45.0) years (range 0.02–77.0) years, indicating that at the time of enrolment, the patients, on average, were diagnosed with Addison’s disease 12 years previously. Hyperpigmentation was observed in 76%, nausea and vomiting occurred in more than 40%, and weight loss was noted in 25%. Loss of consciousness as a presenting feature was recorded in 20%. with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of (14–28%) and shock occurred in 5% CI (1.5–8.5%). Case-finding was recorded at 3.1 per million. Conclusions The usual constellation of hyperpigmentation, nausea, vomiting and weight loss suggests Addison’s disease, but a significant proportion present with an advanced state of ill-health and Addisonian crises. A lower prevalence rate, compared to Western countries is suggested. PMID:23308244

  2. Gender perspective of risk factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinetti, Elisa; Santacatterina, Michele; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients in South Africa. A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73%) with median age of 39 years. Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR) 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-1.0; p = 0.05)). Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90-11.7; p = 0.07) than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.99; p = 0.17) than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (pwomen were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (pgender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended.

  3. HIV-1 viraemia and drug resistance amongst female sex workers in Soweto, South Africa: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Jenny; Hunt, Gillian; Jaffer, Maya; Otwombe, Kennedy; Scott, Lesley; Bongwe, Asiashu; Ledwaba, Johanna; Molema, Sephonono; Jewkes, Rachel; Gray, Glenda E

    2017-01-01

    HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) from Soweto, South Africa. A cross-sectional, respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methodology was used to enrol FSWs based in Soweto. Participants were tested for HIV and undertook a survey that included HIV knowledge and treatment status. Whole blood specimens were collected from HIV positive FSWs to measure for CD4 counts, viral load (VL) and perform HIVDR genotyping. Frequencies were determined for categorical variables and medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) for the continuous. Of the 508 enrolled participants, 55% (n = 280) were HIV positive and of median age 32 (IQR: 20-51) years. Among the HIV positive, 51.8% (132/269) were defined as virologically suppressed (VL HIV positive FSWs had unsuppressed viral loads, increasing the likelihood for onward transmission of HIV. Disturbingly, more than 1:4 treatment naïve women with unsuppressed viral loads had HIVDR suggesting that possible sexual transmission of drug resistance is occurring in this high-risk population. Given the high burden of HIVDR in a population with a high background prevalence of HIV, it is imperative that routine monitoring of HIVDR be implemented. Understanding transmission dynamics of HIVDR in FSW and its impact on treatment success should be urgently elucidated.

  4. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  5. Occupational injuries and safety measures adopted by welding workers: a cross sectional study in South India

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    Bhumika.T.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Welders have been identified as a high risk group according to ranking of occupations based on cost related injuries. Employment of safety measures and practices among welders are potential ways of preventing occupational injuries. Adherence to these precautions is nearly universal in the developed world but there is scarcity of information about the situation in developing world including India. Objectives 1 To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries among welding workers in Udupi district; 2 To assess the perception towards occupational hazards and the safety measures adopted by the welders Material and Methods A cross- sectional study was conducted among 160 non- industrial welding workers in Udupi district. A pre-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Results The prevalence of occupational injuries was found to be 80%. Only 24.4% of the welders had undergone professional training. Though 95% of them were aware of the importance of personal protective equipments (PPE, only 37.5% of them were regularly using PPE. Majority (75% of them reported that welding profession was dangerous. Around 79% of the workers reported carelessness being the major cause of injury during work. Working hours of less than 8 hours in a day, reading of safety manual and maintenance of equipments were significantly positively associated with occupational injuries among welding workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries during welding are preventable. The level of experience, training and attitude while working can reduce the injuries to large extent.

  6. Occupational injuries and safety measures adopted by welding workers: a cross sectional study in South India

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    Bhumika.T.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Welders have been identified as a high risk group according to ranking of occupations based on cost related injuries. Employment of safety measures and practices among welders are potential ways of preventing occupational injuries. Adherence to these precautions is nearly universal in the developed world but there is scarcity of information about the situation in developing world including India. Objectives 1 To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries among welding workers in Udupi district; 2 To assess the perception towards occupational hazards and the safety measures adopted by the welders Material and Methods A cross--‐ sectional study was conducted among 160 non--‐ industrial welding workers in Udupi district. A pre--‐structured interviewer--‐administered questionnaire was used. Results The prevalence of occupational injuries was found to be 80%. Only 24.4% of the welders had undergone professional training. Though 95% of them were aware of the importance of personal protective equipments (PPE, only 37.5% of them were regularly using PPE. Majority (75% of them reported that welding profession was dangerous. Around 79% of the workers reported carelessness being the major cause of injury during work. Working hours of less than 8 hours in a day, reading of safety manual and maintenance of equipments were significantly positively associated with occupational injuries among welding workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries during welding are preventable. The level of experience, training and attitude while working can reduce the injuries to large extent.

  7. Methodological challenges of cross-language qualitative research with South Asian communities living in the UK

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    Manbinder S. Sidhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigate (1 the influence of ethnic, gender, and age concordance with interviewers and (2 how expression of qualitative data varies between interviews delivered in English and community languages (Punjabi/Urdu with monolingual and bilingual participants across three generations of the Indian Sikh and Pakistani Muslim communities living in the UK. Methods: We analyzed and interpreted semi-structured interview transcripts that were designed to collect data about lifestyles, disease management, community practices/beliefs, and social networks. First, qualitative content analysis was applied to transcripts. Second, a framework was applied as a guide to identify cross-language illustrations where responses varied in length, expression and depth. Results: Participant responses differed by language and topic. First-generation migrants when discussing religion, culture, or family practice were far likelier to use group or community narratives and give a longer response, indicating familiarity with or importance of such issues. Ethnic and gender concordance generated greater rapport between researchers and participants centered on community values and practices. Further, open-ended questions that were less direct were better suited for first-generation migrants. Conclusion: Community-based researchers need more time to complete interviews in second languages, need to acknowledge that narratives can be contextualized in both personal and community views, and reframe questions that may lead to greater expression. Furthermore, we detail a number of recommendations with regard to validating the translation of interviews from community languages to English as well as measures for testing language proficiency.

  8. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  9. Leadership and governance of community health worker programmes at scale: a cross case analysis of provincial implementation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-15

    National community health worker (CHW) programmes are returning to favour as an integral part of primary health care systems, often on the back of pre-existing community based initiatives. There are significant challenges to the integration and support of such programmes, and they require coordination and stewardship at all levels of the health system. This paper explores the leadership and governance tasks of large-scale CHW programmes at sub-national level, through the case of national reforms to South Africa's community based sector, referred to as the Ward Based Outreach Team (WBOT) strategy. A cross case analysis of leadership and governance roles, drawing on three case studies of adoption and implementation of the WBOTs strategy at provincial level (Western Cape, North West and Gauteng) was conducted. The primary case studies mapped system components and assessed implementation processes and contexts. They involved teams of researchers and over 200 interviews with stakeholders from senior to frontline, document reviews and analyses of routine data. The secondary, cross case analysis specifically focused on the issues and challenges facing, and strategies adopted by provincial and district policy makers and managers, as they engaged with the new national mandate. From this key sub-national leadership and governance roles were formulated. Four key roles are identified and discussed: 1. Negotiating a fit between national mandates and provincial and district histories and strategies of community based services 2. Defining new organisational and accountability relationships between CHWs, local health services, communities and NGOs 3. Revising and developing new aligned and integrated planning, human resource, financing and information systems 4. Leading change by building new collective visions, mobilising political, including budgetary, support and designing implementation strategies. This analysis, from real-life systems, adds to understanding of the processes

  10. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  11. Change in HIV-related stigma in South Africa between 2004 and 2016: a cross-sectional community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Visser, Maretha

    2018-06-01

    A critical component of an AIDS-free generation is to reduce HIV-related stigma. Previous research predicted that stigma would decline over time with increased contact with PLWH, understanding of the disease and availability of treatment. The aim of the research was to explore change in stigma over a 12-year period, by comparing data collected from two large cross-sectional samples from South African communities in 2004 (before the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART)) and in 2016. Students recruited respondents according to criteria related to age, gender, race and area of living. A survey assessing moral judgement and interpersonal distance was used to assess personal and perceived community stigma. Responses to ten identical items used in the 2004 and 2016 data collection were compared. Personal stigma attached to HIV decreased significantly over time, except in respect of having close contact with PLWH, such as dating and befriending. Perceived community stigma remained high in all subgroups. It is argued that perceived community stigma contributes to high levels of internalised stigma among PLWH. Interventions should focus on helping PLWH to cope with perceived stigma and strategies to address stereotyping, which contributes to perceived community stigma.

  12. Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates

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    Catherine L Ward, ProfPhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. Methods: For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires in each location inquired into lifetime and last-year prevalence of sexual abuse, and its correlates among children aged 15–17 years, whose parents gave informed consent and they themselves gave informed assent. Findings: The final household sample was 5631 (94·6% participation rate. 9·99% (95% CI 8·65–11·47 of boys and 14·61% (95% CI 12·83–16·56 of girls reported some lifetime sexual victimisation. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, family violence, and other victimisations were all strongly associated with sexual victimisation. The following were associated with greater risk of sexual abuse (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; school enrolment (OR 2·12, 95% CI 1·29–3·48; rural dwelling (0·59; 0·43–0·80; having a flush toilet (1·43, 1·04–1·96; parental substance misuse (2·37, 1·67–3·36; being disabled (1·42, 1·10–1·82; female (but not male caregivers' poor knowledge of the child's whereabouts, friends, and activities (1·07, 0·75–1·53 and poor quality of the relationship with the child (ie, poor acceptance; 1·20, 0·55–2·60. The child's own substance misuse (4·72, 3·73–5·98 and high-risk sexual behaviour (3·71, 2·99–4·61 were the behaviours most frequently associated with sexual abuse, with mental health conditions found to be less prevalent than these factors but still strongly associated with sexual victimisation (post-traumatic stress

  13. Gender perspective of risk factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, a cross-sectional study in Soweto, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Longinetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. AIM: To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART recipients in South Africa. SETTING: A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. PATIENTS: A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73% with median age of 39 years. RESULTS: Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.1-1.0; p = 0.05. Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90-11.7; p = 0.07 than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.99; p = 0.17 than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (p<0.01, and to partner and family (p<0.01, women were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (p<0.01, to child, family and others (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Being employed imposed a risk factor for HIV status disclosure, additionally we found an interaction effect of gender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended.

  14. Assessment of service quality of public antiretroviral treatment (ART clinics in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

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    Kinkel Hans F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa the ever increasing demand for antiretroviral treatment (ART runs the risk of leading to sub-optimal care in public sector ART clinics that are overburdened and under resourced. This study assessed the quality of ART services to identify service areas that require improvement. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at 16 of 17 public ART clinics in the target area in greater Pretoria, South Africa. Trained participant observers presented as ART qualifying HIV positive patients that required a visit to assess treatment readiness. They evaluated each facility on five different occasions between June and November 2009, assessing the time it took to get an appointment, the services available and accessed, service quality and the duration of the visit. Services (reception area, clinician’s consultation, HIV counselling, pharmacy, nutrition counselling and social worker’s assessment were assessed against performance standards that apply to all clinics. Service quality was expressed as scores for clinic performance (CPS and service performance (SPS, defined as the percentage of performance standards met per clinic and service area. Results In most of the clinics (62.5% participant observers were able to obtain an appointment within one week, although on the day of their visit essential services could not always be accessed. The median CPS of the assessed facilities was 68.5 with four clinics not meeting minimum standards (CPS > 60. The service areas that performed least well were the clinician’s consultation (SPS 67.3 and HIV counselling (SPS 70.7. Most notably, clinicians performed a physical examination in only 41.1% of the visits and rarely did a complete TB symptom screening. Counsellors frequently failed to address prevention of HIV transmission. Conclusions Overall public sector ART clinics in greater Pretoria were easily accessible and their services were of an acceptable quality. However

  15. HIV testing and burden of HIV infection in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengayi, Mazvita; Babb, Chantal; Egger, Matthias; Urban, Margaret I

    2015-03-18

    HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Johannesburg Cancer Case-control Study (JCCCS) recruits newly-diagnosed black cancer patients attending public referral hospitals for oncology and radiation therapy in Johannesburg . All adult cancer patients enrolled into the JCCCS from November 2004 to December 2009 and interviewed on previous HIV testing were included in the analysis. Patients were independently tested for HIV-1 using a single ELISA test . The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with prior HIV testing. A total of 5436 cancer patients were tested for HIV of whom 1833[33.7% (95% CI=32.5-35.0)] were HIV-positive. Three-quarters of patients (4092 patients) had ever been tested for HIV. The total prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was 11.5% (10.7-12.4) with 34% (32.0-36.3) of the 1833 patients who tested HIV-positive unaware of their infection. Men >49 years [OR 0.49(0.39-0.63)] and those residing in rural areas [OR 0.61(0.39-0.97)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. Men with at least a secondary education [OR 1.79(1.11-2.90)] and those interviewed in recent years [OR 4.13(2.62 - 6.52)] were likely to have prior testing. Women >49 years [OR 0.33(0.27-0.41)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. In women, having children associated with previous HIV testing. In a study of newly diagnosed black cancer patients in Johannesburg, over a third of HIV-positive patients were unaware of their HIV status. In South Africa black cancer patients should be targeted for opt-out HIV testing.

  16. Strategies and challenges for communicating the diagnosis of cancer in cross-cultural clinical settings-Perspectives from South African healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ottilia; Goliath, Veonna; van Rooyen, Dalena R M; Aldous, Colleen; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2017-01-01

    Communicating the diagnosis of cancer in cross-cultural clinical settings is a complex task. This qualitative research article describes the content and process of informing Zulu patients in South Africa of the diagnosis of cancer, using osteosarcoma as the index diagnosis. We used a descriptive research design with census sampling and focus group interviews. We used an iterative thematic data analysis process and Guba's model of trustworthiness to ensure scientific rigor. Our results reinforced the use of well-accepted strategies for communicating the diagnosis of cancer. In addition, new strategies emerged which may be useful in other cross-cultural settings. These strategies included using the stages of cancer to explain the disease and its progression and instilling hope using a multidisciplinary team care model. We identified several patients, professionals, and organizational factors that complicate cross-cultural communication. We conclude by recommending the development of protocols for communication in these cross-cultural clinical settings.

  17. Cross-Spectrum of Wind Speed for Meso-Gamma Scales in the Upper Surface Layer over South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Milton J.; Davy, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher J.; Coppin, Peter A.

    2011-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the cross-spectrum of wind speed are developed for the stochastic simulation of wind power in south-eastern Australia. The expressions are valid for heights above the ground in the range 40-80 m, site separations of 1-30 km, and frequencies of (1/6)-3 cycles h-1. The influence of site separation distance is taken into account, as are variables that are defined for blocks of time. These variables include the mean and standard deviation of wind speed and the mean wind direction. The parameters of the model equations are determined by non-linear least-squares regression with cross-validation over 10 years of wind measurements from 84 towers in south-eastern Australia.

  18. The stratigraphy of the Middle Stone Age sediments at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marean, Curtis W; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Fisher, Erich; Goldberg, Paul; Herries, Andy; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Nilssen, Peter J; Thompson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B) has provided the earliest archaeological evidence for the exploitation of marine shellfish, along with very early evidence for use and modification of pigments and the production of bladelets, all dated to approximately 164 ka (Marean et al., 2007). This makes PP13B a key site in studies of the origins of modern humans, one of a handful of sites in Africa dating to Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6), and the only site on the coast of South Africa with human occupation confidently dated to MIS 6. Along with this MIS 6 occupation there are rich archaeological sediments dated to MIS 5, and together these sediments are differentially preserved in three different areas of the cave. The sediments represent a complex palimpsest of geogenic, biogenic, and anthropogenic input and alteration that are described and interpreted through the use of a variety of macrostratigraphic, micromorphologic, and geochemical techniques. Three independent dating techniques allow us to constrain the age range of these sediments and together provide the stratigraphic context for the analyses of the material that follow in this special issue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Portrayal of Older People in Television Advertisements: A Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of the United States and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    A cross-cultural content analysis of 2,295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1,436 ads from South Korea--was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual…

  20. Saldanha Bay, South Africa II: estimating bay productivity | Pitcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autotrophic communities, where organic matter is produced in excess of respiratory demand, were confined on average to the upper 5.8 m of the water column, and often excluded the bulk of the phytoplankton community, where light limitation is considered to lead to heterotrophic community metabolism. Estimates of ...

  1. Evaluating diagnostic indicators of urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection in young women: A cross sectional study in rural South Africa.

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    Hashini Nilushika Galappaththi-Arachchige

    Full Text Available Urine microscopy is the standard diagnostic method for urogenital S. haematobium infection. However, this may lead to under-diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis, as the disease may present itself with genital symptoms in the absence of ova in the urine. Currently there is no single reliable and affordable diagnostic method to diagnose the full spectrum of urogenital S. haematobium infection. In this study we explore the classic indicators in the diagnosis of urogenital S. haematobium infection, with focus on young women.In a cross-sectional study of 1237 sexually active young women in rural South Africa, we assessed four diagnostic indicators of urogenital S. haematobium infection: microscopy of urine, polymerase chain reaction (PCR of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL, urogenital symptoms, and sandy patches detected clinically in combination with computerised image analysis of photocolposcopic images. We estimated the accuracy of these diagnostic indicators through the following analyses: 1 cross tabulation (assumed empirical gold standard of the tests against the combined findings of sandy patches and/or computerized image analysis and 2 a latent class model of the four indicators without assuming any gold standard.The empirical approach showed that urine microscopy had a sensitivity of 34.7% and specificity of 75.2% while the latent class analysis approach (LCA suggested a sensitivity of 81.0% and specificity of 85.6%. The empirical approach and LCA showed that Schistosoma PCR in CVL had low sensitivity (14.1% and 52.4%, respectively and high specificity (93.0% and 98.0, respectively. Using LCA, the presence of sandy patches showed a sensitivity of 81.6 and specificity of 42.4%. The empirical approach and LCA showed that urogenital symptoms had a high sensitivity (89.4% and 100.0%, respectively, whereas specificity was low (10.6% and 12.3%, respectively.All the diagnostic indicators used in the study had limited accuracy. Using urine microscopy

  2. A cross-cultural comparison of folk plant uses among Albanians, Bosniaks, Gorani and Turks living in south Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Pieroni, Andrea; Pulaj, Bledar; Koro, Xhemajli; Quave, Cassandra L

    2015-05-12

    Kosovo represents a unique hotspot of biological and cultural diversity in Europe, which allows for interesting cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to document the state of traditional knowledge related to local (esp. wild) plant uses for food, medicine, and handicrafts in south Kosovo; and 2) to examine how communities of different ethnic groups in the region (Albanians, Bosniaks/Gorani, and Turks) relate to and value wild botanical taxa in their ecosystem. Field research was conducted in 10 villages belonging to the Prizren municipality and 4 villages belonging to the Dragash municipality, located in the Sharr Mountains in the southern part of Kosovo. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 139 elderly informants (61 Albanians, 32 Bosniaks/Gorani and 46 Turks), for participation in semi-structured interviews regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal, food, and handicraft purposes. Overall, we recorded the local uses of 114 species were used for medicinal purposes, 29 for food (wild food plants), and 20 in handicraft activities. The most important species used for medicinal purposes were Achillea millefolium L., Sambucus nigra L., Urtica dioica L., Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Hypericum perforatum L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Thymus serpyllum L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. Chamomilla recutita was the most highly valued of these species across the populations surveyed. Out of 114 taxa used for medicinal purposes, only 44 species are also included in the European Pharmacopoeia. The predominantly quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Comparison of the data recorded among the Albanian, Bosniak/Gorani, and Turkish communities indicated a less herbophilic attitude of the Albanian populations, while most quoted taxa were quoted by all three communities, thus suggesting a hybrid character of the Kosovar plant knowledge. Cross-cultural ethnobiological studies are crucial in

  3. Caries status and salivary characteristics of South Indian school children with molar incisor hypomineralization: A cross-sectional study

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    Allwyn Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of MIH in school children aged 8–12 years in Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu, South India. The caries status and the salivary characteristics of children with and without MIH were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 4495 children were screened. Children with hypomineralized permanent molars and incisors were diagnosed using the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria. The caries severity was assessed using the International Caries Detection Assessment System II scoring criteria. The saliva and plaque samples of 50 children with MIH and 50 children with molar hypomineralization (MH children were collected in a sterile container. Similarly, saliva and plaque sample of the 100 children with no caries and no MIH (control group were collected and compared with the MIH/MH children. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, and plaque pH were estimated. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software version 17.0. Pearson and Student's t-test were used to compare the data. P =0.05 or less was considered to be of statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of MIH/MH was 5.25% (n = 236 in Tiruchengode district. Among the children, 3.33% (n = 150 boys and 1.91% (n = 86 girls had MIH/MH. The prevalence of dental caries in children with MIH/MH was 52.1% (n = 123 children. Conclusion: MIH is an important clinical problem that often concerns both the general dentists and pediatric dentists. Creating awareness about this condition, early diagnosis, and prompt treatment among the dentists, and population is obligatory, especially in countries like India.

  4. Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South Africa: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. Methods 1737 South African men aged 18–49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. Results In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. Conclusions Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. PMID:22216324

  5. Food security in a sample of clients attending HIV clinics in New South Wales: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Angela; Moxham, Rosalind; Hirst, Sarah; Houtzager, Louise; Coutelas, Julie; Rider, Amanda; Yusuf, Christine

    2018-06-08

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, demographics and location of food insecurity (FI) among people living with HIV at six health sites in Sydney, Australia and to identify the factors relating to FI. This was a cross-sectional study recruiting people living with HIV receiving HIV care from six sites across the Sydney metropolitan area. The United States Department of Agriculture abbreviated six-item Subset Food Insecurity Tool was used to assess FI and a demographic questionnaire was completed. Bivariate analysis was conducted to investigate differences between variables. Descriptive and frequency statistics were used to collate the demographic questionnaire and determine the prevalence of FI. All tests performed were two sided with a P-value of less than 0.05, or 95% confidence interval not overlapping, indicating a statistically significant association. Of the 162 participants 47% (n = 76) reported FI. The percentage of FI was found to be higher among the females (61%, n = 8 out of 13), unemployed (65%), receiving a government pension (63%), with a lower perceived health status (68%), a lower CD4 T cell count (60%), a detectable or unknown viral load (67%), and missed taking their antiretroviral therapy either in the last week or month (64%). All of the six participants who were Australian Aboriginal were food insecure. The study finds evidence of associations between FI, employment, lower immune function and poorer health outcomes for people living with HIV in Sydney. © 2018 State of New South Wales. Nutrition and Dietetics © 2018 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  6. Correlates of sexual satisfaction among Iranians women attending South Tehran health centers: A cross-sectional study

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    Zeinab Tavakol

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity not only is a crucial physiologic need, but also it has been associated with religious, mystical, and historical concepts. The aim of this study was to assess Iranian women’s sexual satisfaction and its correlating factors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study at South Tehran health centers (STHCs, which were affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran. A convenience sample consist of 405 women who were married, had at least sixth-grade literacy level, were not addicted to opioids or alcohol, had no history of infertility, psychiatric, and physical disorders, and referred to STHCs to receive Primary Health Care services. Main outcome measures were women’s demographics, sexual function, and sexual satisfaction were assessed by a questionnaire. Results: Most women (58.2% had moderate sexual satisfaction. A significant direct association was shown between sexual satisfaction and couple’s educational level (P < 0.001, partner’s higher income (P = 0.037, regular menstruation (P = 0.005, and degree of woman’s love toward her partner (P < 0.001. There was a significant indirect association between sexual satisfaction and gravidity number (P = 0.029, and number of offspring (P = 0.006. Having sexual intercourse at least once a week (P = 0.003, equal sex request (P = 0.028, accepting partner’s request pleasingly (P < 0.001, experiencing sexual arousal (P < 0.001, and lubrication (P < 0.001 was directly associated with sexual satisfaction. Dyspareunia (P < 0.001 and difficulty to reach orgasm (P < 0.001 showed significant indirect association. Conclusion: Women sexual satisfaction associates with interpersonal and sexual factors. Creating opportunity for midwives in health centers to consult with couples, assess their quality of sexual function, educate them, and refer them to specialists if needed, is strongly recommended for healthcare systems of Iran.

  7. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

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    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers

  8. Dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luana Severo; Brusius, Carolina Doege; Damé-Teixeira, Nailê; Maltz, Marisa; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    To assess the epidemiology and risk indicators for dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren in South Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren (n = 1,528). Dental erosion was recorded according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Parents answered questions on socio-economic status, brushing frequency and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary habits. Anthropometric data were collected. Statistical analysis included logistic and Poisson regression models. The prevalence of dental erosion was 15% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 13.6-16.5], being mainly mild erosion. Boys [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.17-2.10], private school attendees (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06) and schoolchildren reporting the daily consumption of soft drinks (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.17-21.71) were more likely to have at least one tooth with dental erosion. Gender [boys, rate ratio (RR) = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.28-2.17], type of school (private, RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.53-2.35), the consumption of soft drinks (sometimes: RR = 5.27, 95% CI: 1.46-19.05; daily: RR = 6.82, 95% CI: 1.39-33.50) and the daily consumption of lemon (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00) were significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces. The present study found a moderate prevalence of dental erosion among young schoolchildren, with mild erosion being the most prevalent condition. Socio demographic variables and dietary habits were associated with dental erosion in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  9. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  10. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Iliodromiti

    Full Text Available International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268 min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  11. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  12. Folk Theories of Happiness: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Conceptions of Happiness in Germany and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Although happiness as a state of mind may be universal, its meaning takes culture-specific forms. Drawing on the concept of folk theories, this study attempted to uncover lay beliefs about the nature of happiness in Germany and South Africa. To that end, 57 German and 44 black South African students wrote free-format essays in response to the…

  13. Differences in the Fears of Elementary School Children in North and South America: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.; Ogorchock, Heather N.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the fears of North American and South American children in Grades 2-5. Fears were assessed with English and Spanish versions of the American Fear Survey Schedule (FSSC-AM; Burnham 2005). Specific fears and several most common fears differed across the two countries. Overall, the South American children and the girls from both…

  14. Ferric Iron Precipitation in the Nagahama Bay, Satsuma Iwo-Jima Island, Kagoshima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Oguri, K.; Goto, S.; Ito, T.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Ueshiba, T.

    2010-12-01

    Satsuma-Iwojima island is active volcanic island and 6 x 3 km in size, located 38km south of Kyushu island, Japan. The reddish brown water along the coast of the Iwo-dake volcano at the center of the island formed by neutralization through mixing of shallow hydrothermal fluid and seawater. The reddish brown water contains reddish ferrihydrite (Fe3+) that is derived from oxidation of Fe2+ from acidic hot spring (Shikaura and Tazaki, 2001). In the Nagahama Bay with its opening to the south, red-colored Fe-rich water is affected by tidal current, but sedimentation of the ferric hydroxide is confirmed to occur in the ocean bottom (Ninomiya and Kiyokawa, 2009). Here we focus other lines of evidence from long term observations and meteorological records as important factor to form thick iron rich sediments. Meteorological and stationary observations: We used weather record in the Satsuma Iwo-jima and cross-checked with stationary observations, which enabled us to observe color changes of the surface of Nagahama Bay. It was made clear that north wind condition in the Nagahama Bay resulted in changes of the color of its surface, from red to green, by intrusion of ocean water coming from outside. Long term temperature monitoring: The temperature of seawater in the Nagahama Bay fluctuated synchronically with the air temperature. But that of hot spring water rather remained constant regardless of the seasonal change. We observed that seawater temperature in the Nagahama Bay is low at high tide and high at low tide, and the rage of temperature change is maximum at the spring tide and minimum at the neap tide. In other words, the amount of discharge of hot spring and that of seawater inflow vary inversely. Core sample: In the Nagahama Bay, iron rich sediments that is more than 1 m thick were identified. The core sample shows lithology as following; upper part, 10-20cm thick, formed loose Fe-rich deposit, lower portion formed alteration of weakly consolidated Fe-rich orange

  15. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  16. Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Catherine L; Artz, Lillian; Leoschut, Lezanne; Kassanjee, Reshma; Burton, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires in each location inquired into lifetime and last-year prevalence of sexual abuse, and its correlates among children aged 15-17 years, whose parents gave informed consent and they themselves gave informed assent. The final household sample was 5631 (94·6% participation rate). 9·99% (95% CI 8·65-11·47) of boys and 14·61% (95% CI 12·83-16·56) of girls reported some lifetime sexual victimisation. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, family violence, and other victimisations were all strongly associated with sexual victimisation. The following were associated with greater risk of sexual abuse (adjusted odds ratio [OR]); school enrolment (OR 2·12, 95% CI 1·29-3·48); rural dwelling (0·59; 0·43-0·80); having a flush toilet (1·43, 1·04-1·96); parental substance misuse (2·37, 1·67-3·36); being disabled (1·42, 1·10-1·82); female (but not male) caregivers' poor knowledge of the child's whereabouts, friends, and activities (1·07, 0·75-1·53) and poor quality of the relationship with the child (ie, poor acceptance; 1·20, 0·55-2·60). The child's own substance misuse (4·72, 3·73-5·98) and high-risk sexual behaviour (3·71, 2·99-4·61) were the behaviours most frequently associated with sexual abuse, with mental health conditions found to be less prevalent than these factors but still strongly associated with sexual victimisation (post-traumatic stress disorder 2·81, 1·65-4·78; depression 3·43, 2·26-5·19; anxiety 2

  17. HIV-1 viraemia and drug resistance amongst female sex workers in Soweto, South Africa: A cross sectional study.

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    Jenny Coetzee

    Full Text Available HIV drug resistance (HIVDR poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs, where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs from Soweto, South Africa.A cross-sectional, respondent driven sampling (RDS recruitment methodology was used to enrol FSWs based in Soweto. Participants were tested for HIV and undertook a survey that included HIV knowledge and treatment status. Whole blood specimens were collected from HIV positive FSWs to measure for CD4 counts, viral load (VL and perform HIVDR genotyping. Frequencies were determined for categorical variables and medians and interquartile ranges (IQR for the continuous.Of the 508 enrolled participants, 55% (n = 280 were HIV positive and of median age 32 (IQR: 20-51 years. Among the HIV positive, 51.8% (132/269 were defined as virologically suppressed (VL < 400 copies/ml. Of the 119 individuals with unsuppressed viral loads who were successfully genotyped for resistance testing 37.8% (45/119 had detectable drug resistance. In this group, HIVDR mutations were found amongst 73.7% (14/19 of individuals on treatment, 27.4% (26/95 of individuals who were treatment naïve, and 100% (5/5 of defaulters. One phylogenetic cluster was found amongst treatment naïve FSWs. The K103N mutation was detected most commonly in 68.9% (31/45 individuals with HIVDR mutations, with 20/26 (76.9% of treatment naïve FSW with detectable resistance having this mutation. The M184V mutation was found in both FSWs on treatment (12/14, 85.7% and those defaulting (1/5, 20.0%.More than one third (45/119 of the genotyped sample had HIVDR, with resistance to the NNRTI

  18. Observations and a linear model of water level in an interconnected inlet-bay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo; Ganju, Neil K.; Butman, Bradford; Signell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A system of barrier islands and back-barrier bays occurs along southern Long Island, New York, and in many coastal areas worldwide. Characterizing the bay physical response to water level fluctuations is needed to understand flooding during extreme events and evaluate their relation to geomorphological changes. Offshore sea level is one of the main drivers of water level fluctuations in semienclosed back-barrier bays. We analyzed observed water levels (October 2007 to November 2015) and developed analytical models to better understand bay water level along southern Long Island. An increase (∼0.02 m change in 0.17 m amplitude) in the dominant M2 tidal amplitude (containing the largest fraction of the variability) was observed in Great South Bay during mid-2014. The observed changes in both tidal amplitude and bay water level transfer from offshore were related to the dredging of nearby inlets and possibly the changing size of a breach across Fire Island caused by Hurricane Sandy (after December 2012). The bay response was independent of the magnitude of the fluctuations (e.g., storms) at a specific frequency. An analytical model that incorporates bay and inlet dimensions reproduced the observed transfer function in Great South Bay and surrounding areas. The model predicts the transfer function in Moriches and Shinnecock bays where long-term observations were not available. The model is a simplified tool to investigate changes in bay water level and enables the evaluation of future conditions and alternative geomorphological settings.

  19. Meteorological, biological, and hydrographic data collected from Middle Bay Lighthouse in Mobile Bay, AL from 05/23/2005 - 12/31/2013 (NODC Accession 0117376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Dauphin Island Sea Lab and the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program have partnered with the University of South Alabama, the Alabama Department of...

  20. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Hasan; Sufyan, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-01-10

    In remote areas, medicinal plants have an imperative role in curing various livestock's ailments. In Pakistan, people residing in remote areas including South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency depend on traditional herbal remedies for treating their domestic animals. Medicinal plants are an important part of the medical system in these Agencies. The prime goal of the current study is to explore the ethnoveterinary practices in the two regions and discuss cross-cultural consensus on the use of medicinal plants. In this study, we have given detailed description on the ethnoveterinary usage of certain medicinal plants and their recipes. Moreover, we have also elaborated the ethnoveterinary potential of certain plants in relation to their ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemicals reports. Fieldwork comprised of two fields surveys conducted at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency. A total of 75 informants from South Waziristan Agency and 80 informants from Bajaur Agency were interviewed with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. Use reports (URs) were recorded for all the documented taxa. Data were quantitatively analyzed by using informant consensus factor (F ic ) index in order to find out information homogeneity provided by the informants. To analyze the cross-cultural consensus, the recorded data were tabulated as well as shown by Venn diagram. Overall, 94 medicinal plant taxa were recorded in the comparative analysis. Out of these, most of the plants species (72 species) were used at Bajaur Agency than South Waziristan Agency (37 species). Cross-cultural analysis showed that only 15 medicinal plants were used in common by the indigenous communities in both Agencies, which indicates a low interregional consensus with regard to the ethnoveterinary practices of medicinal plants. Apiaceae was the dominant family in both regions by representing maximum number of plant species (11 species). Gastro intestinal complexities were common in both regions

  1. Malaria, helminths and malnutrition: a cross-sectional survey of school children in the South-Tongu district of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick Ferdinand; Addo-Osafo, Kantanka; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience Borkor; Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Awuah-Mensah, Georgina; Abbey, Harriet Naa Afia; Forson, Akua; Cham, Momodou; Asare, Listowell; Duedu, Kwabena Obeng; Asmah, Richard Harry

    2016-04-27

    As part of malaria characterization study in the South-Tongu district of Ghana, the current study was conducted to explore relationships between malaria, schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminths and malnutrition in riparian community settings that had hitherto encountered episodes of mass deworming exercises. School-age children were enrolled in a cross-sectional study from April through July 2012. Stool and urine samples were examined respectively for helminths and Schistosoma haematobium. Blood samples were analyzed for malaria parasites and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, respectively. Anthropometric indices were measured. Relationships were determined using generalized linear models. The results show low numbers of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum (9.2%, n = 37/404) and S. haematobium (2.5%, n = 10/404) infections. The associations between significance terms in the multivariate analysis for P. falciparum infections were further assessed to test the significance of the product terms directly i.e., age in years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.6], Hb concentration (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.42-2.3), and stunted malnutrition (AOR, 8.72; 95% CI 4.8-25.1). The P. falciparum-associated decrease in mean Hb concentration was 2.82 g/dl (95% CI 1.63-4.1 g/dl; P = 0.001) in stunted children, and 0.75 g/dl (95% CI 1.59-0.085 g/dl; P = 0.076) in the non-stunted cohort. The anaemia-associated decrease in mean parasitaemia in stunted children was 3500 parasites/µl of blood (95% CI 262.46-6737.54 parasites/µl of blood; P = 0.036), and in non-stunted children 2127 parasites/µl of blood (95% CI -0.27 to 4.53; P = 0.085). Stunted malnutrition was the strongest predictor of S. haematobium infection (AOR = 11; 95% CI 3.1-33.6) but significant associations as described for P. falciparum infections were absent. The population attributable risk of anaemia due to P. falciparum was 6.3% (95% CI 2.5-9.3), 0.9% (95% CI 0.4-2.3) for S. haematobium

  2. Job related stress among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South West Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagget, Tadesse; Molla, Ashagre; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Occupational stress exists in every profession, nevertheless, the nursing profession appears to experience more stress at work compared to other health care workers. Unmanaged stress leads to high levels of employee dissatisfaction, illness, absenteeism, high turnover, and decreased productivity that compromise provision of quality service to clients. However, there is a scarcity of information about nurses' job stress in Jimma zone public hospital nurses. The aim of the present study was to assess job related stress and its predictors among nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals, South-West Ethiopia in 2014. An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March 10 to April 10, 2014 through a census of nurses who are working in Jimma Zone public hospitals using a structured self-administered questionnaire. SPSS Statistics Version 20 used. For the outcome variable: overall job related stress, the participant's responses on each item score summed: a stress score ranging from a minimum of 26 and maximum score of 116. The higher the sum the more the stressed the nurse. The level of stress calculated through tertial the lower to low stress, the middle to moderate & the higher to high stress. Moreover, bivariate and multivariable linear regressions done to see the association between the predictor (sex, age, mutual understanding at work, Job satisfaction and working unit/department) and the outcome variable (Job related stress). A total of 341 nurses working in Jimma Zone public hospitals were given the questionnaire, and the response rate was 92.3 % (315). This study indicated an average overall job related stress level of 58.46 ± 12.62. The highest level of job related stress was on the sub scale of dealing with death & dying mean score of 62.94 % followed by uncertainty regarding patient treatment 57.72 % and workload 57.6 %. While job related stress from sexual harassment had the lowest mean score of 46.19 %. Overall job related stress varies

  3. Workers’ perceptions of climate change related extreme heat exposure in South Australia: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Xiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to extreme heat without sufficient protection may not only increase the risk of heat-related illnesses and injuries but also compromise economic productivity. With predictions of more frequent and intense bouts of hot weather, workplace heat exposure is presenting a growing challenge to workers’ health and safety. This study aims to investigate workers’ perceptions and behavioural responses towards extreme heat exposure in a warming climate. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 in South Australia among selected outdoor industries. Workers’ heat risk perceptions were measured in the following five aspects: concerns about heat exposure, attitudes towards more training, policy and guideline support, the adjustment of work habits, and degree of satisfaction of current preventive measures. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors significantly associated with workers’ heat perceptions. Results A total of 749 respondents participated in this survey, with a response rate of 50.9 %. A little more than half (51.2 % of respondents were moderately or very much concerned about workplace heat exposure. Factors associated with workers’ heat concerns included age, undertaking very physically demanding work, and the use of personal protective equipment, heat illness history, and injury experience during hot weather. Less than half (43.4 % of the respondents had received heat-related training. Workers aged 25–54 years and those with previous heat-related illness/injury history showed more supportive attitudes towards heat-related training. The provision of cool drinking water was the most common heat prevention measure. A little more than half (51.4 % of respondents were satisfied with the current heat prevention measures. About two-thirds (63.8 % of respondents agreed that there should be more heat-related regulations and

  4. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers in Goba district, south east Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setegn Tesfaye

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding is defined as feeding infants only breast milk, be it directly from breast or expressed, with no addition of any liquid or solids apart from drops or syrups consisting of vitamins, mineral supplements or medicine, and nothing else. Several studies have shown that exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months plays a great role in preventing morbidity and mortality. However, in Ethiopia a large portion of infants are not exclusively breastfed according to the infant feeding recommendations. Understanding the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding is crucial to promoting the practice. This study was carried out to identify factors predicting exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba district, south east Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to February 2010 involving both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 608 mothers were selected randomly. A convenience sampling technique was used to generate the qualitative data. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of exclusive breastfeeding after controlling for background variables. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the last 24 hours preceding the survey was 71.3%. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was three months and mean frequency of breastfeeding was six times per day. Being unemployed [AOR: 10.4 (95% CI: 1.51, 71.50] and age of infants of less than two months [AOR: 5.6 (95% CI: 2.28, 13.60] were independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions A large proportion of infants are not exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months, despite what is recommended in the national and global infant and young child feeding (IYCF guidelines. Employed mothers were less likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding, implying the need

  5. NUMERICAL MODELS AS TOOLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DYNAMICS IN BAYS: CASE OF STUDY CHETUMAL BAY, QUINTANA ROO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Avalos-Cueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study performed the simulation of currents generated by the wind on the Bay of Chetumal, Quintana Roo through the use of a stationary shallow-water model. A homogeneous climatic wind was used for the entire Bay, with a velocity of 3m·s-1 , and directions North, South, Northeast, Northwest, East, Southeast, Southwest and West. The results showed a rather complex dynamics in Chetumal Bay, in which important turns were observed in deep areas, with speeds reaching up to 13 cm·s-1 .

  6. Female sex, poverty and globalization as determinants of obesity among rural South African type 2 diabetics: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel

    2015-03-27

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have recently been experiencing increases in the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Despite their growing influence on population health in the region, there is a paucity of epidemiological studies on the twin epidemic of obesity and T2DM, particularly in the rural communities in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence and the determinants of overall obesity among patients with T2DM in rural and semi-urban areas surrounding the town of Mthatha, South Africa. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with T2DM attending the outpatient department at Mthatha General Hospital, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Data were obtained from 327 participants using standardized questionnaires that included items on sex, age, level of education, type of residence, employment status, smoking status, physical activity, diet and alcohol intake. After taking measurements of height and weight, participants were defined as obese if their body mass index exceeded 30 kg/m(2). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of obesity in our sample population. We found that 60.2% of our sample population were defined as obese. In our univariate analyses, female sex (p rural residence (p poverty reduction and public education are urgently needed to address the growing obesity epidemic in rural areas of South Africa.

  7. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  8. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  9. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  10. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  11. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Parchaso, Francis; Pearson, Sarah; Stewart, Robin; Turner, Mathew; Barasch, David; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2017-10-30

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in south San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2016. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974. A major focus of the report is an integrated description of the 2016 data within the context of the longer, multi-decadal dataset. This dataset supports the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994.Significant reductions in silver and copper concentrations in sediment and M. petalum occurred at the site in the 1980s following the implementation by PARWQCP of advanced wastewater treatment and source control measures. Since the 1990s, concentrations of these elements appear to have stabilized at concentrations somewhat above (silver) or near (copper) regional background concentrations Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2016, concentrations of silver and copper in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. This record suggests that legacy contamination and regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of silver and copper, as well as other elements of

  12. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long‐term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  13. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina L; Palep-Singh, Manisha; Ledger, William L; Balen, Adam H; Jenkinson, Crispin; Campbell, Michael J; Lashen, Hany

    2010-12-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best health status for both groups

  14. Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, G; Shaikh, N; Eley, B; Jackson, D; Grimwood, A

    2014-12-01

    South Africa (SA) has the highest burden of childhood HIV infection globally, and has high rates of adolescent and youth pregnancy. To explore risks associated with pregnancy in young HIV-infected women, we compared mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and maternal and infant health outcomes according to maternal age categories. A cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women and their infants were followed up at three sentinel surveillance facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan (NMBM) district, Eastern Cape Province, SA. Young women were defined as 24 years old and adolescents as 19 years. The effect of younger maternal age categories on MTCT and maternal and child health outcomes was assessed using log-binomial and Cox regression controlling for confounding, using women aged > 24 years as the comparison group. Of 956 mothers, 312 (32.6%) were young women; of these, 65 (20.8%) were adolescents. The proportion of young pregnant women increased by 24% between 2009/10 and 2011/12 (from 28.3% to 35.1%). Young women had an increased risk of being unaware of their HIV status when booking (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21 - 1.54), a reduced rate of antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.31 - 0.67), reduced early infant HIV diagnosis (aRR 0.94; 95% CI 0.94 - 0.94), and increased MTCT (aRR 3.07; 95% CI 1.18 - 7.96; adjusted for ART use). Of all vertical transmissions, 56% occurred among young women. Additionally, adolescents had increased risks of first presentation during labour (aRR 3.78; 95% CI 1.06 - 13.4); maternal mortality (aRR 35.1; 95% CI 2.89 - 426) and stillbirth (aRR 3.33; 95% CI 1.53 - 7.25). An increasing proportion of pregnant HIV-positive women in NMBM were young, and they had increased MTCT and poorer maternal and infant outcomes than older women. Interventions targeting young women are increasingly needed to reduce pregnancy, HIV infection and MTCT and improve maternal

  15. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON THE CHOICE OF LAW REGARDING CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCIES OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS – SUGGESTIONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Weideman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in economic globalisation and international trade has amounted to an increase in the number of multinational enterprises that have debt, own assets and conduct business in various jurisdictions around the world. This, coupled with the recent worldwide economic recession, has inevitably caused the increased occurrence of multinational financial default, also known as cross-border insolvency (CBI. The legal response to this trend has, inter alia, produced two important international instruments that were designed to address key issues associated with CBI. Firstly, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency (the Model Law in 1997, which has been adopted by nineteen countries including the United States of America and South Africa. Secondly, the European Union (EU adopted the European Council Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings (EC Regulation in 2000. Both the EC Regulation and Chapter 15 adopt a “modified universalist” approach towards CBI matters. Europe and the United States of America are currently the world leaders in the area of CBI and the CBI legislation adopted and applied in these jurisdictions seems to be effective. As South Africa’s Cross-Border Insolvency Act is not yet effective, there is no local policy guidance available to insolvency practitioners with regard to the application of the Model Law. At the basis of this article is the view that an analysis of the European and American approaches to CBI matters will provide South African practitioners with valuable insight, knowledge and lessons that could be used to understand and apply the principles adopted and applied in terms of the EC Regulation and Chapter 15, specifically the COMI concept, the “establishment” concept in the case of integrated multinational enterprises and related aspects.

  16. Suicide Risk, Meaning in Life, and Need for Life Respect in Adults and Elderly Among Public Hospital Outpatients in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kim Ellis, Hyon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect among three age groups (young adults, the middle aged, and the elderly) of 540 public hospital outpatients in South Korea. This was a cross-sectional study. Among these 3 age groups, we observed significant differences in suicide risk, meaning in life, and need for life respect according to education level, marital status, living arrangements, type of disease, gender, and monthly income. These findings might contribute to the prevention of suicide in the future and the implementation of better community-based nursing care.

  17. Relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional survey of working women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokim; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2012-01-01

    The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among working women in South Korea. One thousand working women were selected from a database of those eligible for maternity benefits under the National Employment Insurance Plan. Study results showed that handling heavy items during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for general characteristics of the participants and their work environment. A collective effort is needed on the parts of employers, employees, occupational health nurses, and the government to protect working women from lifting heavy items while pregnant. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  19. Holy grail at Baglan Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's consent for the construction of a gas-fired power plant at Baglan Bay in South Wales is reported, and the growing popularity of economic combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants and the resulting environmental improvements are noted . The combining of gas and steam turbines, design developments, and the UK moratorium on planning consents for gas fired power plants are discussed. General Electric's H System technology which will lower the amount of energy lost in the conversion of natural gas to electricity is described, and details of the ten most problematic CCGTs in the UK are given. The domination of the CCGT global market by four manufacturers, and the pressure on manufacturers to develop their designs are considered. (UK)

  20. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  1. Travel to Food : Transportation Barriers for the Food Insecure in Tampa Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In partnership with the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida (USF), the Transportation Innovation Group informed practical transportation solutions aimed at improved food access in Tampa Bay (Hillsborough...

  2. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-06-11

    Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided sociodemographic and diagnostic information, as well as an account of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours. Suicidality or suicidal behaviour were defined as were defined as suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in the total sample, and suicide plans and attempts among ideators. Childhood adversities included physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical illness and financial adversity. The association between suicidality and childhood adversities was examined using discrete-time survival models. More than a third of the respondents with suicidal behaviour experienced at least one childhood adversity, with physical abuse, parental death and parental divorce being the most prevalent adversities. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and parental divorce were identified as significant risk markers for lifetime suicide attempts, while physical abuse and parental divorce were significantly correlated with suicidal ideation. Two or more childhood adversities were associated with a twofold higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts. Sexual abuse (OR 9.3), parental divorce (OR 3.1) and childhood physical abuse (OR 2.2) had the strongest associations with lifetime suicide attempts. The effect of childhood adversities on suicidal tendencies varied over the life course. For example, sexual abuse was significantly associated with suicide attempts during childhood and teen years, but not during young and later adulthood. Childhood adversities

  3. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of College Students' Learning Strategies for Academic Achievement between South Korea and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jihyun; Makara, Kara A.; Fishman, Barry J.; Teasley, Stephanie D.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how the relationship between college students' learning strategies and their grade point average (GPA) differs across two culturally different institutions. Surveys of 621 students at a South Korean university and 824 students at a university in the USA were used to assess four types of learning strategies: motivation-related,…

  4. Some atmospheric dispersion, wind and temperature statistics from Jervis Bay, Australian Capital Territory 1972 to 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.

    1985-07-01

    A meteorological study of winds, temperatures and Pasquill stability categories was conducted in the coastal conditions at Jervis Bay. Three Pasquill stability categorisation schemes were compared. These indicated a predominance of neutral to slightly unstable conditions. During the daytime, north bay breezes and north-east sea breezes were most common together with on-shore south-east winds. Off-shore south-west winds prevailed during winter and were observed most frequently at night

  5. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  6. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  7. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  8. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  9. SOUTH AFRICA AT WAR, 1912-1982

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three- pronged attack was launched upon the German. Colony; from the south, Luderitzbucht and from. Walvis Bay4 ..... Brigade was sent to the island to replace British troops needed in .... three miles the roads leading to the bridge were.

  10. Frequent Cross-Resistance to Dapivirine in HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Individuals after First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy Failure in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, Kerri J; Wallis, Carole L; Brumme, Chanson J; Hamanishi, Kristen A; Gordon, Kelley C; Viana, Raquel V; Harrigan, P Richard; Mellors, John W; Parikh, Urvi M

    2017-02-01

    A vaginal ring containing dapivirine (DPV) has shown moderate protective efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition, but the activity of DPV against efavirenz (EFV)- and nevirapine (NVP)-resistant viruses that could be transmitted is not well defined. We investigated DPV cross-resistance of subtype C HIV-1 from individuals on failing NVP- or EFV-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa. Plasma samples were obtained from individuals with >10,000 copies of HIV RNA/ml and with HIV-1 containing at least one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI) mutation. Susceptibility to NVP, EFV, and DPV in TZM-bl cells was determined for recombinant HIV-1 LAI containing bulk-amplified, plasma-derived, full-length reverse transcriptase sequences. Fold change (FC) values were calculated compared with a composite 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) from 12 recombinant subtype C HIV-1 LAI plasma-derived viruses from treatment-naive individuals in South Africa. A total of 25/100 (25%) samples showed >500-FCs to DPV compared to treatment-naive samples with IC 50 s exceeding the maximum DPV concentration tested (132 ng/ml). A total of 66/100 (66%) samples displayed 3- to 306-FCs, with a median IC 50 of 17.6 ng/ml. Only 9/100 (9%) samples were susceptible to DPV (FC 500-fold resistance to DPV compared to samples with a ≤500-fold resistance. A total of 91% of samples with NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 from individuals on failing first-line ART in South Africa exhibited ≥3-fold cross-resistance to DPV. This level of resistance exceeds expected plasma concentrations, but very high genital tract DPV concentrations from DPV ring use could block viral replication. It is critically important to assess the frequency of transmitted and selected DPV resistance in individuals using the DPV ring. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Sarah; Agyemang, Charles; Matsha, Tandi E; Peer, Nasheeta; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2017-01-01

    Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa. Cross-sectional data were collected from 7 to 18-year-old South African school learners attending 14 schools, randomly selected from 107 government schools in the areas. The learners were selected through stratified random sampling techniques. Logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of overweight/obesity and its association with cardio-metabolic profile. Among the 1559 participants, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 22.9%. Being a girl (Odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI: 1.92-3.29), or Black African (1.35, 1.04-.75) was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese. The identified health consequences among the overweight/obese learners differed between the ethnic groups. Overweight/obese coloured (mixed ancestry) learners were more likely to have hypertension (3.27, 1.18-9.08), hypertriglyceridemia (1.94, 0.99-3.78) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (3.65, 2.33-5.72), overweight/obese Black African learners had higher odds for hypertension (3.62, 1.31-10.04) and low HDL-C (1.56, 1.01-2.40) and overweight/obese White learners were prone to low HDL-C (5.04, 1.35-18.80). Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent among school learners in Western Cape (South Africa), with being female or Black African increasing the odds. That overweight/obesity is also associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile aggravates the problem and suggests worse cardiovascular outcomes in South African young adults in the future.

  12. The association between adolescent risk behaviours and feelings of sadness or hopelessness: a cross-sectional survey of South African secondary school learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Sasiragha Priscilla; Ellahebokus, Afzal; Sewpaul, Ronel; Naidoo, Pamela

    2017-08-01

    Poor mental health in adolescents has shown associations with engagement in other risk behaviours. However, evidence of this association in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly South Africa, is lacking. This study examines the associations between pertinent risk behaviours and feelings of sadness or hopelessness amongst a nationally representative sample of South African school going adolescents. Data was analysed from the South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011 (n=10,997), a cross-sectional national survey among grades 8-11 school learners. Logistic regression examined the association of demographic, substance use, violent behaviour, sexual activity and suicidal plans and attempts with the primary outcome, feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Having feelings of sadness or hopelessness was significantly associated with more senior grades, being bullied (AOR:1.67, 95% CI: 1.42-1.96), being assaulted by a partner (1.33 [1.05-1.68]), forced sex (1.78 [1.37-2.32]); gang membership (1.32 [1.06-1.65]), binge drinking (1.37 [1.14-1.65]), ever having sex (1.23 [1.02-1.47]), having ≥1 partner/s in preceding three months (1.25 [1.02-1.53]), having made a plan to attempt suicide (2.50 [1.95-3.21]) and suicide attempt (1.49 [1.21-1.85]). Adolescents in South Africa are experiencing a multiple burden of risk. Health promotion strategies targeting adolescent mental health and risk behaviours need to be developed and implemented in a timely and comprehensive manner.

  13. Studies of movement of sediments in Santos bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, J.V.; Aun, P.E.; Bomtempo, V.L.; Salim, L.H.; Minardi, P.S.P.; Santos, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the years of 1973, 74, 80, 81 and 85 several studies were performed at Santos bay, using radioactive tracers, with the following main objectives: to evaluate the behaviour (on the bottom and in suspension) of the mixture of silt and clay which is dredged from the estuary and from its access channel and dumped at pre-determined sites, in the bay and surrounding regions, with the objective of optimizing dredging disposal operations; to quantify the movement of sandy sediments on the bottom, in 3 areas of the bay, in summer and winter conditions, to obtain pertinent information related to the siltation of the access channel. As results of these studies, it was found that: the ancient dumping site, near Itaipu Point, in the western limit of the bay, was inadequate, since the material could return to the bay and to the estuary. The dumping site was moved to a region at the south of Moela Island, located eastwards relative to the bay, which brought substantial economies in dredging works; the bottom sediment transport was quantified, following clouds of tagged materials for about 8 months, thus obtaining important conclusions about transport rates in different regions of the bay. An analysis of the intervening hydrodynamic agents is also presented. (author) (L.J.C.)

  14. Social solidarity and willingness to tolerate risk- and income-related cross-subsidies within health insurance: experiences from Ghana, Tanzania and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudge, Jane; Akazili, James; Ataguba, John; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Borghi, Josephine; Harris, Bronwyn; Mills, Anne

    2012-03-01

    The importance of ill-health in perpetuating poverty is well recognized. In order to prevent the damaging downward spiral of poverty and illness, there is a need for a greater level of social protection, with greater cross-subsidization between the poor and wealthy, and the healthy and those with ill-health. The aim of this paper is to examine individual preferences for willingness to pre-pay for health care and willingness to cross-subsidize the sick and the poor in Ghana, South Africa and Tanzania. Household surveys in the three countries elicited views on cross-subsidization within health care financing. The paper examines how these preferences varied by socio-economic status, other respondent characteristics, and the extent and type of experience of health insurance in the light of country context. In South Africa and Ghana, 62% and 55% of total respondents, respectively, were in favour of a progressive financing system in which richer groups would pay a higher proportion of income than poorer groups, rather than a system where individuals pay the same proportion of income irrespective of their wealth (proportional). In Tanzania, 45% of the total sample were willing to pay for the health care of the poor. However, in all three countries, a progressive system was favoured by a smaller proportion of the most well off than of less well off groups. Solidarity has been considered to be a collective property of a specific socio-political culture, based on shared expectations and developed as part of a communal, historical learning process. The three countries had different experiences of health insurance and this may have contributed to the above differences in expressed willingness to pay between countries. Building and 'living with' institutions that provide affordable universal coverage is likely to be an essential part of the learning process which supports the development of social solidarity.

  15. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire Command | Croock | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (1990) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Apostle Battery Table Bay Fire ...

  16. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 268° from Lido Isle East Light 2, this line being the northwest line of the main fairway; west of the... of a line bearing 268° from Newport Bay Channel Light 11, this line being the south line of the main... Channel Light 11, this line being the southerly line of the main fairway. Note: This area is reserved for...

  17. An Analysis of Language Code Used by the Cross- Married Couples, Banjarese- Javanese Ethnics: A Case Study in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Supiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the use of language code applied by the participants and to find out the factors influencing the choice of language codes. This research is qualitative research that describe the use of language code in the cross married couples. The data are taken from the discourses about language code phenomena dealing with the cross- married couples, Banjarese- Javanese ethnics in Tanah Laut regency South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conversations occur in the family and social life such as between a husband and a wife, a father and his son/daughter, a mother and her son/daughter, a husband and his friends, a wife and her neighbor, and so on. There are 23 data observed and recoded by the researcher based on a certain criteria. Tanah Laut regency is chosen as a purposive sample where this regency has many different ethnics so that they do cross cultural marriage for example between Banjarese- Javanese ethnics. Findings reveal that mostly the cross married couple used code mixing and code switching in their conversation of daily activities. Code mixing is uttered by Javanese father or mother to their children. Mixed codes are used namely Banjarese+Javanese+Indonesian. Meanwhile, code switching occurs when there is another factor or a new participant who join in the discourse. The codes change from Banjarese to Indonesian codes or Javanese to Indonesian codes due to new participant who involve himself/herself in the dialogue. The influential factors are situational factors, the environment (neighborhood, relative status, and ethnicity. Keywords: Language codes, Cross- married couples, Banjarese and Javanese ethics, Dialects

  18. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  19. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  20. Integrating science and resource management in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Greening, Holly; Morrison, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    Tampa Bay is recognized internationally for its remarkable progress towards recovery since it was pronounced "dead" in the late 1970s. Due to significant efforts by local governments, industries and private citizens throughout the watershed, water clarity in Tampa Bay is now equal to what it was in 1950, when population in the watershed was less than one-quarter of what it is today. Seagrass extent has increased by more than 8,000 acres since the mid-1980s, and fish and wildlife populations are increasing. Central to this successful turn-around has been the Tampa Bay resource management community's long-term commitment to development and implementation of strong science-based management strategies. Research institutions and agencies, including Eckerd College, the Florida Wildlife Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Mote Marine Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Southwest Florida Water Management District, University of South Florida, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, local and State governments, and private companies contribute significantly to the scientific basis of our understanding of Tampa Bay's structure and ecological function. Resource management agencies, including the Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council's Agency on Bay Management, the Southwest Florida Water Management District's Surface Water Improvement and Management Program, and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program, depend upon this scientific basis to develop and implement regional adaptive management programs. The importance of integrating science with management has become fully recognized by scientists and managers throughout the region, State and Nation. Scientific studies conducted in Tampa Bay over the past 10–15 years are increasingly diverse and complex, and resource management programs reflect our increased knowledge of geology, hydrology and hydrodynamics, ecology and restoration techniques. However, a synthesis of this

  1. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ and the Short Form-36 (SF-36 were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3, indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01. On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p

  2. Tectonic framework of the Hanoe Bay area, southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannaes, K.O.; Floden, T.

    1994-06-01

    The tectonic framework and the general geologic development of the Hanoe Bay, from the Scanian coast in the west to south of Oeland in the east, has been investigated by means of reflection seismic methods. The Hanoe Bay is in this paper subdivided into four areas of different geologic settings. These are: 1) The Hanoe Bay slope, which forms a southward dipping continuation of the rigid Blekinge coastal plain. 2) The eastward dipping Kalmarsund Slope, which southwards from Oeland forms the western part of the Paleozoic Baltic Syneclise. 3) The Mesozoic Hanoe Bay Halfgraben, which forms the central and southern parts of the Hanoe Bay. The ongoing subsidence of the Halfgraben is estimated to be in the order of 20-60 m during the Quaternary. 4) The Yoldia Structural Element, which forms a deformed, tilted and possibly rotated block of Paleozoic bedrock located east of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. Two tectonic phases dominate the post-Paleozoic development of the Hanoe Bay, these are: 1) The Early Kimmerian phase, which initiated subsidence and reactivated older faults. 2) The Late Cretaceous phase, which is the main subsidence phase of the Hanoe Bay Halfgraben. The tectonic fault pattern of the Hanoe Bay is dominated by three directions, i.e. NW-SE, NE-SW and WNW-ESE. The two main tectonic elements of the area are the Kullen-Christiansoe Ridge System (NW-SE) and the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone (NE-SW). Sinistral strike-slip movements in order of 2-3 km are interpreted to have occurred along the Bornholm Gat Tectonic Zone during the late Cretaceous. 20 refs, 19 figs

  3. Perceived Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Depressive Experiences: A Cross-Cultural Study with Belgian and South-Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Park, Seong-Yeon; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    In recent research on psychologically controlling parenting, debate has arisen about the cross-cultural relevance of this construct, with some scholars arguing that the developmental outcomes of psychological control are culture-bound and others arguing that the detrimental effects of psychological control generalize across cultures. This study…

  4. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  5. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Pratibha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12 questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status.

  6. Working conditions and leisure-time physical activity among waged workers in South Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungah; Cho, Youngtae

    2015-01-01

    Although waged workers' working conditions have notably diversified in South Korea, there is little research addressing this issue. This study explores the relationship between working conditions and engagement in leisure-time physical activities (LTPA) among waged workers in South Korea. Data from 19- to 64-year-old waged workers (men=2,562, women=1,627) from the 11th wave of the Korean Income and Labor Panel Study were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between LTPA and working conditions by gender. More than 75% of employed persons did not participate in any type of LTPA. For male workers, those in manual, precarious, overtime, and non-shift positions were less likely to engage in LTPA, while for female workers, only manual and overtime work positions were significant factors influencing a low level of LTPA. Some negative work-related factors were associated with low LTPA, especially for male workers. Further studies should be conducted to clarify the pathways and barriers precluding engagement in LTPA due to work-related factors.

  7. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  8. Mental Health Inequalities in Adolescents Growing Up in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Cross-Sectional Survey, SHaW Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Lund, Crick; Mathews, Catherine; Clark, Charlotte; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    South Africa is one of the most 'unequal' societies in the world. Despite apartheid ending more than 20 years ago, material inequalities remain interwoven with ethnic/racial inequalities. There is limited research on the prevalence/predictors of common mental disorders (CMD) among young people. Adolescence is a unique time-point during which intervention may lead to improved mental health and reduced social problems later. The study objective was to assess mental health disparities in a representative sample of adolescents growing up in South Africa. Cross-sectional associations of race/ethnicity and material disadvantage with CMD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were assessed in a stratified random sample representative of school-attendees, aged 14-15 years, in a large metropolitan area of Cape Town. Validated instruments assessed mental disorders; these included: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (PTSD); Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (depression); Zung self-rated anxiety scale (anxiety). Self-ascribed ethnicity was determined using procedures similar to the South African census and previous national surveys. Response rate was 88% (1034 of 1169 individuals). Adolescents experienced a high prevalence of depression (41%), anxiety (16%) and PTSD (21%). A gradient between material disadvantage and CMD/ PTSD was evident across all ethnic/racial groups. Respondents self-identifying as 'black' or 'coloured' were disadvantaged across most indicators. After adjusting for confounders, relative to white children, relative risk (RR) of CMD in black children was 2.27 (95% CI:1.24, 4.15) and for PTSD was RR: 2.21 (95% CI:1.73, 2.83). Relative risk of CMD was elevated in children self-identifying as 'coloured' (RR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.11, 2.70). Putative mediators (violence, racially motivated bullying, social support, self-esteem) partially accounted for differences in CMD and fully for PTSD. Adolescent mental health inequalities in Cape Town are associated with

  9. Cross-sectional relationship between haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Davies, Justine I; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Hands, Katherine J; Kahn, Kathleen; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Tipping, Brent; Tollman, Stephen M; Wade, Alisha; Witham, Miles D

    2018-04-21

    Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa. We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration age, grip strength, walk speed and a latent cognitive function z-score for men and women separately. We used unadjusted correlations and linear models to adjust for comorbidities and inflammation. In total, 1042 (43.0%) women and 833 (40.1%) men were anaemic. Haemoglobin concentrations were inversely correlated with age for men but not for women; in adjusted analyses, haemoglobin was 0.3 g/dL lower per decade older for men (95% CI 0.2 to 0.4 g/dL). In adjusted analyses, haemoglobin concentration was independently associated with grip strength in women (B=0.391, 95% CI 0.177 to 0.605), but this did not reach significance in men (B=0.266, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.552); no associations were observed between haemoglobin levels and walk speed or cognitive score. Anaemia was prevalent in this study population of middle-aged and older, rural South African adults, but in contrast to high-income countries, it was not associated with poor physical or cognitive function. Our findings need to be replicated in other populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. The impact of sitting time and physical activity on major depressive disorder in South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jin Young; Kim, Juyeong; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Choi, Jaewoo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-07-28

    Previous studies have examined associations between sitting time and negative health outcomes and mental health. However, the relationship between overall sitting time and major depressive disorder (MDD) in South Korea has not been studied. This study examined the association between MDD and overall sitting time and physical activity in South Koreans. Data from the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, were analyzed. Total participants were 4145 in 2014. MDD was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Participants' data regarding self-reported sitting time and physical activity were analyzed via multiple logistic regression. Results showed that people who sat for 8-10 h (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.15-2.11) or more than 10 h (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.23-2.39) had increased risk of MDD compared to those who sat for less than 5 h a day. Subgroup analysis showed that the strongest effect of reported sitting time on risk of MDD was found in men with lower levels of physical activity who sat for 8 to 10 h (OR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.15-8.01) or more than 10 h (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.26-9.35). Level of physical activity was not an independent predictor for MDD. Sitting for long periods was associated with greater risk of MDD in South Korean adults. Reducing sitting time in people with MDD could help to prevent associated physical health problems and may improve mental health.

  11. Associations of circulating calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D with glucose metabolism in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in European and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Donald C; Scally, Andrew J; Tuffnell, Derek J; Davies, T Jeffrey; Fraser, William D; Bhopal, Raj S; Wright, John; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is thought to impair insulin action and glucose metabolism; however, previous studies have not examined ethnic differences or the influence of calcium and parathyroid hormone. We investigated this in a cohort of predominantly white European and south Asian women during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study from an urban population in northern England (53.8°N), 1467 women were recruited when undergoing glucose tolerance testing (75 g oral glucose tolerance test) at 26 weeks' gestation. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was diagnosed in 137 women (9.3%). Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration for the study population was 9.3 ng/mL (interquartile range 5.2, 16.9) and was higher in European [15.2 ng/mL (10.7, 23.5)] than in south Asian women [5.9 ng/mL (3.9, 9.4), P Asian women. These findings do not indicate any important association between vitamin D status and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Relationships between circulating calcium and glucose metabolism warrant further investigation.

  12. Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use by HIV patients a decade after public sector antiretroviral therapy roll out in South Africa: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlooto, Manimbulu; Naidoo, Panjasaram

    2016-05-17

    The roll out of antiretroviral therapy in the South African public health sector in 2004 was preceded by the politicisation of HIV-infection which was used to promote traditional medicine for the management of HIV/AIDS. One decade has passed since; however, questions remain on the extent of the use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) by HIV-infected patients. This study therefore aimed at investigating the prevalence of the use of African traditional medicine (ATM), complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) by adult patients in the eThekwini and UThukela Health Districts, South Africa. A cross- sectional study was carried out at 8 public health sector antiretroviral clinics using interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires. These were completed from April to October 2014 by adult patients who had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least three months. Use of TCAM by patients was analysed by descriptive statistics using frequency and percentages with standard error. Where the associated relative error was equal or greater to 0.50, the percentage was rejected as unstable. A p-value public health sector, the use of TCAM is still prevalent amongst a small percentage of HIV infected patients attending public healthcare sector antiretroviral clinics. Further research is needed to explore reasons for use and health benefits or risks experienced by the minority that uses both conventional antiretroviral therapy with TCAM.

  13. Investigating Sociodemographic Factors and HIV Risk Behaviors Associated With Social Networking Among Adolescents in Soweto, South Africa: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Janan Janine; Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari

    2016-09-28

    Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Mobile phone-based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions.

  14. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Damiens

    Full Text Available The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  15. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  16. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  17. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-05-02

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without insurance. Health interventionists may use

  18. Sexual homicides in South Africa: A national cross-sectional epidemiological study of adult women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Lombard, Carl; Martin, Lorna J; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective national mortuary based study to identify all adult female homicides (18 years and older) and all child homicides (boys and girls homicides validated across the data collection processes. Among the 2670 (95% CI: 2311-2979) adult women killed in 2009, 494 (95% CI: 406-574) were identified as sexual homicides which was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.6-22.0) of all adult female homicides and among 1277 (95% CI: 1091-1462) children killed in SA, sexual homicides were found in 104 (95% CI: 77-132) of the child homicides which was 8.7% (95% CI: 10.9-11.2%) of these murders. Strangulation was the most common cause of death for both children and adult females. A distinct age and sex pattern was found among children with only 1% boy child death identified as a sexual homicide and 92% of all the child sexual homicides were among girls. Strangulation was the most common manner of death among children (35.5%) and perpetrators were seldom strangers. However, no difference in the proportion of convictions between the sexual homicides and non-sexual homicides were found for both adult females and children. Rape homicide is not a rare event in South Africa, with one in five female homicides and nearly one in ten child homicides identified with an associated sexual crime. These high prevalences are amongst the highest levels reported in the literature with our study among the few reporting on the epidemiology of child sexual homicide. Reducing mortality is an important policy goal for South Africa and for the rest of the world and the prevention of female and child homicide is an important part of attaining this goal.

  19. Associations between lifetime potentially traumatic events and chronic physical conditions in the South African Stress and Health Survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Platt, Jonathan M; Basu, Archana; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-07-07

    This study examined the association between the type, and cumulative number of lifetime potentially traumatic events (PTEs), and chronic physical conditions, in a South African sample. PTE exposures have been associated with an increased risk for a wide range of chronic physical conditions, but it is unclear whether psychiatric disorders mediate this association. Given the established differences in trauma occurrence, and the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in South Africa relative to other countries, examining associations between PTEs and chronic physical conditions, particularly while accounting for psychiatric comorbidity is important. Data were drawn from the South African Stress and Health Study, a cross-sectional population-representative study of psychological and physical health of South African adults. Twenty-seven PTEs, based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0, DSM-IV PTSD module were grouped into seven PTE types (war events, physical violence, sexual violence, accidents, unexpected death of a loved one, network events, and witnessing PTEs). Five clusters of physical conditions (cardiovascular, arthritis, respiratory, chronic pain, and other health conditions) were examined. Logistic regressions assessed the odds of reporting a physical condition in relation to type and cumulative number of PTEs. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to examine dose-response effect of cumulative PTEs on physical conditions. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychiatric disorders, respondents with any PTE had increased odds of all assessed physical conditions, ranging between 1.48 (95 % CI: 1.06-2.07) for arthritis and 2.07 (95 % CI: 1.57-2.73) for respiratory conditions, compared to those without PTE exposure. Sexual violence, physical violence, unexpected death of a loved one, and network PTEs significantly increased the odds of all or nearly all the physical conditions

  20. Placement, support, and retention of health professionals: national, cross-sectional findings from medical and dental community service officers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M; Onah, Michael; Kornik, Saul; Peacocke, Julia; Reid, Stephen

    2014-02-26

    In South Africa, community service following medical training serves as a mechanism for equitable distribution of health professionals and their professional development. Community service officers are required to contribute a year towards serving in a public health facility while receiving supervision and remuneration. Although the South African community service programme has been in effect since 1998, little is known about how placement and practical support occur, or how community service may impact future retention of health professionals. National, cross-sectional data were collected from community service officers who served during 2009 using a structured self-report questionnaire. A Supervision Satisfaction Scale (SSS) was created by summing scores of five questions rated on a three-point Likert scale (orientation, clinical advising, ongoing mentorship, accessibility of clinic leadership, and handling of community service officers' concerns). Research endpoints were guided by community service programmatic goals and analysed as dichotomous outcomes. Bivariate and multivariate logistical regressions were conducted using Stata 12. The sample population comprised 685 doctors and dentists (response rate 44%). Rural placement was more likely among unmarried, male, and black practitioners. Rates of self-reported professional development were high (470 out of 539 responses; 87%). Participants with higher scores on the SSS were more likely to report professional development. Although few participants planned to continue work in rural, underserved communities (n = 171 out of 657 responses, 25%), those serving in a rural facility during the community service year had higher intentions of continuing rural work. Those reporting professional development during the community service year were twice as likely to report intentions to remain in rural, underserved communities. Despite challenges in equitable distribution of practitioners, participant satisfaction with the

  1. The portrayal of older people in television advertisements: a cross-cultural content analysis of the United States and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    A cross-cultural content analysis of 2295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1436 ads from South Korea-was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual population. The findings also showed that older people are more likely to play major roles in Korean television ads than in U.S. ads. In terms of the attributes of older people depicted in ads, differences between U.S. and Korean ads were also found. The results showed that Korean television ads are likely to more positively depict older people than American television ads are. These findings supported the basic assumption of cross-cultural advertising, in which the differences in cultural values between the two cultures are related to the differences in the contents of their advertisements. However, the problems of underrepresentation and stereotypes in the portrayal of older people were still identified both in Korean and U.S. prime-time television ads.

  2. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  3. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  4. Detailed north-south cross section showing environments of deposition, organic richness, and thermal maturities of lower Tertiary rocks in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The Uinta Basin of northeast Utah has produced large amounts of hydrocarbons from lower Tertiary strata since the 1960s. Recent advances in drilling technologies, in particular the development of efficient methods to drill and hydraulically fracture horizontal wells, has spurred renewed interest in producing hydrocarbons from unconventional low-permeability dolomite and shale reservoirs in the lacustrine, Eocene Green River Formation. The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that occupied the Uinta Basin, the Piceance Basin to the east, and the intervening Douglas Creek arch. The focus of recent drilling activity has been the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation and to a much lesser extent the overlying R-0 oil shale zone of the Green River Formation. Initial production rates ranging from 500 to 1,500 barrels of oil equivalent per day have been reported from the Uteland Butte member from horizontal well logs that are as long as 4,000 feet (ft);. The cross section presented here extends northward from outcrop on the southern margin of the basin into the basin’s deep trough, located just south of the Uinta Mountains, and transects the area where this unconventional oil play is developing. The Monument Butte field, which is one of the fields located along this line of section, has produced hydrocarbons from conventional sandstone reservoirs in the lower part of the Green River Formation and underlying Wasatch Formation since 1981. A major fluvial-deltaic system entered Lake Uinta from the south, and this new line of section is ideal for studying the effect of the sediments delivered by this drainage on hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Green River Formation. The cross section also transects the Greater Altamont-Bluebell field in the deepest part of the basin, where hydrocarbons have been produced from fractured, highly overpressured marginal lacustrine and fluvial reservoirs in the Green River, Wasatch

  5. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds. Southward of a line 312 feet south of and parallel to the south side...

  6. Adverse Drug Reactions Causing Admission to Medical Wards: A Cross-Sectional Survey at 4 Hospitals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, Johannes P; Njuguna, Christine; Kramer, Nicole; Stewart, Annemie; Mehta, Ushma; Blockman, Marc; Fortuin-De Smidt, Melony; De Waal, Reneé; Parrish, Andy G; Wilson, Douglas P K; Igumbor, Ehimario U; Aynalem, Getahun; Dheda, Mukesh; Maartens, Gary; Cohen, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Limited data exist on the burden of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in sub-Saharan Africa, which has high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. We determined the proportion of adult admissions attributable to ADRs at 4 hospitals in South Africa. We characterized drugs implicated in, risk factors for, and the preventability of ADR-related admissions.We prospectively followed patients admitted to 4 hospitals' medical wards over sequential 30-day periods in 2013 and identified suspected ADRs with the aid of a trigger tool. A multidisciplinary team performed causality, preventability, and severity assessment using published criteria. We categorized an admission as ADR-related if the ADR was the primary reason for admission.There were 1951 admissions involving 1904 patients: median age was 50 years (interquartile range 34-65), 1057 of 1904 (56%) were female, 559 of 1904 (29%) were HIV-infected, and 183 of 1904 (10%) were on antituberculosis therapy (ATT). There were 164 of 1951 (8.4%) ADR-related admissions. After adjustment for age and ATT, ADR-related admission was independently associated (P ≤ 0.02) with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.51, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.06-2.14), increasing drug count (aOR 1.14 per additional drug, 95% CI 1.09-1.20), increasing comorbidity score (aOR 1.23 per additional point, 95% CI 1.07-1.41), and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) if HIV-infected (aOR 1.92 compared with HIV-negative/unknown, 95% CI 1.17-3.14). The most common ADRs were renal impairment, hypoglycemia, liver injury, and hemorrhage. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, insulin, rifampicin, and warfarin were most commonly implicated, respectively, in these 4 ADRs. ART, ATT, and/or co-trimoxazole were implicated in 56 of 164 (34%) ADR-related admissions. Seventy-three of 164 (45%) ADRs were assessed as preventable.In our survey, approximately 1 in 12 admissions was because of an ADR. The range of ADRs and implicated drugs reflect South Africa's high HIV

  7. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Munoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1 the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2 The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3 Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  8. Seafloor geomorphology of western Antarctic Peninsula bays: a signature of ice flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yuribia P.; Wellner, Julia S.

    2018-01-01

    Glacial geomorphology is used in Antarctica to reconstruct ice advance during the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent retreat across the continental shelf. Analogous geomorphic assemblages are found in glaciated fjords and are used to interpret the glacial history and glacial dynamics in those areas. In addition, understanding the distribution of submarine landforms in bays and the local controls exerted on ice flow can help improve numerical models by providing constraints through these drainage areas. We present multibeam swath bathymetry from several bays in the South Shetland Islands and the western Antarctic Peninsula. The submarine landforms are described and interpreted in detail. A schematic model was developed showing the features found in the bays: from glacial lineations and moraines in the inner bay to grounding zone wedges and drumlinoid features in the middle bay and streamlined features and meltwater channels in the outer bay areas. In addition, we analysed local variables in the bays and observed the following: (1) the number of landforms found in the bays scales to the size of the bay, but the geometry of the bays dictates the types of features that form; specifically, we observe a correlation between the bay width and the number of transverse features present in the bays. (2) The smaller seafloor features are present only in the smaller glacial systems, indicating that short-lived atmospheric and oceanographic fluctuations, responsible for the formation of these landforms, are only recorded in these smaller systems. (3) Meltwater channels are abundant on the seafloor, but some are subglacial, carved in bedrock, and some are modern erosional features, carved on soft sediment. Lastly, based on geomorphological evidence, we propose the features found in some of the proximal bay areas were formed during a recent glacial advance, likely the Little Ice Age.

  9. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status. PMID:22410138

  10. Opinions of the commuters to receive oral health messages in South central railway zone India: A cross-sectional study

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    P Parthasarathi Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The railroads of India are the fourth most heavily used system in the world. Railways are one of the main modes of transport and millions of people travel by train daily. Aim: To know the opinions of commuters in receiving oral health messages in railways station through various methods and also their knowledge and practice regarding oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Using convenient sampling method data from the commuters was obtained by a pretested questionnaire through interview method from 14 railway stations of South Central Railway zone. Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare the opinions of commuters based on their gender to receive oral health messages. Results: A total of 596 (97.3% responded to the survey; a maximum of 297 (49.8% subjects strongly agreed to the statement that railway platforms should have informative posters on oral health. A maximum of 188 (31.5% commuters strongly agreed that prerecorded messages on oral health if played before the announcement of arrival and departure of train will be helpful to spread oral health awareness. Majority of 43% commuters (255 preferred to receive oral hygiene instructions printed on back side of the ticket followed by messages on television and through posters. Conclusion: Majority of the commuters preferred to receive oral health information in railways stations. Hence, efforts can be directed in spreading oral health information among public through railways.

  11. The influence of socioeconomic factors on traditional knowledge: a cross scale comparison of palm use in northwestern South America

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    Narel Y. Paniagua-Zambrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered data on palm uses from 2050 informants in 53 communities and four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia . We performed multilevel statistical analyses, which showed that the influence of each socioeconomic factor differed depending on whether the analysis was performed on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. At the general palm knowledge level, gender was the only factor that had a significant association in all five subregions, and showed that men had more knowledge than women, and age had a positive significant association only in the lowlands. Most of the analyzed socioeconomic factors had a greater influence on the lowland ecoregions of the Amazon and Chocó, although there were mixed trends in these ecoregions. Our results show that there are no regional patterns in the predictive power of socioeconomic factors and that their influence on palm-use knowledge is highly localized. We can conclude that (1 conservation strategies of traditional knowledge of palm use in the region should be developed mainly at the local level, and (2 large-scale comparable ethnoecological studies are necessary to understand indigenous communities' livelihoods at different scales.

  12. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  13. Areca nut and tobacco use among school children in a village in South India – A cross sectional study

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    Nitin Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arecanut chewing is considered a benign and socially acceptable habit by many Indians. Its chronic use contributes significantly to the high incidence of oral and oropharyngeal cancer in India. Apart from the carcinogenic potential, arecanut has been shown to be addictive and development of typical dependence symptoms associated with its usage has been described. Tobacco along with arecanut, slaked lime, catechu and condiments makes gutka. Aggressive advertising and marketing of gutka in small attractive and inexpensive sachets since early 1980s has greatly enhanced the sales of these products. This cross sectional study involved 392 children from a village in Southern India. The prevalence of areca nut usage among boys and girls was 27.3% and 6.1% and 2.4% for gutka. About 3/4th of the participants were unware of associated health hazards or thought these substances to be harmless.

  14. Low birth weight among term newborns in Wolaita Sodo town, South Ethiopia: a facility based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastro, Samson; Demissie, Tsegaye; Yohannes, Bereket

    2018-05-11

    In low income countries, many low birth weight newborns often miss the chance for survival sooner or later. Others who survive would also face increased risks in later life. Though not adequately documented in Ethiopia, maternal factors pose the main risk. This study was aimed to estimate the proportion of low birth weight among term singletons without congenital malformations and factors associated with it in Wolaita Sodo town in South Ethiopia. We did a facility based survey involving 432 postpartum women with their term newborns. Data was collected through face to face interview from March to April in 2016. The outcome measure was newborn birth weight. Bivariate logistic regression was applied to look for crude associations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to adjust for potential confounders to identify independent predictors. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and statistical significance at P low birth weight was 8.1% in the study area. Women who had less education (AOR = 6.23; 95% CI = 1.68, 23.1), house wives (AOR = 5.85; 95% CI = 1.40, 24.3) and not frequently consuming fruits during pregnancy (AOR 11.3; 95% CI = 1.98, 64.9) had a higher risk of having term low birth weight newborns. We documented a lesser odds of those from rural settings to have low birth weight newborns as compared to their counter urban equivalents (AOR = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.006, 0.6). Dietary counselling to pregnant mothers specific diet and nutrition including fruit diets in particular might contribute to reduce the risk of term low birth weight. Better education might have enabled women to prefer diets and their job engagements might also have capacitated them to decide on dietary preferences.

  15. The relationship between shift work and mental health among electronics workers in South Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kang, Chung-Won; Kim, Hyunjoo

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between shift work and mental health, particularly insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, among electronics production workers. A survey was conducted with 14,226 workers from an electronics manufacturer in South Korea. After excluding 112 individuals with incomplete responses, 14,114 respondents were analyzed. As part of a larger project, we collected data on respondents' general characteristics, work-related characteristics, and health status; however, in this study, we focused on the data related to shift work and mental health. Insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation were set as dependent variables and working schedule as set as the independent variable. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis with daytime workers as the reference group. The model was adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, workplace, educational level, and marital status with or without children under 6 years of age. Relative to daytime workers, shift workers had 2.35, 1.23, and 1.17 greater odds of insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, respectively. Within the shift worker group, we found that the odds of depression and suicidal ideation increased dramatically when respondents had insomnia. The ORs for depression and suicidal ideation were 4.899 and 7.934, respectively. Our findings suggest that shift work is related to an increased risk of mental health problems in production workers, and the sleep disturbance related with shift work is a central mechanism for this relationship. Since these results suggest that proactive management of sleep problems might attenuate their detrimental effects on shift worker's mental health.

  16. The relationship between shift work and mental health among electronics workers in South Korea: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Yeol Kang

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between shift work and mental health, particularly insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, among electronics production workers.A survey was conducted with 14,226 workers from an electronics manufacturer in South Korea. After excluding 112 individuals with incomplete responses, 14,114 respondents were analyzed. As part of a larger project, we collected data on respondents' general characteristics, work-related characteristics, and health status; however, in this study, we focused on the data related to shift work and mental health. Insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation were set as dependent variables and working schedule as set as the independent variable. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis with daytime workers as the reference group. The model was adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, workplace, educational level, and marital status with or without children under 6 years of age.Relative to daytime workers, shift workers had 2.35, 1.23, and 1.17 greater odds of insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation, respectively. Within the shift worker group, we found that the odds of depression and suicidal ideation increased dramatically when respondents had insomnia. The ORs for depression and suicidal ideation were 4.899 and 7.934, respectively.Our findings suggest that shift work is related to an increased risk of mental health problems in production workers, and the sleep disturbance related with shift work is a central mechanism for this relationship. Since these results suggest that proactive management of sleep problems might attenuate their detrimental effects on shift worker's mental health.

  17. HOW DO MEDICAL STUDENTS LEARN? A STUDY FROM TWO MEDICAL COLLEGES IN SOUTH INDIA – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

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    Christofer Thomas, Praveen K Kodumuri, Saranya P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: “Learning style” is defined as an individual’s preferred method for approaching learning and gaining knowledge. As a teacher, it is important to understand the different learning styles of the students in acquiring the information, and hence one can make the necessary changes that best match the learning style of the students. Assessment of learning styles can be done in various ways but Visual Auditory Reading Kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire is the most accepted one among them. The present study was undertaken to determine the learning preferences of first year medical students in South India. The study was also aimed at determining whether males and females have similar pattern of learning styles. Materials and Methods: This study was jointly conducted in Mamata Medical College, Khammam, Telangana and Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Science and Research Center, Bangalore, Karnataka. VARK-questionnaire Version 7.8 was used after obtaining permission. The VARK–questionnaire along with information about age and sex was distributed among 200 first year students of both colleges on the same day and response rate was 80%( Males49% and Females 51% Results: VARK questionnaire results revealed that none of our respondents preferred unimodal method. 3% were bimodal, 32% were trimodal and 63% were quad modal. There was no statistical difference between the individual scores between male and female respondents. Implication: The implication of this study is applicable to teachers to understand his/her student’s pattern of learning. Although none of the students learn only by one method, all the multimodal learners will have a predominance of a particular learning style either it be visual/auditory/read/kinesthetic.

  18. Could cash and good parenting affect child cognitive development? A cross-sectional study in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, Lorraine; Macedo, Ana; Tomlinson, Mark; Skeen, Sarah; Cluver, Lucie Dale

    2017-05-12

    Social protection interventions, including cash grants and care provision have been shown to effectively reduce some negative impacts of the HIV epidemic on adolescents and families. Less is known about the role of social protection on younger HIV affected populations. This study explored the impact of cash grants on children's cognitive development. Additionally, we examined whether combined cash and care (operationalised as good parenting) was associated with improved cognitive outcomes. The sample included 854 children, aged 5 - 15, participating in community-based organisation (CBO) programmes for children affected by HIV in South Africa and Malawi. Data on child cognitive functioning were gathered by a combination of caregiver report and observer administered tests. Primary caregivers also reported on the economic situation of the family, cash receipt into the home, child and household HIV status. Parenting was measured on a 10 item scale with good parenting defined as a score of 8 or above. About half of families received cash (55%, n = 473), only 6% (n = 51) reported good parenting above the cut-off point but no cash, 18% (n = 151) received combined cash support and reported good parenting, and 21% (n = 179) had neither. Findings show that cash receipt was associated with enhanced child cognitive outcomes in a number of domains including verbal working memory, general cognitive functioning, and learning. Furthermore, cash plus good parenting provided an additive effect. Child HIV status had a moderating effect on the association between cash or/plus good parenting and cognitive outcomes. The association between cash and good parenting and child cognitive outcomes remained significant among both HIV positive and negative children, but overall the HIV negative group benefited more. This study shows the importance of cash transfers and good parenting on cognitive development of young children living in HIV affected environments. Our data clearly

  19. Beliefs, knowledge and attitudes towards Parkinson's disease among a Xhosa speaking black population in South Africa: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokaya, Jolynne; Gray, William K; Carr, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are thought to be undiagnosed and untreated, leading to poor health outcomes. Increasing rates of diagnosis and treatment, with consequent improvements in the quality of life of people with PD in SSA requires an understanding of how PD is perceived and conceptualized within communities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a group of Xhosa speaking black South Africans. The survey involved the administration of questionnaires on beliefs, knowledge and attitudes about PD to the public, people with PD (PwPD) and traditional healers (THs). 18% of the participants could identify PD through its symptoms. Mental illness, other diseases, stress, expressing strong emotions, consumption of certain foods or drinks and witchcraft were identified as possible causes of PD. PwPD and THs had a greater knowledge of PD than the public and greater age was a significant predictor of greater knowledge. The public and THs had a greater degree of concern about a range of symptoms of PD compared to PwPD. There is a striking lack of knowledge about PD amongst black South Africans. Almost half the members of the general public interviewed felt that PwPD should not live amongst their community, and a third considered that witchcraft could be a cause of PD. Finding ways to effectively educate members of a community about PD would make it easier for PwPD to adapt to their condition within their communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Function in an Aging Population in Rural South Africa: Findings From HAALSI and Cross-National Comparisons With HRS Sister Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    We use recently-collected data from the Health and Aging in Africa: a Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI) cohort from Agincourt, South Africa, to describe physical functioning in this aging population, and place the overall level and age-trajectories of physical health in the context of other Health and Retirement Study (HRS) sister studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conduct multiple regression to estimate associations of physical functioning assessed from both self-report (activities of daily living [ADL] limitation, self-reported health) and performance (grip strength, gait speed) with socio-demographic and health characteristics in HAALSI, and use fully-interacted regression models to compare age-patterns of physical functioning outcomes cross-nationally. Gender differences in self-reported health are minimal, and men had 30% higher odds of being ADL limited controlling for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Measured physical performance is closely tied with socioeconomic conditions, but self-reported measures have a much smaller or weaker socioeconomic gradient. In international age-adjusted comparisons, the HAALSI sample had lower physical performance outcomes than most comparison populations. As the first HRS sister study undertaken in Africa, HAALSI adds vital information on population aging and health in the region. Continuing waves of HAALSI data will be a key resource for understanding differences in the complex processes of disability across LMIC contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Gendered effects of siblings on child malnutrition in South Asia: cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health surveys from Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; McDougal, Lotus P; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of number and sex of siblings on malnutrition of boys and girls under-5 in South Asia. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on Demographic and Health Surveys data on children under-5 in Bangladesh (N = 7,861), India (N = 46,655) and Nepal (N = 2,475). Data were pooled across countries, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between number and sex of siblings and malnutrition outcomes (wasting, stunting, underweight; based on anthropometric data), adjusting for country and key social and maternal-child health indicators in sex stratified analyses. Number of brothers increased the odds for severe wasting [1 vs. 0 brothers adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.31, 95 % CI = 1.11, 1.55; 2 vs. 0 brothers AOR = 1.36, 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.73] for girls but not boys. Having more male siblings and more female siblings increased the odds of stunting for boys and girls, but effect of 3+ sisters on severe stunting was significantly stronger for girls than boys (girls- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 2.25, 95 % CI = 1.88, 2.70; boys- 3+ vs. 0 sisters AOR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.13, 1.67). For underweight, three or more sisters increased the odds for severe underweight for girls (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI = 1.04, 1.57) but not boys. Having brothers heightens girl risk for acute malnutrition (wasting), where having multiple sisters increases girl risk for chronic malnutrition (stunting/underweight). Boy malnutrition is less affected by siblings. Findings suggest that issues of son preference/daughter aversion may affect child malnutrition in South Asia.

  2. Maiden immunization coverage survey in the republic of South Sudan: a cross-sectional study providing baselines for future performance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, William; Lako, Anthony K; Ngemera, Daniel; Laku, Richard; Yehia, Mostafah; Nshakira, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since the comprehensive peace agreement was signed in 2005, institutionalization of immunization services in South Sudan remained a priority. Routine administrative reporting systems were established and showed that national coverage rates for DTP-3 rose from 20% in 2002 to 80% in 2011. This survey was conducted as part of an overall review of progress in implementation of the first EPI Multi-Year Plan for South Sudan 2007-2011. This report provides maiden community coverage estimates for immunization. Methods A cross sectional community survey was conducted between January and May 2012. Ten cluster surveys were conducted to generate state-specific coverage estimates. The WHO 30x7 cluster sampling method was employed. Data was collected using pre-tested, interviewer guided, structured questionnaires through house to house visits. Results The fully immunized children were 7.3%. Coverage for specific antigens were; BCG (28.3%), DTP-1(25.9%), DTP-3 (22.0%), Measles (16.8%). The drop-out rate between the first and third doses of DTP was 21.3%. Immunization coverage estimates based on card and history were higher, at 45.7% for DTP-3, 45.8% for MCV and 32.2% for full immunization. Majority of immunizations (80.8%) were received at health facilities compared to community service points (19.2%). The major reason for missed immunizations was inadequate information (41.1%). Conclusion The proportion of card-verified, fully vaccinated among children aged 12-23 months is very low at 7.3%. Future efforts to improve vaccination quality and coverage should prioritize training of vaccinators and program communication to levels equivalent or higher than investments in EPI cold chain systems since 2007. PMID:24876899

  3. Will an unsupervised self-testing strategy for HIV work in health care workers of South Africa? A cross sectional pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant Pai, Nitika; Behlim, Tarannum; Abrahams, Lameze; Vadnais, Caroline; Shivkumar, Sushmita; Pillay, Sabrina; Binder, Anke; Deli-Houssein, Roni; Engel, Nora; Joseph, Lawrence; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    In South Africa, stigma, discrimination, social visibility and fear of loss of confidentiality impede health facility-based HIV testing. With 50% of adults having ever tested for HIV in their lifetime, private, alternative testing options are urgently needed. Non-invasive, oral self-tests offer a potential for a confidential, unsupervised HIV self-testing option, but global data are limited. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2012 in health care workers based at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. An innovative, unsupervised, self-testing strategy was evaluated for feasibility; defined as completion of self-testing process (i.e., self test conduct, interpretation and linkage). An oral point-of-care HIV test, an Internet and paper-based self-test HIV applications, and mobile phones were synergized to create an unsupervised strategy. Self-tests were additionally confirmed with rapid tests on site and laboratory tests. Of 270 health care workers (18 years and above, of unknown HIV status approached), 251 consented for participation. Overall, about 91% participants rated a positive experience with the strategy. Of 251 participants, 126 evaluated the Internet and 125 the paper-based application successfully; completion rate of 99.2%. All sero-positives were linked to treatment (completion rate:100% (95% CI, 66.0-100). About half of sero-negatives were offered counselling on mobile phones; completion rate: 44.6% (95% CI, 38.0-51.0). A majority of participants (78.1%) were females, aged 18-24 years (61.4%). Nine participants were found sero-positive after confirmatory tests (prevalence 3.6% 95% CI, 1.8-6.9). Six of nine positive self-tests were accurately interpreted; sensitivity: 66.7% (95% CI, 30.9-91.0); specificity:100% (95% CI, 98.1-100). Our unsupervised self-testing strategy was feasible to operationalize in health care workers in South Africa. Linkages were successfully operationalized with mobile phones in all sero

  4. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women: an analysis of data from a national cross-sectional survey, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Design Cross-sectional survey. Settings South African primary public health facilities in 2012. Participants A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Outcome measures Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Results Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was −0.030 (95% confidence interval −0.038 to −0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (−44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Conclusions Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with early initiation and frequency of antenatal care (ANC) visits in a rural and urban setting in South Africa: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhwava, Lorrein Shamiso; Morojele, Neo; London, Leslie

    2016-01-25

    Late booking and infrequent antenatal care (ANC) are common but avoidable patient-related risk factors for maternal deaths in South Africa. The aim of the study was to examine the association of psychosocial factors with early initiation of ANC and adequate frequency of attendance of ANC clinics among women in an urban and rural location in South Africa. Data from a 2006 cross-sectional household survey of 363 women from the rural Western Cape and 466 women from urban Gauteng provinces of South Africa for risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy were analysed. We examined associations between psychosocial variables (self-esteem, cultural influences, religiosity, social capital, social support, pregnancy desire (wanted versus unwanted pregnancy), partner characteristics and mental health) and both early ANC first visit (before 16 weeks) and adequate frequency of ANC visits (4 or more visits) for respondents' last pregnancy. Overall prevalence among urban women of early ANC initiation was 46% and 84% for adequate ANC frequency. Overall prevalence among rural women of early ANC initiation was 45% and 78% for adequate ANC frequency. After adjusting for clustering, psychosocial factors associated with early ANC initiation in the urban site were being employed (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-2.5) and wanted pregnancy (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0). For the rural site, early ANC initiation was significantly associated with being married (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.0-3.6) but inversely associated with high religiosity (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.8). Adequate frequency of ANC attendance in the rural site was associated with wanted pregnancy (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.9-9.3) and the father of the child being present in the respondent's life (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.0-9.0) but inversely associated with having a previous miscarriage (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.8). There were no significant associations between adequate ANC attendance and the psychosocial factors in the urban site. The majority of women from both sites attended ANC

  6. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women: an analysis of data from a national cross-sectional survey, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-12

    Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Cross-sectional survey. South African primary public health facilities in 2012. A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was -0.030 (95% confidence interval -0.038 to -0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (-44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional-specific and age-specific bottlenecks. Future interventions need to be context

  7. Associations of Sleep Duration and Disturbances With Hypertension in Metropolitan Cities of Delhi, Chennai, and Karachi in South Asia: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the CARRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Roopa; Kondal, Dimple; Ali, Mohammed K; Gupta, Ruby; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Narayan, K M Venkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Peasey, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Sleep duration and disturbances may be risk factors for hypertension. Despite the high burden of hypertension in South Asia, little is known about this relationship in this region. We analyzed population-level cross-sectional data from the Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) study that recruited representative samples of adults ≥ 20 years from three cities-Delhi, Chennai (India), and Karachi (Pakistan) during 2010-2011. We defined hypertension as self-reported treatment or measured blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Data on usual duration of sleep, insomnia, and snoring were collected using "The Sleep Habits Questionnaire" and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) using Epworth Sleepiness Score. Logistic and linear regression were done with hypertension and BP as outcome variables, respectively. Age, gender, education, wealth index, family history, and body mass index (BMI) were included as covariates. We used multiple imputation to account for missing variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.1%. The mean (SD) sleep duration was 7.3 (1.2) hours. Insomnia, snoring, and EDS were present in 13.6%, 28.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. Moderate and habitual snoring were associated with increased odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.04 to 1.33] and 1.47 [1.29 to 1.67], respectively), after adjusting for covariates. Rare, occasional, and frequent insomnia were associated with increased hypertension (OR 1.41 [1.12 to 1.77], 1.39 [1.16 to 1.67], and 1.34 [1.09 to 1.65], respectively). Sleep duration and EDS were not associated with hypertension. Self-reported snoring and insomnia were associated with hypertension in South Asia. This relationship needs further exploration through robust longitudinal studies in this region. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Mental Health Inequalities in Adolescents Growing Up in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Cross-Sectional Survey, SHaW Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Das-Munshi

    Full Text Available South Africa is one of the most 'unequal' societies in the world. Despite apartheid ending more than 20 years ago, material inequalities remain interwoven with ethnic/racial inequalities. There is limited research on the prevalence/predictors of common mental disorders (CMD among young people. Adolescence is a unique time-point during which intervention may lead to improved mental health and reduced social problems later. The study objective was to assess mental health disparities in a representative sample of adolescents growing up in South Africa.Cross-sectional associations of race/ethnicity and material disadvantage with CMD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD were assessed in a stratified random sample representative of school-attendees, aged 14-15 years, in a large metropolitan area of Cape Town. Validated instruments assessed mental disorders; these included: Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (PTSD; Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (depression; Zung self-rated anxiety scale (anxiety. Self-ascribed ethnicity was determined using procedures similar to the South African census and previous national surveys.Response rate was 88% (1034 of 1169 individuals. Adolescents experienced a high prevalence of depression (41%, anxiety (16% and PTSD (21%. A gradient between material disadvantage and CMD/ PTSD was evident across all ethnic/racial groups. Respondents self-identifying as 'black' or 'coloured' were disadvantaged across most indicators. After adjusting for confounders, relative to white children, relative risk (RR of CMD in black children was 2.27 (95% CI:1.24, 4.15 and for PTSD was RR: 2.21 (95% CI:1.73, 2.83. Relative risk of CMD was elevated in children self-identifying as 'coloured' (RR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.11, 2.70. Putative mediators (violence, racially motivated bullying, social support, self-esteem partially accounted for differences in CMD and fully for PTSD.Adolescent mental health inequalities in Cape Town are associated with

  9. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.

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    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-06-13

    Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in three culturally different sites: Campbelltown (South Western Sydney), Australia, Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (HCMC). Consenting parents and carers (aged ≥18 years old) of at least one child (≤6 years old) were recruited from paediatric clinics in Campbelltown, Singapore and HCMC. Participants completed an infant feeding practices questionnaire regarding breastfeeding, beverage and solid initiation in addition to the parent's ethnicity, age, and educational level. Data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Two hundred eighty-three participants were recruited across the three sites, HCMC (n = 84), Campbelltown (n = 108), and Singapore (n = 91). 237 (82.6%) children were breastfed but in all only 100 (60.2%) were exclusively breastfed for five months or more. There was a statistical difference in rates of breast feeding between each region. HCMC (n = 18, 21.4%) had the lowest, followed by Campbelltown (n = 35, 32.4%), and then Singapore (n = 47, 51.7%). There was also a difference in rates of introduction of HCBs by 3 years of age, with those in HCMC (n = 71, 84.5%) were higher than Campbelltown (n = 71, 65.8%) and Singapore (n = 48, 52.8%). The educational level of respondents was lower in Vietnam where only 46.4% (n = 39) had completed post-secondary education, compared to 75.0% (n = 81) in Campbelltown and 75.8% (n = 69) in Singapore. Rates of breast feeding were inversely correlated with rates of introduction of HCB and positively related to

  10. AWARENESS ABOUT HIV/AIDS IN CLIENTS ATTENDING STI CLINIC: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY FROM SOUTH-EAST RAJASTHAN, INDIA

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    Atul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND India bears a large burden of HIV/AIDS on globe. Major weapons against HIV/AIDS are treatment which is not curative, vaccine which is far from reality and accurate & adequate information about the disease which is practically acceptable and cost effective way of prevention in form of social vaccine and is a good tool for HIV/AIDS in developing countries like India. In India there is inadequate & inaccurate knowledge about the disease in general population. AIM In present study we tried to analyze the knowledge & awareness about HIV/AIDS in clients attending the STI clinic at Jhalawar Hospital and Medical College at south east part of Rajasthan, India. MATERIAL & METHODS We assessed 500 clients at STI clinic by using a predesigned questionnaire which gathers their knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. All the clients above the age of 18 years who attended the STI clinic were enrolled for the study voluntarily. Participants were finally assessed as good/poor or unaware according to their level of knowledge. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SPSS version 20.0 (trial was used to analyze all the data. Chi square test was used to find association between knowledge and their literacy level & occupation. RESULTS 142(28.4% of the participants had never heard about HIV/AIDS among them females were significantly more than males. Both low level of literacy and unemployment or house wives were associated with unawareness about HIV/AIDS. For the 358(71.6% participants who had heard about HIV/AIDS, mass media was the main source of information (53.07% in which television contributes the major part, followed by friends and colleagues (24.02%. While the knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention was good but the extent of misconceptions was also high (64.8%. CONCLUSION Our study is highly suggestive of the strong need to increase the level of HIV awareness among Indian population via proper education and through various resources on information.

  11. Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

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    Bernstein, Molly; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; McIntyre, James A; Brittain, Kirsty; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2016-08-16

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy may be common in settings where HIV is prevalent but there are few data on IPV in populations of HIV-infected pregnant women in Southern Africa. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IPV among HIV-infected pregnant women. A primary care antenatal clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. 623 consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy. IPV, depression, substance use and psychological distress were assessed using the 13-item WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT/DUDIT) and the Kessler 10 (K-10) scale, respectively. The median age in the sample was 28 years, 97% of women reported being in a relationship, and 70% of women reported not discussing and/or agreeing on pregnancy intentions before conception. 21% of women (n=132) reported experiencing ≥1 act of IPV in the past 12 months, including emotional (15%), physical (15%) and sexual violence (2%). Of those reporting any IPV (n=132), 48% reported experiencing 2 or more types. Emotional and physical violence was most prevalent among women aged 18-24 years, while sexual violence was most commonly reported among women aged 25-29 years. Reported IPV was less likely among married women, and women who experienced IPV were more likely to score above threshold for substance use, depression and psychological distress. In addition, women who reported not discussing and/or not agreeing on pregnancy intentions with their partner prior to conception were significantly more likely to experience violence. HIV-infected pregnant women in the study reported experiencing multiple forms of IPV. While the impact of IPV on maternal and child health outcomes in the context of HIV infection requires further research attention, IPV screening and support services should be considered within the package of routine care for HIV

  12. HIV incidence in rural South Africa: comparison of estimates from longitudinal surveillance and cross-sectional cBED assay testing.

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    Till Bärnighausen

    Full Text Available The BED IgG-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay (cBED assay, a test of recent HIV infection, has been used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional HIV surveys. However, there has been concern that the assay overestimates HIV incidence to an unknown extent because it falsely classifies some individuals with non-recent HIV infections as recently infected. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa to measure the fraction of people with non-recent HIV infection who are falsely classified as recently HIV-infected by the cBED assay (the long-term false-positive ratio (FPR and compared cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates to longitudinally measured HIV incidence.We measured the long-term FPR in individuals with two positive HIV tests (in the HIV surveillance, 2003-2006 more than 306 days apart (sample size n = 1,065. We implemented four different formulae to calculate HIV incidence using cBED assay testing (n = 11,755 and obtained confidence intervals (CIs by directly calculating the central 95(th percentile of incidence values. We observed 4,869 individuals over 7,685 person-years for longitudinal HIV incidence estimation. The long-term FPR was 0.0169 (95% CI 0.0100-0.0266. Using this FPR, the cross-sectional cBED-based HIV incidence estimates (per 100 people per year varied between 3.03 (95% CI 2.44-3.63 and 3.19 (95% CI 2.57-3.82, depending on the incidence formula. Using a long-term FPR of 0.0560 based on previous studies, HIV incidence estimates varied between 0.65 (95% CI 0.00-1.32 and 0.71 (95% CI 0.00-1.43. The longitudinally measured HIV incidence was 3.09 per 100 people per year (95% CI 2.69-3.52, after adjustment to the sex-age distribution of the sample used in cBED assay-based estimation.In a rural community in South Africa with high HIV prevalence, the long-term FPR of the cBED assay is substantially lower than previous estimates. The cBED assay performs well in HIV incidence estimation if the locally

  13. Predictive Factors of Patient Satisfaction with Pharmacy Services in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study of National Level Data

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    Lee, Sunkyung; Godwin, Onyeka Peter; Kim, Kyungah; Lee, Euni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Patient satisfaction has emerged as a prerequisite to improving patients’ health behaviors leading to better health care outcomes. This study was to identify predictive determinants for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services using national-level data. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. To assess the predictive factors for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services, an ordinal logistic regression model was conducted adjusting for patient characteristics, clinical comorbidities, and perception of health. Results A total of 9,744 people, a representative sample of 48.2 million Koreans, participated in the 2008 KNHANES, of whom 2,188 (23.6%) reported visits to pharmacy within the last 2 weeks prior to the survey. Of the patients who visited the pharmacy, 74.6% reported to be either “very satisfied” or “satisfied,” and 25.4% responded as being “neutral,” “dissatisfied,” or “very dissatisfied.” A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis with weighted observations revealed that patients with fair perception of health (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.01–1.74; ppatient satisfaction with pharmacy services. PMID:26540165

  14. Prevalence of pain in patients with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional survey in a South Indian state

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    Shoba N Nair

    2009-01-01

    Secondary - To assess the type, site, severity, management of pain and impact of pain on quality of life in these patients. Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey (This paper is a pilot study. Settings: ART centre at St. John′s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore and Snehadan, A supportive and care centre for HIV/ AIDS patients at Bangalore. Materials and Methods: Data sheet, Brief pain inventory and Short - Form McGill pain questionnaire. Subjects: This is an ongoing study and the pilot study includes 140 HIV/AIDS patients in different stages of the disease. Results: About 66.7% (28/42 in-patients and 24.5% (24/98 out-patients complained of pain. Of the 52 patients who reported pain, 32% (14/52 reported neuropathic pain and 68% (38/52 reported noci-ceptive pain. Headache was most common followed by pain in the soles of feet and low back. Only 26.9% (17/52 received any form of analgesic. Pain severity significantly affects the quality of life. Conclusions: Pain is a common and debilitating symptom of HIV/AIDS. It is however, under-estimated and under treated.

  15. Assessment of quality of life in children with epilepsy in rural settings of South India: A cross sectional study

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    Mullazy Paramadam Srujana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is the most common pediatric neurological disorder which alters the conscious, behavior, motor activity, and autonomy function leads to compromised quality of life (QoL in children. Objective: The aim is to assess the QoL, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and clinical factors on QoL in children with epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over 1 year from October 2013 to September 2014. Baseline demographic characteristics and other details were collected from patient case data and through a semi-structured interview during their recruitment into the present investigation. The child version of TNO-AZL Children's QoL questionnaire was administered by the trained research coordinator to collect data from and about the study subjects. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and student t-test were performed for the statistical analysis. The data analysis was performed using Graph pad instat 3.0.10.0. Results: The educational status, socioeconomic status, and maternal education were the demographic characters that significantly affected the QoL of study subjects. Type of seizures, early childhood history of seizures, duration of therapy and duration of epilepsy were the most important clinical characteristics that could significantly affect the QoL of study subjects. Conclusion: Further QoL studies and interventional programs may be conducted to improve the QoL and to individualize management in rural resident children with epilepsy.

  16. Sedentary Lifestyle and Hypertension in a Periurban Area of Mbarara, South Western Uganda: A Population Based Cross Sectional Survey.

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    Twinamasiko, Bruce; Lukenge, Edward; Nabawanga, Stella; Nansalire, Winnie; Kobusingye, Lois; Ruzaaza, Gad; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2018-01-01

    Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes constitute over 50% of the noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden and projections indicate Sub-Saharan Africa will experience a larger burden. Urbanization on the continent is contributing to the change in lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, which may increase the risk for CVDs. There is lack of sufficient data from the African continent on hypertension and its association with sedentary lifestyle. We conducted a cross sectional study in periurban Uganda among adults aged at least 35 years. We administered questions on diet, physical activity, and smoking. We took anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP > = 140 and/or diastolic BP > = 90 and/or history of hypertension medications. Logistic regression was used to determine the crude and adjusted odds ratios for the factors associated with hypertension. We enrolled 310 participants and 50% were female. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was 24.5%, diastolic hypertension was 31%, obesity was 46%, and diabetes was 9%. Of those with hypertension ( n = 76), 53 participants (69.7%) were not aware they had high BP. Sedentary lifestyle was significantly associated with hypertension even after adjusting for age and obesity. There is a high prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes and majority of participants with hypertension are not aware. Participants with a sedentary work style should be targeted for prevention and screening.

  17. Applying the system viability framework for cross-scalar governance of nested social-ecological systems in the Guiana Shield, South America

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    Andrea Berardi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Linking and analyzing governance of natural resources at different scales requires the development of a conceptual framework for analyzing social-ecological systems that can be easily applied by a range of stakeholders whose interests lie at different scales, but where the results of the analysis can be compared in a straightforward way. We outline the system viability framework, which allows participants to characterize a range of strategies in response to environment challenges for maintaining the long-term survival of their particular system of interest. Working in the Guiana Shield, South America, and with a range of local, regional, and international stakeholders, our aim was to use system viability to (1 investigate synergies and conflicts between distinct scales of governance, (2 identify scale-related challenges, and (3 test the framework as a conceptual tool for supporting cross-scalar analysis for environmental governance. At the international and national levels, a number of civil society organizations explored system viability indicators that would measure the successful implementation of governance mechanisms relevant to sustainable development and natural resource management. At the local level, we used participatory video and photography within two indigenous territories to enable local participants to identify indicators of viability within community governance systems. A grounded theory approach was then used to identify common themes across the different scales of analysis. Five key themes emerged: land rights, leadership, partnerships, lifestyle, and identity. We found that although most categories of interest were theoretically aligned across scales, all perceived systems of interest were struggling to face up to various cross-scalar challenges undermining different system viability responses. In conclusion, we highlight how the system viability framework can be used with a disparate variety of stakeholders as a practical

  18. Clinical patterns of vitiligo and its associated co morbidities: A prospective controlled cross-sectional study in South India

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    D S Krupa Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical patterns and associations of vitiligo, audiometric functions, and ocular involvement and to correlate the morphology, clinical behaviour and comorbidities associated with vitiligo. Settings and Design: For this prospective and cross-sectional study 80 self-reporting patients in the age group 7-75 years with vitiligo attending the outpatient department of Manipal hospital during the period August 2008 to February 2010 were selected and the data was analysed. Materials and Methods: The patients were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination and investigations [complete blood count (CBC, absolute eosinophil count (AEC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, vitamin B12 estimation, fasting blood sugar (FBS, and post prandial blood sugar (PPBS,antibody titre estimations that is antithyroid peroxidase (ATPA, antithyroglobulin (ATA, antinuclear antibodies (ANA,urine analysis], audiometric evaluation and ophthalmic examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The Fisher exact test has been used to find the significance of study parameters on categorical scale between two or more groups. Results: In the present series of 80 cases, 41 (51.25% were males and 39 (48.75% were females. The male to female ratio was 1.05:1. In our study 20% cases gave definite family history of vitiligo and patients in the age group of 20 - 30 years were the most commonly affected. Generalized vitiligo (31.3% was the most common type followed by segmental (30%, focal (18.8%, acrofacial (8.8%, and mucosal vitiligo (11.3%. In the present study there was a high incidence of autoantibodies (22.5%, vitamin B12 deficiency (30%, hypothyroidism (11.3%, elevated absolute eosinophil count (16.3%, hypoacusis (10% and retinal changes (8.8%. This suggests multisystem autoimmunity in vitiligo.

  19. Predictive Factors of Patient Satisfaction with Pharmacy Services in South Korea: A Cross-Sectional Study of National Level Data.

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    Sunkyung Lee

    Full Text Available Patient satisfaction has emerged as a prerequisite to improving patients' health behaviors leading to better health care outcomes. This study was to identify predictive determinants for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services using national-level data.A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES data. To assess the predictive factors for patient satisfaction with pharmacy services, an ordinal logistic regression model was conducted adjusting for patient characteristics, clinical comorbidities, and perception of health.A total of 9,744 people, a representative sample of 48.2 million Koreans, participated in the 2008 KNHANES, of whom 2,188 (23.6% reported visits to pharmacy within the last 2 weeks prior to the survey. Of the patients who visited the pharmacy, 74.6% reported to be either "very satisfied" or "satisfied," and 25.4% responded as being "neutral," "dissatisfied," or "very dissatisfied." A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis with weighted observations revealed that patients with fair perception of health (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.01-1.74; p<0.05 and those with middle to low family incomes (adjusted OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76; p<0.05 were more likely to be satisfied with pharmacy services, and employment-based insurers were less likely to be satisfied with pharmacy services (adjusted OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p<0.05.Our findings indicated that three out of four patients expressed satisfaction toward pharmacy services. Middle to low family incomes, fair perception of health, and employee insured individuals were significant predictors of patient satisfaction with pharmacy services.

  20. Eucalyptus pollen allergy and asthma in children: a cross-sectional study in South-East Queensland, Australia.

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    Gibbs, Jane E M

    2015-01-01

    commercial allergens due to cross-reactive responses and the sources of those responses.

  1. An objective and cross-sectional examination of sun-safe behaviours in New South Wales primary schools

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    Dean A. Dudley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous evaluations have supported the link between sun protection policies and improved sun protection behaviours. However these evaluations have relied on self-reported data. Methods A cross-sectional design as part of an ongoing 18-month cluster-controlled trial in primary schools (n = 20 was used. Researchers conducted direct observations to record students’ hat use and teachers’ use of sun protective measures during recess and lunch. Researchers also recorded the volume of sunscreen consumed in each school. Results Only 60% of primary school children wear a sun-safe hat during their breaks when observed using objective measures. Weak correlations were observed between the wearing of a sun-safe hat and a school’s socio-economic status (r = 0.26. All other independent variables measured had only very weak correlations (r < 0.19 with sun-safe hat wearing behaviour of students. Sunscreen consumption by school students during the school day is negligible. Conclusions A large percentage of NSW primary schools in this study wear sun-safe hats during the school day but this is well below what has been reported in previous national surveys. Given the finite resources of schools and the correlation, though small, with SES status for these behaviours, it behoves researchers to investigate low-cost solutions to these problems. Further qualitative data will also be needed to inform the enablers and barriers for sun-safe behaviour interventions to be adopted in NSW primary schools.

  2. Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

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    Amano, Abdella; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Birhanu, Zelalem

    2012-10-08

    Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1-20, 2011, among mothers who gave birth 12 months before the study began in Munesa Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Southeast Ethiopia. A stratified cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 855 participants. Out of all deliveries, only 12.3% took place at health facilities. Women who were urban residents (AOR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.40), women of age at interview less than 20 years (AOR = 6.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 23.78), women with first pregnancy (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.97) and, women who had ANC visit during the last pregnancy (AOR = 4.18, 95%CI: 2.54, 6.89) were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education had also a significant effect on health institution delivery with AOR = 4.31 (95%CI: 1.62, 11.46) and AOR = 2.77 (95%CI: 1.07, 7.19) respectively. Institutional delivery service utilization was found to be low in the study area. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education, urban residence and ANC visit were amongst the main factors that had an influence on health institution delivery. Increasing the awareness of mothers and their partners about the benefits of institutional delivery services are recommended.

  3. Differentials of fertility in North and South Gondar zones, northwest Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

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    Worku Alemayehu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa with an estimated population of 77.1 million in mid-2007. Uncontrolled fertility has adversely influenced the socio-economic, demographic and environmental situations of the country. It is one of the largest and poorest countries that, even in the midst of crisis, has maintained high levels of fertility. This study was aimed at investigating the most important factors influencing fertility behavior in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study which included 2424 women aged 25 years and above was undertaken in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. The study subjects were grouped into high fertile and low fertile categories. There were 1011 and 1413 women in the high and low fertile groups, respectively. A multi-stage cluster sampling stratified by place of residence was employed to select the required study subjects. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Results Among the 25 variables considered in this study, only 9 of them were found significantly and independently associated with the level of fertility. Women with at least secondary education were at a lower risk of high fertility with OR = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21 to 0.64 compared to those with no formal education. However, women with primary education did not show any significant difference when compared with the same baseline group. Age at first marriage was inversely associated with the number of children ever born alive. Place of residence, household expenditure, number of children who have died, attitude towards using contraceptives, women's knowledge on the safe period, and current marital status were the other variables that showed significant associations with the level of fertility. Conclusion Female education beyond the primary level, reduced infant and child mortality, delayed marriage and correct knowledge on the safe

  4. South Africa

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    2002-01-01

    contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  5. Association of Urogenital Symptoms with History of Water Contact in Young Women in Areas Endemic for S. haematobium. A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural South Africa.

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    Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Amlie Hegertun, Ingrid Elise; Holmen, Sigve; Qvigstad, Erik; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Ndhlovu, Patricia Doris; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Taylor, Myra; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-11-14

    Female genital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium . Infected females may suffer from symptoms mimicking sexually transmitted infections. We explored if self-reported history of unsafe water contact could be used as a simple predictor of genital schistosomiasis. In a cross-sectional study in rural South Africa, 883 sexually active women aged 16-22 years were included. Questions were asked about urogenital symptoms and water contact history. Urine samples were tested for S. haematobium ova. A score based on self-reported water contact was calculated and the association with symptoms was explored while adjusting for other genital infections using multivariable logistic regression analyses. S. haematobium ova were detected in the urine of 30.5% of subjects. Having ova in the urine was associated with the water contact score ( p water contact included burning sensation in the genitals ( p = 0.005), spot bleeding ( p = 0.012), abnormal discharge smell ( p = 0.018), bloody discharge ( p = 0.020), genital ulcer ( p = 0.038), red urine ( p water contact was strongly associated with urogenital symptoms. In low-resource settings, a simple history including risk of water contact behaviour can serve as an indicator of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  6. S. haematobium as a common cause of genital morbidity in girls: a cross-sectional study of children in South Africa.

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    Ingrid Elise Amlie Hegertun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma (S. haematobium infection is a common cause of genital morbidity in adult women. Ova in the genital mucosal lining may cause lesions, bleeding, pain, discharge, and the damaged surfaces may pose a risk for HIV. In a heterogeneous schistosomiasis endemic area in South Africa, we sought to investigate if young girls had genital symptoms and if this was associated with urinary S. haematobium. METHODOLOGY: In a cross-sectional study of 18 randomly chosen primary schools, we included 1057 schoolgirls between the age of 10 and 12 years. We interviewed assenting girls, whose parents had consented to their participation and examined three urines from each of them for schistosome ova. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One third of the girls reported to have a history of genital symptoms. Prior schistosomal infection was reported by 22% (226/1020, this was associated with current genital symptoms (p<0.001. In regression analysis the genital symptoms were significantly associated both with urinary schistosomiasis (p<0.001 and water contact (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Even before sexually active age, a relatively large proportion of the participating girls had similar genital symptoms to those reported for adult genital schistosomiasis previously. Anti-schistosomal treatment should be considered at a young age in order to prevent chronic genital damage and secondary infections such as HIV, sexually transmitted diseases and other super-infections.

  7. Determinants of Quality of Work Life among Nurses Working in Hawassa Town Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Kelbiso, Lolemo; Belay, Admasu; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2017-01-01

    A high quality of work life (QWL) is a crucial issue for health care facilities to have qualified, dedicated, and inspired employees. Among different specialties in health care settings, nurses have a major share among other health care providers. So, they should experience a better QWL to deliver high-quality holistic care to those who need help. To assess the level of quality of work life and its predictors among nurses working in Hawassa town public health facilities, South Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 253 nurses of two hospitals and nine health centers. The total sample size was allocated to each facility based on the number of nurses in each facility. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The interitem consistency of the scale used to measure QWL had Cronbach's alpha value of 0.86. A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to identify significant predictors of quality of work life using SPSS version 20. The study showed that 67.2% of the nurses were dissatisfied with the quality of their work life. We found that educational status, monthly income, working unit, and work environment were strong predictors of quality of work life among nurses ( p quality of their work life. The findings in this study and studies reported from elsewhere pinpoint that perception of nurses about the quality of their work life can be modified if health care managers are considerate of the key issues surrounding QWL.

  8. Determinants of late antenatal care presentation in rural and peri-urban communities in South Africa: A cross-sectional study.

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    Ebonwu, Joy; Mumbauer, Alexandra; Uys, Margot; Wainberg, Milton L; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    To investigate and compare determinates for delayed first presentation to antenatal care (ANC) services. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst pregnant women attending their first ANC visit in rural Capricorn District and peri-urban Tlokwe sub-district communities in South Africa. Data collection included questionnaires and medical record abstraction. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed factors associated with late ANC presentation. We recruited 807 pregnant women. Of these, 51% of rural women and 28% of peri-urban women presented late for first ANC. Rural women were more likely to present late for first ANC (AOR = 2.65; 95% CI 1.98-3.55) and report barriers to accessing ANC services (PANC presentation in rural communities was associated with being married (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.33-4.19), employed (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.03-3.50), ANC after presenting early (AOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.30-0.89) and being pregnant for the first time (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.34-0.94). Both rural and peri-urban women had high rates of late presentation for first ANC. However, women in the rural communities were more likely to present late. Unplanned pregnancy was an independent risk factor in both rural and peri-urban communities. Interventions around family planning, especially for adolescent girls and young women, are needed to improve early presentation for ANC.

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Rha

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population.This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1 lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis.Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219 and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376, respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only.Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition.

  10. A comparison of the nutritional status of adolescents from selected schools of South India and UAE : A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haboubi Ghalib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescents of Indian origin living in India and the United Arab Emirates to see how variable the prevalence is of stunting and wasting among adolescents of the same ethnic background living in different socio-economic and demographic environments. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Schools in South India and the United Arab Emirates. Participants: A total of 2459 adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 16 years old. Results and Discussion: Anthropometric measurements from 2459 adolescents between the ages of 10-16 years old, 1200 from India and 1259 from UAE, were collected. The subjects were divided into six age groups with 1-year intervals. Adolescents falling below the age and gender-specific 5 th percentile and 3 rd percentile of the WHO recommended standards were defined as having thinness and stunting accordingly. Regardless of gender, the rate of stunting was higher in Indian adolescents from India (25.5-51% when compared with Indian adolescents in UAE (3.1-21%. Thinness was also more in those in India (42-75.4%. When compared with adolescents living in the UAE (4.5-14.4%. The study was done in two groups having a common ethnicity but living in different socio-economic environments. With the results of this study, we can say that improved economic conditions favor better expression of genetic potential for physical growth.

  11. Age-Related Cataract Is Associated with Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in the South Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Keun Yoo

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated events lead to several chronic diseases. We investigated the association between allergic conditions and age-related cataracts in the South Korean adult population.A cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from 1,170 participants aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age-related cataracts and allergic conditions, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific serum IgE levels, after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, sun exposure, blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as histories of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis.After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR for age-related cataract was greater in participants with higher total serum IgE levels (OR = 1.37; P = 0.044. In particular, increased IgE levels were significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR = 1.42; P = 0.032. However, allergen-specific serum IgE levels did not differ significantly between groups. In the trend analysis, no significant relationship was observed between serum IgE and any type of age-related cataract.Increased total serum IgE level is independently associated with age-related cataracts after adjustment for confounding factors.

  12. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Abdella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1–20, 2011, among mothers who gave birth 12 months before the study began in Munesa Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Southeast Ethiopia. A stratified cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 855 participants. Results Out of all deliveries, only 12.3% took place at health facilities. Women who were urban residents (AOR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.40, women of age at interview less than 20 years (AOR = 6.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 23.78, women with first pregnancy (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.97 and, women who had ANC visit during the last pregnancy (AOR = 4.18, 95%CI: 2.54, 6.89 were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education had also a significant effect on health institution delivery with AOR = 4.31 (95%CI: 1.62, 11.46 and AOR = 2.77 (95%CI: 1.07, 7.19 respectively. Conclusion Institutional delivery service utilization was found to be low in the study area. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education, urban residence and ANC visit were amongst the main factors that had an influence on health institution delivery. Increasing the awareness of mothers and their partners about the benefits of institutional delivery services are recommended.

  14. Eucalyptus pollen allergy and asthma in children: a cross-sectional study in South-East Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E M Gibbs

    allergens due to cross-reactive responses and the sources of those responses.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Khairy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4% reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis (25.5%, followed by family (21.7%, while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1% and deadly (70% disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5% were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24 h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%, followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%, mosquito bed nets (13.2% and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%. This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi. We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria in south-western Saudi Arabia: A household-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Sami; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Ali, Anna; Shubily, Hussam M; Al Walaan, Nisreen; Househ, Mowafa; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) concerning malaria and malaria prevention among rural populations residing in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This was a household-based cross-sectional survey, using structured questionnaire that was developed and distributed among households selected randomly from 19 villages (clusters) located in a southwestern region of Saudi Arabia, north of the border with Yemen. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A majority of respondents (98.4%) reported that they had heard about malaria, but only 21.7% reported that they had sufficient information about the disease. Surprisingly, the most popular source of information was the internet and social media (proportion responding positively in parenthesis) (25.5%), followed by family (21.7%), while information from health facilities contributed only 12.4%. A majority of respondents were aware that malaria is a communicable (89.1%) and deadly (70%) disease; however, only 30.2% of the respondents responded that malaria is a treatable disease. Almost all of the aware respondents (97.5%) were inclined to seek treatment from health facilities, and 63.2% preferred to seek treatment within 24h of presenting with symptoms. Regarding personal precautions, the most common practice adopted by respondents was indoor residual spraying IRS (47.3%), followed by anti-mosquito spraying (29.8%), mosquito bed nets (13.2%) and combined anti-mosquito sprays and nets on windows (4.7%). This KAP study did not show any statistically significant differences in KAP due to age; however the practices of preventive measures against malaria differed significantly by nationality (Saudi versus non-Saudi). We conclude that most populations living in the villages have an acceptable level of knowledge and awareness about malaria and seek timely treatment. However, the positive attitudes and practices in relation to personal protection and prevention

  17. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  18. Parameterization of surface irradiance and primary production in Århus Bay, SW Kattegat, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sørensen, Helene Munk

    2009-01-01

    . The study is based on a one year long time-series of PAR, CTD-casts (n = 45), and primary production measurements (n = 24) from Århus Bay (56°09′ N; 10°20′ E), south west Kattegat. Results showed a high and positive correlation between observed and calculated primary production in the bay, as based...

  19. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  20. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1195 - Regulated Navigation Area; Humboldt Bay Bar Channel and Humboldt Bay Entrance Channel, Humboldt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Entrance Channel, Humboldt Bay, California. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— COTP means the... person in charge of a vessel to which this notice applies shall obtain permission to cross within four... place during daylight hours, the vessel has only a single tow or no tow, the visibility at the bar is...

  2. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, Katherine C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  3. AoA Region: South Asian Seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    is an environmental assessment for the entire Bay of Bengal region (BOBP/ REP/67) prepared for the Swedish Centre for Coastal Development and Management of Aquatic Resources by Holmgren (1994) under the Bay of Bengal Programme. This assessment provides information...-based activities (UNEP 2001) includes information on the South Asian Seas region. Under the Environment Management-Capacity Building Project implemented by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests with funding support from the World Bank, the Integrated...

  4. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyun, Victoria; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; le Roux, Stanzi; McIntyre, James A; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2018-04-03

    Prevention of unplanned pregnancy is a crucial aspect of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. There are few data investigating how HIV status and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence pregnancy planning in high HIV burden settings. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cape Town, South Africa. Cross-sectional analysis. Single primary-level antenatal care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women, booking for antenatal care from March 2013 to August 2015, were included. Unplanned pregnancy was measured at the first antenatal care visit using the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). Analyses examined LMUP scores across four groups of participants defined by their HIV status, awareness of their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and/or whether they were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to the current pregnancy. Among 2105 pregnant women (1512 HIV positive; 593 HIV negative), median age was 28 years, 43% were married/cohabiting and 20% were nulliparous. Levels of unplanned pregnancy were significantly higher in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women (50% vs 33%, p<0.001); and highest in women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (53%). After adjusting for age, parity and marital status, unplanned pregnancy was most common among women newly diagnosed and women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (compared with HIV-negative women, adjusted OR (aOR): 1.43; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.94 and aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.15, respectively). Increased parity and younger age (<24 years) were also associated with unplanned pregnancy (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.60 and aOR: 1.83; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.74, respectively). We observed high levels of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive women, particularly among those not on ART, suggesting ongoing missed opportunities for improved family planning and

  6. Factors Associated with Excessive Body Fat in Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Data from Black South Africans Living in a Rural Community and an Urban Township

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okop, Kufre Joseph; Levitt, Naomi; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the factors associated with excessive body fat among black African men and women living in rural and urban communities of South Africa. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, Cape Town, South Africa conducted in 2009/2010. The study sample included 1220 participants (77.2% women) aged 35–70 years, for whom anthropometric measurements were obtained and risk factors documented through face-to-face interviews using validated international PURE study protocols. Sex-specific logistic regression models were used to evaluate socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors associated with three excessive body fat indicators, namely body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percent (BF%). Results The prevalence of excessive body fat based on BF%, WC and BMI cut-offs were 96.0%, 86.1%, and 81.6% for women respectively, and 62.2%, 25.9%, and 36.0% for men respectively. The significant odds of excessive body fat among the currently married compared to unmarried were 4.1 (95% CI: 1.3–12.5) for BF% and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3–2.9) for BMI among women; and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.6–9.6), 3.2 (95% CI: 1.6–6.4) and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9–6.8) for BF%, WC and BMI respectively among men. Age ≤50 years (compared to age >50 years) was inversely associated with excessive BF% in men and women, and less-than-a-college education was inversely associated with excessive BMI and WC in men. Tobacco smoking was inversely associated with all three excessive adiposity indicators in women but not in men. Unemployment, depression, and stress did not predict excessive body fat in men or women. Conclusion The sex-differences in the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with the high levels of excessive body fat in urban and rural women and men should be considered in packaging interventions to reduce obesity in these communities. PMID:26447880

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Betânia R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a multitude of disorders including diabetes, defective insulin secretion as well as rickets and poor bone health. Vitamin D is also a concern during childhood and adolescence and has been reported in girls from South Brazil. We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil and investigated whether the genotypic distribution of the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and their haplotypes were associated with vitamin D levels. Methods Cross-sectional study including 234 apparently healthy girls aged 7 to 18 years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI percentiles for age. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were assessed. Participants were genotyped for ApaI (rs7975232, TaqI (rs731236, and BsmI (rs1544410 SNPs. Results The median and interquartile range (25-75% of BMI percentile was 62.0 (33.3 – 84.9. The frequency of overweight/obesity was 24.9%. Circulating levels of 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/mL were adequate in 9.4%; insufficient in 54.3% (20–29 ng/mL; and deficient in 36.3% (vs. GA + AA, two-tailed Student’s t-test p vs. GT + TT, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.031 and TaqI (TT vs. TC + CC, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.005 SNPs and the GGT haplotype (two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.036 were significantly associated with lower 25(OHD levels. Conclusions 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in this sample. The BsmI, ApaI and TaqI wild variants of the VDR gene, as well as the GGT haplotype, were associated with lower vitamin D levels, suggesting that VDR gene polymorphisms could be linked to higher susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency in a sub-population of children and adolescents.

  8. Demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with Trichomonas vaginalis among South African HIV-positive men with genital ulcer disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Iddrisu; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Jones, Cheryl

    2017-08-01

    Demographic and risky sexual behaviours may increase the risk for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and, thus, enhance HIV transmission to uninfected partners. We assessed the demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with TV among South African HIV-positive men with genital ulcer disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data from a randomised controlled trial conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The data were obtained from three primary healthcare clinics in South Africa. At baseline (n=387), participants reported on demographics, sexual behaviour, history of sexually transmitted infections and clinical ulcers. The outcome TV was measured using real-time multiplex PCR assays and a Rotor-gene 3000 platform from the first and past urine samples of all participants. Logistic regression model estimated ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for demographics, sexual risk behaviours and ulcer conditions. An estimated 11.4% of TV was detected among the men. The odds of TV infection were significantly associated with high blister counts (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 28, p=0.01), ulcer pain (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7, p=0.003), number of days with ulcers (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8, p=0.006), sought treatment before coming into clinics (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.7, p=0.005) and being unqualified worker (OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.7 p=0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that increased days with ulcers (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.5, p=0.002) and ulcer pain intensity (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.007 to 1.1, p=0.05) remained significantly associated with decreased odds of TV infection. Men from the Sotho ethnic group were eight times more likely to have TV infection (OR 8.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 55.7, p<0.02) than men from the other ethnic groups. HIV-positive men with severe ulceration should be screened and treated for TV to minimise HIV transmission to uninfected partners. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 52 (CHESTH00100052) on Town Highway 10, crossing the South branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESTH00100052 on Town Highway 10 crossing the South Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 4.05-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the South Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 35 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 82.1 mm (0.269 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 21, 1996, indicated that the reach was unstable, as a result of the moderate bank erosion. The Town Highway 10 crossing of the South Branch Williams River is a 32-ft-long, one-lane bridge consisting of a 29-foot steel-stringer span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 31, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 27.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 20 degrees. A scour hole 1.0 ft deeper than the

  10. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 32 (FERRTH00190032) on Town Highway 19, crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek, Ferrisburgh, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure FERRTH00190032 on Town Highway 19 crossing the South Slang Little Otter Creek (Hawkins Slang Brook), Ferrisburg, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Champlain section of the St. Lawrence Valley physiographic province in west-central Vermont. The 8.00-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of wetlands upstream and downstream of the bridge with trees and pasture on the wide flood plains. In the study area, the South Slang Little Otter Creek has a meandering channel with essentially no channel slope, an average channel top width of 932 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from clay to sand. Sieve analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the sample is coarse silt and clay and thus a medium grain size by use of sieve analysis was indeterminate. The median grain size was assumed to be a course silt with a size (D50) of 0.061mm (0.0002 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 2, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 19 crossing of the South Slang Little Otter Creek is a 45-ft-long, twolane bridge consisting of one 42-foot concrete box-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, December 11, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face

  11. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monegue, R.L.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H + (30.8 % of total), and SO 4 (50.3% of total). H + was positively correlated with SO 4 , suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 microS/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO 4 represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H + was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H + was positively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H + was not directly correlated with precipitation H + , NO 3 , or SO 4 , precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry

  12. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: Impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shichun; Xu Weihai; Zhang Ruijie; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. - Highlights: → Some antibiotics were ubiquitous with high concentration in the Bohai bay, North China. → The antibiotics were mainly from the six rivers discharge around the Bay. → Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture activities around the Bay. → Aquaculture was suggested to be an important antibiotics source in the Bay. - River discharge and aquaculture were suggested to be important sources for antibiotics occurred in the coastal water of the Bohai Bay, North China.

  13. Teenage pregnancy rates and associations with other health risk behaviours: a three-wave cross-sectional study among South African school-going adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kim; Crutzen, Rik; van den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; Reddy, Priscilla

    2016-05-04

    Teenage pregnancy still remains high in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), as well as in high-income countries (HIC). It is a major contributor to maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it has social consequences, such as perpetuating the cycle of poverty including early school dropout by the pregnant adolescent, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few studies in SSA have investigated the trends in teenage pregnancy and the associated factors, while this is critical in fully understanding teenage pregnancy and for promotion of reproductive health among adolescents at large in SSA. To examine the trends in teenage pregnancy and to identify associations with other health risk behaviours in South Africa (SA), a total of 31 816 South African school-going adolescents between 11 to 19 years of age were interviewed in three cross-sectional surveys. Data from the first (2002, n = 10 549), second (2008, n = 10 270) and the third (2011, n = 10 997) nationally representative South African youth risk behaviour surveys (YRBS) were used for this study. The overall prevalence of having ever been pregnant among the combined 3-survey sample was self-reported to be 11.0 % and stable across the three surveys. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in SA has decreased from 41.9 % in 2002 to 36.9 % in 2011. However, pregnancy among girls who ever had sex increased from 17.3 % (95 % CI: 0.16-0.19) in 2002, to 23.6 % (95 % CI: 0.21-0.26) in 2008 and decreased to 21.3 % (95 % CI: 0.19-0.23) in 2011. The odds for ever been pregnant were higher for girls who had 2 or more sexual partners (OR: 1.250, 95 % CI: 1.039-1.503), girls who ever used alcohol before sex (OR: 1.373, 95 % CI: 1.004-1.878), practised binge-drinking during the last month (OR: 0.624, 95 % CI: 0.503-0.774), and girls who used mandrax (OR: 1.968, 95 % CI: 1,243-3.117). The odds for never been pregnant were lower for those who used condoms (OR: 0.462, 95 % CI: 0

  14. Prevalence of consensual male-male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Dunkle

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non

  15. Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man

  16. Prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and imputed burden in South Africa: a national and sub-national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nazir Ahmed; Mvusi, Lindiwe; Nanoo, Ananta; Dreyer, Andries; Omar, Shaheed V; Babatunde, Sanni; Molebatsi, Thabo; van der Walt, Martie; Adelekan, Adeboye; Deyde, Varough; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Madhi, Shabir A

    2018-04-20

    Globally, per-capita, South Africa reports a disproportionately high number of cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. We sought to estimate the prevalence of resistance to tuberculosis drugs in newly diagnosed and retreated patients with tuberculosis provincially and nationally, and compared these with the 2001-02 estimates. A cross-sectional survey was done between June 15, 2012-June 14, 2014, using population proportionate randomised cluster sampling in the nine provinces in South Africa. 343 clusters were included, ranging between 31 and 48 per province. A patient was eligible for inclusion in the survey if he or she presented as a presumptive case during the intake period at a drug resistance survey enrolling facility. Consenting participants (≥18 years old) completed a questionnaire and had a sputum sample tested for resistance to first-line and second-line drugs. Analysis was by logistic regression with robust SEs, inverse probability weighted against routine data, and estimates were derived using a random effects model. 101 422 participants were tested in 2012-14. Nationally, the prevalence of MDR tuberculosis was 2·1% (95% CI 1·5-2·7) among new tuberculosis cases and 4·6% (3·2-6·0) among retreatment cases. The provincial point prevalence of MDR tuberculosis ranged between 1·6% (95% CI 0·9-2·9) and 5·1% (3·7-7·0). Overall, the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (4·6%, 95% CI 3·5-5·7) was higher than the prevalence of MDR tuberculosis (2·8%, 2·0-3·6; p=0·01). Comparing the current survey with the previous (2001-02) survey, the overall MDR tuberculosis prevalence was 2·8% versus 2·9% and prevalance of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis was 3·4% versus 1·8%, respectively. The prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant tuberculosis was above 5% in all provinces. The prevalence of ethionamide and pyrazinamide resistance among MDR tuberculosis cases was 44·7% (95% CI 25

  17. Prevalence and its associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among Yadot primary school children of South Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Amsalu, Eden

    2014-11-26

    Intestinal parasitic infections are posing significant morbidity worldwide. In Ethiopia, due to poor socio-economic status, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among Yadot primary school children which is found in South-Eastern part of Ethiopia, in the district called Delo-Mena. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed from March to April 2013. In this study, a total of 340 students were selected using simple random sampling, and data on socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as stool samples were collected and processed accordingly. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16, and binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to measure the strength of association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 26.2%. Poly-parasitism was detected in 6.2% of the students. Consistently, students who were infected with single, double, triple and quadruple parasites were 20%, 4.7%, 1.2% and 0.3% respectively. In line with this, the most prevalent parasites were Schistosoma mansoni 12.6%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 4.7%, and Hymenolepis nana 4.4%. Regarding the risk factors for the infections, not knowing why they wash their hands before meal [(AOR=0.20, 95% CI=0.10-0.40), pintestinal parasitic infections. Intestinal parasitic infections were found to be highly prevalent among Yadot primary school children. Hence, health education, improving sanitation, provision of safe drinking water, increasing latrine use, snail control and deworming to the students are crucial.

  18. Young Women's Ratings of Three Placebo Multipurpose Prevention Technologies for HIV and Pregnancy Prevention in a Randomized, Cross-Over Study in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Roberts, Sarah T; Agot, Kawango; Weinrib, Rachel; Ahmed, Khatija; Manenzhe, Kgahlisho; Owino, Fredrick; van der Straten, Ariane

    2018-03-20

    End-user input is critical to inform development of multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products that prevent HIV and pregnancy. The TRIO Study, conducted in Kenya and South Africa, enrolled 277 HIV-negative women aged 18-30 in a randomized cross-over study to use each placebo MPT (daily oral tablets, monthly injections, and monthly vaginal ring) for one month. At the end of each month, participants rated how much they liked using the product on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = liked very much). We compared mean ratings using paired t-tests and examined sociodemographic-, attribute-, and behavior-related characteristics associated with ratings using multivariable linear regression and data from in-depth interviews. After use, mean ratings were significantly higher for injections [4.3 (SD = 1.0)] compared with tablets [3.0 (SD = 1.3)] and rings [3.3 (SD = 1.4)] (p < 0.001); mean ratings for rings were significantly higher than for tablets (p = 0.013). Mean ratings of a hypothetical active MPT increased for all products after the one-month period of use, with the greatest increase for rings, the least familiar product. In multivariable analysis, acceptability of key product attributes (e.g., product look) were associated with a significant increase of ≥ 1 point in the mean rating across all three products (p ≤ 0.001). Perceived ability to use the product without partner knowledge was associated with a higher mean rating for rings (b = 0.50; p = 0.006). The acceptability of product attributes contributed significantly to the rating of all products, highlighting the value of choice in pregnancy and HIV prevention to accommodate diverse users.

  19. Factors associated with household food insecurity and depression in pregnant South African women from a low socio-economic setting: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Zulfa; Lund, Crick; Field, Sally; Honikman, Simone

    2018-04-01

    Food insecurity has been linked with maternal depression in low-income settings. Few studies have looked at factors associated with both food insecurity and maternal depression as outcomes. This study aimed to assess factors associated with food insecurity and depression in a sample of pregnant South African women. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a Midwife Obstetric Unit in a low-income suburb in Cape Town. Pregnant women attending the clinic for their first antenatal visit were invited to participate. The shortened form of the US Household Food Security Survey Module was used to measure food insecurity. The Expanded Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to diagnose depression, anxiety, alcohol and drug dependence, and assess for suicidal ideation and behaviour. Logistic regression modelling was conducted to explore factors associated with food insecurity and depression in separate models. We found that 42% of households were food insecure and that 21% of participants were depressed (N = 376). The odds of being food insecure were increased in women with suicidal behaviour (OR = 5.34; 95% CI 1.26-22.57), with depression (4.27; 1.43-12.70) and in those with three or more children (3.79; 1.25-11.55). The odds of depression was greater in women who were food insecure (5.30; 1.63-17.30), substance dependent (15.83; 1.31-191.48) or diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (5.04; 1.71-14.82). Food insecurity and depression are strongly associated in pregnant women. The relationship between food insecurity and depression is complex and requires further investigation. Interventions that improve both food security and mental health during the perinatal period are likely to benefit the physical and mental well-being of mothers and children.

  20. Adherence to a predominantly Mediterranean diet decreases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study in a South Eastern European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, I; Kraja, B; Bregu, A; Duraj, V; Sadiku, E; Hyska, J; Burazeri, G

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of a Mediterranean diet and gastroesophageal reflux disease among adult men and women in Albania, a former communist country in South Eastern Europe with a predominantly Muslim population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, which included a population-based sample of 817 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana, the Albanian capital (333 men; overall mean age: 50.2 ± 18.7 years; overall response rate: 82%). Assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease was based on Montreal definition. Participants were interviewed about their dietary patterns, which in the analysis was dichotomized into: predominantly Mediterranean (frequent consumption of composite/traditional dishes, fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and fish) versus largely non-Mediterranean (frequent consumption of red meat, fried food, sweets, and junk/fast food). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with the dietary patterns. Irrespective of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors including eating habits (meal regularity, eating rate, and meal-to-sleep interval), employment of a non-Mediterranean diet was positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease risk (fully adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-4.5). Our findings point to a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in transitional Albania. Findings from this study should be confirmed and expanded further in prospective studies in Albania and in other Mediterranean countries. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  1. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jin-Kyoung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.

  2. A CROSS-SECTIONAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON CUTANEOUS DISEASES IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS BELONGING TO LOW INCOME GROUP FAMILIES ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES AT BANGALORE RURAL, SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Chandrashekar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence and the spectrum of paediatric dermatological diseases vary from one part of the world to another.1 Skin diseases, though very common in many developing countries are not often regarded as a significant health problem.2 Majority of the skin diseases tend to occur in children under the age of 5 years. This high prevalence could be due to the lower immunity or higher frequency of hospital visits by infants due to greater parental care. The aim of the study is to compare the present spectrum of cutaneous disorders between two age groups of children less than 5 years and 5-14 years old and their correlation with socioeconomic status attending primary health centre, Bangalore rural, south. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 22 to November 22, 2017, in children with skin disorders under 14 years old who attended primary health centre at Bangarappanagar and Uttarahalli in Bangalore. RESULTS A total of 522 children with skin diseases, 486 children were included in the study and they were divided into two groups of those less than 5 years with the sex ratio (M:F 1.5:1 and 5-14 years old with the sex ratio (M:F 1.3:1. The most common dermatological disease among less than 5 years age group was infections, eczema, infestations and pigmentary disorders and the most common dermatological diseases between 5-14 years was infections, scabies, eczema and acne. CONCLUSION Skin problems mainly scabies, tinea, impetigo and eczema were common in children who attended the primary health centres at Bangalore rural. There is a high prevalence of communicable diseases among children belonging to parents of low socioeconomic status. Community health education regarding personal hygiene coupled with that of the surrounding environment can help in controlling these diseases in the long run.

  3. Involvement in and Views on Social Responsibility of Gauteng Members of the South African Society of Physiotherapy: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Mostert-Wentzel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available How do physiotherapists in Gauteng Province,who are members of the South African Society of Physiotherapy(SASP, view social responsibility?A cross-sectional survey was conducted after ethics approval.All 1 098 Gauteng members of the SASP were invited via a thirdpartye-mail to reach the a priori minimum sample size of 97. Theweb-based questionnaire was developed from literature, an earlierSASP survey and a position paper of the American Physical TherapyAssociation (APTA. Five experts validated the instrument.The Likert scale scores indicating agreement with indicatorsof social responsibility were totalled to form a composite socialresponsibility score. The chi-square test for independence was used to determine associations between the categorisedcomposite social responsibility score and categorical variables. Mean difference of continuous variables betweenthe categorised core for two groups were tested using the two-sample t-test. All variables with a P-value less than0.05 were included in the logistic regression analysis to investigate predictors of the necessity of social responsibility.The survey was completed by 163 participants. Of the sample, 96.9% viewed social responsibility as important.Subjects agreed most with “advocating for the health needs of society” (74,2% and the least with “political activism”(6.1%. Compulsory community service positively influenced 74.6%.Most physiotherapists in the study viewed social responsibility as important and were involved in volunteering.There is scope to broaden the understanding among physiotherapists of what social responsibility entails.

  4. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  5. HIV/AIDS: use of the ICF in Brazil and South Africa--comparative data from four cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myezwa, H; Buchalla, C M; Jelsma, J; Stewart, A

    2011-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious disease which can be associated with various activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this paper was to describe how HIV affects the functioning and health of people within different environmental contexts, particularly with regard to access to medication. Four cross-sectional studies, three in South Africa and one in Brazil, had applied the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a classification instrument to participants living with HIV. Each group was at a different stage of the disease. Only two groups had had continuing access to antiretroviral therapy. The existence of these descriptive sets enabled comparison of the disability experienced by people living with HIV at different stages of the disease and with differing access to antiretroviral therapy. Common problems experienced in all groups related to weight maintenance, with two-thirds of the sample reporting problems in this area. Mental functions presented the most problems in all groups, with sleep (50%, 92/185), energy and drive (45%, 83/185), and emotional functions (49%, 90/185) being the most affected. In those on long-term therapy, body image affected 93% (39/42) and was a major problem. The other groups reported pain as a problem, and those with limited access to treatment also reported mobility problems. Cardiopulmonary functions were affected in all groups. Functional problems occurred in the areas of impairment and activity limitation in people at advanced stages of HIV, and more limitations occurred in the area of participation for those on antiretroviral treatment. The ICF provided a useful framework within which to describe the functioning of those with HIV and the impact of the environment. Given the wide spectrum of problems found, consideration could be given to a number of ICF core sets that are relevant to the different stages of HIV disease. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of

  6. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  7. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  8. A Cross-National Comparative Study of Blood Pressure and Hypertension Between English and Dutch South-Asian- and African-Origin Populations: The Role of National Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William Ken; Stronks, Karien

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We compare patterns of blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension between white-Dutch and their South-Asian and African minority groups with their corresponding white-English and their South-Asian and African ethnic minority groups; and the contribution of physical activity, body

  9. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  10. Use of mineral magnetic concentration data as a particle size proxy: a case study using marine, estuarine and fluvial sediments in the Carmarthen Bay area, South Wales, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C A; Walden, J; Neal, A; Smith, J P

    2005-07-15

    Compositional (non-magnetic) data can correlate strongly with particle size, which deems it appropriate as a particle size proxy and, therefore, a reliable means of normalising analytical data for particle size effects. Previous studies suggest magnetic concentration parameters represent an alternative means of normalising for these effects and, given the speed, low-cost and sensitivity of the measurements may, therefore, offer some advantages over other compositional signals. In this work, contemporary sediments from a range of depositional environments have been analysed with regard to their mineral magnetic concentration and textural characteristics, to observe if the strength and nature of the relationship identified in previous studies is universal. Our data shows magnetic parameters (chi(LF), chi(ARM) and SIRM) possess contrasting relationships with standard textural parameters for sediment samples collected from marine (Carmarthen Bay), estuarine (Gwendraeth Estuary) and fluvial (Rivers Gwendraeth Fach and Gwendraeth Fawr) settings. Magnetic concentrations of sediments from both the marine and estuarine environments are highly influenced by the magnetic contribution of finer particle sizes; Gwendraeth Fawr River sediments are influenced by the magnetic contribution of coarser particle sizes, while sediments from the Gwendraeth Fach River are not influenced significantly by any variations in textural properties. These results indicate mineral magnetic measurements have considerable potential as a particle size proxy for particular sedimentary environments, which in certain instances could be useful for geochemical, sediment transport, and sediment provenance studies. However, the data also highlight the importance of fully determining the nature of the relationship between sediment particle size and magnetic properties before applying mineral magnetic data as a particle size proxy.

  11. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  12. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15-19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide.A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541 children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5% were neonates (0-28 d, and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9% were infants (under 1 y, giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0-6 d, and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8% of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015. Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%. Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have information on abandonment

  13. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Nannan, Nadine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15-19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide. A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541) children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5%) were neonates (0-28 d), and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9%) were infants (under 1 y), giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0-6 d), and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8%) of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015). Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%). Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have information on abandonment motives for all

  14. Association between grip strength and diabetes prevalence in black, South-Asian, and white European ethnic groups: a cross-sectional analysis of 418 656 participants in the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuk, U E; Celis-Morales, C A; Mackay, D F; Sattar, N; Pell, J P; Gill, J M R

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the extent to which ethnic differences in muscular strength might account for the substantially higher prevalence of diabetes in black and South-Asian compared with white European adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the UK Biobank study on 418 656 white European, black and South-Asian participants, aged 40-69 years, who had complete data on diabetes status and hand-grip strength. Associations between hand-grip strength and diabetes were assessed using logistic regression and were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Lower grip strength was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, independent of confounding factors, across all ethnicities in both men and women. Diabetes prevalence was approximately three- to fourfold higher in South-Asian and two- to threefold higher in black participants compared with white European participants across all levels of grip strength, but grip strength in South-Asian men and women was ~ 5-6 kg lower than in the other ethnic groups. Thus, the attributable risk for diabetes associated with low grip strength was substantially higher in South-Asian participants (3.9 and 4.2 cases per 100 men and women, respectively) than in white participants (2.0 and 0.6 cases per 100 men and women, respectively). Attributable risk associated with low grip strength was also high in black men (4.3 cases) but not in black women (0.4 cases). Low strength is associated with a disproportionately large number of diabetes cases in South-Asian men and women and in black men. Trials are needed to determine whether interventions to improve strength in these groups could help reduce ethnic inequalities in diabetes prevalence. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  15. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  16. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  17. Spatial variation of phytoplankton community structure in Daya Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Fei, Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Daya Bay is one of the largest and most important gulfs in the southern coast of China, in the northern part of the South China Sea. The phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton from the Daya Bay surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the clone library of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene. The dominant species of phytoplankton were diatoms and eustigmatophytes, which accounted for 81.9 % of all the clones of the rbcL genes. Prymnesiophytes were widely spread and wide varieties lived in Daya Bay, whereas the quantity was limited. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by pH and salinity and the concentration of silicate, phosphorus and nitrite. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus and nitrite but negatively by salinity and pH. Therefore, the phytoplankton distribution and biomass from Daya Bay were doubly affected by anthropic activities and natural factors.

  18. Cumulative effect of reproductive factors on ideal cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study in central south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Zhou, Jiansong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Zhiheng

    2015-12-21

    The American Heart Association developed the Life's Simple 7 metric for defining cardiovascular health. Little is known, however, whether co-occurring reproductive factors, which affects endogenous oestrogen levels during a woman's life, also influences ideal cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. Using data on a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 1,625 postmenopausal women (median age, 60.0 years) in a medical health checkup program at a general hospital in central south China 2013-2014, we examined the association between cumulative reproductive risk and ideal cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. A cumulative risk score (range 0 to 4) was created by summing four reproductive risk factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, number of children, and pregnancy losses) present in each individual from binary variables in which 0 stands for favorable and 1 for less-than-favorable level. Ideal levels for each component in Life's Simple 7 (blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, BMI, smoking, physical activity, and diet) were used to create an ideal Life's Simple 7 score [0-1 (low), 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6-7 (high)]. Participants with earlier age at menarche (odds ratio [OR] =0.42 [95 % CI 0.26-0.48]), earlier age at menopause [0.46 (0.32-0.58)], who have more than three children (0.42 [0.38-0.56]) and have history of pregnancy losses [0.76 (0.66-0.92)] were more likely to attain low (0-1) ideal Life's Simple 7 after adjustment for age. Participants were more likely to attain low (0-1) ideal Life's Simple 7 as exposure to the number of reproductive risk factors increased [OR (95 % CI) of 0.52 (0.42-0.66), 0.22 (0.16-0.26), and 0.16 (0.12-0.22) for cumulative reproductive risk scores of 1, 2, and 3 or 4, respectively, each versus 0]. The postmenopausal Chinese women with an increasing number of reproductive risk factors were progressively less likely to attain ideal levels of cardiovascular health factors.

  19. Genito-anal injury patterns and associated factors in rape survivors in an urban province of South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Vetten, Lisa; Christofides, Nicola; Sigsworth, Romi; Loots, Lizle

    2015-03-27

    The prevalence of genito-anal injuries in rape survivors varies significantly and the factors associated with the absence of injuries are not well understood. This plays a major role in the conviction of cases as the absence of injury is equated with a lack of assault. In such cases, health care providers face major challenges in presenting and defending their findings. The aim of this paper is to describe the absence of genito-anal injuries by site in a group of rape survivors and to identify factors associated with the absence of these injuries. In a cross-sectional study rape cases reported to the police in one province in South Africa were randomly sampled using a two stage sampling procedure. Data were obtained on the survivor, the circumstances of the rape and the findings of the medicolegal examination. Descriptive statistics were conducted for the prevalence of genito-anal injuries by site and logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with the absence of genito-anal injuries for all survivors and those reported to be virgins. In the sample of 1472 women injuries ranged from 1% to 36%. No significant injuries were reported for 749 (51%) survivors. In the multivariable model there was a significantly lower odds of having no injuries in survivors who were virgins, those raped by multiple perpetrators and those examined by a doctor with additional qualifications. In the model for survivors who were virgins, those with disabilities had a greater odds of having no injuries while those between the ages of 8 and 17 years had a lower odds of having no injuries compared to survivors below four years of age. This study found that being a virgin, multiple perpetration rape and the examiner's qualifications were significantly associated with the absence of genito-anal injuries. Health providers should thus be aware that in all other respects there was no difference in survivors who had injuries and those who did not. It is important to

  20. Factors associated with patterns of plural healthcare utilization among patients taking antiretroviral therapy in rural and urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshabela, Mosa; Schneider, Helen; Silal, Sheetal P; Cleary, Susan M

    2012-07-02

    In low-resource settings, patients' use of multiple healthcare sources may complicate chronic care and clinical outcomes as antiretroviral therapy (ART) continues to expand. However, little is known regarding patterns, drivers and consequences of using multiple healthcare sources. We therefore investigated factors associated with patterns of plural healthcare usage among patients taking ART in diverse South African settings. A cross-sectional study of patients taking ART was conducted in two rural and two urban sub-districts, involving 13 accredited facilities and 1266 participants selected through systematic random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used in interviews, and participant's clinic records were reviewed. Data collected included household assets, healthcare access dimensions (availability, affordability and acceptability), healthcare utilization and pluralism, and laboratory-based outcomes. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of healthcare pluralism and associations with treatment outcomes. Prior ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Nineteen percent of respondents reported use of additional healthcare providers over and above their regular ART visits in the prior month. A further 15% of respondents reported additional expenditure on self-care (e.g. special foods). Access to health insurance (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6.15) and disability grants (aOR 1.35) increased plural healthcare use. However, plural healthcare users were more likely to borrow money to finance healthcare (aOR 2.68), and incur catastrophic levels of healthcare expenditure (27%) than non-plural users (7%). Quality of care factors, such as perceived disrespect by staff (aOR 2.07) and lack of privacy (aOR 1.50) increased plural healthcare utilization. Plural healthcare utilization was associated with rural residence (aOR 1.97). Healthcare pluralism was not associated with missed visits or biological outcomes. Increased plural

  1. Effect of an innovative community based health program on maternal health service utilization in north and south central Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Admassu, Kesteberhan; Mekonnen, Alemayehu; Hagos, Seifu; Asegid, Meselech; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-04-04

    Among Millennium Development Goals, achieving the fifth goal (MDG-5) of reducing maternal mortality poses the greatest challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world with unacceptably low maternal health service utilization. The Government of Ethiopia introduced an innovative community-based intervention as a national strategy under the Health Sector Development Program. This new approach, known as the Health Extension Program, aims to improve access to and equity in essential health services through community based Health Extension Workers. The objective of the study is to assess the role of Health Extension Workers in improving women's utilization of antenatal care, delivery at health facility and postnatal care services. A cross sectional household survey was conducted in early 2012 in two districts of northern and south central parts of Ethiopia. Data were collected from 4949 women who had delivered in the two years preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between visit by Health Extension Workers during pregnancy and use of maternal health services, controlling for the effect of other confounding factors. The non-adjusted analysis showed that antenatal care attendance at least four times during pregnancy was significantly associated with visit by Health Extension Workers [Odds Ratio 3.46(95% CI 3.07,3.91)], whereas health facility delivery (skilled attendance at birth) was not significantly associated with visit by Health Extension Workers during pregnancy [Odds Ratio 0.87(95% CI 0.25,2.96)]. When adjusted for other factors the association of HEWs visit during pregnancy was weaker for antenatal care attendance [Adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.35(95% CI: 1.05, 1.72)] but positively and significantly associated with health facility delivery [Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.96(1.25,3.06)]. In general HEWs visit during pregnancy improved utilization of maternal health

  2. Community-based directly observed treatment for TB patients to improve HIV services: a cross-sectional study in a South African province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Embry M; Kigozi, N Gladys; Heunis, J Christo

    2018-04-07

    There is uncertainty about how directly observed treatment (DOT) support for tuberculosis (TB) can be delivered most effectively and how DOT support can simultaneously be used to strengthen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control among TB patients. This study describes how DOT support by community health workers (CHWs) was used in four municipalities in the Free State province - a high TB/HIV burden, poorly-resourced setting - to provide HIV outreach, referrals, and health education for TB patients. The study was part of a larger cross-sectional study of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among 1101 randomly-selected TB patients registered at 40 primary health care (PHC) facilities (clinics and community health centres) across small town/rural and large town/urban settings. Univariate analysis of percentages, chi-square tests and t-tests for difference in means were used to describe differences between the types of TB treatment support and patient characteristics, as well as the types of - and patient satisfaction with - HIV information and referrals received from various types of treatment supporters including home-based DOT supporters, clinic-based DOT supporters or support from family/friends/employers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of not having receiving home-based DOT and of never having received HIV counselling. The independent variables include poverty-related health and socio-economic risk factors for poor outcomes. Statistical significance is shown using a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 p-value. Despite the fact that DOT support for all TB patients was the goal of South African health policy at the time (2012), most TB patients were not receiving formal DOT support. Only 155 (14.1%) were receiving home-based DOT, while 114 (10.4%) received clinic-based DOT. TB patients receiving home-based DOT reported higher rates of HIV counselling than other patients. Public health providers should train DOT

  3. Sexual and reproductive health services utilization by female sex workers is context-specific: results from a cross-sectional survey in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2017-01-19

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are extremely vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. To mitigate these risks, they require access to services covering not only HIV prevention but also contraception, cervical cancer screening and sexual violence. To develop context-specific intervention packages to improve uptake, we identified gaps in service utilization in four different cities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, as part of the baseline assessment of an implementation research project. FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400), Mysore, India (n = 458) and Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and starting with 8-16 'seeds' identified by the peer educators. FSWs responded to a standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire about the use of contraceptive methods and services for cervical cancer screening, sexual violence and unwanted pregnancies. RDS-adjusted proportions and surrounding 95% confidence intervals were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests with Dunn-Šidák correction. Current use of any modern contraception ranged from 86.2% in Tete to 98.4% in Mombasa (p = 0.001), while non-barrier contraception (hormonal, IUD or sterilisation) varied from 33.4% in Durban to 85.1% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Ever having used emergency contraception ranged from 2.4% in Mysore to 38.1% in Mombasa (p < 0.001), ever having been screened for cervical cancer from 0.0% in Tete to 29.0% in Durban (p < 0.001), and having gone to a health facility for a termination of an unwanted pregnancy from 15.0% in Durban to 93.7% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Having sought medical care after forced sex varied from 34.4% in Mombasa to 51.9% in Mysore (p = 0.860). Many of the differences between cities remained statistically significant after adjusting for variations in FSWs

  4. Awareness of chronic disease related health benefits of physical activity among residents of a rural South Indian region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Maiya, Arun G; Nair, Suma; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Nair, Narayanapillai Sreekumaran; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2014-02-27

    Physical activity trends for a lower-middle income country like India suggest a gradual decline in work related physical activity and no concomitant increase in leisure time physical activity. Perceived health benefits of physical activity and intention to increase physical activity have been established as independent correlates of physical activity status. In India, not much is known about peoples' perceptions of health benefits of physical activity and their intention to increase physical activity levels. This study was performed to understand peoples' perceptions and awareness about health benefits of physical activity in a rural South Indian region. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage cluster sampling design. A content validated, field tested questionnaire was administered in person by a trained interviewer in the participants' native language. The questionnaire assessed the participants' perceptions about their lifestyle (active or sedentary), health benefits of physical activity and need for increasing their physical activity. In addition, the participant's physical activity was assessed using version 2 of global physical activity questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarise perceived health benefits of physical activity and other categorical variables. Age and body mass index were summarised using mean ± SD, whereas physical activity (MET.min.wk -1) was summarised using median and interquartile range. Four hundred fifty members from 125 randomly selected households were included in the study, of which 409 members participated. 89% (364) of participants felt they lead an active lifestyle and 83.1% (340) of participants did not feel a need to increase their physical activity level. 86.1%, (352) of the participants were physically active. Though 92.4% (378) of participants felt there were health benefits of physical activity, majority of them (75.1%) did not report any benefit related to chronic diseases. None

  5. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  6. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  7. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  8. Waterbird nest monitoring program in San Francisco Bay (2005-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Forster’s Terns (Sterna forsteri), American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) were uncommon residents of San Francisco Bay, California (Grinnell and others, 1918; Grinnell and Wythe, 1927; Sibley, 1952). Presently, however, avocets and stilts are the two most abundant breeding shorebirds in San Francisco Bay (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). More than 4,000 avocets and 1,000 stilts, roughly 20 percent of their San Francisco Bay wintering populations, breed within the estuary, making San Francisco Bay the largest breeding area for these species on the Pacific Coast (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). Forster’s Terns were first observed breeding in the San Francisco Bay in 1948 (110 nests); they had increased to over 4000 individuals by the 1980s (Sibley, 1952; Gill, 1977; Harvey and others, 1992; Carter and others, 1990) and were estimated at 2000–3000 for 1998–2002; (Strong and others, 2004).It is hypothesized that the relatively large size of the current waterbird breeding populations is a result of the creation of artificial salt evaporation ponds from the 1930s through the 1950s (Gill, 1977; Goals Project, 1999). Until recently, these salt ponds and associated islands used by waterbirds for nesting have been managed relatively similarly and have supported large breeding waterbird populations. Recently, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project has implemented plans to convert 50–90 percent of the 15,000 acres of salt ponds in the South San Francisco Bay back to tidal marsh habitat. Therefore, there is concern that the Restoration Project, while benefiting other native species, could negatively influence local breeding populations of waterbirds that are reliant on salt pond habitats for both breeding and foraging. A primary goal of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is to maintain current breeding waterbird populations (South Bay Salt Pond Long

  9. Sources of work motivation of business leaders in the USA and South Africa: a cross-cultural comparison using the Motivational Sources Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Gifford, Gregory T

    2007-10-01

    Motivational differences in response to the Motivation Sources Inventory were tested between U.S. (n = 138) and South-African (n = 114) work samples. Analysis indicated that American managers scored significantly higher on intrinsic process (fun), while South-African managers scored significantly higher on self-concept external and goal internalization when measured using ratio analysis. Replication and extension with large groups representative of populations of interest in conjunction with Hofstede's cultural dimensions could allow generalization.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic carbon balance and net ecosystem metabolism in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W.M.; Smith, E.M.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Boynton, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    The major fluxes of organic carbon associated with physical transport and biological metabolism were compiled, analyzed and compared for the mainstem portion of Chesapeake Bay (USA). In addition, 5 independent methods were used to calculate the annual mean net ecosystem metabolism (NEM = production - respiration) for the integrated Bay. These methods, which employed biogeochemical models, nutrient mass-balances anti summation of individual organic carbon fluxes, yielded remarkably similar estimates, with a mean NEM of +50 g C m-2 yr-1 (?? SE = 751, which is approximately 8% of the estimated annual average gross primary production. These calculations suggest a strong cross-sectional pattern in NEM throughout the Bay, wherein net heterotrophic metabolism prevails in the pelagic zones of the main channel, while net autotrophy occurs in the littoral zones which flank the deeper central area. For computational purposes, the estuary was separated into 3 regions along the land-sea gradient: (1) the oligohaline Upper Bay (11% of total area); (2) the mesohaline Mid Bay (36% of area); and (3) the polyhaline Lower Bay (53% of area). A distinct regional trend in NEM was observed along this salinity gradient, with net here(atrophy (NEM = 87 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Upper Bay, balanced metabolism in the Mid Bay and net autotrophy (NEM = +92 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Lower Bay. As a consequence of overall net autotrophy, the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total organic nitrogen (TON) changed from DIN:TON = 5.1 for riverine inputs to DIN:TON = 0.04 for water exported to the ocean. A striking feature of this organic C mass-balance was the relative dominance of biologically mediated metabolic fluxes compared to physical transport fluxes. The overall ratio of physical TOC inputs (1) to biotic primary production (P) was 0.08 for the whole estuary, but varied dramatically from 2.3 in the Upper Bay to 0.03 in the Mid and Lower Bay regions. Similarly, ecosystem respiration was

  12. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels waiting to enter... Sound that under current informal practice is routinely used by mariners as an anchorage while waiting...

  13. 33 CFR 110.194a - Mobile Bay, Ala., and Mississippi Sound, Miss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, Miss. 110.194a Section 110.194a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Mississippi Sound, Miss. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) The waters of lower Mobile Bay, near Cedar Point... south by latitude 30°20′00″, and on the west by longitude 88°06′00″. (2) The waters of Mississippi Sound...

  14. Hydrography and circulation in the western Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shankar, D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Nampoothiri, G.

    , the transport is 7.7 x 10 sup(6) m sup(3) s sup(-1) . Recent model studies lead us to conclude that the EICC during the northeast monsoon is driven by winds along the east coast of India and Ekman pumping in the interior bay. In the south, Ekman pumping over...

  15. Mixed layer variability and chlorophyll a biomass in the Bay of Bengal.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, J.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    , the chlorophyll biomass decreases rapidly due to reduction in sunlight by suspended sediment. In the south, advection of high salinity waters from the Arabian Sea and westward propagating Rossby waves from the eastern Bay of Bengal led to the formation of deep...

  16. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on the transmission dynamics of arboviruses and its impact on human and animal arboviral disease occurrence in South Carolina.

  17. THE INCORPORATION OF THE USA ‘SCIENCE MADE SENSIBLE’ PROGRAM IN SOUTH AFRICAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS: A CROSS-CULTURAL APPROACH TO SCIENCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian de Villiers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Science Made Sensible (SMS program began as a partnership between the University of Miami (UM, Florida, USA, and some public schools in Miami. In this program, postgraduate students from UM work with primary school science teachers to engage learners in science through the use of inquiry-based, hands-on activities. Due to the success of the SMS program in Miami, it was extended internationally. The SMS team (two Miami Grade 6/7 science teachers and two UM postgraduate students, 195 learners, and five South African teachers at two primary schools in Pretoria, South Africa, participated in this study. A quantitative research design was employed, and learners, teachers and UM postgraduate students used questionnaires to evaluate the SMS program. The results show that the SMS team was successful in reaching the SMS goals in these South African schools. More than 90% of the learners are of opinion that the SMS team from the USA made them more interested in the natural sciences and fostered an appreciation for the natural sciences. All the South African teachers plan to adopt and adapt some of the pedagogical strategies they learned from the SMS team. This article includes a discussion about the benefits of inquiry-based learning and the similarities and dissimilarities of USA and South Africa’s teaching methods in the science classrooms.

  18. Interior Sustainable Landscape Design of Bay South:Illustrated by the case of Cloud Forest Garden%论新加坡滨海南花园的室内生态可持续设计--以“云雾森林”Cloud Forest园为例①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗子荃

    2013-01-01

    位于新加坡河入海口的滨海南花园,作为新加坡向“花园中的城市”发展目标的起点之一,其中的代表性景观建筑“云雾森林”(Cloud Forest)充分展示了可持续性室内景观的运行与维持。通过对“云雾森林”的设计理念、结构、材料、区域组成及室内节能动力系统进行全面的分析,旨在能为读者全方位的展示一个可持续性室内景观设计的成功案例。同时,也向读者深度解读了该园林所导引的可持续互动之旅,凸显了作为公共空间的教育意义以及公众参与价值。%As one part of“Gardens by the Bay”, the Bay South located on the south of the Singapore river estuary, on behalf of the“City in the Garden”concept of Singapore, its most representative landscape architecture“Cloud Forest”shows the sustainable interior greenhouse landscape design and how to make an operation and maintenance on it. The paper attempts to show a comprehensive analysis of the building through its master plan concept, external and internal structure, the adoption of materials, composition of whole areas and the most important point-energy saving power system. All of above would show the whole picture of a successful sustainable interior landscape. At the same time, the paper will analyze on sustainable interactive journey of the cloud forest garden which can highlight its educational signiifcance and the value of public participation.

  19. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  20. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  1. Remotely Sensing Pollution: Detection and Monitoring of PCBs in the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, A.; Kudela, R. M.; Bausell, J.

    2016-12-01

    While the EPA banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 1977, they continue to persist in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay), often at dangerously high concentrations due to their long half-life. However, in spite of their associated health and environmental risks, PCB monitoring within SF Bay is extremely limited, due in large part to the high costs, both in terms of labor and capital that are associated with it. In this study, a cost effective alternative to in-situ PCB sampling is presented by demonstrating the feasibility of PCB detection via remote sensing. This was done by first establishing relationships between in-situ measurements of sum of 40 PCB concentrations and total suspended sediment concentration (SSC) collected from 1998-2006 at 37 stations distributed throughout SF Bay. A correlation was discovered for all stations at (R2 =0.32), which improved markedly upon partitioning stations into north bay, (R2 =0.64), central bay (R2 =0.80) and south bay (R2 =0.52) regions. SSC was then compared from three USGS monitoring stations with temporally consistent Landsat 8 imagery. The resulting correlation between Landsat 8 (Rrs 654) and SSC measured at USGS stations (R2 =0.50) was validated using an Airborne Visible/ Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image. The end product is a two-step empirical algorithm that can derive PCB from Landsat 8 imagery within SF Bay. This algorithm can generate spatial PCB concentration maps for SF Bay, which can in turn be utilized to increase ability to forecast PCB concentration. The observation that correlation between AVIRIS (Rrs 657) and SSC was stronger than that of Landsat 8 suggests that the accuracy of this algorithm could be enhanced with improved atmospheric correction.

  2. Carrying water may be a major contributor to disability from musculoskeletal disorders in low income countries: a cross-sectional survey in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geere, Jo-Anne; Bartram, Jamie; Bates, Laura; Danquah, Leslie; Evans, Barbara; Fisher, Michael B; Groce, Nora; Majuru, Batsirai; Mokoena, Michael M; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Duc, Phuc Pham; Williams, Ashley Rhoderick; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Hunter, Paul R

    2018-01-01

    Background The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household’s water home from off-plot sources. The burden of fetching water exacerbates gender inequality by keeping women out of education and paid employment. Despite speculation about the potential health impacts of fetching water, there is very little empirical evidence. We report the first large study of the health impacts of carrying water on women and children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam during 2012. It investigated water carrying methods and health status. Because areas of self-reported pain were correlated we undertook factor analysis of sites of reported pain, to interpret patterns of pain reporting. Regression analysis using Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) investigated water carrying as a risk factor for general health and self-reported pain. Results People who previously carried water had increased relative risk of reporting pain in the hands (risk ratio RR 3.62, 95% confidence interval CI 1.34 to 9.75) and upper back (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.40), as did people who currently carry water (RR hand pain 3.11, 95% CI 1.34 to 7.23; RR upper back pain 2.16, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.73). The factor analysis results indicate that factor 1, ‘axial compression’, which is correlated with pain in the head and upper back, chest/ribs, hands, feet and abdomen/stomach, is associated with currently (0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.43) or previously (0.21, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.42) carrying water. Factor 2, ‘soft tissue strain’, which is correlated with pain in the neck, shoulders/arms, lower back and hips/pelvis or legs, is marginally negatively associated with currently (-0.18, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.04) carrying water

  3. Carrying water may be a major contributor to disability from musculoskeletal disorders in low income countries: a cross-sectional survey in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geere, Jo-Anne; Bartram, Jamie; Bates, Laura; Danquah, Leslie; Evans, Barbara; Fisher, Michael B; Groce, Nora; Majuru, Batsirai; Mokoena, Michael M; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Duc, Phuc Pham; Williams, Ashley Rhoderick; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Hunter, Paul R

    2018-06-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household's water home from off-plot sources. The burden of fetching water exacerbates gender inequality by keeping women out of education and paid employment. Despite speculation about the potential health impacts of fetching water, there is very little empirical evidence. We report the first large study of the health impacts of carrying water on women and children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam during 2012. It investigated water carrying methods and health status. Because areas of self-reported pain were correlated we undertook factor analysis of sites of reported pain, to interpret patterns of pain reporting. Regression analysis using Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) investigated water carrying as a risk factor for general health and self-reported pain. People who previously carried water had increased relative risk of reporting pain in the hands (risk ratio RR 3.62, 95% confidence interval CI 1.34 to 9.75) and upper back (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.40), as did people who currently carry water (RR hand pain 3.11, 95% CI 1.34 to 7.23; RR upper back pain 2.16, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.73). The factor analysis results indicate that factor 1, 'axial compression', which is correlated with pain in the head and upper back, chest/ribs, hands, feet and abdomen/stomach, is associated with currently (0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.43) or previously (0.21, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.42) carrying water. Factor 2, 'soft tissue strain', which is correlated with pain in the neck, shoulders/arms, lower back and hips/pelvis or legs, is marginally negatively associated with currently (-0.18, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.04) carrying water. The factor 'axial compression' was

  4. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S V; Tillin, T; Mayet, J; Shibata, D K; Wright, A; Heasman, J; Beauchamp, N; Forouhi, N G; Hughes, A D; Chaturvedi, N

    2016-03-01

    We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South Asian origin. For 682 European and 520 South Asian men and women, aged 58-85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist-hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c -defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c -defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P = 0.04]. Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the South Asian than in the European

  5. Cross-cultural comparison of workplace stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses in Japan, Thailand, South Korea and the USA (Hawaii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Vickie A; Lambert, Clinton E; Itano, Joanne; Inouye, Jillian; Kim, Susie; Kuniviktikul, Wipada; Sitthimongkol, Yajai; Pongthavornkamol, Kanuangnit; Gasemgitvattana, Saipin; Ito, Misae

    2004-08-01

    In an attempt to cross-culturally compare factors that may contribute to the nursing shortage within countries that have produced a limited number of research findings on role stress in nurses, this research examined work stressors, ways of coping and demographic characteristics as predictors of physical and mental health among hospital nurses from Japan, South Korea, Thailand and the USA (Hawaii). Subjects (n = 1554 hospital-based nurses) were administered four self-report questionnaires: Demographic Questionnaire, "Nursing Stress Scale", "Ways of Coping Questionnaire" and "SF-36 Health Survey". Findings suggested that nurses indicated similar workplace stressors, ways of coping, and levels of physical and mental health. While subjects, across countries, demonstrated a variety of predictors of physical and mental health, several predictors were found to be the same. Cross-culturally the role of nurses may vary; however, certain factors are predictive of the status of hospital nurses' physical health and mental health. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Should physical activity recommendations be ethnicity-specific? Evidence from a cross-sectional study of South Asian and European men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Celis-Morales

    Full Text Available Expert bodies and health organisations recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week(-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA. However, the underpinning data largely emanate from studies of populations of European descent. It is unclear whether this level of activity is appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have increased cardio-metabolic disease risk compared to Europeans. The aim of this study was to explore the level of MPA required in South Asians to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans undertaking the currently recommended MPA level of 150 min.week(-1.Seventy-five South Asian and 83 European men, aged 40-70, without cardiovascular disease or diabetes had fasted blood taken, blood pressure measured, physical activity assessed objectively (using accelerometry, and anthropometric measures made. Factor analysis was used to summarise measured risk biomarkers into underlying latent 'factors' for glycaemia, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, blood pressure, and overall cardio-metabolic risk. Age-adjusted regression models were used to determine the equivalent level of MPA (in bouts of ≥ 10 minutes in South Asians needed to elicit the same value in each factor as Europeans undertaking 150 min.week(-1 MPA.For all factors, except blood pressure, equivalent MPA values in South Asians were significantly higher than 150 min.week(-1; the equivalent MPA value for the overall cardio-metabolic risk factor was 266 (95% CI 185-347 min.week(-1.South Asian men may need to undertake greater levels of MPA than Europeans to exhibit a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile, suggesting that a conceptual case can be made for ethnicity-specific physical activity guidance. Further study is needed to extend these findings to women and to replicate them prospectively in a larger cohort.

  7. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  8. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  9. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  10. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  11. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  12. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  13. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  14. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  15. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  16. Petroleum possibilities of the James Bay Lowland area: Drilling in the James Bay Lowland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martison, N W

    1954-12-31

    Interest in the possible occurrence of petroleum and natural gas in the James Bay lowland arises from the presence there of Palaeozoic sedimentary formations resembling those in south-western Ontario. The first part of this report reviews earlier geologic surveys conducted in the lowland and reports results of field work and drill core studies 1946-51. It describes the area`s topography, climate, stratigraphy and palaeontology (Ordovician to Lower Cretaceous, plus Pleistocene and recent glacial deposits), structural geology, and evidence of petroleum. Lists of fossils and correlations are included. The appendices include a list of fossil locations and drill logs. The second part details the drilling programs carried out in the lowland by the Ontario Dept. of Mines, including detailed logs, as well as drilling carried out by some other organisations.

  17. Contaminant transport in Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    Construction of a new treatment plant and outfall to clean up Boston Harbor is currently one of the world's largest public works projects, costing about $4 billion. There is concern about the long-term impact of contaminants on Massachusetts Bay and adjacent Gulf of Maine because these areas are used extensively for transportation, recreation, fishing, and tourism, as well as waste disposal. Public concern also focuses on Stellwagen Bank, located on the eastern side of Massachusetts Bay, which is an important habitat for endangered whales. Contaminants reach Massachusetts Bay not only from Boston Harbor, but from other coastal communities on the Gulf of Maine, as well as from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the pathways, mechanisms, and rates at which pollutants are transported throughout these coastal environments is needed to address a wide range of management questions.

  18. Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...

  19. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  20. The influence of socioeconomic factors on the conservation of traditional knowledge: a cross scale comparison of palm use in Northwestern South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae) at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered...

  1. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in Early Childhood Classrooms in the United States and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Elizabeth A.; Noh, Jina; Heo, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the implementation of critical features associated with positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in early childhood classrooms in the United States and South Korea. Each country has a distinct approach to providing early education for young children. There is some evidence that preschool teachers' approaches to…

  2. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, Sarah; Agyemang, Charles; Matsha, Tandi E.; Peer, Nasheeta; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Kengne, Andre P.

    2017-01-01

    Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  3. Cross Cultural Differences of Parent Reported Social Skills in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Examination between South Korea and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Jung, Woohyun; Yang, Jae-won

    2012-01-01

    Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders are universally accepted; however, the reported severity of symptoms may be sensitive to cultural differences. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the differences in reported symptoms of appropriate and inappropriate social skills between children and adolescents from South Korea (SK) and…

  4. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  5. Mobile Bay turbidity plume study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field transmissometer studies on the effect of suspended particulate material upon the appearance of water are reported. Quantitative correlations were developed between remotely sensed image density, optical sea truth data, and actual sediment load. Evaluation of satellite image sea truth data for an offshore plume projects contours of transmissivity for two different tidal phases. Data clearly demonstrate the speed of change and movement of the optical plume for water patterns associated with the mouth of Mobile bay in which relatively clear Gulf of Mexico water enters the bay on the eastern side. Data show that wind stress in excess of 15 knots has a marked impact in producing suspended sediment loads.

  6. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  7. Default Bayes factors for ANOVA designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Morey, Richard D.; Speckman, Paul L.; Province, Jordan M.

    2012-01-01

    Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to p-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of p-values, inference by p-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical

  8. Radionuclides in the ecological system of the Boka Kotorska Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martic, M.; Ajdacic, N.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine radioactive contamination in the South Adriatic region after May, 1986, activities of 21 radionuclides of natural and artificial origin were determined by gamma-spectrometry in the samples of sea water, sediments and several characteristic types of organisms collected on several locations in the Boka Kotorska Bay and open sea. Quantitative data on radionuclide contents are presented. Change of activity levels with respect to the 'zero state' determined for this region during previous years is also discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-06-20

    Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in the UK. 1625 children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, pAfrican-Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African-Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, H.A.; Jagoe, C.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Bryan, A.L.; Gariboldi, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Fish mercury levels from some Carolina bays pose risk to wood stork. - Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchus pomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands

  11. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:22849436

  12. Biodiversity inventories and conservation of the marine fishes of Bootless Bay, Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Joshua A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effective management and conservation of biodiversity is predicated on clearly defined conservation targets. Species number is frequently used as a metric for conservation prioritization and monitoring changes in ecosystem health. We conducted a series of synoptic surveys focusing on the fishes of the Bootless Bay region of Papua New Guinea to generate a checklist of fishes of the region. Bootless Bay lies directly south of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, and experiences the highest human population density of any marine area in the country. Our checklist will set a baseline against which future environmental changes can be tracked. Results We generated a checklist of 488 fish species in 72 families found in Bootless Bay during a two-week sampling effort. Using incident-based methods of species estimation, we extrapolate there to be approximately 940 fish species in Bootless Bay, one of the lowest reported numbers in Papua New Guinea. Conclusions Our data suggest that the Bootless Bay ecosystem of Papua New Guinea, while diverse in absolute terms, has lower fish biodiversity compared to other shallow marine areas within the country. These differences in faunal diversity are most likely a combination of unequal sampling effort as well as biophysical factors within Bootless Bay compounded by historical and/or contemporary anthropogenic disturbances.

  13. Long-Term Water Temperature Variations in Daya Bay, China Using Satellite and In Situ Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daya Bay is a shallow, semi-en closed bay in the northern section of the South China Sea. The present study analyzed variations of water temperature in Daya Bay over the past 21 years (1985 - 2005 using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellite remote sensing data and in situ observations. Results showed that AVHRR readings of sea surface temperature (SST increased by 0.07°C y-1. Linear regression anal y sis for monthly SST anomalies (SSTA showed a shift from negative to positive from 1995 - 1996, when the Daya Bay nuclear power station commenced operations in 1994. The slope of linear regression analysis for SSTA nearly doubled from 0.05 (1985 - 1993 to 0.09 (1994 - 2005. Monthly AVHRR images showed a thermal plume from the power station and revealed the in crease of SST over 21 years. In situ observations in water temperature also showed an in creasing trend for the same period (1985 - 2005. Variations in water temperature in Daya Bay were connected with climatic perturbations and in creasing human activity including thermal discharge from nuclear power stations and the rapid economic development around the bay area.

  14. Classification using Hierarchical Naive Bayes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Dyhre Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Classification problems have a long history in the machine learning literature. One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing set of classifiers is the Naïve Bayes models. However, an inherent problem with these classifiers is the assumption that all attributes used to describe......, termed Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models. Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models extend the modeling flexibility of Naïve Bayes models by introducing latent variables to relax some of the independence statements in these models. We propose a simple algorithm for learning Hierarchical Naïve Bayes models...

  15. Daya bay reactor neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jun

    2010-01-01

    Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is a large international collaboration experiment under construction. The experiment aims to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 by detecting the neutrinos produced by the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. θ 13 is one of two unknown fundamental parameters in neutrino mixing. Its magnitude is a roadmap of the future neutrino physics, and very likely related to the puzzle of missing antimatter in our universe. The precise measurement has very important physics significance. The detectors of Daya Bay is under construction now. The full operation is expected in 2011. Three years' data taking will reach the designed the precision, to determine sin 2 2θ 13 to better than 0.01. Daya Bay neutrino detector is an underground large nuclear detector of low background, low energy, and high precision. In this paper, the layout of the experiment, the design and fabrication progress of the detectors, and some highlighted nuclear detecting techniques developed in the detector R and D are introduced. (author)

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-05-31 to 1991-07-11 (NODC Accession 0115000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115000 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary,...

  17. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  18. A biological effects monitoring survey of Cardigan Bay using flatfish histopathology, cellular biomarkers and sediment bioassays: findings of the Prince Madog Prize 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brett P; Stentiford, Grant D; Bignell, John; Goodsir, Freya; Sivyer, David B; Devlin, Michelle J; Lowe, Dave; Beesley, Amanda; Pascoe, Christine K; Moore, Mike N; Garnacho, Eva

    2006-07-01

    Cardigan Bay on the western coast of the UK is considered a pristine location with much of its coastal and marine habitats protected under various national and EC Directives. Despite this, populations of the flatfish dab (Limanda limanda) captured from Cardigan Bay display elevated levels of liver tumours relative to the background prevalence of the disease. This study describes the findings of a research cruise that took place during November 2003 to assess the prevalence of tumours in dab from selected sites in and around Cardigan Bay. In addition, potential causative mechanisms were investigated via measurement of a range of end points (including composition and abundance of benthic and phytoplankton communities, sediment toxicity and cellular biomarkers of genotoxicity) from sediment, water and biota samples. Fish captured from South Cardigan Bay displayed a relatively higher prevalence of liver tumours compared to those captured from Red Wharf Bay. Hepatocellular adenoma (8% and 2%, respectively) and hepatocellular foci of cell alteration (18% and 6%, respectively) were most prevalent in South Cardigan Bay. Analysis of the sediment failed to distinguish any differences in toxicity between the two sampling sites. However, DNA strand breaks in red blood cells of dab were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fish collected from Red Warf Bay compared with those sampled at Cardigan Bay. The alignment of biological effects measures via such integrated cruise programs are discussed. This work was partly funded under the auspices of the 2003 Prince Madog Prize.

  19. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Salinity Patterns in Estero Bay, Lee County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Gabaldon, Jessica N.

    2008-01-01

    Estero Bay is an estuary (about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide) on the southwestern Florida coast, with several inlets connecting the bay to the Gulf of Mexico and numerous freshwater tributaries. Continuous stage and salinity data were recorded at eight gaging stations in Estero Bay estuary from October 2001 to September 2005. Continuous water velocity data were recorded at six of these stations for the purpose of measuring discharge. In addition, turbidity data were recorded at four stations, suspended sediment concentration were measured at three stations, and wind measurements were taken at one station. Salinity surveys, within and around Estero Bay, were conducted 15 times from July 2002 to January 2004. The average daily discharge ranged from 35,000 to -34,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) at Big Carlos Pass, 10,800 to -11,200 ft3/s at Matanzas Pass, 2,200 to -2,900 ft3/s at Big Hickory Pass, 680 to -700 ft3/s at Mullock Creek, 330 to -370 ft3/s at Estero River, and 190 to -180 ft3/s at Imperial River. Flood tide is expressed as negative discharge and ebb flow as positive discharge. Reduced salinity at Matanzas Pass was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.48) to freshwater discharge from the Caloosahatchee River at Franklin Locks (S-79). Matanzas Pass is hydrologically linked to Hell Peckney Bay; therefore, water-quality problems associated with the Caloosahatchee River also affect Hell Peckney Bay. Rocky Bay was significantly less saline than Coconut Point and Matanzas Pass was significantly less saline than Ostego Bay, based on data from the salinity surveys. The quality-checked and edited continuous data and the salinity maps have been compiled and are stored on the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website (http://sofia.usgs.gov).

  20. Ocurrence of Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci and enteric bacteria in oysters (Crassostrea gigas harvested in the south bay of Santa Catarina island, Brazil Ocorrência de Vibrio spp., estafilococos coagulase positivo e bactérias entéricas em ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas na baía sul da ilha de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Juliano Ramos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of oysters (Crassostrea gigas, harvested in six different regions of the South Bay of Santa Catarina Island, with Coliforms at 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp., positive coagulase staphylococci, and Salmonella sp. over a period of one year. One hundred eighty oyster samples were collected directly from their culture sites and analyzed. Each sample consisted of a pool of 12 oysters. All of the samples analyzed showed absence of Salmonella, 18 (10% samples showed presence of Escherichia coli, 15 (8.3% samples were positive for V. alginolyticus, and Vibriocholerae was detected in 4 samples (2.2%. The counts of positive-coagulase staphylococci varied from O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação de ostras (Crassostrea gigas cultivadas em diferentes regiões da Baía Sul da Ilha de Santa Catarina, por coliformes a 45 ºC, Escherichia coli, Vibrio spp. Estafilococos coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp., durante o período de um ano. Foram analisadas 180 amostras, coletadas diretamente no local de cultivo. Todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram ausência de Salmonella, 18 (10% amostras apresentaram presença de Escherichia coli, 15 (8,3% amostras positivas para Vibrio alginolyticus e V. cholerae foi detectado em 4 amostras (2,2%. As contagens de Estafilococos coagulase positiva variaram de <10 a 1,9 x 102 UFC.g-1, enquanto que as contagens de coliformes a 45 ºC e E. coli variaram de <3 a 1,5 x 102 NMP.g-1 e <3 e 4,3 x 10 NMP.g-1, respectivamente. As contagens de V. parahaemolyticus e V. vulnificus variaram de <3 a 7 NMP.g-1, para ambos os microrganismos, sugerindo um monitoramento tanto destas espécies quanto da temperatura das águas marinhas nas regiões de cultivo. Com base nos resultados das análises microbiológicas, as amostras analisadas mostraram qualidade bacteriológica aceitável, ou seja, dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos na legislação brasileira.

  1. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    subembayments--north bay (San Pablo and Suisun Bays), central bay, and south bay--each characterized by a central area of open water surrounded by intertidal mudflats and marshes. Central bay includes Alcatraz and Angel Islands and also a number of submerged bedrock knobs that protrude through the sediment of the bay floor and rise to within about 40 feet (12 m) of the water surface. The most prominent of these are Harding, Shag, Arch, and Blossom Rocks. These rocks have been lowered by blasting several times in the past, but they remain a potential hazard to shipping because newer cargo vessels are designed with increasingly deeper drafts. Central bay's location adjacent to two major population and commerce centers, San Francisco and Oakland, subjects it to greater human influences than less developed parts of the estuary. The western part of central San Francisco Bay is adjacent to the Golden Gate, the estuary's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The changing submarine topography of the west-central bay, as well as its geology, form the main focus of this book.

  2. Spatial patterning of water quality in Biscayne Bay, Florida as a function of land use and water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Valentina G; Boyer, Joseph N

    2005-11-01

    An objective classification analysis was performed on a water quality data set from 25 sites collected monthly during 1994-2003. The water quality parameters measured included: TN, TON, DIN, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, TP, SRP, TN:TP ratio, TOC, DO, CHL A, turbidity, salinity and temperature. Based on this spatial analysis, Biscayne Bay was divided into five zones having similar water quality characteristics. A robust nutrient gradient, driven mostly by dissolved inorganic nitrogen, from alongshore to offshore in the main Bay, was a large determinant in the spatial clustering. Two of these zones (Alongshore and Inshore) were heavily influenced by freshwater input from four canals which drain the South Dade agricultural area, Black Point Landfill, and sewage treatment plant. The North Bay zone, with high turbidity, phytoplankton biomass, total phosphorus, and low DO, was affected by runoff from five canals, the Munisport Landfill, and the urban landscape. The South Bay zone, an embayment surrounded by mangrove wetlands with little urban development, was high in dissolved organic constituents but low in inorganic nutrients. The Main Bay was the area most influenced by water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean and showed the lowest nutrient concentrations. The water quality in Biscayne Bay is therefore highly dependent of the land use and influence from the watershed.

  3. Highly active antiretroviral treatment and health related quality of life in South African adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairall Lara R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is an important outcome in times of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART. We compared the HRQoL of HIV positive patients receiving HAART with those awaiting treatment in public sector facilities in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods A stratified random sample of 371 patients receiving or awaiting HAART were interviewed and the EuroQol-profile, EuroQol-index and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS were compared. Independent associations between these outcomes and HAART, socio-demographic, clinical and health service variables were estimated using linear and ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for intra-clinic clustering of outcomes. Results Patients receiving HAART reported better HRQoL for 3 of the 5 EuroQol-dimensions, for the VAS score and for the EuroQol index in bivariable analysis. They had a higher mean EuroQol index (0.11 difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04; 0.23, and were more likely to have a higher index (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1; 1.3, compared to those awaiting HAART, in multivariate analysis. Higher mean VAS scores were reported for patients who were receiving HAART (6.5 difference, 95% CI 1.3; 11.7, were employed (9.1, 95% CI 4.3; 13.7 or were female (4.7, 95% CI 0.79; 8.5. Conclusion HAART was associated with improved HRQoL in patients enrolled in a public sector treatment program in South Africa. Our finding that the EuroQol instrument was sensitive to HAART supports its use in future evaluation of HIV/AIDS care in South Africa. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate changes in individuals' HRQoL.

  4. Highly active antiretroviral treatment and health related quality of life in South African adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwagie, Goedele M; Bachmann, Max O; Meyer, Kobus; Booysen, Frikkie le R; Fairall, Lara R; Heunis, Christo

    2007-09-14

    Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in times of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART). We compared the HRQoL of HIV positive patients receiving HAART with those awaiting treatment in public sector facilities in the Free State province in South Africa. A stratified random sample of 371 patients receiving or awaiting HAART were interviewed and the EuroQol-profile, EuroQol-index and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were compared. Independent associations between these outcomes and HAART, socio-demographic, clinical and health service variables were estimated using linear and ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for intra-clinic clustering of outcomes. Patients receiving HAART reported better HRQoL for 3 of the 5 EuroQol-dimensions, for the VAS score and for the EuroQol index in bivariable analysis. They had a higher mean EuroQol index (0.11 difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04; 0.23), and were more likely to have a higher index (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1; 1.3), compared to those awaiting HAART, in multivariate analysis. Higher mean VAS scores were reported for patients who were receiving HAART (6.5 difference, 95% CI 1.3; 11.7), were employed (9.1, 95% CI 4.3; 13.7) or were female (4.7, 95% CI 0.79; 8.5). HAART was associated with improved HRQoL in patients enrolled in a public sector treatment program in South Africa. Our finding that the EuroQol instrument was sensitive to HAART supports its use in future evaluation of HIV/AIDS care in South Africa. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate changes in individuals' HRQoL.

  5. Association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among adult offspring: results from the cross-sectional South African Stress and Health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidal behavior. However, it remains unclear what aspects of suicidal behavior among adult offspring are predicted by specific parental mental disorders, especially in Africa. This study set out to investigate the association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in a South African general population sample. Method Parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior in offspring were assessed using structured interviews among 4,315 respondents from across South Africa. The WHO CIDI was used to collect data on suicidal behavior, while the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview was used to assess prior parental psychopathology. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the associations between the type and number parental mental disorders (including suicide) and lifetime suicidal behavior in the offspring. Associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts) among adult offspring were tested. Results The presence of parental psychopathology significantly increased the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring. More specifically, parental panic disorder was associated with offspring suicidal ideation, while parental panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and suicide were significantly associated with offspring suicide attempts. Among those with suicidal ideation, none of the tested forms of parental psychopathology was associated with having suicide plans or attempts. There was a dose–response relationship between the number of parental disorders and odds of suicidal ideation. Conclusions Parental psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in the South African context, replicating results found in other regions. Specific parental disorders predicted the onset and

  6. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay