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Sample records for south australian study

  1. Relationship Contracting: The South Australian Experience - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has long been accusedof poor performance. The confrontational attitudeof its members and the resultant adversarial atmosphere has been identified as a major factor responsible for this poor performance. A cultural change is required to remove these barriers and to promote optimum project outcomes. Relationship contracting is promoted as a way to support the shift from the adversarial culture to the co-operative and collaborative culture within the industry and the project team.The Adelaide Convention Centre Extensions project was the first in South Australia to be procure und r the principles of relationship contract1ng. Usmg the case study approach, this paper reviews the form of relationship contracting used in this milestone project. The paper documents the lessons learned from this project and makes recommendations that can lead to improvements for future projects.

  2. Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Young Adults: A Study From the South Australian Population-Based Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatandoust, Sina; Price, Timothy J; Ullah, Shahid; Roy, Amitesh C; Beeke, Carole; Young, Joanne P; Townsend, Amanda; Padbury, Robert; Roder, David; Karapetis, Christos S

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy. There is growing evidence that CRC incidence is increasing in the younger population. There is controversy surrounding the prognosis of young patients with CRC. In this study we reviewed Australian patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) who were younger than 40 years of age at the time of diagnosis of metastatic disease. To our knowledge this is the first study to focus on this age group with mCRC. This was a retrospective study using data from the South Australian Metastatic Colorectal Cancer database. We compared patient and disease characteristics, management approaches, and outcomes for age groups Young-onset mCRC patients, when defined as aged younger than 40 years, have equivalent survival compared with their older counterparts. This is despite differences in disease characteristics and management approach between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Australian and South African perspectives on the implementation of flexible work practices (Fwp: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta Odendaal

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify examples of good and innovative practices of Flexible Work Practices to benchmark against and then to use the information to develop strategies of implementation that will assist South African organisations to emulate their success. One hundred-and-twenty (120 individuals, representing different stakeholder groups were requested to complete a questionnaire, based on an Australian study. Comparative findings of both countries strongly confirmed variables that are positively associated with the adoption and successful implementation of Flexible Work Practices (FWP. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om voorbeelde van goeie en innoverende gebruike van Buigsame Werkspraktyke te identifiseer ten einde daarteen te kan vergelyk, en dan om hierdie inligting te gebruik ten einde implementeringstrategieë te ontwikkel wat Suid Afrikaanse maatskappye kan gebruik om sukses na te volg. Honderd en twintig (120 individue, wat verskillende belangegroepe verteenwoordig, is genader om ‘n vraelys, gebaseer op ‘n Australiese studie, te voltooi. Vergelykende bevindinge van beide lande bevestig veranderlikes wat positief geassosieer word met die aanvaarding en suksesvolle implementering van Buigsame Werkspraktyke (BWP.

  4. New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS): an Australian multiagency, multigenerational, longitudinal record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Vaughan J; Harris, Felicity; Raudino, Alessandra; Luo, Luming; Kariuki, Maina; Liu, Enwu; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Bore, Miles; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Dix, Katherine; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-02-11

    The initial aim of this multiagency, multigenerational record linkage study is to identify childhood profiles of developmental vulnerability and resilience, and to identify the determinants of these profiles. The eventual aim is to identify risk and protective factors for later childhood-onset and adolescent-onset mental health problems, and other adverse social outcomes, using subsequent waves of record linkage. The research will assist in informing the development of public policy and intervention guidelines to help prevent or mitigate adverse long-term health and social outcomes. The study comprises a population cohort of 87,026 children in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW). The cohort was defined by entry into the first year of full-time schooling in NSW in 2009, at which time class teachers completed the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) on each child (with 99.7% coverage in NSW). The AEDC data have been linked to the children's birth, health, school and child protection records for the period from birth to school entry, and to the health and criminal records of their parents, as well as mortality databases. Descriptive data summarising sex, geographic and socioeconomic distributions, and linkage rates for the various administrative databases are presented. Child data are summarised, and the mental health and criminal records data of the children's parents are provided. In 2015, at age 11 years, a self-report mental health survey was administered to the cohort in collaboration with government, independent and Catholic primary school sectors. A second record linkage, spanning birth to age 11 years, will be undertaken to link this survey data with the aforementioned administrative databases. This will enable a further identification of putative risk and protective factors for adverse mental health and other outcomes in adolescence, which can then be tested in subsequent record linkages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  5. Laboratory study on leachability of five herbicides in South Australian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    2000-03-01

    Norflurazon, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, trifluralin and simazine are herbicides widely used in the vineyards of the Barossa Valley, South Australia. The leaching behaviour of norflurazon, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen and trifluralin was investigated on four key soils in the Barossa Valley. Leaching potential on packed soil columns and actual mobility using intact soil columns were investigated. On the packed soil columns, norflurazon was the most leachable herbicide. More of the herbicides were detected in the leachates from the sandy soils (Mountadam and Nuriootpa) than from the clayey soils (Lyndoch and Tanunda). Organic matter is generally low in soils in the Barossa region. Porosity and saturated conductivity significantly affect herbicide movement and in the sandy Mountadam and Nuriootpa soils, the water flux is greater than for the higher clay content Lyndoch and Tanunda soils. Increasing the time interval between herbicide application and the incidence of "rainfall" reduced the amounts of herbicides found in the leachates. The use of intact soil columns and including simazine for comparison showed that both norflurazon and simazine were present in the leachates. Simazine was the first herbicide to appear in leachates. Sectioning of the intact soil columns after leaching clearly demonstrated that norflurazon and simazine reached the bottom of the soil columns for all soils studied. Greater amounts of norflurazon were retained in the soil columns compared with simazine. The other herbicides were mostly retained in the initial sections of the soil columns.

  6. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  7. Wave transport in the South Australian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, John A. T.; James, Charles

    2018-02-01

    The specification of the dynamics of the air-sea boundary layer is of fundamental importance to oceanography. There is a voluminous literature on the subject, however a strong link between the velocity profile due to waves and that due to turbulent processes in the wave boundary layer does not appear to have been established. Here we specify the velocity profile due to the wave field using the Toba spectrum, and the velocity profile due to turbulence at the sea surface by the net effect of slip and wave breaking in which slip is the dominant process. Under this specification, the inertial coupling of the two fluids for a constant viscosity Ekman layer yields two independent estimates for the frictional parameter (which is a function of the 10 m drag coefficient and the peak wave period) of the coupled system, one of which is due to the surface Ekman current and the other to the peak wave period. We show that the median values of these two estimates, evaluated from a ROMS simulation over the period 2011-2012 at a station on the Southern Shelf in the South Australian Basin, are similar in strong support of the air-sea boundary layer model. On integrating over the planetary boundary layer we obtain the Ekman transport (w*2/f) and the wave transport due to a truncated Toba spectrum (w*zB/κ) where w* is the friction velocity in water, f is the Coriolis parameter, κ is von Karman's constant and zB = g T2/8 π2 is the depth of wave influence in which g is the acceleration of gravity and T is the peak wave period. A comparison of daily estimates shows that the wave transports from the truncated Toba spectrum and from the SWAN spectral model are highly correlated (r = 0.82) and that on average the Toba estimates are about 86% of the SWAN estimates due to the omission of low frequency tails of the spectra, although for wave transports less than about 0.5 m2 s-1 the estimates are almost equal. In the South Australian Basin the Toba wave transport is on average about 42% of

  8. Comorbidities contribute to the risk of cancer death among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians: Analysis of a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Brown, Alex

    2018-02-01

    Aboriginal Australians have poorer cancer survival than other Australians. Diagnoses at later stages and correlates of remote area living influence, but do not fully explain, these disparities. Little is known of the prevalence and influence of comorbid conditions experienced by Aboriginal people, including their effect on cancer survival. This study quantifies hospital recorded comorbidities using the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI), examines their influence on risk of cancer death, then considers effect variation by Aboriginality. Cancers diagnosed among Aboriginal South Australians in 1990-2010 (N = 777) were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by birth year, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site, then linked to administrative hospital records to the time of diagnosis. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, geographic attributes and comorbidities with risk of cancer death. A threshold of four or more ECI conditions was associated with increased risk of cancer death (sub-hazard ratio SHR 1.66, 95%CI 1.11-2.46). Alternatively, the presence of any one of a subset of ECI conditions was associated with similarly increased risk (SHR = 1.62, 95%CI 1.23-2.14). The observed effects did not differ between Aboriginal and matched non-Aboriginal cases. However, Aboriginal cases experienced three times higher exposure than non-Aboriginal to four or more ECI conditions (14.2% versus 4.5%) and greater exposure to the subset of ECI conditions (20.7% versus 8.0%). Comorbidities at diagnosis increased the risk of cancer death in addition to risks associated with Aboriginality, remoteness of residence and disease stage at diagnosis. The Aboriginal cohort experienced comparatively greater exposure to comorbidities which adds to disparities in cancer outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Course diversity within South Australian secondary schools as a factor of successful transition and retention within Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There has long been a disparity in the provision of curriculum within Australian secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate whether diversity within schools alters students’ university experiences. While much of the existing literature focuses on each aspect individually, this paper attempts to clarify a link between these factors by focussing on the transition process. A theoretical analysis of key concepts surrounding a web of inter-related issues, including student satisfaction, interest and motivation frames the quantitative data collection. The methodology employed consists of analysing a balanced sample of South Australian secondary schools, from an array of different locations, SES groupings and sizes, and an acknowledgement of previous studies into the first year experience within Australian Universities. The findings suggest that there is a disparity between learning areas in school curricula and an inherent link has been established with issues such as student attrition and dissatisfaction in universities.

  11. Some Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Great Australian Bight in the collection of the South Australian Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeanette E

    2018-04-16

    This report adds to knowledge of the shelf hydroid fauna of the Great Australian Bight. Hydroids were collected by the South Australian Museum and Department of Primary Industries of South Australia (PIRSA). Well known species are annotated, poorly known species are redescribed and four new species are described.

  12. Australian research reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Australian AEC has two research reactors at the Lucas Heights Research Establishment, a 10 HW DIDO class materials testing reactor, HIFAR, and a smaller 100kW reactor MOATA, which was recently upgraded from 10kW power level. Because of the HIFAR being some 20 years old, major renewal and repair programmes are necessary to keep it operational. To enable meeting projected increases in demand for radioisotopes, plans for a new reactor to replace the HIFAR have been made and the design criteria are described in the paper. (author)

  13. Mid-Adolescent Predictors of Adult Drinking Levels in Early Adulthood and Gender Differences: Longitudinal Analyses Based on the South Australian School Leavers Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Delfabbro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing. Respondents were classified into two groups based upon a percentile division: those who drank at levels consistently below NHMRC guidelines and those who consistently drank at higher levels. The results showed that poorer age 15 scores on measures of psychological wellbeing including scores on the GHQ-12, self-esteem, and life-satisfaction as well as engagement in health-related behaviours such as smoking or drug-taking were associated with higher drinking levels in early adulthood. The pattern of results was generally similar for both genders. Higher drinking levels were most strongly associated with smoking and marijuana use and poorer psychological wellbeing during adolescence.

  14. Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, A S

    1977-12-01

    Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used.

  15. Culturally appropriate methodology in obtaining a representative sample of South Australian Aboriginal adults for a cross-sectional population health study: challenges and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Tania; Taylor, Anne Winifred; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Avery, Jodie; Tucker, Graeme; Morey, Kim

    2015-05-19

    The considerably lower average life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, compared with non-Aboriginal and non-Torres Strait Islander Australians, has been widely reported. Prevalence data for chronic disease and health risk factors are needed to provide evidence based estimates for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population health planning. Representative surveys for these populations are difficult due to complex methodology. The focus of this paper is to describe in detail the methodological challenges and resolutions of a representative South Australian Aboriginal population-based health survey. Using a stratified multi-stage sampling methodology based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Census with culturally appropriate and epidemiological rigorous methods, 11,428 randomly selected dwellings were approached from a total of 209 census collection districts. All persons eligible for the survey identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander and were selected from dwellings identified as having one or more Aboriginal person(s) living there at the time of the survey. Overall, the 399 interviews from an eligible sample of 691 SA Aboriginal adults yielded a response rate of 57.7%. These face-to-face interviews were conducted by ten interviewers retained from a total of 27 trained Aboriginal interviewers. Challenges were found in three main areas: identification and recruitment of participants; interviewer recruitment and retainment; and using appropriate engagement with communities. These challenges were resolved, or at least mainly overcome, by following local protocols with communities and their representatives, and reaching agreement on the process of research for Aboriginal people. Obtaining a representative sample of Aboriginal participants in a culturally appropriate way was methodologically challenging and required high levels of commitment and resources. Adhering to these principles has resulted in a

  16. Riverina men's study: a preliminary exploration of the diet, alcohol use and physical activity behaviours and attitudes of rural men in two Australian New South Wales electorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, G M; Craig, P; Black, D; Sutherland, D

    2008-01-01

    Discourses around men's health refer to greater risk-taking behaviour, the social construct of masculinity and differences between men's and women's rates of death and disease. These ways of describing 'men's health' may be inadequate, but many men, particularly rural men, experience health disadvantage. To determine the reported eating, drinking and exercise behaviours of rural men and relationships between reported behaviours and attitudes to health and body image, age and occupation. A written postal survey was used to collect demographic data, eating behaviours using the Food Habit Score, alcohol use, physical activity behaviours using an adaptation of the Pilot Study of the Fitness of Australians and attitudes to health and body image. The survey was sent to 2000 randomly selected men in two New South Wales Riverina federal electorates in June 2004, with 529 returns (27% response). Food Habit Scores; regularity of physical activity; frequency and amount of alcohol use; degree of agreement with statements about attitudes to health and body image. Descriptive statistics using frequencies and cross tabulations were performed with further univariate analyses conducted at a level of significance of 5%. Approximately one-third of the men achieved a poor Food Habit Score (rate (27%) limits the ability to generalise these results to the whole male population in the Farrer and Riverina federal electorates. This study describes the eating and physical activity behaviours of a sample of rural men and highlights the attitudes that are associated with poor lifestyle behaviours among this hard to reach group. Health promotion programs targeting men, especially rural men, should address existing attitudes to health which may impact on lifestyle behaviours.

  17. Energy benchmarking of South Australian WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, J

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the energy consumption and energy generation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a topic with increasing importance for water utilities in times of rising energy costs and pressures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Assessing the energy efficiency and energy optimisation of a WWTP are difficult tasks as most plants vary greatly in size, process layout and other influencing factors. To overcome these limits it is necessary to compare energy efficiency with a statistically relevant base to identify shortfalls and optimisation potential. Such energy benchmarks have been successfully developed and used in central Europe over the last two decades. This paper demonstrates how the latest available energy benchmarks from Germany have been applied to 24 WWTPs in South Australia. It shows how energy benchmarking can be used to identify shortfalls in current performance, prioritise detailed energy assessments and help inform decisions on capital investment.

  18. The Role of the School Climate in High School Students' Mental Health and Identity Formation: A South Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekie, Helen; Aldridge, Jill M.; Afari, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    The well-documented increase in student mental health issues in Australia and growing recognition of the need for education to play a part in students' identity formation prompted this study. The research reported in this article sought to identify specific elements of the school climate that were likely to influence the interplay of adolescent…

  19. Asian Australian Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    abstrakt til konferencepaper, der diskuterer forholdet mellem ASAL, der i mange år har tegnet australske studier med hovedvægten på litteraturstudier, og AASRN, der repræsenterer asiatisk-australske studier. AASRN er langt mere populærkulturelt, cultural studies, og tværdisciplinært orienteret, u...

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. An energy integrated, multi-microgrid, MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) approach for residential distributed energy system planning – A South Australian case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Carmen; Fraga, Eric S.; James, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of distributed generation units and microgrids in the current grid infrastructure requires an efficient and cost effective local energy system design. A mixed-integer linear programming model is presented to identify such optimal design. The electricity as well as the space heating and cooling demands of a small residential neighbourhood are satisfied through the consideration and combined use of distributed generation technologies, thermal units and energy storage with an optional interconnection with the central grid. Moreover, energy integration is allowed in the form of both optimised pipeline networks and microgrid operation. The objective is to minimise the total annualised cost of the system to meet its yearly energy demand. The model integrates the operational characteristics and constraints of the different technologies for several scenarios in a South Australian setting and is implemented in GAMS. The impact of energy integration is analysed, leading to the identification of key components for residential energy systems. Additionally, a multi-microgrid concept is introduced to allow for local clustering of households within neighbourhoods. The robustness of the model is shown through sensitivity analysis, up-scaling and an effort to address the variability of solar irradiation. - Highlights: • Distributed energy system planning is employed on a small residential scale. • Full energy integration is employed based on microgrid operation and tri-generation. • An MILP for local clustering of households in multi-microgrids is developed. • Micro combined heat and power units are key components for residential microgrids

  2. Viewing the proposed South African Business Rescuie Provisions from an Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anderson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article makes some comparisons between the Australian corporate rescue provisions and those proposed to be adopted in South Africa in the Companies Bill 2007. By so doing it may assist in the debate in South Africa over how the legislation is framed as the experience in Australia may be useful as an indicator of issues to be considered. One of the findings of the comparison is that the aims of the Australian legislation and that proposed in South Africa are almost identical. The article identifies a clear concern in the South African proposals with the position of employees which is not apparent in Australia. On the other hand there appears to be less concern in South Africa with the position of secured creditors than is evident in the Australian provisions. The article also notes that the South African proposals do not divide the procedure clearly into a decision-making stage and the period whilst the company is operating under the rescue plan. The Australian provisions provide for a clear break between a period where the creditors have yet to make a choice about the company’s future and the period once a plan (or deed of company arrangement has been adopted. The article also finds that the South African model of rescue as proposed does cover many similar areas as identified in the Australian legislation. It therefore argues that there are sufficient similarities to suggest that much will be common in the experience if they are adopted into the legislation.

  3. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...

  4. Viewing the proposed South African Business Rescuie Provisions from an Australian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    C Anderson

    2008-01-01

    This article makes some comparisons between the Australian corporate rescue provisions and those proposed to be adopted in South Africa in the Companies Bill 2007. By so doing it may assist in the debate in South Africa over how the legislation is framed as the experience in Australia may be useful as an indicator of issues to be considered. One of the findings of the comparison is that the aims of the Australian legislation and that proposed in South Africa are almost identical. The article ...

  5. Performance Management as a Means of Teacher Evaluation: A South Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sham

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of performance management in South Australian public schools raises a number of issues regarding the structure, purpose and control of the process itself and the consequences of teacher evaluation. Performance management has the potential to shape teaching and the culture of schools according to what it values and what it ignores.…

  6. Molecular phylogenetics and systematic revision of the south-eastern Australian Helicarionidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyman, I.T.; Iglesia Lamborena, de la I.; Köhler, F.

    2017-01-01

    The south-eastern Australian helicarionid clade currently comprises six genera of snails and semislugs united by genital characters, including an epiphallic flagellum that produces a spiraling, spinose spermatophore, the absence of an epiphallic caecum, and the presence of at most a very short

  7. Fragmentation in Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State policy on mental health and older people: A governmentality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Candice; Henderson, Julie; Lawn, Sharon; Reed, Richard; Dawson, Suzanne; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Fuller, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Mental health care for older people is a significant and growing issue in Australia and internationally. This article describes how older people’s mental health is governed through policy discourse by examining Australian Commonwealth and South Australian State government policy documents, and commentaries from professional groups, advocacy groups and non-governmental organisations. Documents published between 2009 and 2014 were analysed using a governmentality approach, informed by Foucault. Discourses of ‘risk’, ‘ageing as decline/dependence’ and ‘healthy ageing’ were identified. Through these discourses, different neo-liberal governmental strategies are applied to ‘target’ groups according to varying risk judgements. Three policy approaches were identified where older people are (1) absent from policy, (2) governed as responsible, active citizens or (3) governed as passive recipients of health care. This fragmented policy response to older people’s mental health reflects fragmentation in the Australian policy environment. It constructs an ambiguous place for older people within neo-liberal governmental rationality, with significant effects on the health system, older people and their carers. PMID:27147440

  8. Owners' insights into private practice dentistry in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J E; Marchant, T

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of practice ownership including debt on graduation, the time period between graduation and acquiring practice ownership and small business skills. A mail survey of 400 dentists with practice ownership, in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), addressed demographics, setting up practice, technology and business management. Most respondents were male and nearly half had 20 years of practice ownership. Dentists agreed with the need to be taught small business management skills. Average debt on graduation was AUD$18 000 and the figure was higher for post 1995 graduates. On average, it took five years to acquire some form of practice ownership, but nearly half acquired ownership within three years. Few favoured opening a new practice. Staff were the most frequently nominated contributors to a successful practice, with fees, profit and parking noted least frequently. There was no question that these experienced dentists thought small business skills should be taught to the dental fraternity. Given the significance of staff to a successful practice, dentists may need to learn more about advanced human resource management including professional development and performance management. © 2010 Australian Dental Association.

  9. A balanced Kalman filter ocean data assimilation system with application to the South Australian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) based regional ocean data assimilation system has been developed and applied to the South Australian Sea. This system consists of the data assimilation algorithm provided by the NCAR Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). We describe the first implementation of the physical balance operator (temperature-salinity, hydrostatic and geostrophic balance) to DART, to reduce the spurious waves which may be introduced during the data assimilation process. The effect of the balance operator is validated in both an idealised shallow water model and the ROMS model real case study. In the shallow water model, the geostrophic balance operator eliminates spurious ageostrophic waves and produces a better sea surface height (SSH) and velocity analysis and forecast. Its impact increases as the sea surface height and wind stress increase. In the real case, satellite-observed sea surface temperature (SST) and SSH are assimilated in the South Australian Sea with 50 ensembles using the Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter (EAKF). Assimilating SSH and SST enhances the estimation of SSH and SST in the entire domain, respectively. Assimilation with the balance operator produces a more realistic simulation of surface currents and subsurface temperature profile. The best improvement is obtained when only SSH is assimilated with the balance operator. A case study with a storm suggests that the benefit of the balance operator is of particular importance under high wind stress conditions. Implementing the balance operator could be a general benefit to ocean data assimilation systems.

  10. The politics of accountability for school curriculum: An Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Alan

    1987-03-01

    This normative-descriptive case study of accountability for state school curriculum in South Australia has the following objectives. First, to seek to draw a distinction between accountability and responsibility: terms which have been confused by two South Australian Directors-General of Education (position akin to C.E.O. in the U.K. and Superintendent in the U.S.A.) with important consequences. Second, to present a model of accountability for state school curriculum, by which accountability for such curriculum may be judged democratic or non-democratic, and against which accountability for curriculum in South Australian state schools will be gauged. Third, to show that whilst the South Australian school system exhibits a large measure of bureaucratic or technocratic accountability for curriculum, there is no effective democratic accountability for curriculum, and to indicate a remedy for this situation. Finally, to point out the wider significance of the South Australian case study, and suggest that democracies currently re-structuring their educational systems would do well to keep the need for democratic accountability foremost in mind.

  11. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectan...

  12. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyono, Bambang Yudi

    2005-01-01

    This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained ...

  13. Guns, bikes & leather: moral panic and the 2008 South Australian 'anti-bikie' laws

    OpenAIRE

    Vakalis, David

    2017-01-01

    Reflective of the broad political consensus in Australia, 'anti-bikie' laws have recently been introduced by many state and territory governments. In the shadow of this year's federal election, the government has also proposed national anti-bikie laws. Given this, it is worthwhile to consider the context within which this trend emerged. Three days after a violent incident involving bikies outside Adelaide's Tonic nightclub on 2 June 2007, the South Australian (SA) Government announced that it...

  14. Health-related quality of life measured using the EQ-5D-5L: South Australian population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Currow, David C; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2016-09-20

    Although a five level version of the widely-used EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument has been developed, population norms are not yet available for Australia to inform the future valuation of health in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to estimate HrQOL normative values for the EQ-5D-5L preference-based measure in a large, randomly selected, community sample in South Australia. The EQ-5D-5L instrument was included in the 2013 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey, an interviewer-administered, face-to-face, cross-sectional survey. Respondents rated their level of impairment across dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) and global health rating on a visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Utility scores were derived using the newly-developed UK general population-based algorithm and relationships between utility and EQ-VAS scores and socio-demographic factors were also explored using multivariate regression analyses. Ultimately, 2,908 adults participated in the survey (63.4 % participation rate). The mean utility and EQ-VAS scores were 0.91 (95 CI 0.90, 0.91) and 78.55 (95 % CI 77.95, 79.15), respectively. Almost half of respondents reported no problems across all dimensions (42.8 %), whereas only 7.2 % rated their health >90 on the EQ-VAS (100 = the best health you can imagine). Younger age, male gender, longer duration of education, higher annual household income, employment and marriage/de facto relationships were all independent, statistically significant predictors of better health status (p measured with the EQ-VAS. Only age and employment status were associated with higher utility scores, indicating fundamental differences between these measures of health status. This is the first Australian study to apply the EQ-5D-5L in a large, community sample. Overall, findings are consistent with EQ-5D-5L utility and VAS scores reported for other countries and indicate that the majority of South

  15. Chlorine-36 measurements in the Murray Basin; preliminary results from the Victorian and South Australian Mallee region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davie, R.F.; Calf, G.E.; Bird, J.R.; Topham, S.; Kellett, J.R.; Evans, W.R.; Fifield, L.K.; Ophel, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    Chlorine-36 analyses of groundwater samples from 18 wells in the Victorian and South Australian Mallee region of the Murray Basin have been carried out using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of these analyses are discussed and presented as evidence for significant recharge from rainfall over much of the study area to the underlying Murray Group limestone aquifer. In addition, results indicate areas where further 36 Cl measurements of Murray Mallee groundwater would provide useful hydrological information on both recharge and discharge mechanisms. 34 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  16. Study Protocol: establishing good relationships between patients and health care providers while providing cardiac care. Exploring how patient-clinician engagement contributes to health disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roe Yvette L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies that compare Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous patients who experience a cardiac event or chest pain are inconclusive about the reasons for the differences in-hospital and survival rates. The advances in diagnostic accuracy, medication and specialised workforce has contributed to a lower case fatality and lengthen survival rates however this is not evident in the Indigenous Australian population. A possible driver contributing to this disparity may be the impact of patient-clinician interface during key interactions during the health care process. Methods/Design This study will apply an Indigenous framework to describe the interaction between Indigenous patients and clinicians during the continuum of cardiac health care, i.e. from acute admission, secondary and rehabilitative care. Adopting an Indigenous framework is more aligned with Indigenous realities, knowledge, intellects, histories and experiences. A triple layered designed focus group will be employed to discuss patient-clinician engagement. Focus groups will be arranged by geographic clusters i.e. metropolitan and a regional centre. Patient informants will be identified by Indigenous status (i.e. Indigenous and non-Indigenous and the focus groups will be convened separately. The health care provider focus groups will be convened on an organisational basis i.e. state health providers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. Yarning will be used as a research method to facilitate discussion. Yarning is in congruence with the oral traditions that are still a reality in day-to-day Indigenous lives. Discussion This study is nestled in a larger research program that explores the drivers to the disparity of care and health outcomes for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians who experience an acute cardiac admission. A focus on health status, risk factors and clinical interventions may camouflage critical issues within a patient

  17. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-11-17

    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  18. Relative attractiveness of seeds of myrmecochorous Australian and South African plants to ants, and the chemical basis of this attraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The responses of an indigenous acid an exotic (South American) ant was compared to seeds from exotic (Australian) and indigenous Caps myrmecochorous plants. Non-South African ants were more attracted to seeds of myrmecochorous species, than to non...

  19. Motivation and Performance of Older Australian Academics: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Len; Peter, Hollis

    A pilot study of the Australian higher education system was conducted to determine the following: (1) whether department heads follow a client-centered, diagnostic/prescriptive model as developed by the Australian Committee of Directors and Principals in Advanced Education (ACDP), and if not, which process is used; (2) which developmental…

  20. Community awareness and predictors of uptake of pertussis booster vaccine in South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle; Thomas, Natalie; Giles, Lynne; Marshall, Helen

    2015-12-16

    Pertussis is a highly virulent vaccine preventable disease that remains a global challenge. This study aimed to assess community knowledge of pertussis infection as well as awareness and uptake of adult pertussis booster vaccine. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of randomly selected households in South Australia by Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews in 2011. Survey data were weighted to the age, gender and geographical area profile of the population. From 3124 randomly sampled contactable households, 1967 interviews were conducted (participation rate 63%) with individuals aged 18-93 years, including 608 parents of children aged pertussis (whooping cough) and 18% reported that a household member had previously contracted whooping cough infection. Most respondents considered whooping cough to be highly contagious (73%) and severe for infants (89%). Over half (51%) of those surveyed were aware that family members commonly transmit pertussis to infants. Despite high knowledge, pertussis vaccine uptake was low, with only 10% of respondents reporting pertussis vaccination in the previous five years. Whilst 61% of respondents were aware of the availability of an adult pertussis booster vaccine, only 8% (n=154) reported their Family Physician had discussed it with them. If provided free, 77% agreed that they would be more likely to accept a booster pertussis vaccination. Independent predictors of recent pertussis vaccination included higher education, larger household size, perception of greater disease severity for infants and discussion with a Family Physician about pertussis vaccination. Whilst knowledge regarding transmission and severity of Bordetella pertussis was high, uptake of pertussis vaccination for adults is remarkably low amongst the South Australian community. Improved awareness regarding the availability of a booster pertussis vaccine through Family Physicians and/or provision of funded pertussis vaccination for adults has the potential to improve

  1. PREVALENCE AND PATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF CHLAMYDIA PECORUM INFECTIONS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN KOALAS (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Polkinghorne, Adam; Penn, Rachel; Boardman, Wayne; Timms, Peter; Fraser, Tamieka; Johnson, Kathryn; Faull, Rachel; Bate, Sarah; Woolford, Lucy

    2016-04-28

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is highly prevalent in many koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) populations in the eastern states of Australia, causing ocular and urogenital tract disease. In contrast, the current prevalence of chlamydiosis in South Australian (SA) koalas is largely unknown, with few reports of clinical cases. We examined 65 SA rescued wild koalas at necropsy and collected ocular and urogenital swabs for the detection of C. pecorum by PCR. We detected C. pecorum in ocular or urogenital swabs from 57 koalas (88%), and 34 koalas were positive at both ocular and urogenital sites. Clinically overt chlamydial disease was present in only 12 (21%) positive koalas. Gross lesions were often externally inapparent as they affected the urogenital tract (n=5), and 24 infected koalas had microscopically evident lesions only. Lesions were predominantly mild and included conjunctivitis, cystitis, and urethritis. Reproductive tract disease was infrequently observed. We detected C. pecorum in 16 (28%) koalas with no evidence of chlamydial disease, suggesting the presence of subclinical carriers in this population. Based on these findings, chlamydiosis has a higher occurrence in SA koala populations than previously thought, but is most often mild and does not always result in overt clinical disease; inapparent and subclinical infections appear common. Further studies of the prevalence in wild-caught SA koalas are needed along with research into the host and bacterial factors that may influence disease outcome in these animals.

  2. Implementing mental health peer support: a South Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Carmen C D; Paton, Barbara C; Gassner, Lee-Anne J

    2010-01-01

    Mental illness is among the greatest causes of disability, diminished quality of life and reduced productivity. Mental health policy aims to reform services to meet consumers' needs and one of the strategies is to increase the number of consumers working in the mental health service system. In South Australia, the Peer Work Project was established to provide a program for the training of consumers to work alongside mental health services. The project developed a flexible training pathway that consisted of an information session, the Introduction to Peer Work (IPW) course and further training pathways for peer workers. External evaluation indicated that the IPW course was a good preparation for peer workers, but a crucial factor in the implementation process of employing peer workers was commitment and leadership within the organisation in both preparing the organisation and supporting peer workers in their role. To assist organisations wanting to employ peer workers, a three step model was developed: prepare, train and support. The project has been successful in establishing employment outcomes for IPW graduates. The outcomes increased with time after graduation and there was a shift from voluntary to paid employment.

  3. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 1. Doctor-artists in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    Since Europeans first settled in Australia their doctors have been interested in the visual arts. Some have been hobby painters and sculptors, a few with great distinction. Some have been gallery supporters and administrators. A few have written art books. Some have been outstanding photographers. Of the larger number of doctors who have collected art, only those are mentioned who have made their collections public or have made important donations to galleries. The subject of Australian doctors and the visual arts will be discussed in six articles in this and following issues of the journal. The first deals with doctor-artists in New South Wales.

  4. Who do people talk to about healthy lifestyles? A South Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, R G

    1992-12-01

    To investigate who people talk to about healthy lifestyle a personal interview of people in a representative sample of South Australians was carried out. The information was collected by interview from all occupants of selected private dwellings who were aged 15 years or older. The interviewer used a prompt card with nine possible responses and the question asked was "which one of these would you be most likely to talk about healthy lifestyle changes?" Forty-four per cent nominated the general practitioner and 22% a family member. People who were either married or in a de facto relationship (30%) significantly chose a general practitioner more than others (14%) (P adviser (P advisers.

  5. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  6. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors’ involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Baum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. Methods The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. Results The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. Conclusions The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the

  7. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors' involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; MacDougall, Colin; Lawless, Angela; van Eyk, Helen; Williams, Carmel

    2017-10-16

    This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the ideas and approach, and balancing of the economic and social goals of

  8. Hepatitis C virus infection in South Australian prisoners: seroprevalence, seroconversion, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emma Ruth; Bi, Peng; Ryan, Philip

    2009-03-01

    To determine entry antibody seroprevalence and seroconversion to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and associated risk factors in newly incarcerated prisoners. Males and females entering South Australian prisons completed risk factor surveys and were offered HCV-antibody testing. Participants completed additional surveys and, if HCV-negative at last test, underwent further antibody tests at 3-monthly intervals for up to 15 months. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate techniques. HCV seroprevalence among 662 prison entrants was estimated at 42%. Previous injecting history was highly prevalent at entry (64%) and both community and prison injecting independently predicted entry HCV status. Tattooing was not an important risk factor. While community exposure could not be ruled out, three seroconversions were noted in 148 initially HCV-seronegative individuals occurring in a median 121 days--4.6 per 100 person-years. Prison injecting was infrequently reported, but HCV-seropositive participants were significantly more likely to commence IDU in prison than seronegative participants (p=0.035). Entry HCV seroprevalence in South Australian prisoners is extremely high and may have contributed to a 'ceiling effect', minimizing the observable seroconversion rate. Greater frequency of injecting among those already infected with HCV represents a significant threat to other prisoners and prison staff.

  9. HF Radar Observations of Current, Wave and Wind Parameters in the South Australian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, A.; Cosoli, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network (ACORN) has been measuring metocean parameters from an array of HF radar systems since 2007. Current, wave and wind measurements from a WERA phased-array radar system in the South Australian Gulf are evaluated using current meter, wave buoy and weather station data over a 12-month period. The spatial and temporal scales of the radar deployment have been configured for the measurement of surface currents from the first order backscatter spectra. Quality control procedures are applied to the radar currents that relate to the geometric configurations, statistical properties, and diagnostic variables provided by the analysis software. Wave measurements are obtained through an iterative inversion algorithm that provides an estimate of the directional frequency spectrum. The standard static configurations and data sampling strategies are not optimised for waves and so additional signal processing steps need to be implemented in order to provide reliable estimates. These techniques are currently only applied in offline mode but a real-time approach is in development. Improvements in the quality of extracted wave data are found through increased averaging of the raw radar data but the impact of temporal non-stationarity and spatial inhomogeneities in the WERA measurement region needs to be taken into account. Validations of wind direction data from a weather station on Neptune Island show the potential of using HF radar to combat the spread of bushfires in South Australia.

  10. Disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Keefe, Dorothy; Farshid, Gelareh; Eckert, Marion; Cargo, Margaret; Brown, Alex

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the utility of retrospectively staging cancer registry data for comparing stage and stage-specific survivals of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Differences by area level factors were also explored. This test dataset comprised 950 Aboriginal cases and all other cases recorded on the South Australian cancer registry with a 1977-2010 diagnosis. A sub-set of 777 Aboriginal cases diagnosed in 1990-2010 were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by year of birth, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site of cancer. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, and geographic attributes with risk of cancer death. Aboriginal cases were 10 years younger at diagnosis, more likely to present in recent diagnostic years, to be resident of remote areas, and have primary cancer sites of head & neck, lung, liver and cervix. Risk of cancer death was associated in the matched analysis with more advanced stage at diagnosis. More Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal cases had distant metastases at diagnosis (31.3% vs 22.0, pAboriginal residents had higher risks of cancer death than Aboriginal residents of metropolitan areas. Non-Aboriginal cases had the lowest risk of cancer death. Retrospective staging proved to be feasible using registry data. Results indicated more advanced stages for Aboriginal than matched non-Aboriginal cases. Aboriginal people had higher risks of cancer death, which persisted after adjusting for stage, and applied irrespective of remoteness of residence, with highest risk of death occurring among Aboriginal people from remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in wine consumption are influenced most by health: results from a population survey of South Australians in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockley CS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Creina S Stockley,1 Anne W Taylor,2 Alicia Montgomerie,2 Eleonora Dal Grande2 1The Australian Wine Research Institute, 2Population Research & Outcome Studies, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aims: Individuals change their wine consumption over their life course, and mean volume typically declines with increasing age. Research on the reasons individuals change their consumption has primarily focused on youth/the young, but not on older adults. This study’s aim was to ascertain changes in wine consumption over a 12-month period in Australians at different ages and what influenced these changes.Methods: As part of the Spring 2013 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey, persons (n=2,908 aged 15 years and over who had most recently had a birthday in the selected household were interviewed in their home by trained interviewers. Of these, 48.9% were males and their mean age was 46.3 (standard deviation 18.9 years.Results: Regular, light–moderate wine consumers were generally stable in the amount of wine they drank over a 12 month period, particularly those aged 55 years and older. They generally cited health (48.0% as a reason for decreasing their wine consumption. Those who usually consumed three to four standard drinks on days they drank wine were also more likely to give health (54.3% as a reason for decreasing their consumption, as were heavy wine consumers (57.7%. The 25- to 34-year age-group was more likely to have decreased (36% vs 26% their wine consumption in the last 12 months. The 15- to 24-year age-group was most likely to have increased (28% vs 10% their wine consumption in the last 12 months. Health was most cited as the reason for decreasing this consumption, while family and friends were most cited as the reason for increasing this consumption.Conclusion: In this representative population of South Australians, the wine consumption of previously identified at-risk groups for both short- and

  12. National-scale strategic approaches for managing introduced plants: insights from Australian acacias in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Wilgen, BW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A range of approaches and philosophies underpin national-level strategies for managing invasive alien plants. This study presents a strategy for the management of taxa that both have value and do harm. Insights were derived from examining Australian...

  13. The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R

    2015-06-01

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P < 0.05) along the pipeline, suggesting multiplication and hence viability. No seasonality in the decrease in chlorine residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens.

  14. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S B; Langroo, R; Peggie, J R [Australian Radiation Laboratory. Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Lyons, R G [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Department of Physics; James, J M [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Chemisty

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors) 7 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Occupational exposure to radon in Australian Tourist Caves an Australian-wide study of radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Langroo, R.; Peggie, J.R.; Lyons, R.G.; James, J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The study described in this report sets out to determine which Australian show caves have long- term radon levels in excess of the proposed action level of 1000 Bq m -3 . The collaborative study between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL), the University of Sydney and the University of Auckland, was carried out with the support of a Research Grant from Worksafe Australia. The aims of this study were to measure radon levels for each season over a period of one year, at representative sites in all developed show caves around Australia, to determine yearly average radon levels for each cave tour, based on these site measurements, to estimate the radiation doses to the tour guides employed in these caves, and to identify caves with radon concentrations in excess of the action level. (authors)

  16. The Koori Growing Old Well Study: investigating aging and dementia in urban Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Mack, Holly A; Robertson, Hamish; Draper, Brian; Chalkley, Simon; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Bennett, Hayley; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Broe, Gerald A

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is an emerging health priority in Australian Aboriginal communities, but substantial gaps remain in our understanding of this issue, particularly for the large urban section of the population. In remote Aboriginal communities, high prevalence rates of dementia at relatively young ages have been reported. The current study is investigating aging, cognitive decline, and dementia in older urban/regional Aboriginal Australians. We partnered with five Aboriginal communities across the eastern Australian state of New South Wales, to undertake a census of all Aboriginal men and women aged 60 years and over residing in these communities. This was followed by a survey of the health, well-being, and life history of all consenting participants. Participants were also screened using three cognitive instruments. Those scoring below designated cut-offs, and a 20% random sample of those scoring above (i.e. "normal" range), completed a contact person interview (with a nominated family member) and medical assessment (blind to initial screening results), which formed the basis of "gold standard" clinical consensus determinations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This paper details our protocol for a population-based study in collaboration with local Aboriginal community organizations. The study will provide the first available prevalence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment in a representative sample of urban Aboriginal people, across city and rural communities, where the majority of Aboriginal Australians live. It will also contribute to improved assessment of dementia and cognitive impairment and to the understanding of social determinants of successful aging, of international significance.

  17. How Australian and Indonesian Universities Treat Plagiarism: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of a larger study comparing various aspects of policies on plagiarism in two university contexts. It compares policies on plagiarism in universities in Australia and Indonesia. The results of this comparative study showed that Australian and Indonesian universities treat plagiarism differently. Australian universities treat plagiarism explicitly in their university policies. In Australian universities, plagiarism is defined clearly and forms of plagiarism are explained thoroughly, policies on plagiarism are informed to all university academic members, and there are mechanisms to manage cases related to plagiarism. In contrast, not all Indonesian universities treat plagiarism directly. Some universities depend on religious morality and academic ethics in dealing with plagiarism. Accordingly, this article recommends the explicit treatment of plagiarism in Indonesian universities.

  18. Influence of the Anomalous Patterns of the Mascarene and Australian Highs on Precipitation during the Prerainy Season in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the features of precipitation during the prerainy season in South China (PSCPRS and the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, which is expected to influence the PSCPRS significantly. The Morlet wavelet method revealed that the PSCPRS has significant interannual variability, especially in its quasi-biennial oscillation. The PSCPRS exhibits a significant monsoonal precipitation pattern. Using singular value decomposition (SVD and composite analysis, the anomalous characteristics of SH atmospheric circulations and their impacts on the PSCPRS are studied. The results reveal that eastward movements or extensions of the Mascarene high (MH and Australian high (AH, which have quasi-baroclinic geopotential height structures in the lower and middle troposphere, are the most significant factors affecting the PSCPRS. Their impacts on the PSCPRS anomalies are further studied using the index east of the MH (IEMH and index east of the AH (IEAH. The IEMH and IEAH have notable significant positive correlations with the PSCPRS. When either the IEMH or IEAH is stronger (weaker, more (less rainfall occurs during the prerainy season in South China.

  19. Benchmarking Academic Libraries: An Australian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Margaret; Trahn, Isabella

    1997-01-01

    Discusses experiences and outcomes of benchmarking at the Queensland University of Technology (Australia) library that compared acquisitions, cataloging, document delivery, and research support services with those of the University of New South Wales. Highlights include results as a catalyst for change, and the use of common output and performance…

  20. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  1. Distribution and establishment of the alien Australian redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in South Africa and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Nunes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus, von Martens, is native to Australasia, but has been widely translocated around the world due to aquaculture and aquarium trade. Mostly as a result of escape from aquaculture facilities, this species has established extralimital populations in Australia and alien populations in Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa. In South Africa, C. quadricarinatus was first sampled from the wild in 2002 in the Komati River, following its escape from an aquaculture facility in Swaziland, but data on the current status of its populations are not available. Methods To establish a better understanding of its distribution, rate of spread and population status, we surveyed a total of 46 sites in various river systems in South Africa and Swaziland. Surveys were performed between September 2015 and August 2016 and involved visual observations and the use of collapsible crayfish traps. Results Cherax quadricarinatus is now present in the Komati, Lomati, Mbuluzi, Mlawula and Usutu rivers, and it was also detected in several off-channel irrigation impoundments. Where present, it was generally abundant, with populations having multiple size cohorts and containing ovigerous females. In the Komati River, it has spread more than 112 km downstream of the initial introduction point and 33 km upstream of a tributary, resulting in a mean spread rate of 8 km year−1 downstream and 4.7 km year−1 upstream. In Swaziland, estimated downstream spread rate might reach 14.6 km year−1. Individuals were generally larger and heavier closer to the introduction site, which might be linked to juvenile dispersal. Discussion These findings demonstrate that C. quadricarinatus is established in South Africa and Swaziland and that the species has spread, not only within the river where it was first introduced, but also between rivers. Considering the strong impacts that alien crayfish usually have on invaded ecosystems

  2. Is the recent south-east Australian drought a sign of climate change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlan, Michael; Braganza, Karl; Collins, Dean; Jones, David

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The national climate archive reveals that Australia has warmed by almost 1 0 C since the middle of the 20th century, while rainfall has decreased in the east and far south-west and increased substantially in the north-west (Jones etal. 2006). The warming (Karoly and Braganza 2005) and the rainfall decline in the far south-west (Timbal er al. 2006) have been partly attributed to human activities. However, causes for rainfall changes elsewhere in Australia are yet to be confidently established. Severe and protracted rainfall downturns have been recorded in far south-west Australia, Victoria, southern New South Wales and parts of central Queensland since the mid-1990s. The resulting pattern of decadal rainfall anomalies show some consistencies with climate change projections that generally show drying across southern Australia (CSIRO 2001). However, there are some discrepancies and it is premature to attribute the decadal rainfall decline in south-east Australia to climate change. Most of eastern Australia experienced severe rainfall deficits during the 2002/03 and 2006/07 El Nino events, with poor rainfall in between. There is no evidence linking these El Nino events to climate change. In terms of rainfall alone, the most recent multi-year drought is not unlike droughts of the early 1900s and around 1940. Thus the rainfall downturns over eastern Australia in recent years could simply mark a recurrence of similar protracted downturns observed during the first half of the 20th century. Nevertheless, climate change is likely to have contributed to the severity of recent droughts. Temperatures have been exceptionally high over most parts of Australia during the past five years, exacerbating the water stress experienced during the last two El Nino droughts. This combination of low rainfall and record high temperatures is without historical precedent in most regions. Recent prolonged bushfire seasons may be a further consequence. Regardless of whether

  3. Human Rights and History Education: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge Nina; Buchanan, John; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The place of education for and about human rights within the school curriculum remains contested and this paper reports on the first national cross-sectoral investigation of its place in Australian curricula and more specifically in national and state History curriculum documents. Opportunities for the inclusion of human rights based studies were…

  4. Volunteering among Australian Adolescents: Findings from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Ninety-three young Australians were interviewed about volunteering as part of a larger three-stage study on youth spirituality and social concern. The results indicate that young people who were older, better educated and had access to networks and mentoring were more likely to be engaged in social-cause service than those without these resources.…

  5. Aligning IT and Business Strategy: An Australian University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Alignment with business objectives is considered to be an essential outcome of information technology (IT) strategic planning. This case study examines the process of creating an IT strategy for an Australian university using an industry standard methodology. The degree of alignment is determined by comparing the strategic priorities supported by…

  6. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets among Australian children: an Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Craig F; Simm, Peter J; Rodda, Christine P; Garnett, Sarah P; Zacharin, Margaret R; Ward, Leanne M; Geddes, Janet; Cherian, Sarah; Zurynski, Yvonne; Cowell, Christopher T

    2012-04-16

    To determine the incidence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency rickets in Australian children. 18-month questionnaire-based prospective observational study, using Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) data. Australian paediatricians and child health workers, January 2006 - July 2007. Children aged ≤ 15 years with vitamin D deficiency rickets (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] ≤ 50 nmol/L, and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels [> 229 IU/L] and/or radiological rickets). Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Description of demographics, clinical presentation, identification and further analysis of overrepresented groups, and treatment regimens compared with best-practice guidelines. We identified 398 children with vitamin D deficiency (55% male; median age, 6.3 years [range, 0.2-15 years]). The overall incidence in children ≤ 15 years of age in Australia was 4.9/100 000/year. All had a low 25OHD level (median, 28 nmol/L [range, 5-50 nmol]) and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level (median, 407 IU/L [range, 229-5443 IU/L]), and 48 (12%) were hypocalcaemic. Ninety-five children had wrist x-rays, of whom 67 (71%) had rachitic changes. Most (98%) had dark or intermediate skin colour and 18% of girls were partially or completely veiled. Most children were born in Africa (252; 63%) and 75% of children were refugees. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely related to serum vitamin D levels in children rickets is a significant problem in Australia among known high-risk groups. Public health campaigns to prevent, identify and tre@vitamin D deficiency, especially in high-risk groups, are essential.

  7. Disparities in acute in-hospital cardiovascular care for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, Rosanna; McBride, Katharine; Keech, Wendy; Kelly, Janet; Rischbieth, Amanda; Zeitz, Christopher; Beltrame, John F; Tideman, Philip A; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-05

    To assess differences in the rates of angiography and subsequent revascularisation for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians who presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS); to explore the reasons for any observed differences. Analysis of administrative data with logistic regression modelling to assess the relationship between Aboriginal status and the decision to undertake diagnostic angiography. A detailed medical record review of Aboriginal admissions was subsequently undertaken. Emergency ACS admissions to SA cardiac catheterisation hospitals, 2007-2012. 13 701 admissions of patients with an ACS, including 274 Aboriginal patients (2.1%). Rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation; documentation of justification for non-invasive management. After adjustment for age, comorbidities and remoteness, Aboriginal patients presenting with an ACS were significantly less likely than non-Aboriginal patients to undergo angiography (odds ratio [OR], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5; P Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients who had undergone angiography. Reasons for Aboriginal patients not undergoing angiography included symptoms being deemed non-cardiac (16%), non-invasive test performed (8%), and discharge against medical advice (11%); the reasons were unclear for 36% of Aboriginal patients. After controlling for age and other factors, the rate of coronary angiography was lower among Aboriginal patients with an ACS in SA. The reasons for this disparity are complex, including patient-related factors and their preferences, as well as the appropriateness of the intervention. Improved consideration of the hospital experience of Aboriginal patients must be a priority for reducing health care disparities.

  8. Preventing Australian bat lyssavirus: community knowledge and risk perception of bats in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J

    2014-04-01

    Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.

  9. South African Music Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is accredited with the South African ... Only one submission at a time per author will be considered. 2. Articles ... The Editor reserves the right to make language and punctuation changes and other ... We may require a subvention (page fees) from authors of articles to cover printing costs.

  10. Variations in breast tangent radiotherapy: a survey of practice in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veness, M.J.; Delaney, G.; Berry, M.

    1999-01-01

    The breast is a complex anatomical structure where achieving a homogeneous dose distribution with radiation treatment is difficult. Despite obvious similarities in the approach to such treatment (using tangents) there is variation in the process of simulation, planning and treatment between radiation oncologists. Previous Australasian studies in the treatment of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin's disease highlighted considerable variation in many areas of treatment. As part of a multicentre breast phantom study involving 10 radiation oncology departments throughout New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), a 22-question survey was distributed. The aim of the survey was to assess the extent of variation in the approach to the simulation, planning and treatment of early breast cancer using tangents. Responses from 10 different radiation oncology departments revealed variation in most areas of the survey. There is no reason to assume similar variations do not occur Australasia wide. Studies involving overseas radiation oncologists also reveal a wide variation in treating early breast cancer. The consequences of such variations remain unclear. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Risk management strategies by Australian farmers: two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam C.; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Russell, Iean W.; Cameron, Donald; Coventry, David; Cooper, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Australian farmers operate in one of the most risky farming environments in the world. They have to cope with numerous sources of risk including weather uncertainty, variable market prices, and institutional changes in their business management. This paper reports results from two case studies undertaken to examine the issues of farming risks and risk management strategies in Australia. The first case study found that unpredictable weather, financial risk, marketing risk, and personal risk we...

  12. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattavud Pimpa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.

  13. Evolving electrical SCLM models of the Australian continent - results of the South Australia AusLAMP deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K. E.; Thiel, S.; Heinson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project (AusLAMP) is an Australian initiative to map the Australian continental lithosphere using magnetotelluric (MT) stations to obtain a resistivity model of the subsurface. It is a joint project between Geoscience Australia, state surveys, and Universities. We present new MT 3D inversion results of the largest coherent array of the AusLAMP MT deployments to date covering two-thirds of South Australia, funded largely by the Geological Survey of South Australia with additional funding by Geoscience Australia and The University of Adelaide. The model extends across the South Australian Gawler Craton, including the Eucla Basin to the west of the craton and the Flinders Ranges and Curnamona Province to the east. The MT array covers parts of the Australian lithosphere, which has been largely unexplored with seismic tomography methods and provide a unique insight into the tectonic evolution of the continent. We incorporate 284 long-period (10s-10,000s) MT stations separated roughly every half degree latitude and longitude across an area spanning 1200 km x 800 km, south of latitude -28.5 degrees and from longitude 129 degrees to 141 degrees. We invert 24 discrete periods of the impedance tenor between 7 s and 13,000 s, and 22 different periods of the tipper data between 7s-8000 s period. The results show a heterogeneous lower crust and mantle lithosphere with a primarily resistive mantle (>1000 Ωm) lithosphere in the central and western part of the Gawler Craton and Eucla Domain. The model shows a generally NS oriented electric LAB offset from deeper cratonic lithosphere in the west to a shallow lithosphere along the eastern margin of the Gawler Craton extending further east towards the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eastern part of Australia. The lower crust is generally resistive with elongated lower crustal conductivity anomalies, which are associated with major translithospheric shear zones likely existent

  14. The Australian Atomic Energy Commission: A case study in Australian science and government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyal, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    No major scientific body in Australia has evoked as much questioning, criticism and speculation as the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, which was established in 1953 and which, 21 years later, still stands poised on the threshold of bringing Australia into the nuclear age. It is argued that the AAEC has not consolidated the goals and purposes which were set for it over two decades ago. This study attempts to answer the following questions: 1) Is the AAEC a viable institution or is it a white elephant; 2) Has it a rationale and a future in the present age; 3) Has it been accountable or has it evolved, expanded, reorganised, changed direction, consumed funds, used and produced talent, and ultimately marked time behind closed political and administrative doors; 4) Why have its work, its accomplishments and failures not been subjected to public scrutiny. (author)

  15. Australian Atomic Energy Commission: A case study in Australian science and government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyal, A M [New South Wales Inst. of Tech., Broadway (Australia)

    1975-09-01

    No major scientific body in Australia has evoked as much questioning, criticism and speculation as the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, which was established in 1953 and which, 21 years later, still stands poised on the threshold of bringing Australia into the nuclear age. It is argued that the AAEC has not consolidated the goals and purposes which were set for it over two decades ago. This study attempts to answer the following questions: 1) Is the AAEC a viable institution or is it a white elephant; 2) Has it a rationale and a future in the present age; 3) Has it been accountable or has it evolved, expanded, reorganised, changed direction, consumed funds, used and produced talent, and ultimately marked time behind closed political and administrative doors; 4) Why have its work, its accomplishments and failures not been subjected to public scrutiny.

  16. Modeling of steroid estrogen contamination in UK and South Australian rivers predicts modest increases in concentrations in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Williams, Richard; Kanda, Rakesh; Churchley, John; He, Ying; Thomas, Shaun; Goonan, Peter; Kumar, Anu; Jobling, Susan

    2013-07-02

    The prediction of risks posed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment now and in the future is one of the top 20 research questions regarding these contaminants following growing concern for their biological effects on fish and other animals. To this end it is important that areas experiencing the greatest risk are identified, particularly in countries experiencing water stress, where dilution of pollutants entering river networks is more limited. This study is the first to use hydrological models to estimate concentrations of pharmaceutical and natural steroid estrogens in a water stressed catchment in South Australia alongside a UK catchment and to forecast their concentrations in 2050 based on demographic and climate change predictions. The results show that despite their differing climates and demographics, modeled concentrations of steroid estrogens in effluents from Australian sewage treatment works and a receiving river were predicted (simulated) to be similar to those observed in the UK and Europe, exceeding the combined estradiol equivalent's predicted no effect concentration for feminization in wild fish. Furthermore, by 2050 a moderate increase in estrogenic contamination and the potential risk to wildlife was predicted with up to a 2-fold rise in concentrations.

  17. Building chronic disease management capacity in General Practice: The South Australian GP Plus Practice Nurse Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Koehne, Kristy; Verrall, Claire C; Szabo, Natalie; Bollen, Chris; Parker, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the implementation experience of the South Australian GP Plus Practice Nurse Initiative in order to establish what is needed to support the development of the chronic disease management role of practice nurses. The Initiative was delivered between 2007 and 2010 to recruit, train and place 157 nurses across 147 General Practices in Adelaide. The purpose was to improve chronic disease management in General Practice, by equipping nurses to work as practice nurses who would coordinate care and establish chronic disease management systems. Secondary analysis of qualitative data contained in the Initiative evaluation report, specifically drawing on quarterly project records and four focus groups conducted with practice nurses, practice nurse coordinators and practice nurse mentors. As evidenced by the need to increase the amount of support provided during the implementation of the Initiative, nurses new to General Practice faced challenges in their new role. Nurses described a big learning curve as they dealt with role transition to a new work environment and learning a range of new skills while developing chronic disease management systems. Informants valued the skills development and support offered by the Initiative, however the ongoing difficulties in implementing the role suggested that change is also needed at the level of the Practice. While just over a half of the placement positions were retained, practice nurses expressed concern with having to negotiate the conditions of their employment. In order to advance the role of practice nurses as managers of chronic disease support is needed at two levels. At one level support is needed to assist practice nurses to build their own skills. At the level of the Practice, and in the wider health workforce system, support is also needed to ensure that Practices are organisationally ready to include the practice nurse within the practice team.

  18. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus in south east Queensland: what has changed in 12 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; McCall, Bradley J

    2010-09-01

    Public health measures have been targeting potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) since the first recognised human cases, more than a decade ago. The effect of these measures on the epidemiology of notifications of potential exposure has not been investigated since 2003. Trends in notifications of potential exposure to ABLV reported to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit between November 1996 and October 2008 were examined. During the study period notification rates declined among all population groups and potential exposures were notified more promptly. The proportion of female notifications and the proportion of notifications from volunteer bat carers and their families and professional groups decreased over time. These changes over 12 years may indicate success of public health measures, under-reporting of potential exposure or both. Intentional handling of bats by untrained members of the public continues to be an important source of potential exposure to ABLV and requires a sustained public health response.

  19. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  20. CareTrack Kids—part 2. Assessing the appropriateness of the healthcare delivered to Australian children: study protocol for a retrospective medical record review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Tamara D; Hibbert, Peter D; Mealing, Nicole; Wiles, Louise K; Jaffe, Adam; White, Les; Cowell, Christopher T; Runciman, William B; Goldstein, Stan; Hallahan, Andrew R; Wakefield, John G; Murphy, Elisabeth; Lau, Annie; Wheaton, Gavin; Williams, Helena M; Hughes, Clifford; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian and international clinical practice guidelines are available for common paediatric conditions. Yet there is evidence that there are substantial variations between the guidelines, recommendations (appropriate care) and the care delivered. This paper describes a study protocol to determine the appropriateness of the healthcare delivered to Australian children for 16 common paediatric conditions in acute and primary healthcare settings. Methods and analysis A random sample of 6000–8000 medical records representing a cross-section of the Australian paediatric population will be reviewed for appropriateness of care against a set of indicators within three Australian states (New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia) using multistage, stratified sampling. Medical records of children aged <16 years who presented with at least one of the study conditions during 2012 and 2013 will be reviewed. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from the Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service and Women's and Children's Hospital Network (South Australia). An application is under review for the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. The authors will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer oral presentations to researchers, clinicians and policymakers at national and international conferences. PMID:25854977

  1. Experiences and Perceptions of Physical Activity Among South Asian and Anglo-Australians With Type 2 Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sabrina S; Aroni, Rosalie; Teede, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Research indicates that there are worryingly low levels of physical activity among South Asians compared with Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared perceptions, barriers, and enablers of physical activity in these groups. We used a qualitative design, conducting in-depth, semistructured iterative interviews in Victoria with 57 South Asian and Anglo-Australian participants with either type 2 diabetes or CVD. While both groups exhibited knowledge of the value of physical activity in health maintenance and disease management, they wished for more specific and culturally tailored advice from clinicians about the type, duration, and intensity of physical activity required. Physical activity identities were tied to ethnic identities, with members of each group aspiring to meet the norms of their culture regarding engagement with physical activity as specific exercise or as incidental exercise. Individual personal exercise was deemed important by Anglo-Australians whereas South Asians preferred family-based physical activity.

  2. Spicing up your advice for South Asian and Anglo-Australians with type 2 diabetes and CVD: Do cultural constructions of diet matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sabrina S; Teede, Helena; Aroni, Rosalie

    2018-01-01

    South Asians are a growing migrant population, both globally and in Australia. This group are at higher risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this qualitative study was to compare dietary practices of South Asians, n = 41 (Indian, n = 25; Sri Lankan, n = 16) and Anglo-Australians, n = 16, with these conditions, using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that both groups had a high level of awareness of dietary practices necessary for optimum disease management, both prior to and post diagnosis. Bi-directional effects of migration were noted in the dietary practices of both groups suggesting hybrid diets are evident in Australia. A key barrier to implementing dietary changes highlighted by both groups of participants was a lack of specific, timely and detailed dietary advice from clinicians. Both groups expressed that advice should be repeated and reinforced throughout the course of their disease. In addition, South Asian participants wanted more culturally relevant advice. Clinicians providing dietary advice need to recognise that preferences for staple food items are resistant to change and may affect adherence. Acculturation was evident in the dietary practices of the South Asian participants. Nevertheless, many maintained traditional food practices which were tied to their cultural identity. It is recommended that clinicians consider these factors when offering advice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Going Places: Praxis and Pedagogy in Australian Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the pedagogical value of praxis in maintaining the relevance of cultural studies in the Australian academic environment. Following its highly politicised beginnings at the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, we consider whether traditional classroom practices are commensurate with the contemporary expectations of students and staff. As a working model of the current Australian university climate, we consider the discipline group of English and Cultural Studies (ECS at the University of Western Australia. After evaluating data gathered from interviews and surveys across the undergraduate, postgraduate and staff population, we suggest potential pedagogical innovations to be implemented in cultural studies at UWA, as a case study within Australia. Our findings show that students are calling for practical activities that would benefit their studies as a complement to theory in the classroom. As a result, we argue that praxis is not only important, but vital, in the teaching of cultural studies as an enabling activity that encourages the use of new teaching methods.

  4. HCV knowledge among a sample of HCV positive Aboriginal Australians residing in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah; Brener, Loren; Jackson, L Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Treloar, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are overrepresented in both the prevalence and incidence of the hepatitis C (HCV). HCV knowledge has been associated with a range of positive health behaviours. HCV knowledge has previously been investigated as a single construct; however examining different knowledge domains (i.e. transmission, risk of complications, testing and treatment) separately may be beneficial. This study investigated whether having greater HCV knowledge in different domains is associated with self-reported positive health behaviours. 203 Aboriginal people living with HCV completed a survey assessing HCV knowledge, testing and care, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and treatment intent. Respondents' knowledge was relatively high. Greater knowledge of risk of health complications was associated with undertaking more positive lifestyle changes since diagnosis. Respondents testing and treatment knowledge was significantly associated with incarceration, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and future treatment intentions. This study illustrates the importance of ensuring that knowledge is high across different HCV domains to optimise a range of positive health behaviours of Aboriginal people living with HCV. Future health promotion campaigns targeted at Aboriginal people living with HCV could benefit from broadening their focus from prevention to other domains such as testing and treatment.

  5. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Behavioral Inhibition in Toddlers: East-West-North-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Chen, Xinyin; Hastings, Paul; Sanson, Ann; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Chung, Ock-Boon; Park, Sung-Yun; Doh, Hyun Sim; Chen, Huichang; Sun, Ling; Yoon, Chong-Hee; Cui, Liyin

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioral inhibition in toddlers was examined in five cultures. Participants in this study included 110 Australian, 108 Canadian, 151 Chinese, 104 Italian, and 113 South Korean toddlers and their mothers who were observed during a structured observational laboratory session. Matched procedures were used in each country, with…

  7. Workloads in Australian emergency departments a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneham, Joy; Cloughessy, Liz; Martin, Valmai

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to identify the current workload of clinical nurses, managers and educators in Australian Emergency Departments according to the classification of the department Additionally the relationship of experienced to inexperienced clinical staff was examined. A descriptive research method utilising a survey distributed to 394 Australian Emergency departments with a 21% response rate. Nursing workloads were calculated and a ratio of nurse to patient was established. The ratios included nurse to patient, management and educators to clinical staff. Additionally the percentage of junior to senior clinical staff was also calculated. Across all categories of emergency departments the mean nurse:patient ratios were 1:15 (am shift), 1:7 (pm shift) and 1:4 (night shift). During this period an average of 17.1% of attendances were admitted to hospital. There were 27 staff members for each manager and 23.3 clinical staff for each educator. The percentage of junior staff rostered ranged from 10% to 38%. Emergency nurses cannot work under such pressure as it may compromise the care given to patients and consequently have a negative effect on the nurse personally. However, emergency nurses are dynamically adjusting to the workload. Such conditions as described in this study could give rise to burnout and attrition of experienced emergency nurses as they cannot resolve the conflict between workload and providing quality nursing care.

  8. Homeopathy in rural Australian primary health care: a survey of general practitioner referral and practice in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, J; Adams, J; Sibbritt, D

    2013-07-01

    Homeopathy has attracted considerable recent attention from the Australian conventional medical community. However, despite such increased attention there has been little exploration of the interface between homeopathy and Australian conventional medical practice. This article addresses this research gap by exploring homeopathic practice and referral by rural and regional Australian general practitioners (GPs). A 27-item questionnaire was sent to all 1486 GPs currently practising in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia (response rate 40.7%). Few GPs in this study utilised homeopathy in their personal practice, with only 0.5% of GPs prescribing homeopathy in the past 12 months, and 8.5% referring patients for homeopathic treatment at least a few times over the past 12 months. Nearly two-thirds of GPs (63.9%) reported that they would not refer for homeopathy under any circumstances. Being in a remote location, receiving patient requests for homeopathy, observing positive responses from homeopathy previously, using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners as information sources, higher levels of knowledge of homeopathy, and being interested in increasing CAM knowledge were all independently predictive of increased referral to homeopathy amongst GPs in this study. GPs in this study were less likely to refer to homeopathy if they used peer-reviewed literature as the major source of their information on CAM. Homeopathy is not integrated significantly in rural general practice either via GP utilisation or referral. There is significant opposition to homeopathy referral amongst rural and regional GPs, though some level of interaction with homeopathic providers exists. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bedside Teaching in Australian Clinical Schools: A National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen L. Indraratna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Bedside teaching (BST of medical students has become less common in recent years; however, there have been strong recommendations made in the literature to continue this teaching modality for the valued benefits it provides. The purpose of the present study is to explore the perceptions and opinions of bedside teaching among senior Australian medical students. Methods. Medical students at Australian universities were surveyed by means of an electronic questionnaire. The results were collected and analysed. Results. A total of 517 responses were received from students at 15 universities and 94 different clinical sites. The percentage of students who identified BST as very important ranged from 62.5% in psychiatry to 90.4% in internal medicine. The optimal class size was nominated as 3-4 students, and students favoured a style where one individual performs a complete examination, with the remainder allowed to elicit the key sign afterwards. Students felt 3-4 hours of BST per week to be ideal. Advantages identified to BST included provision of feedback and elicitation of clinical signs. Disadvantages included time constraints and excessive class sizes. Conclusions. The unique benefits of BST result in its high demand by students, regardless of the discipline being taught.

  10. Basic chromosome numbers and polyploid levels in some South African and Australian grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of 46 specimens of grasses, involving 24 taxa from South Africa and Australia, have been determined during the present study. For the first time chromosome numbers are given for Eragrostis sarmentosa (Thunb. Trin. (n = 20. Panicum aequinerve Nees (n = 18,  Digitaria argyrograpta (Nees Stapf (n = 9 and D. maitlandii Stapf & C.E. Hubb. (n = 9. Additional polyploid levels are described for Diplachne fusca (L. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. (n = 10 and Digitaria diagonalis (Nees Stapf var.  diagonalis (n = 9. B-chromosomes were observed in several different specimens. The presence of B-chromosomes often results in abnormal chromosomal behaviour during meiosis.

  11. Falling short of dietary guidelines - What do Australian pregnant women really know? A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2017-02-01

    Maternal diets are not consistent with dietary guidance and this may affect the health of mothers and their infants. Nutrition knowledge and motivation may be important factors. To assess pregnant women's diets in relation to consistency with the Australian Guidelines for Healthy Eating (AGHE); factors influencing women's adherence to the recommendations; and women's attitudes towards pregnancy-specific nutrition information. A cross-sectional study using convenience sampling was undertaken at five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and through an online link (October 2012 to July 2013). N=388 pregnant women completed the survey. Categorical data were analysed using Chi square and logistic regression with significance set at Ptrying to do so and that knowing about nutrition in pregnancy was highly important. Reported dietary intakes were poor. No pregnant women met the recommended intakes for all five food groups. Poor knowledge of these recommendations was evident. Knowledge of selected recommendations (for Fruit, Vegetables, and Breads and Cereals) increased the likelihood of those foods' consumption 8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-27.7), 9.1 (95% CI, 2.6-31.3) and 6.8 (95% CI, 3.4-13.7) times respectively. Pregnant women had high levels of motivation and confidence in their ability to achieve a healthy diet and understand dietary recommendations, but actually demonstrated poor knowledge and poor adherence to guidelines. Mistaken or false beliefs may be a barrier to effective nutrition education strategies. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Days of Recorder Teaching in South Australian Schools: A Personal History

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    Southcott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    As a primary school student in the 1960s I learnt the recorder. This paper explores how the recorder became a staple of Australian primary school music programs. At that time recorders were comparatively recently revived Renaissance musical instruments that were adopted by music educators as a way for children and their teachers to engage in…

  13. The effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing organophosphate pesticide exposure among Indonesian and South Australian migrant farmworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratman S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suratman Suratman,1,2 Kirstin E Ross,1 Kateryna Babina,1 John William Edwards1 1Health and Environment Group, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jenderal Soedirman University, Kampus Karangwangkal, Purwokerto, Indonesia Background: Farmworkers are at risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs. Improvements of knowledge and perceptions about organophosphate (OP exposure may be of benefit for the reduction in OP exposure. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing OP exposure among Indonesian and South Australian (SA migrant farmworkers. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. The educational intervention used a method of group communication for 30 Indonesian farmworkers and individual communication for seven SA migrant farmworkers. Knowledge and perceptions about OP exposure were measured pre-intervention and 3 months after the intervention. Results: Unadjusted intervention effects at follow-up showed statistically significantly improved scores of knowledge (both adverse effects of OPs and self-protection from OP exposure, perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers among Indonesian farmworkers compared with SA migrant farmworkers. Furthermore, these four significant variables in the unadjusted model and the two other variables (perceived severity and perceived benefits were statistically significant after being adjusted for the level of education and years working as a farmworker. In contrast, knowledge about adverse effects of OPs was the only variable that was statistically significantly improved among SA migrant farmworkers. The results of this study suggests educational interventions using a method of group communication could be more effective than using individual intervention. Conclusion

  14. Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-08-01

    Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, pMindful eating fully mediated the negative association between everyday mindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risky driving behavior and road traffic crashes among young Asian Australian drivers: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Lam, Lawrence T

    2010-06-01

    To examine differences in risky driving behavior and likelihood of traffic crash according to the country of birth of recently licensed young drivers. The groups examined include those born in Australia, those born in Asia, and those born in other countries. The DRIVE study is a prospective cohort study of drivers aged 17-24 years holding their first-year provisional driver license in New South Wales, Australia. Information obtained from 20,822 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire was linked to police-reported traffic crashes. Self-reported risky driving behaviors and police-reported traffic crashes in young drivers. Young drivers who were born in Asian countries were less likely to report engaging in risky driving behaviors than their Australian-born counterparts. The proportion of participants reporting a high level of risky driving was 31.5 percent (95% confidence intervale [CI], 30.8-32.1) among Australian-born drivers compared to 25.6 percent (95% CI, 23.1-28.2) among Asian-born drivers and 30.4 percent (95% CI, 28.4-32.5) among those born in other regions. Asian-born participants had half the risk of a crash as a driver than their Australian-born counterparts (relative risk [RR] 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) after adjusting for a number of demographic factors and driving and risk-taking behaviors. The comparative risk was even lower among those aged 17 years (RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.29-0.75). Risk estimates for people born in other regions did not differ to those for Australian-born respondents. The study highlights the lower level of risky driving and significantly reduced crash risk for Australian drivers born in Asian countries relative to those born locally. Further research is needed to examine factors underlying this reduced risk and the impact of the length of residence in the host country.

  16. Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. (Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae) pathogenic to Proteaceae in the South Western Australian Floristic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Colin; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-07-01

    Morphological and DNA sequence characteristics of a pathogenic fungus isolated from branch cankers in Proteaceae of the South West Australian Floristic Region elucidated a new genus and species within Cryphonectriaceae (Diaporthales). The pathogen has been isolated from canker lesions in several Banksia species and Lambertia echinata subsp. citrina, and is associated with a serious decline of the rare B. verticillata. Lack of orange pigment in all observed structures except cirrhi, combined with pulvinate to globose black semi-immersed conidiomata with paraphyses, distinguishes the canker fungus from other genera of Cryphonectriaceae. This was confirmed by DNA sequence analysis of the ITS regions, β-tubulin, and LSU genes. The fungus (sexual morph unknown) is described as Luteocirrhus shearii gen. sp. nov. Lesions in seedlings of Banksia spp. following wound inoculation and subsequent recovery confirm Koch's postulates for pathogenicity. This pathogen of native Proteaceae is currently an emerging threat, particularly toward B. baxteri and B. verticillata.

  17. Teenagers and the Fragmenting Media Environment in Asia: An Australian Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Jason; George, Christina; Green, Joshua

    2000-01-01

    Presents preliminary results from a survey of 15- to 17-year-old Australians, exploring television's place within a rapidly expanding multimedia environment. Finds strong evidence for arguing that Australian youth's media use is currently in a state of flux. Lays foundations for more comprehensive studies of youth media use in Australia that might…

  18. Students' Multilingual Resources and Policy-in-Action: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Mei

    2016-01-01

    In the context of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in Australian schools, it is important to consider the value of students' multilingual resources for learning. This paper reports on an ethnographic case study conducted in an Australian metropolitan secondary school where the student body represented more than 40 cultures and…

  19. UNIVERSITY LIFE AND AUSTRALIAN HOMES: THREE CASE STUDIES OF INTERNATIONAL MUSLIM STUDENTS IN BRISBANE

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    Zulkeplee Othman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a significant increase in enrolments of postgraduate international Muslim students within Australian universities, little is known about their perceptions of life within Australian homes while undertaking their studies. The aim of this study is to investigate the ways in which students’ cultural and religious traditions affect their use of domestic spaces within the homes in which they reside. The research found that participants faced some minor difficulties in achieving privacy, maintaining modesty and extending hospitality while able to perform their daily activities in Australian designed homes. The findings suggest that greater research attention needs to be given to the development of Australian home designs that are adaptable to the needs of a multicultural society. Australian society encompasses diverse cultural customs and requirements with respect to home design, and these are yet to be explored.

  20. Impact of green roofs on stormwater quality in a South Australian urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-02-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly important component of water sensitive urban design systems and can potentially improve the quality of urban runoff. However, there is evidence that they can occasionally act as a source rather than a sink for pollutants. In this study, the water quality of the outflow from both intensive and extensive green roof systems were studied in the city of Adelaide, South Australia over a period of nine months. The aim was to examine the effects of different green roof configurations on stormwater quality and to compare this with runoff from aluminium and asphalt roofs as control surfaces. The contaminant concentrations in runoff from both intensive and extensive green roofs generally decreased during the study period. A comparison between the two types of green roof showed that except for some events for EC, TDS and chloride, the values of the parameters such as pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate and potassium in intensive green roof outflows were higher than in the outflows from the extensive green roofs. These concentrations were compared to local, state, national and international water quality guidelines in order to investigate the potential for outflow runoff from green roofs to be reused for potable and non-potable purposes. The study found that green roof outflow can provide an alternative water source for non-potable purposes such as urban landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. © 2013.

  1. The Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study: II. self-reported health of veterans compared with the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, B I; Marshall, R P; Grayson, D A; Schureck, R J; Dobson, M; Ffrench, M; Pulvertaft, B; Meldrum, L; Bolton, J; Vennard, J

    1996-04-01

    Self-reported physical health status of Australian Vietnam veterans was determined 20-25 years after the war and its relation to combat was investigated. An epidemiological cohort study of a simple random sample of Army veterans posted to Vietnam between 1964 and 1972 was conducted with personal interviews using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey questionnaire to compare veterans with the Australian population and a 21-item combat exposure index used to measure the relationship of combat to physical health. Veterans reported greater health service usage and more recent health actions than population expectations. They also reported excess health problems in almost all recent illness disease categories except endocrine conditions and cardiovascular conditions; only 6 of 37 chronic disease groups were not elevated compared to the population. Adjustment for non-response changed estimates only slightly. Combat exposure was significantly related to reports of recent and chronic mental disorders, recent hernia and chronic ulcer, recent eczema and chronic rash, deafness, chronic infective and parasitic disease, chronic back disorders and symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions. Combat exposure may have significantly increased reports of only some health problems. A general position to complain as a result of psychological conditions due to combat is not consistent with the lack of relationship between combat and reports of physical conditions.

  2. Strategic planning in hospitals in two Australian states: an exploratory study of its practice using planning documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, R; Sim, A B

    1998-01-01

    Hospitals are under pressure to respond to new challenges and competition. Many hospitals have used strategic planning to respond to these environmental changes. This exploratory study examines the extent of strategic planning in hospitals in two Australian States, New South Wales and Victoria, using a sample survey. Based on planning documentation, the study indicated that 47% of the hospitals surveyed did not have a strategic or business plan. A significant difference was found in the comprehensiveness of the plans between the two States. Plans from Victorian hospitals had more documented evidence of external/internal analysis, competitor orientation and customer orientation compared with plans from New South Wales hospitals. The paper discusses the limitations of the study and directions for future research.

  3. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  4. Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Gillam, Marianne; May, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Access to quality healthcare services is considered a moral right. However, for people living in regional locations, timely access to the services that they need may not always be possible because of structural and attitudinal barriers. This suggests that people living in regional areas may have unmet healthcare needs. The aim of this research will be to examine the healthcare needs, expectations and experiences of regional South Australians. Methods and analysis The Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey is a cross-sectional study of adult health consumers living in any private or non-private dwelling, in any regional, rural, remote or very remote area of South Australia and with an understanding of written English. Data will be collected using a 45-item, multidimensional, self-administered instrument, designed to measure healthcare need, barriers to healthcare access and health service utilisation, attitudes, experiences and satisfaction. The instrument has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, including good content validity and internal reliability, good test–retest reliability and a high level of acceptability. The survey will be administered online and in hard-copy, with at least 1832 survey participants to be recruited over a 12-month period, using a comprehensive, multimodal recruitment campaign. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social media, broadcast media, print media, the internet and various community/stakeholder engagement activities. PMID:29654014

  5. South African Music Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African Society for Research in Music (SASRIM). It gives priority to the publication of research on South African music, but continues to represent the wider field of research interests in the country and in the rest of Africa. The journal invites work from any ...

  6. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce survey: helping to fill the evidence gap in primary health workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Deirdre; Smith, Tony; Newbury, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of detailed evidence about the allied health workforce to inform proposed health care reforms. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce (SAAHW) survey collected data about the demographic characteristics, employment, education and recruitment and retention of allied health professionals in South Australia. The SAAHW questionnaire was widely distributed and 1539 responses were received. The average age of the sample was 40 years; males were significantly older than females, the latter making up 82% of respondents. Three-quarters of the sample worked in the city; 60% worked full time and the remainder in part-time, casual or locum positions. 'Work-life balance' was the most common attraction to respondents' current jobs and 'Better career prospects' the most common reason for intending to leave. Practice in a rural location was influenced by rural background and rural experience during training. A greater proportion of Generation Y (1982-2000) respondents intended to leave within 2 years than Generation X (1961-81) or Baby Boomers (1943-60). Most respondents were satisfied with their job, although some reported lack of recognition of their knowledge and skills. Systematic, robust allied health workforce data are required for integrated and sustainable primary health care delivery.

  7. Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene

    2016-08-01

    Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Institutional (mis)trust in colorectal cancer screening: a qualitative study with Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Javanparast, Sara; Wilson, Carlene; Meyer, Samantha B

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer mortality rate in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT), although uptake is low for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups. To present data on trust and mistrust in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake and thus to highlight areas in need of policy change. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia, involving interviews with 94 people from four CALD groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian, and Indigenous peoples. Our study highlights the complexities of institutional trust, which involves considerations of trust at interpersonal, local and national levels. In addition, trust and mistrust was found in more abstract systems such as the medical knowledge of doctors to diagnose or treat cancer or the scientific procedures in laboratories to test the FOBTs. The object of institutional (mis)trust differed between cultural groups - Anglo-Australian and Iranian groups indicated a high level of trust in the government, whereas Indigenous participants were much less trusting. The level and nature of trust in the screening process varied between the CALD groups. Addressing program misconceptions, clarifying the FOBT capabilities and involving medical services in collecting and transporting the samples may increase trust in the NBCSP. However, broader and more enduring mistrust in services and institutions may need to be dealt with in order to increase trust and participation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  10. Information and communication technology use among Victorian and South Australian oral health professions students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael; Au-Yeung, Winnie

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and analyze the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by oral health professions students in Victoria and South Australia. Data were collected during the 2009 and 2010 academic years via electronic survey. Out of 1,138 students studying in Adelaide and Victorian dental schools, 740 students participated, for an overall response rate of 65 percent. The majority were dental students (n=609) with 131 seeking a Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) degree. The majority were female (62.0 percent), had home Internet access (91.7 percent), and no barriers to accessing the Internet (87.2 percent). Among those who mentioned barriers, difficult access and cost were the most common. The Internet was accessed at least once a week by the majority for general purposes (93.5 percent) and for study purposes (84.2 percent). Nonetheless, thirty-nine students (5.3 percent) were non-frequent ICT users. The probability of an oral health professions student being in the non-ICT users group was explored utilizing a logistic regression analysis. The final model contained three predictors: location of school, ethnic background, and place of Internet use (χ(2) [3]=117.7; pstudents from an Asian background were three times more likely to be non-users (OR=3.06; 95 percent CI 1.16 to 8.08). Those who had access to the Internet at home (OR=0.02; 95 percent CI 0.01 to 0.05) were less likely to be a non-user. These results represent a preliminary evaluation of ICT use among oral health professions students in Australia. It seems that a digital divide exists among these students. The information can be utilized in planning dental education programs and incorporating the use of ICT suitable for oral health professions students and in the design and implementation of employment recruitment and retention programs.

  11. Midwives' use of the Internet: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; McLelland, Gayle

    2011-02-01

    to report findings on midwives' use of the Internet drawn from a larger study that explored midwives' attitudes and experiences to online and computer-based learning. a descriptive, quantitative design using anonymous questionnaires was employed to obtain information from a sample of midwives in Victoria, Australia. questionnaires were forwarded by mail to a sample of 300 members of the Victorian branch of the Australian College of Midwives. A total of 169 questionnaires were returned by reply paid mail, representing a response rate of 56%. around 92.3% of respondents reported that they used the Internet. However, 31.5% did not find navigating it to be easy, 34.7% reported that finding information was not easy, and 27.2% were not confident using the Internet. many midwives have insufficient Internet competence to be able to access necessary evidence to support practice and to assist women with decision making. ongoing education and training is needed to ensure that midwives have the skills to source evidence to support practice, and are able to effectively critique Internet information. Crown Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Professional development needs of nurse educators. An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprescu, Florin; McAllister, Margaret; Duncan, David; Jones, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Because there is a global shortage of nurse educators, highly productive and committed nurse educators are needed to supply a rapidly expanding and changing health landscape. To support the aforementioned effort professional development needs of nurse educators must be systematically identified. This study explores practical issues around professional development needs of nurse educators. One hundred and thirty eight Australian nurse educators based in Queensland answered an online survey around professional development needs. Results indicate that 83% (n = 115) of the respondents were enthusiastic about nurse education yet only 45% (n = 62) were confident in their skills and less than 10% (n = 13) saw themselves as expert nurse educators. The most desired areas of future development in teaching were information technology skills, assessment and technical knowledge. There seems to be a shared need for developing global online and offline support resources and communities of practice to support nurse educators in their teaching and research endeavours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  14. Chronological narratives from smoking initiation through to pregnancy of Indigenous Australian women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-01

    One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in August 2010. The collection site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll woodland forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris nor...

  16. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN AND AUSTRALIAN FLOWER INDUSTRIES: An application of three methodologies.

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooyen, I.M.; Kirsten, Johann F.; van Rooyen, C.J.; Collins, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Competitiveness is defined to include both comparative and competitive advantage. Three different methodologies are applied in the analysis of the flower industries of South Africa and Australia: "Determinants of competitive advantage" methodology of Michael Porter (1990) describes the factors influencing competitive advantage; "Revealed comparative advantage" states the relative importance of flower trade in each country; and the "Policy Analyses Matrix" calculates the comparative advantage ...

  17. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  18. Feasibility of establishing an Australian ACL registry: a pilot study by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, Christina; Clarnette, Richard; Graves, Stephen E; Rainbird, Sophia; Parker, David; Lorimer, Michelle; Paterson, Roger; Roe, Justin; Morris, Hayden; Feller, Julian A; Annear, Peter; Forster, Ben; Hayes, David

    2017-05-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common and debilitating injury that impacts significantly on knee function and risks the development of degenerative arthritis. The outcome of ACL surgery is not monitored in Australia. The optimal treatment is unknown. Consequently, the identification of best practice in treating ACL is crucial to the development of improved outcomes. The Australian Knee Society (AKS) asked the Australian Orthopaedic Association (AOA) to consider establishing a national ACL registry. As a first step, a pilot study was undertaken by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) to test the hypothesis that collecting the required information in the Australian setting was possible. Surgeons completed an operative form which provided comprehensive information on the surgery undertaken. Patients provided pre- and post-operative questionnaires including the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Marx Activity Scale (MA Scale). The number of ACL procedures undertaken at each hospital during the recruitment period was compared against State Government Health Department separation data. A total of 802 patients were recruited from October 2011 to January 2013. The overall capture rate for surgeon-derived data was 99%, and the capture rate for the pre-operative patient questionnaire was 97.9%. At 6 months, patient-reported outcomes were obtained from 55% of patients, and 58.5% of patients at 12 months. When checked against State Government Health Department separation data, 31.3% of procedures undertaken at each study hospital were captured in the study. It is possible to collect surgeon-derived and pre-operative patient-reported data, following ACL reconstruction in Australia. The need to gain patient consent was a limiting factor to participation. When patients did consent to participate in the study, we were able to capture nearly 100% of surgical procedures. Patient consent

  19. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  20. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Briceño

    Full Text Available Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  1. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 19 patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome from a single South Australian centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, A F; Smith, W B; Sinkar, S N; Kette, F E; Hissaria, P

    2013-07-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare, idiopathic systemic vasculitis. There is emerging evidence of an association between the presence or absence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and clinical phenotype. Thromboembolism is an increasingly recognised complication of the disease. Given the paucity of Australian data, the aim of this study was to examine the clinical and laboratory features of CSS in a single Australian centre. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for CSS managed at the Department of Immunology, Royal Adelaide Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Nineteen patients were included. All patients had asthma and most had upper airway involvement. Peripheral nerve, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and cutaneous involvement was common. Renal and cardiac involvement was uncommon in this series. Histological confirmation was obtained in 15 patients (78.9%). Ten patients (52.6%) were ANCA+, and these were more likely to have musculoskeletal involvement, such as arthralgia or myalgia (odds ratio 57, P = 0.005). Thrombosis was a feature at diagnosis in six patients (31.6%); two of these recurred with relapse. Sixteen patients (84.2%) were followed up; five died, and mean survival was 8.9 years. This is the first Australian study to focus on CSS. Our results demonstrate similar presentation and prognosis of CSS to previous descriptions; however, we noted that musculoskeletal involvement was more common in ANCA+ patients. In our series, thrombosis was a significant complication and we suggest that thromboprophylaxis may be warranted. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Nature Study, Aborigines and the Australian Kindergarten: Lessons from Martha Simpson's "Australian Programme Based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an experimental kindergarten programme "Work in the Kindergarten: An Australian Programme based on the Life and Customs of the Australian Black" developed by Martha Simpson in early twentieth-century Australia. Here Simpson adapted international Revisionist Froebelian approaches to cultural epoch theory and nature…

  3. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus is unlikely to prevent future bat handling among adults in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M K; Banu, S; McCall, B J; Vlack, S; Carroll, H; Bennett, S; Davison, R; Francis, D

    2018-02-01

    Despite ongoing public health messages about the risks associated with bat contact, the number of potential exposures to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) due to intentional handling by members of the general public in Queensland has remained high. We sought to better understand the reasons for intentional handling among these members of the public who reported their potential exposure to inform future public health messages. We interviewed adults who resided in a defined geographic area in South East Queensland and notified potential exposure to ABLV due to intentional handling of bats by telephone between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. The participation rate was 54%. Adults who reported they had intentionally handled bats in South East Queensland indicated high levels of knowledge and perception of a moderately high risk associated with bats with overall low intentions to handle bats in the future. However, substantial proportions of people would attempt to handle bats again in some circumstances, particularly to protect their children or pets. Fifty-two percent indicated that they would handle a bat if a child was about to pick up or touch a live bat, and 49% would intervene if a pet was interacting with a bat. Future public health communications should recognize the situations in which even people with highrisk perceptions of bats will attempt to handle them. Public health messages currently focus on avoidance of bats in all circumstances and recommend calling in a trained vaccinated handler, but messaging directed at adults for circumstances where children or pets may be potentially exposed should provide safe immediate management options. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The impact of Australian legislative changes on synthetic cannabinoid exposures reported to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Rose; Brown, Jared A; Gunja, Naren; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre. A retrospective review of calls to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC). Cases occurring between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2015 with documented use of SCRAs were included. There were 146 exposures to SCRAs recorded in the NSWPIC database. Federal bans of specific SCRA compounds in 2011/2012 had little impact on call volumes. State-based legislation introduced in 2013 banning specific brand names of SCRA products was followed by a dramatic, sustained decrease in exposures. The most common symptoms reported with SCRA use were tachycardia, vomiting, drowsiness, anxiety/panic, decreased level of consciousness, chest pain, agitation, hallucinations, confusion, seizures and hypertension. Banning of specific brand names of SCRA (timed with raids and social media campaigns) appears effective at reducing SCRA exposures. We postulate that this raised awareness within the community of the illegality of these substances while also reducing supply through bricks-and-mortar shops. These results could help inform future legislative responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  6. Securitization of Migration: an Australian case study of global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Humphrey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Post September 11 migration has increasingly been framed as a security problem. In the 2010 Australian election campaign migration was connected to security (defense of our borders, terrorism and social cohesion and to related issues of insecurity about the future (population size,sustainability and economic growth. Thisframing of migration as a national security issue overlooks the reality that Australian immigration is part of the global flow of population. Migration is an international issue experienced by states as a national question of border control and sovereignty seeking to manage the consequences of global inequality and mobility. This paper analyses the 'security turn' in migration debates in Australia and the North and the way the securitization of migration signifies the transformation of security from the problem of producing national order to the problem of managing global disorder resulting in the merging of national and international security strategies.

  7. Health literacy and the Internet: a study on the readability of Australian online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Almost 80% of Australian Internet users seek out health information online so the readability of this information is important. This study aimed to evaluate the readability of Australian online health information and determine if it matches the average reading level of Australians. Two hundred and fifty-one web pages with information on 12 common health conditions were identified across sectors. Readability was assessed by the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulas, with grade 8 adopted as the average Australian reading level. The average reading grade measured by F-K and SMOG was 10.54 and 12.12 respectively. The mean FRE was 47.54, a 'difficult-to-read' score. Only 0.4% of web pages were written at or below grade 8 according to SMOG. Information on dementia was the most difficult to read overall, while obesity was the most difficult among government websites. The findings suggest that the readability of Australian health websites is above the average Australian levels of reading. A quantifiable guideline is needed to ensure online health information accommodates the reading needs of the general public to effectively use the Internet as an enabler of health literacy. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Immobilisation in Australian paediatric medical imaging: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noonan, S.; Spuur, K.; Nielsen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The primary aim of this study is to document the use of paediatric immobilisation techniques in medical imaging. Secondary aims are to investigate differences between current practice of paediatric and non-paediatric facilities and radiographer gender and to investigate immobilisation protocols. Methods: A SurveyMonkey link was distributed through the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) newsletter. Radiographer members of ASMIRT were invited to participate. Frequency percentage analysis was undertaken; as the 'frequency of immobilisation' response was on a Likert scale and the ages categorical, a Fisher's exact test could determine dependency. Results: The use of paediatric immobilisation techniques was determined to be related to age. The most commonly used technique in general X-ray was “other people”; in computed tomography, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques; and in magnetic resonance imaging, sedation and Velcro. A comparison of immobilisation techniques demonstrated that Velcro use in X-ray was dependent on facility (p = 0.017) with paediatric facilities using it up to 17 years. Immobilisation frequency was dependent in 13–17 years (p = 0.035) with paediatric facilities rarely immobilising and non-paediatric facilities never. No dependencies resulted upon comparing genders. Immobilisation frequency was not dependent between protocols or current practice. Conclusion: The use of paediatric immobilisation technique is related to age with “other people”, sedation, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques being regularly used. The dependency of Velcro use and immobilisation frequency in 13–17 years is for unknown reasons and further investigation is required. A larger study should be carried out to validate these findings. - Highlights: • Document the use of paediatric immobilisation techniques in medical imaging. • Investigate differences in practice between

  9. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-12-02

    To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance.

  10. a South African case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tions between mathematics as a discipline and application of mathematics in real ... In the South African school syllabus Calculus forms about 40% of Algebra, as seen in .... These notions helped us to devise a linear model, shown in Figure 1, ...

  11. Practitioner insights on obesity prevention: the voice of South Australian OPAL workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge based on science has been central to implementing community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions. The art of practitioner wisdom is equally critical to ensure locally relevant responses. In South Australia (SA), the OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle) program has been implemented to reduce childhood obesity across 20 communities reaching nearly one quarter of the state's population. Staff from across the State come together at regular intervals to share practice challenges and insights and refine the model of practice. Over a 3-year period 12 reflective practice workshops were held with OPAL staff (n = 46). OPAL staff were guided by an external facilitator using inquiring questions to reflect on their health promotion practice within local government. Three themes were identified as central within the reflections. The first theme is shared clarity through the OPAL obesity prevention model highlighting the importance of working to a clearly articulated, holistic obesity prevention model. The second theme is practitioner skill and sensitivity required to implement the model and deal with the 'politics' of obesity prevention. The final theme is the power of relationships as intrinsic to effective community based health promotion. Insights into the daily practices and reflections from obesity prevention practitioners are shared to shed light on the skills required to contribute to individual and social change. OPAL staff co-authored this paper. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Post-term surveillance and birth outcomes in South Asian-born compared with Australian-born women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, C; Wong, L; Cabalag, C; Wallace, E M; Davies-Tuck, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine if apparently healthy post-term South Asian-born (SA) women were more likely to have abnormal post-term fetal surveillance than Australian- and New Zealand-born (AUS/NZ) women, whether those abnormalities were associated with increased rates of obstetric intervention and adverse perinatal outcomes, and whether SA women and their babies were at higher risk of adverse outcomes in the post-term period irrespective of their post-term surveillance outcomes. Post-term surveillance and perinatal outcomes of 145 SA and 272 AUS/NZ nulliparous women with a singleton post-term pregnancy were compared in a retrospective multicentre cohort analysis. Post-term SA women were not significantly more likely to have a low amniotic fluid index (AFI) than AUS/NZ women. However, they were nearly four times more likely (odds ratio 3.75; 95% CI 1.49-9.44) to have an abnormal CTG (P=0.005). Irrespective of maternal region of birth having an abnormal cardiotocography (CTG) or AFI was not associated with adverse intrapartum or perinatal outcomes. However, post-term SA women were significantly more likely than AUS/NZ women to have intrapartum fetal compromise (P=0.03) and an intrapartum cesarean section (P=0.002). Babies of SA women were more also significantly likely to be admitted to the Special Care Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (P=0.02). Post-term SA women experience higher rates of fetal compromise (antenatal and intrapartum) and obstetric intervention than AUS/NZ women. Irrespective of maternal region of birth an abnormal CTG or AFI was not predictive of adverse outcomes.

  13. Australian perioperative nurses' experiences of assisting in multi-organ procurement surgery: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zaneta; Leslie, Gavin; Wynaden, Dianne

    2015-03-01

    Multi-organ procurement surgical procedures through the generosity of deceased organ donors, have made an enormous impact on extending the lives of recipients. There is a dearth of in-depth knowledge relating to the experiences of perioperative nurses working closely with organ donors undergoing multi-organ procurement surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to address this gap by describing the perioperative nurses experiences of participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures and interpreting these findings as a substantive theory. This qualitative study used grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory of the experiences of perioperative nurses participating in multi-organ procurement surgery. Recruitment of participants took place after the study was advertised via a professional newsletter and journal. The study was conducted with participants from metropolitan, rural and regional areas of two Australian states; New South Wales and Western Australia. Thirty five perioperative nurse participants with three to 39 years of professional nursing experience informed the study. Semi structured in-depth interviews were undertaken from July 2009 to April 2010 with a mean interview time of 60 min. Interview data was transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The study results draw attention to the complexities that exist for perioperative nurses when participating in multi-organ procurement surgical procedures reporting a basic social psychological problem articulated as hiding behind a mask and how they resolved this problem by the basic social psychological process of finding meaning. This study provides a greater understanding of how these surgical procedures impact on perioperative nurses by providing a substantive theory of this experience. The findings have the potential to guide further research into this challenging area of nursing practice with implications for clinical initiatives, management

  14. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  15. Towards healthy and sustainable food consumption: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Barosh, Laurel J; Lawrence, Mark

    2014-05-01

    To articulate a healthy and sustainable (H&S) diet; outline key health and environmental sustainability principles that can be applied in the selection of foods for inclusion in such a diet; and describe a methodology with which to assess the availability and affordability of a H&S food basket. We synthesized publically available evidence on the environmental impact of different foods from academic, government, industry and non-government sources and constructed a hypothetical H&S equivalent of the typical Australian diet. Based on this, we constructed a weekly H&S food basket for a household of two adults and two children. Australia. Australian populations. The H&S diet is based on three overarching principles: (i) any food that is consumed above a person's energy requirement represents an avoidable environmental burden in the form of greenhouse gas emissions, use of natural resources and pressure on biodiversity; (ii) reducing the consumption of discretionary food choices, which are energy-dense and highly processed and packaged, reduces both the risk of dietary imbalances and the use of environmental resources; and (iii) a diet comprising less animal- and more plant-derived foods delivers both health and ecological benefits. We have focused on the articulation of a H&S diet not to facilitate 'policy drift' to focus on individual dietary choice, but rather to provide evidence to extend dietary guideline recommendations so as to integrate environmental considerations within the scope of food and health policy advice in Australia and elsewhere.

  16. Disquiet | Erasmus | South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Music Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34-35, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Benthic studies in south Gujarat estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govindan, K.; Varshney, P.K.; Desai, B.N.

    Benthic biomass and faunal composition in relation to various environmental conditions of the four South Gujarat estuaries namely the Auranga, Ambika, Purna and Mindola were studied and compared. Mean population density of benthos in Auranga, Ambika...

  18. Findings from three South African studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    The draft Traditional Health Practitioners Bill of South Africa was unanimously ... Africa to mental health, and over recent years conducted three studies designed to fill some of the gaps. ..... health service to certain sectors of the population.

  19. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  20. Findings from three South African studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Findings from three South African studies. BA Robertson. Emeritus Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, ... heterogeneous presentation including elements of anxiety, .... Washington: APA, 1994. 4.

  1. Ocean transport and variability studies of the South Pacific, Southern, and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, John A.; Cresswell, G. R.; Nilsson, C. S.; Mcdougall, T. J.; Coleman, R.; Rizos, C.; Penrose, J.; Hunter, J. R.; Lynch, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to analyze ocean dynamics in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. Specifically, our objectives for these three regions are, for the South Pacific Ocean: (1) To estimate the volume transport of the east Australian Current (EAC) along the Australian coast and in the Tasman Front, and to estimate the time variability (on seasonal and interannual time scales) of this transport. (2) To contribute to estimating the meridional heat and freshwater fluxes (and their variability) at about 30 deg S. Good estimates of the transport in the western boundary current are essential for accurate estimates of these fluxes. (3) To determine how the EAC transport (and its extension, the Tasman Front and the East Auckland Current) closes the subtropical gyre of the South Pacific and to better determine the structure at the confluence of this current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. (4) To examine the structure and time variability of the circulation in the western South Pacific and the adjacent Southern Ocean, particularly at the Tasman Front. For the Indian Ocean: (5) To study the seasonal interannual variations in the strength of the Leeuwin Current. (6) To monitor the Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow and the South Equatorial and the South Java Currents between northwest Australia and Indonesia. (7) To study the processes that form the water of the permanent oceanic thermocline and, in particular, the way in which new thermocline water enters the permanent thermocline in late winter and early spring as the mixed layer restratifies. For the Southern Ocean: (8) To study the mesoscale and meridional structure of the Southern Ocean between 150 deg E and 170 deg E; in particular, to describe the Antarctic frontal system south of Tasmania and determine its interannual variability; to estimate the exchanges of heat, salt, and other properties between the Indian and Pacific Oceans; and to investigate the

  2. Radiation protection in an interventional laboratory: a comparative study of Australian and Saudi Arabian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmari, Mohammed Ali S.; Sun, Zhonghua; Bartlett, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the use of protection devices and attitudes of interventional professionals (including radiologists, cardiologists, vascular surgeons, medical imaging technicians and nurses) towards radiation protection will differ between Saudi Arabian and Australian hospitals. Hard copies of an anonymous survey were distributed to 10 and 6 clinical departments in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia and metropolitan hospitals in Western Australia, respectively. The overall response rate was 43 % comprising 110 Australian participants and 63 % comprising 147 Saudi participants. Analysis showed that Australian respondents differed significantly from Saudi respondents with respect to their usages of leaded glasses (p < 0.001), ceiling-suspended lead screen (p < 0.001) and lead drape suspended from the table (p < 0.001). This study indicates that the trained interventional professionals in Australia tend to adhere to benefit from having an array of tools for personal radiation protection than the corresponding group in Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  3. REGULATION OF AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS AND NATIONAL SECURITY: LESSONS FROM THREE CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McKenna, Michael; Rayner, Johanna; Hawes, Jazmin

    2016-03-01

    In recent times, Australia's national security concerns have had controversial impacts on regulation of Australian medical practitioners in areas related to immigration detention. This column explores three recent case studies relevant to this issue. The first involves the enactment of the Australian Border Force Act 2015 (Cth), which has a significant impact on the regulation of medical professionals who work with people in immigration detention. The second involves the decision of the High Court of Australia in Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2016] HCA 1 that an amendment to Australian federal legislation justified sending children back to immigration detention centres in Papua New Guinea and Nauru. This legislation was previously heavily criticised by the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. The third concerns the deregistration of Tareq Kamleh, an Australian doctor of German-Palestinian heritage who came to public attention on ANZAC Day 2015 with his appearance online in a propaganda video for the Islamic State terrorist organisation al-Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa'al Sham, also known as Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh. Australia's professional regulatory system should presumptively respect professional virtues, such as loyalty to the relief of individual patient suffering, when dealing with doctors (whether in Australia or ISIS-occupied Syria) working under regimes whose principles appear inconsistent with those of ethics and human rights.

  4. Australian Rules football: an anthropometric study of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L M; Read, R S; Gollan, R A

    1985-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and personal data were collected from 119 Australian Rules footballers from Victoria. A top level professional league team, a second level association team, and an A-grade amateur association team were observed, representing three levels of ability. The profile of physical features of these athletes at the beginning of the season is presented. A gradation of body size was observed between teams. The players in the top level team were slightly taller and heavier than those in the other teams. They had less body fat, as shown by lesser skinfold thicknesses, a smaller percentage body fat as determined by prediction equations, and a greater fat-free mass. The intermediate level team showed an intermediate level of body fat and the lower level team had the highest proportion of fat.

  5. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Australian Registered Training Organisations. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a study examining organisational culture and structure in ten Australian registered training organisations (RTOs) and is part of a program of research examining the factors which affect and help build the capability of vocational education and training (VET) providers. The study sought to determine: (1) how…

  6. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  7. Australian Nurses' Perception of the Impact of Their Postgraduate Studies on Their Patient Care Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Dianne; Donoghue, Judith; Duffield, Christine

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 403 Australian nurses who undertook postgraduate studies received 236 responses. Respondents indicated that postgraduate education had an impact on a number of professional behaviors but little or no effect on others, such as autonomy, time management, use of computers, and communication with patients. (Contains 25…

  8. Ten-year all-cause mortality and its association with vision among Indigenous Australians within Central Australia: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ebony; Ng, Soo K; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas H; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2017-05-01

    No studies to date have explored the association of vision with mortality in Indigenous Australians. We aimed to determine the 10-year all-cause mortality and its associations among Indigenous Australians living in Central Australia. Prospective observational cohort study. A total of 1257 (93.0%) of 1347 patients from The Central Australian Ocular Health Study, over the age of 40 years, were available for follow-up during a 10-year period. All-cause mortality and its associations with visual acuity, age and gender were analysed. All-cause mortality. All-cause mortality was 29.3% at the end of 10 years. Mortality increased as age of recruitment increased: 14.2% (40-49 years), 22.6% (50-59 years), 50.3% (60 years or older) (χ = 59.15; P < 0.00001). Gender was not associated with mortality as an unadjusted variable, but after adjustment with age and visual acuity, women were 17.0% less likely to die (t = 2.09; P = 0.037). Reduced visual acuity was associated with increased mortality rate (5% increased mortality per one line of reduced visual acuity; t = 4.74; P < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes and hypertension. The 10-year all-cause mortality rate of Indigenous Australians over the age of 40 years and living in remote communities of Central Australia was 29.3%. This is more than double that of the Australian population as a whole. Mortality was significantly associated with visual acuity at recruitment. Further work designed to better understand this association is warranted and may help to reduce this disparity in the future. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Association of Visual Impairment and All-Cause 10-Year Mortality Among Indigenous Australian Individuals Within Central Australia: The Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soo Khai; Kahawita, Shyalle; Andrew, Nicholas Howard; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie Evan; Landers, John

    2018-05-01

    It is well established from different population-based studies that visual impairment is associated with increased mortality rate. However, to our knowledge, the association of visual impairment with increased mortality rate has not been reported among indigenous Australian individuals. To assess the association between visual impairment and 10-year mortality risk among the remote indigenous Australian population. Prospective cohort study recruiting indigenous Australian individuals from 30 remote communities located within the central Australian statistical local area over a 36-month period between July 2005 and June 2008. The data were analyzed in January 2017. Visual acuity, slitlamp biomicroscopy, and fundus examination were performed on all patients at recruitment. Visual impairment was defined as a visual acuity of less than 6/12 in the better eye. Mortality rate and mortality cause were obtained at 10 years, and statistical analyses were performed. Hazard ratios for 10-year mortality with 95% confidence intervals are presented. One thousand three hundred forty-seven patients were recruited from a total target population number of 2014. The mean (SD) age was 56 (11) years, and 62% were women. The total all-cause mortality was found to be 29.3% at 10 years. This varied from 21.1% among those without visual impairment to 48.5% among those with visual impairment. After adjustment for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension, those with visual impairment were 40% more likely to die (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70; P = .001) during the 10-year follow-up period compared with those with normal vision. Bilateral visual impairment among remote indigenous Australian individuals was associated with 40% higher 10-year mortality risk compared with those who were not visually impaired. Resource allocation toward improving visual acuity may therefore aid in closing the gap in mortality outcomes between indigenous and nonindigenous Australian

  10. Returns on investment in wild dog management-beef production in the South Australian Arid Lands

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Allen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Beef cattle producers in Australia have reported an increase in calf losses as a result of wild dog attacks in recent years. However, while control measures may reduce calf losses from wild dog attacks, they may also reduce attacks on kangaroos. Thus, wild dog control measures may inadvertently increase kangaroo competition with cattle for grazing vegetation, which is potentially costly for graziers. In this study the net returns to beef production from investments in wild dog controls in a c...

  11. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999, rests on research toward a new history of Australians and the South African war commissioned by ... "spontaneity": the Australian offers of troops for the Boer war', Historical Studies. 18(70) Apr ...... 'People come out of that movie', said Jack Thompson, an actor in it;. 'saying "Fuck ... A documentary due for release soon ...

  12. Uptake of external cephalic version for term breech presentation: an Australian population study, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Yu Sun; Roberts, Christine L; Nicholl, Michael C; Ford, Jane B

    2017-07-26

    The safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version (ECV) for term breech presentation has been demonstrated. Clinical guidelines recommend ECV for all eligible women, but the uptake of this procedure in the Australian healthcare setting is unknown. This study aimed to describe ECV uptake in New South Wales, the most populous state of Australia, during 2002 to 2012. Data from routine hospital and birth records were used to identify ECVs conducted at ≥36 weeks' gestation. Women with ECV were compared to women who were potentially eligible for but did not have ECV. Eligibility for ECV was based on clinical guidelines. For those with ECV, birth outcomes following successful and unsuccessful procedures were examined. In N = 32,321 singleton breech pregnancies, 10.5% had ECV, 22.3% were ineligible, and 67.2% were potentially eligible but did not undergo ECV. Compared to women who were eligible but who did not attempt ECV, those who had ECV were more likely to be older, multiparous, overseas-born, public patients at delivery, and to deliver in tertiary hospitals in urban areas (p < 0.01). Fewer women who underwent ECV smoked during pregnancy, fewer were morbidly obese, and fewer had a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, compared to those who were eligible. Caesarean section occurred in 25.9% of successful compared to 95.6% of unsuccessful ECVs. Infant outcomes did not differ by ECV success. The majority of women with a breech presentation did not receive ECV. It is unclear whether this is attributable to issues with service provision or low acceptability among women. Policies to improve access to and information about ECV appear necessary to improve uptake among women with term breech presentation. Improved data collection around the diagnosis of breech presentation, ECV attempts, and outcomes may help to identify specific barriers to ECV uptake.

  13. Assessment of the School Nutrition Environment: A Study in Australian Primary School Canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Nathan, Nicole K; Wyse, Rebecca J; Preece, Sarah J; Williams, Christopher M; Sutherland, Rachel L; Wiggers, John H; Delaney, Tessa M; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-08-01

    Schools represent a valuable setting for interventions to improve children's diets, as they offer structured opportunities for ongoing intervention. Modifications to the school food environment can increase purchasing of healthier foods and improve children's diets. This study examines the availability of healthy food and drinks, implementation of pricing and promotion strategies in Australian primary school canteens, and whether these varied by school characteristics. In 2012 and 2013, canteen managers of primary schools in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales reported via telephone interview the pricing and promotion strategies implemented in their canteens to encourage healthier food and drink purchases. A standardized audit of canteen menus was performed to assess the availability of healthy options. Data were analyzed in 2014. Overall, 203 (79%) canteen managers completed the telephone interview and 170 provided menus. Twenty-nine percent of schools had menus that primarily consisted of healthier food and drinks, and 11% did not sell unhealthy foods. Less than half reported including only healthy foods in meal deals (25%), labeling menus (43%), and having a comprehensive canteen policy (22%). A significantly larger proportion of schools in high socioeconomic areas (OR=3.0) and large schools (OR=4.4) had primarily healthy options on their menus. School size and being a Government school were significantly associated with implementation of some pricing and promotion strategies. There is a need to monitor canteen environments to inform policy development and research. Future implementation research to improve the food environments of disadvantaged schools in particular is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  15. Not addressing the root cause: An analysis of submissions made to the South Australian Government on a Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Elizabeth; Schmied, Virginia; Peters, Kath; Dahlen, Hannah

    2015-06-01

    Reports of unregulated birth workers attending birth at home, with no registered midwife in attendance (freebirth), have become more frequent in Australia in recent years. A Coronial Inquiry (2012) into the deaths of three babies born at home in South Australia resulted in a call for legislation to restrict the practice of midwifery to registered midwives. A Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice in South Australia was issued as a consultation paper in January 2013. To report the views of those making a submission to the Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice in South Australia. Thirty submissions to the South Australian Government were downloaded, read and thematically analysed. Twenty-five (81%) submissions supported the legislation, 5 (16%) opposed it and 2 (6%) were neither for nor against. Support for the proposed legislation was strong, however the underlying root causes that have led to the rise of UBWs attending homebirth in Australia were not addressed. Recommendations called for all stakeholders to work with women to develop a better framework of care that respected and met their needs and choices whilst safeguarding maternal and neonatal health. The Proposal to Protect Midwifery Practice may promote greater protection of midwifery practice however, Private Indemnity Insurance (PII), collaborative agreements and power struggles associated with the medical domination of childbirth continue to marginalise homebirth and prevent women from accessing the care they want and need. These unresolved issues represent the root causes for UBWs attending homebirth; hence the proposal is only a partial solution. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Results Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PFacebook is a feasible and efficient strategy for the recruitment of men from across Australia for HPV testing. This method could be used for monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination. Additional targeting may achieve a sample that is broadly demographically representative of the Australian population. Future research should explore how the

  17. Mycoplasma genitalium: prevalence in men presenting with urethritis to a South Australian public sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzini, T M; Waddell, R G; Douglas, R J; Sadlon, T A

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection among male patients with dysuria and/or urethral discharge. An analysis of the clinical, demographic and microbiological factors associated with M. genitalium infection was also conducted. From May 2007 to June 2011, men presenting to the clinic with self-reported symptoms of dysuria and/or urethral discharge were identified and underwent urethral swab, which was microscopically assessed for objective non-gonococcal urethritis. A first-void urine sample was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Aptima Combo-2 assay. A portion of the urine sample was sent for polymerase chain reaction analysis for M. genitalium. One thousand, one hundred and eighty-two men with dysuria and/or urethral discharge were tested for M. genitalium. Of those, 96 men (8.1%) were positive for M. genitalium. Men identifying as solely MSM (men who have sex with men) constituted 16.3% (n = 193) of the sample. Their infection rate was 3.1% (n = 6). The infection rate for heterosexual and bisexual men was 9.1%. For all men, the M. genitalium co-infection rate was 14.6% (n = 14) with C. trachomatis and 3.1% (n = 3) with N. gonorrhoeae. Factors associated with M. genitalium infection were analysed by univariate analysis. We determined that five investigated predictors were significantly associated with M. genitalium infection, urethral discharge, non-gonococcal urethritis on Gram stain of urethral smears, identification as heterosexual or bisexual, and absence of co-infection with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae. In Adelaide, M. genitalium is an important sexually transmitted infection among men with dysuria and/or urethral discharge, and is primarily an infection of heterosexual and bisexual men. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  18. Polonium-210 in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) from south-eastern Australian waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.; Towler, H.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made of the concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclide polonium-210 in the livers of cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans) caught in the waters of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia in 1991. Five elasmobranch species had 210 Po concentrations in the range 1-31 Bq kg -1 (wet weight) and one holocephalian species, the elephant fish (Callorhynchus milii), was exceptional with a 210 Po range of 60-270 Bq kg -1 (n-3, mean 180 Bq kg -1 ). Lead-210 was present at 0.1-1.1 Bq kg -1 and activity concentration ratios of 210 Po: 210 Pb were all greater than 1, indicating that the 210 Po could not all have grown in from in situ decay of 210 Pb within the chondrichthyan liver. The concentration of 210 Po in the livers appeared to be species related. Concentrations of the trace metals Cu, Fe and Zn showed no correlation with the 210 Po and were not species-related. The mean concentration of 210 Po measured in Port Phillip Bay water was 0.32 mBq kg -1 . This yields concentration factors of 3.2 x 10 3 to 8.4 x 10 5 for unsupported 210 Po in the livers of the chondrichthyans. The total 210 Po (using Q=20) exposes the livers to a weighted absorbed dose of up to 140 mGy year -1 (16 μGy h -1 ), which is >99% of the total internal dose and three orders of magnitude greater than the external dose based on estimated levels of 40 K. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  19. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  20. Text-Messaging Practices and Links to General Spelling Skill: A Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Catherine; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated 10- to 12-year-old Australian children's text-messaging practices and their relationship to traditional spelling ability. Of the 227 children tested, 82% reported sending text-messages; a median of 5 per day. Use of predictive and multi-press entry methods was roughly equal. Children produced a wide range of text-message…

  1. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Teaching in an Australian Accounting Programme--An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Grace; Cooper, Barry J.; Dellaportas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to elicit and understand the views of Mainland Chinese students concerning their learning experience in an Australian accounting education programme. The article contributes to the literature by investigating the issues and implications associated with international students' perceptions of teaching, as little…

  2. Globalisation, Transnational Academic Mobility and the Chinese Knowledge Diaspora: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Welch, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    The master discourses of economic globalisation and the knowledge economy each cite knowledge diasporas as vital "trans-national human capital". Based on a case study of a major Australian university, this article examines the potential to deploy China's large and highly-skilled diaspora in the service of Chinese and Australian…

  3. Conceptions of Good Teaching by Good Teachers: Case Studies from an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on what constitutes good teaching in early 21st Century higher education, through an examination of the experience of five outstanding lecturers from a business school in an Australian university. It is based on a qualitative study that explored their perceptions on what constitutes "good teaching".…

  4. Library Experience and Information Literacy Learning of First Year International Students: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Hilary; Hall, Nerilee; Pozzi, Megan

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study provides fresh understandings about first year undergraduate international students' library and information use at an Australian university, and their associated information literacy learning needs. The findings provide evidence to inform the development of library spaces and information literacy responses that enhance…

  5. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Study of the Reasons Australian University Students Plagiarize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; Gray, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which universities and individual academics attempt to deter and respond to student plagiarism may be based on untested assumptions about particular or primary reasons for this behaviour. Using a series of group interviews, this qualitative study gathered the views of 56 Australian university students on the possible reasons for…

  6. Exploring Quality Teaching of Information and Communication Technology in New South Wales and Yenbai High Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Manh Thang

    This study compares ICT policy and curriculum and assessment practices between Australian and Vietnamese secondary schools, and investigates differences between these two school systems. Document analyses and case studies were used to examine the key differences in ICT curriculum and policy and assessment practices between Australian and Vietnamese secondary schools. The document analyses focused on the intended ICT policy and curriculum and assessment, as presented in official documents in both countries. Using a case study approach for in-depth examination, two secondary schools were selected (one from Yenbai province, Vietnam and one from Sydney, New South Wales, Australia). Two principals and three teachers were interviewed. Classroom teaching and assessment practices were observed, and principals and teachers' views were obtained through semi-structured interviews and extensive discussions. Findings from the two case studies were compared with the findings from the document analysis. This study explored and analysed differences in ICT teaching, learning, assessment, and achievement between Vietnamese and Australian secondary students. It was found that that Australian ICT school curricula and assessment differed markedly from the Vietnamese system. Student ICT achievement in these Australian and Vietnamese schools could not only be attributed to higher standards of intended ICT curricula and assessment, or teacher knowledge or classroom practices. These differences are better explained by economic and cultural factors, ICT policies and their degrees of implementation, and extra ICT curricula. In order to bridge the gap and implement adequate ICT curricula and policies, rigorous professional training in teaching and assessment is essential for both Australian and Vietnamese teachers. In order to improve Australian students' ICT achievement, achievement motivation must be addressed. Many challenging aspects were found in ICT policies and classrooms in the

  7. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. Australian consumer perspectives, attitudes and behaviours on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: a qualitative study with implications for public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Elaine P M; Page, Katie; Nissen, Lisa; Doust, Jenny; Graves, Nicholas

    2017-10-10

    Consumers receive over 27 million antibiotic prescriptions annually in Australian primary healthcare. Hence, consumers are a key group to engage in the fight against antibiotic resistance. There is a paucity of research pertaining to consumers in the Australian healthcare environment. This study aimed to investigate the perspectives, attitudes and behaviours of Australian consumers on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, to inform national programs for reducing inappropriate antibiotic consumption. Semi-structured interviews with 32 consumers recruited via convenience and snowball sampling from a university population in South East Queensland. Interview transcripts were deductively and inductively coded. Main themes were identified using iterative thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the analysis, to elucidate factors affecting antibiotic use: (a) prescription type; (b) consumer attitudes, behaviours, skills and knowledge; and (c) consumer engagement with antibiotic resistance. Consumers held mixed views regarding the use of delayed antibiotic prescriptions, and were often not made aware of the use of repeat antibiotic prescriptions. Consumers with regular general practitioners were more likely to have shared expectations regarding minimising the use of antibiotics. Even so, advice or information mediated by general practitioners was influential with all consumers; and helped to prevent inappropriate antibiotic use behaviours. Consumers were not aware of the free Return of Unwanted Medicines service offered by pharmacies and disposed of leftover antibiotics through household waste. To engage with mitigating antibiotic resistance, consumers required specific information. Previous public health campaigns raising awareness of antibiotics were largely not seen by this sample of consumers. Australian consumers have specific information needs regarding prescribed antibiotics to enable appropriate antibiotic use behaviours. Consumers also have expectations

  9. Australian consumer perspectives, attitudes and behaviours on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: a qualitative study with implications for public health policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. M. Lum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumers receive over 27 million antibiotic prescriptions annually in Australian primary healthcare. Hence, consumers are a key group to engage in the fight against antibiotic resistance. There is a paucity of research pertaining to consumers in the Australian healthcare environment. This study aimed to investigate the perspectives, attitudes and behaviours of Australian consumers on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, to inform national programs for reducing inappropriate antibiotic consumption. Method Semi-structured interviews with 32 consumers recruited via convenience and snowball sampling from a university population in South East Queensland. Interview transcripts were deductively and inductively coded. Main themes were identified using iterative thematic analysis. Results Three themes emerged from the analysis, to elucidate factors affecting antibiotic use: (a prescription type; (b consumer attitudes, behaviours, skills and knowledge; and (c consumer engagement with antibiotic resistance. Consumers held mixed views regarding the use of delayed antibiotic prescriptions, and were often not made aware of the use of repeat antibiotic prescriptions. Consumers with regular general practitioners were more likely to have shared expectations regarding minimising the use of antibiotics. Even so, advice or information mediated by general practitioners was influential with all consumers; and helped to prevent inappropriate antibiotic use behaviours. Consumers were not aware of the free Return of Unwanted Medicines service offered by pharmacies and disposed of leftover antibiotics through household waste. To engage with mitigating antibiotic resistance, consumers required specific information. Previous public health campaigns raising awareness of antibiotics were largely not seen by this sample of consumers. Conclusions Australian consumers have specific information needs regarding prescribed antibiotics to enable

  10. Prevalence, perceptions and predictors of alcohol consumption and abstinence among South Australian school students: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jacqueline A; Delfabbro, Paul; Room, Robin; Miller, Caroline L; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-06-07

    Alcohol consumption by young people (particularly early initiation) is a predictor for poorer health in later life. In addition, evidence now clearly shows a causal link between alcohol and cancer. This study investigated prevalence, predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents including perceptions of the link between alcohol and cancer, and the role of parents and peers. A sample of Australian school students aged 12-17 years participated in a survey (n = 2885). Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine predictors. Alcohol use increased with age and by 16, most had tried alcohol with 33.1% of students aged 12-17 reporting that they drank at least occasionally (95% CI = 31.0-35.2). Awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer was low (28.5%). Smoking status and friends' approval were predictive of drinking, whereas parental disapproval was protective. Those aged 14-17 who did not think the link between alcohol and cancer was important were more likely to drink, as were those living in areas of least disadvantage. The only factors that predicted recent drinking were smoking and the perception that alcohol was easy to purchase. An education campaign highlighting the link between alcohol and cancer may have positive flow-on effects for young people, and schools should incorporate this messaging into any alcohol education programs. Consideration should be given to factors that serve to regulate under-aged accessibility of alcohol.

  11. A missiological exploration of Australian missionary James Noble Mackenzie�s ministry to lepers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Pil Son

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of Australian Presbyterian Mission in Korea (APM is not comprehensive, nor the study of missiology that addresses the marginalised. This study of the ministry of APM missionary, J.N. Mackenzie, to lepers in Japanese-occupied Korea, adds significantly to both these areas. An understanding of the role and methods of Mackenzie�s missionary activities among the marginalised in Korea can encourage today�s Church to effectively restore the marginalised in society, moving from Church doctrine to practical reproduction of the example of Jesus recorded in Mark�s gospel. Using original and published sources, the study examines the social conditions in which Mackenzie found Korean lepers, their historic treatment and government policies and the growth of his holistic mission, with its methods and fruits. Mackenzie�s work is documented with recorded data included to demonstrate its Christ-like effectiveness both spiritually and physically. By tracing Mackenzie�s work with lepers, it is clear that holistic mission can helpfully impact the situation of the most marginalised. Mackenzie�s work expanded dramatically, churches were formed and it even created cured evangelists, making it a useful model for mission work among the marginalised. Mackenzie�s work played a significant part in the Church and National history of Korea and presented a new path in the mission work of APM. It has the potential to influence modern mission in being �as Christ� to the marginalised and thus to impact the society. This study has given a unique perspective on the history and theology of mission to the poor and traditionally powerless in society.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Traditional views of history, theology and missiology have focussed on the ruling classes and urban societies. A perspective of the marginalised encourages a shift in these as it can be seen that the rural poor responded to holistic ministry and affected

  12. Forensic drug intelligence and the rise of cryptomarkets. Part I: Studying the Australian virtual market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broséus, Julian; Morelato, Marie; Tahtouh, Mark; Roux, Claude

    2017-10-01

    Analysing and understanding cryptomarkets is essential to become proactive in the fight against the illicit drug trade. Such a research seeks to combine a diversity of indicators related to the virtual (darknet markets) and physical (the traditional "offline" market) aspects of the illicit drug trade to provide information on the distribution and consumption as well as to assess similarities/differences between the virtual and physical markets. This study analysed data that had previously been collected on cryptomarkets from December 2013 to March 2015. In this article, the data was extracted from two marketplaces, Evolution and Silk Road 2, and analysed to evaluate the illicit drug trade of the Australian virtual market (e.g. information about the supply and demand, trafficking flows, prices of illicit drugs and market share) and highlight its specificities. The results revealed the domestic nature of the virtual Australian illicit drug trade (i.e. Australian sellers essentially ship their products to local customers). This may explain the coherence between supply and demand. Particularly, the virtual Australian illicit drug trade is dominated by amphetamine-type substances (ATS), mainly methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cannabis. Australia, as a shipping country, accounts for half of the methamphetamine offered and purchased on Silk Road 2. Moreover, it was observed that the online price fixed by Australian sellers for the considered illicit drugs is higher than for any other shipping countries, which is in line with previous studies. Understanding the virtual and physical drug market necessitates the integration and fusion of different perspectives to capture the dynamic nature of drug trafficking, monitor its evolution and finally improve our understanding of the phenomenon so policy makers can make informed decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brunel mood scale: South African norm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Van Wijk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS has proved useful to assess mood states in a range of clinical settings. Its local utility is restricted by the lack of normative data from South Africa. This paper presents preliminary normative data for the use of the BRUMS in the South African health care setting. Method: Participants (N=2200, ranging from 18 to 59 years, employed in the public sector, and were recruited during routine occupational health surveillance, completed the 24-item self-report BRUMS. They came from all South African race and language groups, and from all nine provinces. Results: Significant differences were found between the scores of women and men, and their results are reported separately. Due to the language dependant nature of the BRUMS, results are also reported separately for respondents with English as first language, and those who have other South African languages as mother tongue. Norm tables with T-scores are presented for the full sample, and per gender X language groups. Conclusion: This study presents normative data for a sample of educated and employed South Africans from various backgrounds. Its brevity, and provisionally language friendly nature makes it a useful measure for screening psychological distress in the SA clinical health care context.

  14. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos Sianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual

  15. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of...

  16. Work after age 65: A prospective study of Australian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tazeen; Forder, Peta M; Tavener, Meredith; Vo, Kha; Byles, Julie

    2017-06-01

    This study describes hours in paid work for Australian men and women aged over 65, focusing on associations between work and education. Data were analysed separately for men and women, from baseline and first follow-up surveys of the 45 and Up Study. Generalised estimating equation models were used to identify associations between work, education and other factors over time. The odds of doing paid work increased with higher education level and decreased with time, age, poorer physical function and having health conditions (high blood pressure, diabetes, stroke and breast cancer). Un-partnered women were more likely to work in later life than partnered women. This study quantifies the importance of education and health factors in determining continued participation of Australian men and women in paid work in later life. These factors need to be considered for policies aiming to increase workforce participation beyond 65 years of age. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  17. Chinese students studying at Australian universities with specific reference to nursing students: a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Carol Chunfeng; Andre, Kate; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark

    2015-04-01

    To report the current knowledge on the Chinese nursing students' learning at Australian universities. The intent is to provide educators and researchers with a background to the contexts, the methodologies, the emphases of various relevant studies, and to provide recommendations for future research. Attracting international students has become an important part of Australian universities' business and contributes to their cultural diversity. Teaching international students has received considerable attention in the educational research literature. Experiences of international students can vary greatly depending on their country of origin. This paper critically reviews current literature relating to issues for Chinese students and in particular, Chinese nursing students, the biggest single group of international nursing students at Australian universities Narrative literature review. A comprehensive search of seven electronic databases for literature between 2003 and 2014 helped to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that addressed issues of Asian international students with English as a second language (ESL) (included nursing students) studying in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the United States and China. Pertinent websites were also searched. The reference lists and bibliographies of retrieved articles were hand- searched to identify other relevant studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The majority of existing literature claimed that there is a range of challenges confronting international students including Chinese nursing students, in assimilation into their host country. These include issues with English language proficiency, cultural barriers, social problems, different learning styles, academic demands, perceived racism, homesickness, lack of assertiveness and financial problems. There is limited research about the Chinese students' study in Australia. In particular, the learning experience of Chinese nursing students

  18. Prevalence and socio-economic distribution of eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among South Australian children in urban and rural communities: baseline findings from the OPAL evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Ullah, S; Olds, T; Magarey, A; Leslie, E; Jones, M; Miller, M; Cobiac, L

    2016-11-01

    To identify current prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of adherence to national diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among Australian primary school children. Cross-sectional survey of children (n = 4637, 9-11 years) participating at baseline in the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) programme evaluation. Self-reported diet, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) behaviours were assessed via questionnaire. Children were classified as meeting or not meeting each guideline (two or more serves of fruit, five or more serves of vegetables, two or less serves of discretionary food, ≥60 min of PA, and ≤2 h of ST per day). Although 65% of children met fruit recommendations, only 22% met vegetable recommendations (17% consumed no vegetables). Approximately one-quarter (28%) of children met discretionary food recommendations. Only 17% of children met the ST recommendations and 33% met PA recommendations. Less than 1% of children met all five recommendations. Rural children were more likely to meet both PA (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.21-1.74, P < 0.001) and ST (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14-1.66, P < 0.01) recommendations than urban counterparts. Children at least socio-economic disadvantage performed better than those at greatest disadvantage for most behaviours. Improvement in Australian children's diet and physical activity and sedentary behaviours, particularly urban children and those at greatest socio-economic disadvantage, is urgently warranted. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in knee arthroscopy and subsequent arthroplasty in an Australian population: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee arthroscopy is a common procedure in orthopaedic surgery. In recent times the efficacy of this procedure has been questioned with a number of randomized controlled trials demonstrating a lack of effect in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Consequently, a number of trend studies have been conducted, exploring rates of knee arthroscopy and subsequent conversion to Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) with varying results. Progression to TKA is seen as an indicator of lack of effect of primary knee arthroscopy. The aim of this paper is to measure overall rates of knee arthroscopy and the proportion of these patients that undergo subsequent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) within 24 months, and to measure trends over time in an Australian population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults undergoing a knee arthroscopy and TKA in all hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia between 2000 and 2008. Datasets obtained from the Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL) were analysed using negative binomial regression. Admission rates for knee arthroscopy were determined by year, age, gender and hospital status (public versus private) and readmission for TKA within 24 months was calculated. Results There was no significant change in the overall rate of knee arthroscopy between 2000 and 2008 (-0.68%, 95% CI: -2.80 to 1.49). The rates declined in public hospitals (-1.25%, 95% CI: -2.39 to -0.10) and remained relatively steady in private hospitals (0.42%, 95% CI: -1.43 to 0.60). The proportion of patients 65 years or over undergoing TKA within 24 months of knee arthroscopy was 21.5%. After adjusting for age and gender, there was a significant decline in rates of TKA within 24 months of knee arthroscopy for all patients (-1.70%, 95% CI:-3.13 to -0.24), patients admitted to private hospitals (-2.65%, 95% CI: -4.06 to -1.23) and patients aged ≥65 years (-3.12%, 95% CI: -5.02 to -1.18). Conclusions Rates of knee arthroscopy are not increasing

  20. Demographic Predictors of Students' Science Participation over the Age of 16: an Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grant; Berry, Amanda; Baglin, James

    2018-01-01

    Using the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) data, this paper aimed to examine if, and to what extent, demographic factors predict students' participation in science over the age of 16 (post-16). While all the students participating in this study are attending Australian schools, the comprehensiveness of these datasets, together with inclusion of studies from around the world provides a useful reference point for an international audience. Over 7000 students are included in the analysis of this paper. Characteristics of focus in this paper include groups who have been identified as being underrepresented in past studies including Indigenous students, those from lower-socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, sex differences and immigrants. Among the factors tested, Indigenous status was the strongest negative predictor of post-16 science participation. SES was also a relatively strong predictor of post-16 science participation. Compared to students categorised with an Australian-ancestry, first-generation and foreign-background students were more likely to participate in post-16 science. The findings of this study contribute to existing research on debates about equity and trends in science participation.

  1. Secrets and Lies: Sex Education and Gendered Memories of Childhood's End in an Australian Provincial City, 1930s-1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Josephine

    2006-01-01

    There are few historical studies about the sex education of Australian youth. Drawing on a range of sources, including the oral histories of 40 women and men who attended two single-sex, selective high schools in a provincial Australian city (Newcastle, New South Wales) in the 1930s-1950s, this paper explores the adolescent experience of sex…

  2. Asset Allocation and Diversification by Real Estate Sector Within a Portfolio: Two Australian Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Wallace

    1992-01-01

    The research results presented in this paper are a subset of a more extensive investigation of asset allocation and investment diversification in a pooled or mixed asset portfolio including bonds, equities and real estate in real property form, and listed and unlisted property trusts as they are termed in Australia. Australian property trusts are analogous to Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) in the United States. This empirical research study is exploratory in nature, and concentrates sp...

  3. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  4. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  5. Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Setting Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants Participants included all SA residents in 2005–2006 to 2010–2011. Analysis focused on...

  6. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    to nutrient losses to air and water. This paper discusses the sustainable recycling N resources in biosolids and biowastes in agriculture in Australia using specific recent research examples from Western Australia, including lime amended biosolids, alum sludge and dewatered biosolids cake, and from Tasmania, papermill sludge. The primary focus is the N fertiliser replacement value of different biosolids and biowaste types under different environmental conditions, and management issues relating to the sustainable recycling of N. Experimental work included field trials and soil incubation studies. The findings are compared with research findings conducted in different climatic regions and soil types across Australia (Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales) and internationally.

  7. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-11-17

    Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook. Consenting participants completed an online questionnaire and provided a self-collected penile swab for HPV DNA detection and genotyping. We compared sociodemographic characteristics of the study population with those of the general Australian male population, based on Australian 2011 census data. Between February 2015 and February 2017, targeted Facebook advertisements reached 1,523,239 men, resulting in 41,811 clicks through to the study website, with 1072 (2.56%) converting to lodgment of an expression of interest. Of these, 681 (63.53%) provided written informed consent and 535 (78.6% of recruited participants) completed all the study requirements. Reasons for participating in the study included altruism, past history of HPV, gaining more knowledge about HPV or the vaccine, working in the health industry, and the monetary compensation. The average advertising cost per completed study participant was Aus $48. Compared with the census population, HYM study participants were more likely to be Australian born (PCapital Territory (P=.004), reside in a major city (P<.001), and have completed undergraduate (P<.001) or postgraduate education (P<.001). HYM study participants were less likely to report being a current smoker (P=.03), but were more likely to identify as bisexual or homosexual (294/529, 55.6%, P<.001), than the general population. Using Facebook is a feasible and efficient

  8. Investigating the patterns and determinants of seasonal variation in vitamin D status in Australian adults: the Seasonal D Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura King

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D status generally varies seasonally with changing solar UVB radiation, time in the sun, amount of skin exposed, and, possibly, diet. The Seasonal D Study was designed to quantify the amplitude and phase of seasonal variation in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25OHD and identify the determinants of the amplitude and phase and those of inter-individual variability in seasonal pattern. Methods The Seasonal D Study collected data 2-monthly for 12 months, including demographics, personal sun exposure using a diary and polysulphone dosimeters over 7 days, and blood for serum 25(OHD concentration. The study recruited 333 adults aged 18–79 years living in Canberra (35°S, n = 168 and Brisbane (27°South, n = 165, Australia. Discussion We report the study design and cohort description for the Seasonal D Study. The study has collected a wealth of data to examine inter- and intra-individual seasonal variation in vitamin D status and serum 25(OHD levels in Australian adults.

  9. A Study of Journal Publication Diversity within the Australian Information Systems Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Sellitto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on research that examined DEST data from 14 Australian universities to identify the diversity of journal outlets in the information systems (IS area. Across a total of 60 years of academic publishing output, 1449 journal articles were evaluated to identify 649 different journals in which IS-related articles were published. The most popular journals used by Australian academics to publish IS-related articles were the Lecture Notes in Computer Science (N=94 in the computer science area, with the Australasian Journal of Information Systems (N=25 being the most popular journal in the pure and business IS sphere. The study also examined publishing output against a set of 50 previously highly rated IS journals and concluded that the average annual publication of articles in these highly rated journals occurred at a very low rate. The research appears to be one of the first studies to use historical DEST data to report journal diversity in the Australian IS-sphere.

  10. Societal acceptance of wind farms: Analysis of four common themes across Australian case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, N.; Ashworth, P.; Devine-Wright, P.

    2013-01-01

    Australia's renewable energy target (RET) seeks to provide 20 per cent of Australia's electricity generation from renewable energy sources by 2020. As wind power is relatively advanced, it was anticipated that wind power will contribute a major component of the early target. However, high levels of societal resistance to wind farms, combined with new regulatory policies, indicate the RET may not be dominated by wind power. This research involved an examination of seven case studies around wind farm deployment. Qualitative interviews were the primary data for the case studies and analysed using methods informed by grounded theory. Despite the diversity of stakeholder views, the qualitative analysis identified strong community support for wind farms but four common themes emerged that influence this societal acceptance of wind farms in Australia: trust, distributional justice, procedural justice and place attachment. Without addressing these factors through integration into policy development and engagement approaches, wind energy is unlikely to provide the early and majority of new renewable energy. Similar international experiences are incorporated in the discussion of the Australian wind industry's societal acceptance. - Highlights: ► Seven case studies of wind farms in Australia are described. ► Acceptance affects whether wind significantly contributes to the Aust. RE target. ► Four themes were identified regarding societal acceptance of Australian wind farms. ► Four themes are trust, distributional and procedural justice, and place attachment. ► International similarities to the Australian experience are provided

  11. Managing Expectations: A Case Study of Sessional Staff in Languages and Cultures Education in Australian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Brown

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the increasing casualisation of the academic workforce in recent years, expectations of sessional staff in Australian universities from their academic employment are becoming more poignant. Following on from a previous report by Ferrari & Hajek (2012, this paper further highlights how these workers are affected by short-term, often only semester-long, contracts. We focus on how the brevity of employment affects sessional teachers’ perceptions of their role and perceived obligations to the university, and consequently the health of languages education. We present the results of an online survey conducted at the vast majority of Australian universities, which investigated sessional staff’s expectations. This study reveals that language sessional staff have expectations of their employment which are often at odds with their role as academics in the university environment.

  12. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  13. Archives: Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 122 ... Archives: Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home > Archives: Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts’ reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Design Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. Participants 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Setting Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Results Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts’ arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts’ overall views on breast cancer screening. Conclusions Experts’ positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and

  15. Real-world outcomes of unrestricted direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C in Australia: The South Australian statewide experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, James; Wigg, Alan; Muller, Kate; Ramachandran, Jeyamani; Tilley, Emma; Waddell, Victoria; Gordon, David; Shaw, David; Huynh, Dep; Stewart, Jeffrey; Nelson, Renjy; Warner, Morgyn; Boyd, Mark; Chinnaratha, Mohamed A; Harding, Damian; Ralton, Lucy; Colman, Anton; Liew, Danny; Iyngkaran, Guru; Tse, Edmund

    2018-06-11

    In March 2016, the Australian government offered unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for chronic hepatitis C (HCV) to the entire population. This included prescription by any medical practitioner in consultation with specialists until sufficient experience was attained. We sought to determine the outcomes and experience over the first twelve-months for the entire state of South Australia. We performed a prospective, observational study following outcomes of all treatments associated with the state's four main tertiary centres. 1909 subjects initiating DAA therapy were included, representing an estimated 90% of all treatments in the state. Overall, SVR12 was 80.4% in all subjects intended for treatment and 95.7% in those completing treatment and follow-up. 14.2% were lost to follow-up (LTFU) and did not complete SVR12 testing. LTFU was independently associated with community treatment via remote consultation (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.18, p=0.03), prison-based treatment (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.08-3.79, p=0.03) and younger age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, p=0.05). Of the 1534 subjects completing treatment and follow-up, decreased likelihood of SVR12 was associated with genotype 2 (OR 0.23,95% CI 0.07-0.74, p=0.01) and genotype 3 (OR 0.23 95% CI 0.12-0.43, p=<0.01). A significant decrease in treatment initiation was observed over the twelve-month period in conjunction with a shift from hospital to community-based treatment. Our findings support the high responses observed in clinical trials, however a significant gap exists in SVR12 in our real-world cohort due to LTFU. A declining treatment initiation rate and shift to community-based treatment highlights the need to explore additional strategies to identify, treat and follow-up remaining patients in order to achieve elimination targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Australian nursing and midwifery educators delivering evidence-based education in Tanzania: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Shelley; van den Akker, Jose; Jones, Mark; Dantas, Jaya A R; Duggan, Ravani

    2016-05-01

    Since 2011, Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators have been providing evidence-based continuing education to Tanzanian health professionals. Despite thorough preparation before departure, differences in local resource levels and available facilities have necessitated impromptu adaptation of curriculum content and delivery methods to ensure an effective program was delivered. This study explored the personal, cultural and teaching strategies utilised by Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators in Tanzania and examined if the transferability of education packages was influenced by the educators' cultural competence. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, data was collected from 15 Western Australian nursing and midwifery educators using a demographic survey and in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. The core themes identified from the analysis were Determination to learn, Assessing needs, Communication skills and Greater understanding. These findings are described using the conceptual framework of Campinha-Bacote's The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services. With appropriate levels of cultural competence, international health professionals can be effective at providing ongoing professional development to colleagues in developing country contexts, which may help address difficulties with retention and motivation of staff. It is essential that prior to departure cultural competence training is provided to educators to enhance their teaching capacity and effectiveness in international settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Homelessness Pathways for Australian Single Mothers and Their Children: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Warburton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would have been most helpful. In this sample of single mothers and their children, early experiences of homelessness and domestic violence contributed most commonly to homelessness episodes. Almost immediate engagement with welfare agencies seemed to be protective against re-experiencing homelessness, however Australian restrictions on length of program involvement and limited housing options for mothers exiting homelessness programs, may place such mothers and their children at high risk of re-entering homelessness. Younger mothers had greater needs and benefited most from personalised one-on-one support that addressed key parenting and life skills. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to service delivery to this vulnerable group and avenues for future research are noted.

  18. Retrospective report of social withdrawal during adolescence and current maladjustment in young adulthood: cross-cultural comparisons between Australian and South Korean students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkwan; Rapee, Ronald M; Ja Oh, Kyung; Moon, Hye-Shin

    2008-10-01

    The current study investigated associations between the frequency of and motivations for social withdrawal during adolescence and emotional distress in young adulthood. Perceived motivations for social withdrawal included unsociability, isolation, shyness, and low mood. Social withdrawal during adolescence was assessed using a retrospective questionnaire completed by Australian and Korean university students. They also completed measures of general self-worth, social relationships, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at university. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that different motivations for social withdrawal had different risk status for later adjustment across the two samples. In particular, it appeared that shy and unsociable individuals in Korea showed better social and emotional adjustment than their counterparts in Australia. In contrast, social relationships of sad/depressed and isolated respondents in Korea appeared to be more seriously impaired than their Australian counterparts. These cross-cultural differences are discussed in terms of socio-cultural values and environments unique to the two countries.

  19. Effective Information Technology Governance Mechanisms: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaiful Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing importance of information technology (IT, as a strategic factor for organizations in achieving their objectives, have raised the concern of organizations in establishing and implementing effective IT governance. This study seeks to empirically examine the individual IT governance mechanisms that influence the overall effectiveness of IT governance. The data were obtained by using web based survey from 176 members of ISACA (Information Systems and Audit Control Association Australia. This study examines the influences of six proposed IT governance mechanisms on the overall effectiveness of IT governance. Using Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression techniques, the current study finds significant positive relationships between the overall level of effective IT governance and the following four IT governance mechanisms: the existence of ethics/ culture of compliance in IT, corporate communication systems, an IT strategy committee, and the involvement of senior management in IT.

  20. Sleep apnoea in Australian men: disease burden, co-morbidities, and correlates from the Australian longitudinal study on male health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamara Visanka Senaratna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common disorder with under-rated clinical impact, which is increasingly being recognised as having a major bearing on global disease burden. Men are especially vulnerable and become a priority group for preventative interventions. However, there is limited information on prevalence of the condition in Australia, its co-morbidities, and potential risk factors. Methods We used data from 13,423 adult men included in the baseline wave of Ten to Men, an Australian national study of the health of males, assembled using stratified cluster sampling with oversampling from rural and regional areas. Those aged 18–55 years self-completed a paper-based questionnaire that included a question regarding health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea, physical and mental health status, and health-related behaviours. Sampling weights were used to account for the sampling design when reporting the prevalence estimates. Odds ratios were used to describe the association between health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea and potential correlates while adjusting for age, country of birth, and body-mass index (BMI. Results Prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea increased from 2.2 % in age 18–25 years to 7.8 % in the age 45–55 years. Compared with those without sleep apnoea, those with sleep apnoea had significantly poorer physical, mental, and self-rated health as well as lower subjective wellbeing and poorer concentration/remembering (p < 0.001 for all. Sleep apnoea was significantly associated with older age (p < 0.001, unemployment (p < 0.001, asthma (p = 0.011, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (p = 0.002, diabetes (p < 0.001, hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.001, hypertension (p < 0.001, heart attack (p < 0.001, heart failure (p < 0.001, angina (p < 0.001, depression (p < 0.001, post-traumatic stress disorder (p

  1. Rurality and mental health: an Australian primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A; Manoff, T; Caffery, J

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, there has been a significant gap in the literature exploring the issues of the mental health needs for rural communities in Australia. In this study we investigated the prevalence of diagnosable psychological disorders in both a rural and a non-rural primary care sample in far north Queensland, Australia. In a previous study we had screened some 300 GP attendees, on a number of sociodemographic variables and measures of psychological wellbeing, from four rural GP practices and one regional GP practice. Of these, 130 participants agreed to further follow up. In this study, 118 of the participants were selected and contacted by phone to complete the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF). The CIDI-SF diagnosis was then analysed in relation to the sociodemographic indicators that had previously been collected. The prevalence of diagnosable mental health disorders in the rural sample was found to be higher in comparison with the regional urban sample. The sociodemographic factors of rural residence, gender, and length of residence were associated with having a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Although there were a number of methodological limitations to this study, there did appear to be a significant relationship between rural location and the likelihood of receiving a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Why this might be the case is not clear, and we consider a number of explanations, but our finding suggests that further research in mental health should consider the issue of rurality as a key feature to be explored.

  2. Globalisation and Chinese Knowledge Diaspora: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Qiu, Fang-fang

    2010-01-01

    In a context of intensified globalisation, knowledge diaspora as "trans-national human capital" have become increasingly valuable to society. With an awareness of a need for more empirical studies especially in Australia, this article concentrates on a group of academics who were working at a major university in Australia and came…

  3. Educational attainment: A genome wide association study in 9538 Australians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.W.; Medland, S.E.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Lee, S.H.; Nyholt, D.R.; Madden, P.A.F.; Heath, A.C.; Montgomery, G.W.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Correlations between Educational Attainment (EA) and measures of cognitive performance are as high as 0.8. This makes EA an attractive alternative phenotype for studies wishing to map genes affecting cognition due to the ease of collecting EA data compared to other cognitive phenotypes

  4. Students from Australian Universities Studying Abroad: A Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Australia is one of many countries to encourage its students to study abroad and hence develop a global perspective. Traditionally, students who have pursued this option represented a relatively privileged and demographically narrow group. More recently, governments and other agencies have been offering funding support with the aim of…

  5. Drug Taking Beliefs of Australian Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews…

  6. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  7. Lessons learned from measuring safety culture: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suellen; Chiarella, Mary; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-10-01

    adverse events in maternity care are relatively common but often avoidable. International patient safety strategies advocate measuring safety culture as a strategy to improve patient safety. Evidence suggests it is necessary to fully understand the safety culture of an organisation to make improvements to patient safety. this paper reports a case study examining the safety culture in one maternity service in Australia and considers the benefits of using surveys and interviews to understand safety culture as an approach to identify possible strategies to improve patient safety in this setting. the study took place in one maternity service in two public hospitals in NSW, Australia. Concurrently, both hospitals were undergoing an organisational restructure which was part of a major health reform agenda. The priorities of the reform included improving the quality of care and patient safety; and, creating a more efficient health system by reducing administration inefficiencies and duplication. a descriptive case study using three approaches: the safety culture was identified to warrant improvement across all six safety culture domains. There was reduced infrastructure and capacity to support incident management activities required to improve safety, which was influenced by instability from the organisational restructure. There was a perceived lack of leadership at all levels to drive safety and quality and improving the safety culture was neither a key priority nor was it valued by the organisation. the safety culture was complex as was undertaking this study. We were unable to achieve a desired 60% response rate highlighting the limitations of using safety culture surveys in isolation as a strategy to improve safety culture. Qualitative interviews provided greater insight into the factors influencing the safety culture. The findings of this study provide evidence of the benefits of including qualitative methods with quantitative surveys when examining safety culture

  8. Experiences of occupational violence in Australian urban general practice: a cross-sectional study of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker J; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David W; Joy, Elyssa; Ireland, Malcolm C

    2005-10-03

    To establish the prevalence and characteristics of occupational violence in Australian urban general practice, and examine practitioner correlates of violence. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey mailed to all members (n = 1085) of three urban divisions of general practice in New South Wales in August and September 2004. The three divisions were chosen to provide a range of socioeconomic status (SES) demographics. Occupational violence towards general practitioners during the previous 12 months. 528 GPs returned questionnaires (49% response rate). Of these, 63.7% had experienced violence in the previous year. The most common forms of violence were "low level" violence - verbal abuse (42.1%), property damage/theft (28.6%) and threats (23.1%). A smaller proportion of GPs had experienced "high level" violence, such as sexual harassment (9.3%) and physical abuse (2.7%). On univariate analysis, violence was significantly more likely towards female GPs (P working in a lower SES status area (P disadvantage (P = 0.006), mental health problems (P home visits). On multivariate analysis, a significant association persisted between high level violence and lower SES area (odds ratio [OR], 2.86), being female (OR, 5.87), having practice populations with more drug-related problems (OR, 5.77), and providing home visits during business hours (OR, 4.76). More experienced GPs encountered less violence (OR, 0.77) for every additional 5 years of practice. Occupational violence is a considerable problem in Australian urban general practice. Formal education programs in preventing and managing violence would be appropriate for GPs and doctors-in-training.

  9. A population-based longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile infection-related hospitalization in mid-age and older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Glass, K; Liu, B; Riley, T V; Korda, R; Kirk, M D

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for hospitalization due to C. difficile infection (CDI) in older Australians. We linked data from a population-based prospective cohort study (the 45 and Up Study) of 266 922 adults aged ⩾45 years recruited in New South Wales, Australia to hospitalization and death records for 2006-2012. We estimated the incidence of CDI hospitalization and calculated days in hospital and costs per hospitalization. We also estimated hazard ratios (HR) for CDI hospitalization using Cox regression with age as the underlying time variable. Over a total follow-up of 1 126 708 person-years, 187 adults had an incident CDI hospitalization. The crude incidence of CDI hospitalization was 16·6/100 000 person-years, with a median hospital stay of 6 days, and a median cost of AUD 6102 per admission. Incidence increased with age and year of follow-up, with a threefold increase for 2009-2012. After adjustment, CDI hospitalization rates were significantly lower in males than females (adjusted HR 0·6, 95% confidence interval 0·4-0·7). CDI hospitalization rates increased significantly over 2009-2012. There is a need to better understand the increasing risk of CDI hospitalization in women.

  10. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  11. Adherence to MRI protocol consensus guidelines in multiple sclerosis: an Australian multi-centre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curley, Michael; Josey, Lawrence; Lucas, Robyn; Dear, Keith; Taylor, Bruce V.; Coulthard, Alan; Ausimmune Investigator Group

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease that causes significant morbidity within a young demographic. Diagnostic guidelines for MS have evolved, and imaging has played an increasingly important role in diagnosis over the last two decades. For imaging to contribute to diagnosis in a meaningful way, it must be reproducible. Consensus guidelines for MRI in MS exist to define correct sequence type and imaging technique, but it is not clear to what extent they are followed. This study reviewed MRI studies performed on Australian individuals presenting with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD) for adherence to published guidelines and discussed practical implementation of MS guidelines in light of recent updates. The Ausimmune study was a prospective case control study of Australian participants presenting with FCD from 2003 to 2006. Baseline cranial and spinal cord MRI studies of 226 case participants from four separate Australian regions were reviewed. MRI sequences were classified according to anatomical location, slice plane, tissue weighting and use of gadolinium-containing contrast media. Results were compared with the 2003 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centres MRI protocol for the diagnosis of MS. The composition of core cranial MRI sequences performed varied across the 226 scans. Of the studies, 91% included sagittal fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences. Cranial axial T2-weighted, axial FLAIR and axial proton density-weighted sequences were performed in 88%, 60% and 16% (respectively) of scans. Only 25% of the studies included a T1-weighted contrast-enhanced sequence. Concordance with the guidelines in all sequences was very low (2). Only a small number of MRI investigations performed included all of the sequences stipulated by consensus guidelines. This is likely due to poor awareness in the imaging community of the guidelines and the rationale behind certain sequences. Radiologists with a sub

  12. Study Moessbauer of chromites of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ada; Velazquez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Coming natural chromites from South Africa they were studied by spectroscopy Moessbauer and X-rays diffraction. The ionic distribution of the ions of iron is reported in the area tetrahedral and octahedral in the structure showing that the pattern an orderly distribution, the chromites nearby to an inverse spinel. The microanalysis shows a certain variability in the composition in the coming specimen of the same area and could be the cause the apparent evolution of the chromite in the laterization process. We try to compare these results with a similar study coming f rom basaltic rocks of the Nemby Hill in oriental region of Paraguay [es

  13. Detailed analysis of radon flux studies at Australian uranium projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, Gavin M.

    2005-01-01

    The release of radon gas and radon progeny from uranium projects is a major issue during operation as well as for the design of rehabilitation works. In Australia, there have been a number of premining radon flux studies as part of the environmental investigation and potential development of recent uranium projects. There is also an increasing amount of operational data on radon fluxes and loads from various aspects of projects, such as tailings, waste rock and mills. Thus there exists much useful measured data which can be used to assess the design radon flux and load targets for rehabilitation. The main projects for which radon data exists includes Ranger, Olympic Dam, Beverley, Honeymoon, Jabiluka, Yeelirrie, Lake Way, Koongarra, Moline, Coronation Hill, Rockhole, Nabarlek, Rum Jungle, Port Pirie and Ben Lomond. To date, much of this data has not been systematically evaluated. The need to compile and assess this data is twofold. Firstly, to assess the loads released from uranium production as an input into life-cycle analyses of the nuclear fuel cycle, such as those undertaken by UNSCEAR and industry groups. Secondly, there is a need to set suitable design standards for radon flux for the rehabilitation of former and current uranium projects. This paper will present such a detailed compilation of radon fluxes and loads which can then be used as the basis for both life-cycle analyses as well as setting appropriate site-specific rehabilitation criteria for radon. The implications for former and current projects is then discussed as well as future data needs. Ultimately, there is a critical need for thorough baseline surveys prior to mining to ensure accurate assessments of changes to radon fluxes and loads. The data and analysis presented is considered applicable to all uranium projects in Australia, as well as being a useful model for considering such issues internationally

  14. Australian snowboard injury data base study. A four-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; Giddings, P; Robinson, M

    1993-01-01

    Information on the rate and spectrum of snowboarding injuries is limited. This 4-year prospective study at 3 major Australian ski resorts assesses incidence and patterns of snowboarding injuries, particularly in relation to skill level and footwear. Ski injury data were collected for the same period. In a predominantly male study population (men:women, 3:1), 276 snowboarding injuries were reported; 58% occurred in novices. Fifty-seven percent of injuries were in the lower limbs, 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries were sprains (53%), fractures (24%), and contusions (12%). Comparing skiers' versus snowboarders' injuries, snowboarders had 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly to the upper limbs (21% versus 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23% versus 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23% versus 6% of lower limb injuries). Ankle injuries were more common with soft-shell boots, worn most by intermediate and advanced riders. Knee injuries and distal tibial fractures were more common with hard-shell boots, worn most by novices. Overall, novices had more upper limb fractures and knee injuries; intermediate and advanced riders had more ankle injuries. Falls were the principal mode of injury. To prevent injury, beginners should use "hybrid" or soft-shell boots and take lessons.

  15. Boomerang - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Garrett, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was one of seven major national research facilities funded by the Federal Government in December 1995. The program provides guaranteed access and travel funds for Australian scientists to conduct synchrotron radiation-based research at two overseas facilities - the Photon Factory at Tsukuba in Japan and the Advanced Photon Source at the Argonne National Laboratory in the US. The Federal Government also provided funding of $100K to carry out a Feasibility Study for an Australian-based facility. This has been completed and included a mission to a number of laboratories overseas that were or had recently constructed a facility that could be considered for Australia. Following the mission, consensus was achieved within the community for the specifications of a proposed Australian facility. The proposed facility, Boomerang, has an energy of 3 GeV, an emittance of 16 nm rad and will be equipped in the first phase with 9 instrument stations. Boomerang will be competitive in performance with other facilities currently under construction overseas. A detailed proposal has been submitted to the Federal Government for funding. No site has been specified in the proposal. The proposal was prepared within the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) following extensive consultation with industrial and scientific groups in all Australian states. Valuable contributions have been made by members of all the committees of the ASRP, the Australian synchrotron research community that works through the ASRP and the National Synchrotron Steering Committee. Important contributions have also been made by many industrial groups including consortia in Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. The input from the ANKA staff at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and, in particular. Professor Einfeld has been a critical component. The estimated capital cost of a no frills laboratory has been estimated to be $100M in 1999 dollars. The

  16. Australian student nurse's knowledge of and attitudes toward primary health care: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sandra; Kwok, Cannas; Anderson, Judith; Hatcher, Deborah; Laver, Sharon; Dickson, Cathy; Stewart, Lyn

    2018-01-01

    Nurses have a pivotal role in changing the focus of the health system toward a primary health care approach, yet little is known about the effectiveness of nursing students' educational preparation for this role. The aim of the study was to investigate undergraduate Australian nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the primary health care approach. A cross-sectional, descriptive research design was applied. Two Australian universities, one with a rural base and one in the metropolitan area of Sydney, were involved. Both universities offer undergraduate and postgraduate nursing courses on multiple campuses. A convenience sample of 286 undergraduate nursing students, each of whom had completed a unit of study on PHC. All provided consent to participate in the study. Data was collected using the Primary Health Care Questionnaire via online survey platform SurveyMonkey for a period of three weeks in June 2015. Total knowledge scores ranged from 19.68 to 95.78 with the mean knowledge score being 69.19. Total attitude scores ranged from 33.12 to 93.88 with a mean score of 70.45. Comparison of knowledge scores showed mean scores of students born in Australia were significantly higher than those of students who were born overseas (p=0.01), and mean scores of students enrolled in the metropolitan university were also significantly higher than mean scores of students' enrolled in the rural university (p=0.002). In terms of attitudes scores, mean scores of Australian-born students were significantly higher than those of students born overseas (p=0.001), and older students' mean attitude scores were shown to be significantly higher than younger students' (pattitudes toward primary health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical diagnosis of syphilis: a ten-year retrospective analysis in a South Australian urban sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, C E; Ward, A

    2016-12-01

    National notifications for infectious syphilis in Australia have increased in recent years. Outside of sexual health clinics, junior clinicians seldom encounter this disease in its infectious stage (primary, secondary and early latent). With such a variable clinical presentation, textbook teaching is no substitute for real-life experience. The importance of accurate classification and staging of disease is relevant to the risk of transmission and determines treatment duration. In this article, the authors review the clinical presentation of syphilis over ten years in an urban sexual health clinic with a focus on the clinical presentation and diagnosis of infectious syphilis, in particular secondary syphilis, compared with that outlined in the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System guidelines. This retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with syphilis at an urban sexual health clinic showed that between 2005 and 2015, 226 cases of syphilis were diagnosed. Documentation of impression of clinical staging of disease was present in 46% of the cases. Seventeen of these cases were recorded as secondary syphilis. The criteria used by clinicians to diagnose the secondary syphilis cases were consistent with criteria defined by the Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. All cases of secondary syphilis had at least one cutaneous manifestation of disease. The demographic of the cohort of syphilis cases was consistent with that recorded in the literature. This review showed that the clinician's diagnosis of secondary syphilis in this service is consistent with the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System guidelines. Continuing education of junior medical staff is important to facilitate diagnosis and improve documentation of clinical staging, minimise disease transmission and ensure appropriate treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  19. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 2. Doctors as collectors, donors, gallery supporters and writers in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-04-28

    The contribution of doctors to the visual arts if being discussed in a series of six articles. The first article dealt with doctor-artists in new South Wales. In this, the second, doctors are discussed as collectors, donors, gallery supporters and writers in this State.

  20. Exploring Australian women's level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women's knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents' nutrition knowledge score (Ppregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R (2)) of the variance found between respondents' knowledge scores. Australian pregnant women's knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure improvement in their nutrition knowledge. It is essential that women receive support to achieve optimal and

  1. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to formaldehyde, to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey, which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including formaldehyde, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4993 included respondents, 124 (2.5%) were identified as probably being exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work [extrapolated to 2.6% of the Australian working population-265 000 (95% confidence interval 221 000-316 000) workers]. Most (87.1%) were male. About half worked in technical and trades occupations. In terms of industry, about half worked in the construction industry. The main circumstances of exposure were working with particle board or plywood typically through carpentry work, building maintenance, or sanding prior to painting; with the more common of other exposures circumstances being firefighters involved in fighting fires, fire overhaul, and clean-up or back-burning; and health workers using formaldehyde when sterilizing equipment or in a pathology laboratory setting. The use of control measures was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to formaldehyde in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to formaldehyde

  2. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  3. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  4. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bookari K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results: More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65% were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000 of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that

  5. Barriers to a healthy lifestyle post gestational-diabetes: An Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Tehzeeb; Lithander, Fiona E; Banwell, Cathy; Young, Rosemary; Boisseau, Lynelle; Ingle, Martha; Nolan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Overseas-born-women from certain ethnicities are at high risk of type-2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. This study explored the barriers and facilitators to long-term healthy lifestyle recommendations among Australian-born and overseas-born-women who attended health promotion sessions at a tertiary Australian Hospital for gestational diabetes 3-4 years previously. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analyzed to identify major themes and the differing experiences of both groups of women. Women in both groups faced many barriers to improve post-gestational-diabetes lifestyle. Women from both groups recalled healthy lifestyle recommendations for during pregnancy they received at the service, but had difficulty recalling the long-term lifestyle recommendations. Timing of the health information, non-reiteration of lifestyle recommendations, uncoordinated and fragmented health system support after childbirth were barriers faced by all women. Additional barriers for overseas-born women included the cultural competence of the health education material, their cultural preferences for food and physical activities and unsupportive family and partner. Both groups had excellent compliance with the first annual postnatal oral-glucose-tolerance-test. This was attributed to the personal motivation and health professional reminder. Women only reverted to the healthy lifestyles postnatally for weight loss. A better understanding of the barriers to healthy lifestyle by women in their everyday lives will assist in the development of culturally appropriate health promotion guidelines and strategies. Constant un-fragmented postnatal engagement by the specialised diabetes clinics and primary health care services is crucial to sustain the healthy lifestyle in the long-term for women with previous gestational-diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-care costs of underweight, overweight and obesity: Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Susan A; Gold, Lisa; Mensah, Fiona K; Jansen, Pauline W; Lucas, Nina; Nicholson, Jan M; Wake, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    Child health varies with body mass index (BMI), but it is unknown by what age or how much this attracts additional population health-care costs. We aimed to determine the (1) cross-sectional relationships between BMI and costs across the first decade of life and (2) in longitudinal analyses, whether costs increase with duration of underweight or obesity. Baby (n = 4230) and Kindergarten (n = 4543) cohorts in the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Medicare Benefits Scheme (including all general practitioner plus a large proportion of paediatrician visits) plus prescription medication costs to federal government from birth to sixth (Baby cohort) and fourth to tenth (Kindergarten cohort) birthdays. biennial BMI measurements over the same period. Among Australian children under 10 years of age, 5-6% were underweight, 11-18% overweight and 5-6% obese. Excess costs with low and high BMI became evident from age 4-5 years, with normal weight accruing the least, obesity the most, and underweight and overweight intermediate costs. Relative to overall between-child variation, these excess costs per child were very modest, with a maximum of $94 per year at age 4-5 years. Nonetheless, this projects to a substantial cost to government of approximately $13 million per annum for all Australian children aged less than 10 years. Substantial excess population costs provide further economic justification for promoting healthy body weight. However, obese children's low individual excess health-care costs mean that effective treatments are likely to increase short-term costs to the public health purse during childhood. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Gale, Jennifer T; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2011-12-09

    Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation among Aboriginal girls and women. It is critical to acknowledge

  8. "It's almost expected": rural Australian Aboriginal women's reflections on smoking initiation and maintenance: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passey Megan E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite declining smoking rates among the general Australian population, rates among Indigenous Australians remain high, with 47% of the Indigenous population reporting daily smoking - twice that of other Australians. Among women, smoking rates are highest in younger age groups, with more than half of Aboriginal women smoking during pregnancy. A lack of research focused on understanding the social context of smoking by Aboriginal women in rural Australia limits our ability to reduce these rates. This study aimed to explore the factors contributing to smoking initiation among rural Aboriginal women and girls and the social context within which smoking behaviour occurs. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 14 Aboriginal women and service providers and 22 individual interviews with Aboriginal women from four rural communities to explore their perceptions of the factors contributing to smoking initiation among Aboriginal girls. Results Four inter-related factors were considered important to understanding the social context in which girls start smoking: colonisation and the introduction of tobacco; normalization of smoking within separate Aboriginal social networks; disadvantage and stressful lives; and the importance of maintaining relationships within extended family and community networks. Within this context, young girls use smoking to attain status and as a way of asserting Aboriginal identity and group membership, a way of belonging, not of rebelling. Family and social structures were seen as providing strong support, but limited the capacity of parents to influence children not to smoke. Marginalization was perceived to contribute to limited aspirations and opportunities, leading to pleasure-seeking in the present rather than having goals for the future. Conclusions The results support the importance of addressing contextual factors in any strategies aimed at preventing smoking initiation or supporting cessation

  9. Qonsequences of Cultural and Behavioral Difference of Tourist: Study of Australian and Indonesian Tourist Who Visit Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Rinuastuti, Baiq Handayani

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying behavior differences of Australian tourists and domestic tourists who visit Lombok island, and determining as well as analyzing the Hofstede cultural variables (power distance, individualistic-collectivist, uncertainty avoidance, masculine-feminine, long-term orientation) that may explain the differences in behavioral intention (to have activities, to interact, and to transact) of Australian and domestic tourists. This study was conducted on 160 Australian and d...

  10. Australian seafood compositional profiles: A pilot study. Vitamin D and mercury content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, David; Greenfield, Heather; Cunningham, Judy; Kiermeier, Andreas; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-02-15

    Given the scarcity of comprehensive nutritional data for Australia's >400 commercially produced seafood species a pilot study was undertaken to collect and analyse 22 species of wild and aquaculture seafood in order to develop a model for future comprehensive surveys. The species analysed were: Atlantic salmon, Australian sardine, prawn (six species), barramundi, abalone (three species), blue sprat, burrowing blackfish, gummy shark, oyster (four species), ocean trout and yellowtail kingfish. The analyses undertaken in this pilot study were: moisture, protein, total fat, cholesterol, fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamins A and D, and 21 mineral elements (including total mercury and methyl mercury). The data reported here are for vitamin D and mercury only. Comprehensive data have already been published elsewhere. Issues identified that should be addressed prior to undertaking a more extensive and representative study of the remaining major edible commercial Australian seafood species include: choice of samples and nutrients for analysis, facilities for sample handling and storage, data management and scrutiny, and laboratory quality control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparative study of the economic and social functioning of Vietnamese-Australians with low English proficiency living with psychotic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Yvonne; Sevar, Katherine; Tran, Nga; Mancuso, Serafino G; Chopra, Prem; Castle, David

    2015-06-01

    Because national surveys of people living with psychotic disorders tend to exclude people with low English proficiency (LEP), little is known of their economic and social functioning. Culturally influenced explanatory models may result in delayed presentation and poorer functioning. The study aimed to compare the functioning of LEP Vietnamese-Australian and Australian-born patients with psychosis and to investigate the Vietnamese-Australians' pathways to care. In all, 19 LEP Vietnamese-Australians, previously excluded from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP), were matched with 15 Australian-born controls, and interviewed by a Vietnamese bilingual mental health professional using the SHIP Interview Schedule. The Vietnamese-Australian patients were significantly more likely to live with family, rate spirituality as important and participate in community rehabilitation programs. Their work, social and independent functioning, was better than the controls. The groups did not differ in mental health services received and satisfaction with services. Although half of Vietnamese-Australians attributed mental illness to supernatural, among other causes, none had consulted traditional healers. Despite LEP, Vietnamese-Australians with psychosis showed comparable or better functioning than Australian-born patients. Further investigation is recommended into LEP patients' clinical and social recovery and the role of language communities' support networks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Do mathematics textbooks cultivate shallow teaching? Applying the TIMSS Video Study criteria to Australian eighth-grade mathematics textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jill; Stacey, Kaye

    2008-04-01

    Australian eighth-grade mathematics lessons were shown by the 1999 TIMSS Video Study to use a high proportion of problems of low procedural complexity, with considerable repetition, and an absence of deductive reasoning. Using definitions from the Video Study, this study re-investigated this `shallow teaching syndrome' by examining the problems on three topics in nine eighth-grade textbooks from four Australian states for procedural complexity, type of solving processes, degree of repetition, proportion of `application' problems and proportion of problems requiring deductive reasoning. Overall, there was broad similarity between the characteristics of problems in the textbooks and in the Australian Video Study lessons. There were, however, considerable differences between textbooks and between topics within textbooks. In some books, including the best-selling textbooks in several states, the balance is too far towards repetitive problems of low procedural complexity.

  13. Origins of the Asian-Australian monsoons related to Cenozoic plate movement and Tibetan Plateau uplift - A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Dong, B.; Yin, Z. Y.; Smith, R. S.; Guo, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of monsoon is a subject that has attracted much attention in the scientific community and even today it is still controversial. According to geological records, there is conflicting evidence regarding the timings of establishment of the monsoon climates in South Asia, East Asia, and northern Australia. Additionally, different explanations for the monsoon origins have been derived from various numerical simulations. To further investigate the origin and evolution of the Asian and Australian monsoons, we designed a series of numerical experiments using a coupled atmospheric-oceanic general circulation model. Since the Indian-Australian plate has shifted its position significantly during the Cenozoic, together with the large-scale uplift of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in these experiments we considered the configurations of ocean-land masses and large topographic features based on geological evidence of plate motion and TP uplift in 5 typical Cenozoic geological periods: mid-Paleocene ( 60Ma), late-Eocene ( 40Ma), late-Oligocene ( 25Ma), late-Miocene ( 10Ma), and present day. These experiments allowed us to examine the combined effects of the changes in the land-ocean configuration due to plate movement and TP uplift, they also provided insight into the effects of the high CO2 levels during the Eocene. The simulations revealed that during the Paleocene, the Indian Subcontinent was still positioned in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and, therefore, its climate behaved as the SH tropical monsoon. By the late Eocene, it moved into the tropical Northern Hemisphere, which allowed the establishment of the South Asian monsoon. In contrast, the East Asian and Australian monsoon did not exist in the late Oligocene. These monsoon systems were established in the Miocene and then enhanced thereafter. Establishments of the low-latitude monsoons in South Asia and Australia were entirely determined by the position of the Indian-Australian plate and not related to the TP uplift

  14. Ecstasy use and depression: a 4-year longitudinal study among an Australian general community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amanda M; Olesen, Sarah; Tait, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal, population-based studies can better assess the relationship of ecstasy use with depression. We examined whether change in ecstasy use was associated with change in depressive symptoms/probable depression over a 4-year period, among a large Australian sample. The Personality and Total Health project is a longitudinal general community study of Australians from Canberra and Queanbeyan. Data from the youngest cohort when aged 24-30 (N = 2, 128) and 4 years later (N = 1, 977) was included. The Goldberg depression scale and the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire measured depressive symptoms and probable depression, respectively. Multilevel growth models also considered demographics, psychosocial characteristics, and other drug use. Ecstasy use was not associated with long-term depressive symptoms or greater odds of depression in multivariate analyses. Users had more self-reported depressive symptoms when using ecstasy compared to not using. However, differences between people who had and had not ever used ecstasy largely accounted for this. Other factors were more important in the prediction of depression. It would be premature to conclude that ecstasy use is not related to the development of long-term depressive symptoms, given the relatively low level of ecstasy and other drug use in this community sample. Results showed that other factors need to be considered when investigating ecstasy use and depression.

  15. High rates of albuminuria but not of low eGFR in Urban Indigenous Australians: the DRUID Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmet Paul Z

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have an incidence of end stage kidney disease 8-10 times higher than non-Indigenous Australians. The majority of research studies concerning Indigenous Australians have been performed in rural or remote regions, whilst the majority of Indigenous Australians actually live in urban settings. We studied prevalence and factors associated with markers of kidney disease in an urban Indigenous Australian cohort, and compared results with those for the general Australian population. Methods 860 Indigenous adult participants of the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID Study were assessed for albuminuria (urine albumin-creatinine ratio≥2.5 mg/mmol males, ≥3.5 mg/mmol females and low eGFR (estimated glomular filtration rate 2. Associations between risk factors and kidney disease markers were explored. Comparison was made with the AusDiab cohort (n = 8,936 aged 25-64 years, representative of the general Australian adult population. Results A high prevalence of albuminuria (14.8% was found in DRUID, whilst prevalence of low eGFR was 2.4%. Older age, higher HbA1c, hypertension, higher C-reactive protein and current smoking were independently associated with albuminuria on multiple regression. Low eGFR was independently associated with older age, hypertension, albuminuria and higher triglycerides. Compared to AusDiab participants, DRUID participants had a 3-fold higher adjusted risk of albuminuria but not of low eGFR. Conclusions Given the significant excess of ESKD observed in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous Australians, these findings could suggest either: albuminuria may be a better prognostic marker of kidney disease than low eGFR; that eGFR equations may be inaccurate in the Indigenous population; a less marked differential between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians for ESKD rates in urban compared to remote regions; or that differences in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease exist

  16. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease.

  18. A qualitative study of Australians' opinions about personally controlled electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnbom, Elin C; McLachlan, Andrew; Brien, Jo-Anne E

    2012-01-01

    A personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR) system is being implemented in Australia. Every Australian that wants a PCEHR will be able to opt-in from July 2012. To explore the opinions of Australian consumers and healthcare providers about the PCEHR. In this qualitative study, consumers and healthcare providers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Perceived benefits identified by participants regarding the PCEHR included instant access to clinical information, and safer and more efficient healthcare delivery. The risk of unauthorised access and breaches of privacy were some of the perceived drawbacks. Although consumers seemed unwilling to opt-in to have a PCEHR, the vast majority of healthcare providers were positive towards this development and predicted better and safer healthcare as a result. Consumers and healthcare providers appeared uniformed about the imminent PCEHR. The wide-spread unwillingness among participants to opt-in to have a PCEHR could potentially jeopardise successful implementation and uptake of this system. A well-designed system without security glitches and with individualised information from trusted healthcare providers regarding the benefits of having a PCEHR appears critical in engaging consumer opt-in.

  19. Employment conditions and maternal postpartum mental health: results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Canterford, Louise; Strazdins, Lyndall; Nicholson, Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Maternal postpartum mental health is influenced by a broad range of risk and protective factors including social circumstances. Forty percent of Australian women resume employment in the first year postpartum, yet poor quality employment (without security, control, flexibility or leave) has not been investigated as a potential social determinant of maternal psychological distress. This paper examines whether poor quality jobs are associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum psychological distress. Data were collected from employed mothers of infants ≤12 months (n = 1,300) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Logistic regression analyses estimated the association between job quality and maternal psychological distress, adjusting for prior depression, social support, quality of partner relationship, adverse life events and sociodemographic characteristics. Only 21% of women reported access to all four optimal job conditions. After adjustment for known risk factors for poor maternal mood, mothers were significantly more likely to report psychological distress (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.09, 1.77) with each reduction in the number of optimal employment conditions. Interventions for maternal postpartum affective disorders are unlikely to be successful if major risk factors are not addressed. These results provide strong evidence that employment conditions are associated with maternal postpartum mood, and warrant consideration in psychosocial risk assessments and interventions.

  20. Executive Support of Information Technology and Information Systems in Australian Hospitals: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Rose

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the form executive support should take for the progressive use of information technology and information systems [FT] within organisations. This study applies the theory developed by Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991 who examined two forms of support provided by chief executive officers. These were executive participation, a set of IT-related activities, and executive involvement, a psychological state reflecting the importance of IT for the organisation's success. Our research, using data obtained from a questionnaire mailed to a sample of Australian hospitals, measures the relationships between these two forms of support and the progressive use of IT. Our statistical analysis supports the findings of Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991, who found a stronger relationship between executive involvement and the progressive use of IT. Using Australian hospitals allowed Jarvenpaa and Ives' (1991 theory to be applied in a different environment, increasing its external validity. Firm size was also found to have a positive relationship with the progressive use of IT independent of the two forms of executive support.

  1. What Images Reveal: a Comparative Study of Science Images between Australian and Taiwanese Junior High School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun-Ping; Unsworth, Len; Wang, Kuo-Hua; Chang, Huey-Por

    2017-07-01

    From a social semiotic perspective, image designs in science textbooks are inevitably influenced by the sociocultural context in which the books are produced. The learning environments of Australia and Taiwan vary greatly. Drawing on social semiotics and cognitive science, this study compares classificational images in Australian and Taiwanese junior high school science textbooks. Classificational images are important kinds of images, which can represent taxonomic relations among objects as reported by Kress and van Leeuwen (Reading images: the grammar of visual design, 2006). An analysis of the images from sample chapters in Australian and Taiwanese high school science textbooks showed that the majority of the Taiwanese images are covert taxonomies, which represent hierarchical relations implicitly. In contrast, Australian classificational images included diversified designs, but particularly types with a tree structure which depicted overt taxonomies, explicitly representing hierarchical super-ordinate and subordinate relations. Many of the Taiwanese images are reminiscent of the specimen images in eighteenth century science texts representing "what truly is", while more Australian images emphasize structural objectivity. Moreover, Australian images support cognitive functions which facilitate reading comprehension. The relationships between image designs and learning environments are discussed and implications for textbook research and design are addressed.

  2. Bone collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope variability in modern South Australian mammals: A baseline for palaeoecological inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, F.D.; Anson, T.J.; Noble, A.H.; Schoeninger, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Cortical bone samples were collected from a range of modern mammals at four field sites along a 1225 km north-south transect from temperate coastal to arid interior South Australia in order to address variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition. Collection sites were located along the eastern border of the state and included Mount Gambier, Karte, Plumbago and Innamincka. Mean annual rainfall along the transect ranges from 700-800 mm at Mount Gambier to 150-200 mm at Innamincka. Bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotope values become more positive toward the arid north in relation to increasing quantities of C-4 plants and decreasing amounts of rainfall. respectively. In addition, carnivores and herbivores can be differentiated by stable nitrogen isotope values. On average, carnivore bone collagen is approximately 6 per mil more positive than that of rabbits at Mount Gambier but only 2.6 - 3.4 per mil more positive at the three arid collection sites. In general, the large eutherian herbivores have mean bone collagen δ15N values that are 1.4 - 2.3 per mil more positive than those of the marsupial herbivores. Eutherian and marsupial bone collagen δ15N differences only disappear at the most arid collection site, Innamincka

  3. Bone collagen stable carbon and nitrogen isotope variability in modern South Australian mammals: A baseline for palaeoecological inferences.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, F.D.; Anson, T.J.; Noble, A.H. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). Department of Archaeology; Schoeninger, M.J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Department of Anthropology

    1997-12-31

    Cortical bone samples were collected from a range of modern mammals at four field sites along a 1225 km north-south transect from temperate coastal to arid interior South Australia in order to address variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition. Collection sites were located along the eastern border of the state and included Mount Gambier, Karte, Plumbago and Innamincka. Mean annual rainfall along the transect ranges from 700-800 mm at Mount Gambier to 150-200 mm at Innamincka. Bone collagen carbon and nitrogen isotope values become more positive toward the arid north in relation to increasing quantities of C-4 plants and decreasing amounts of rainfall. respectively. In addition, carnivores and herbivores can be differentiated by stable nitrogen isotope values. On average, carnivore bone collagen is approximately 6 per mil more positive than that of rabbits at Mount Gambier but only 2.6 - 3.4 per mil more positive at the three arid collection sites. In general, the large eutherian herbivores have mean bone collagen {delta}15N values that are 1.4 - 2.3 per mil more positive than those of the marsupial herbivores. Eutherian and marsupial bone collagen {delta}15N differences only disappear at the most arid collection site, Innamincka.

  4. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  5. An Investigation into the Eating Behaviour of International Students Studying at an Australian University: Should We Be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomes, Susan; Croft, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study provides a snapshot of the eating behaviour of more than 300 international students studying across four campuses of an Australian university. It explores what the students are eating and drinking, their knowledge of nutrition, the extent to which they prepare their own food or rely on fast food and if their behaviour is…

  6. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  7. An Australian Study Comparing the Use of Multiple-Choice Questionnaires with Assignments as Interim, Summative Law School Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    To the author's knowledge, this is the first Australian study to empirically compare the use of a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) with the use of a written assignment for interim, summative law school assessment. This study also surveyed the same student sample as to what types of assessments are preferred and why. In total, 182 undergraduate…

  8. The Diabetes Care Project: an Australian multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial [study protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Segal, Leonie; Esterman, Adrian; Armour, Caroline; McDermott, Robyn; Fountaine, Tim

    2013-12-20

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder that is associated with substantial disease burden. Australia has an opportunity to improve ways of caring for the growing number of people with diabetes, but this may require changes to the way care is funded, organised and delivered. To inform how best to care for people with diabetes, and to identify the extent of change that is required to achieve this, the Diabetes Care Project (DCP) will evaluate the impact of two different, evidence-based models of care (compared to usual care) on clinical quality, patient and provider experience, and cost. The DCP uses a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial design. Accredited general practices that are situated within any of the seven Australian Medicare Locals/Divisions of General Practice that have agreed to take part in the study were invited to participate. Consenting practices will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for approximately 18 to 22 months: (a) control group (usual care); (b) Intervention 1 (which tests improvements that could be made within the current funding model, facilitated through the use of an online chronic disease management network); or (c) Intervention 2 (which includes the same components as Intervention 1, as well as altered funding to support voluntary patient registration with their practice, incentive payments and a care facilitator). Adult patients who attend the enrolled practices and have established (≥12 month's duration) type 1 diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed or established type 2 diabetes mellitus are invited to participate. Multiple outcomes will be studied, including changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (primary outcome), changes in other biochemical and clinical metrics, incidence of diabetes-related complications, quality of life, clinical depression, success of tailored care, patient and practitioner satisfaction, and budget sustainability. This project responds to a need for robust

  9. A pilot study of the safety implications of Australian nurses' sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, Jillian; Lamond, Nicole; van den Heuvel, Cameron; Pincombe, Jan; Rogers, Ann E; Dawson, Drew

    2006-01-01

    The frequency and severity of adverse events in Australian healthcare is under increasing scrutiny. A recent state government report identified 31 events involving "death or serious [patient] harm" and 452 "very high risk" incidents. Australia-wide, a previous study identified 2,324 adverse medical events (AME) in a single year, with more than half considered preventable. Despite the recognized link between fatigue and error in other industries, to date, few studies of medical errors have assessed the fatigue of the healthcare professionals involved. Nurses work extended and unpredictable hours with a lack of regular breaks and are therefore likely to experience elevated fatigue. Currently, there is very little available information on Australian nurses' sleep or fatigue levels, nor is there any information about whether this affects their performance. This study therefore aims to examine work hours, sleep, fatigue and error occurrence in Australian nurses. Using logbooks, 23 full-time nurses in a metropolitan hospital completed daily recordings for one month (644 days, 377 shifts) of their scheduled and actual work hours, sleep length and quality, sleepiness, and fatigue levels. Frequency and type of nursing errors, near errors, and observed errors (made by others) were recorded. Nurses reported struggling to remain awake during 36% of shifts. Moderate to high levels of stress, physical exhaustion, and mental exhaustion were reported on 23%, 40%, and 36% of shifts, respectively. Extreme drowsiness while driving or cycling home was reported on 45 occasions (11.5%), with three reports of near accidents. Overall, 20 errors, 13 near errors, and 22 observed errors were reported. The perceived potential consequences for the majority of errors were minor; however, 11 errors were associated with moderate and four with potentially severe consequences. Nurses reported that they had trouble falling asleep on 26.8% of days, had frequent arousals on 34.0% of days, and that

  10. A study of diabetes mellitus within a large sample of Australian twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condon, Julianne; Shaw, Joanne E; Luciano, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 41 female pairs with gestational diabetes (GD), 5 pairs with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and one pair with MODY. Heritabilities of T1D, T2D and GD were all high, but our samples did not have the power to detect effects of shared environment unless they were very large......Twin studies of diabetes mellitus can help elucidate genetic and environmental factors in etiology and can provide valuable biological samples for testing functional hypotheses, for example using expression and methylation studies of discordant pairs. We searched the volunteer Australian Twin...... Registry (19,387 pairs) for twins with diabetes using disease checklists from nine different surveys conducted from 1980-2000. After follow-up questionnaires to the twins and their doctors to confirm diagnoses, we eventually identified 46 pairs where one or both had type 1 diabetes (T1D), 113 pairs...

  11. Baseline Knowledge of Islam and Muslims: A Study of Australian Government Crisis Communication Officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate O'Donnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the level of knowledge Australian crisis communications officials had about Islam and Muslims. It did so at a time when the Commonwealth Government has warned in the current national security environment that a terrorist attack could be experienced at any time, and where the most serious threat emanated from those holding what the government described as a “deviant” view of Islam. The study identified that Media Liaison Officers (n=72 have low levels of knowledge about this religious faith, and that they were aware of their lack of understanding. These findings raise policy concerns about the extent to which Media Liaison Officers can differentiate between Islam and deviant interpretations of the faith. With the pivotal role that Media Liaison Officers play in crisis communication—including briefing and educating journalists when a terrorist event occurs—these findings present crisis managers with several challenges; including recruitment, training, and ongoing professional development.

  12. Approaches to dog health education programs in Australian rural and remote Indigenous communities: four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, S E; Dixon, R M; Dixon, R J; Toribio, J-A

    2013-09-01

    Dog health in rural and remote Australian Indigenous communities is below urban averages in numerous respects. Many Indigenous communities have called for knowledge sharing in this area. However, dog health education programs are in their infancy, and lack data on effective practices. Without this core knowledge, health promotion efforts cannot progress effectively. This paper discusses a strategy that draws from successful approaches in human health and indigenous education, such as dadirri, and culturally respectful community engagement and development. Negotiating an appropriate education program is explored in its practical application through four case studies. Though each case was unique, the comparison of the four illustrated the importance of listening (community consultation), developing and maintaining relationships, community involvement and employment. The most successful case studies were those that could fully implement all four areas. Outcomes included improved local dog health capacity, local employment and engagement with the program and significantly improved dog health.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of ISP Reactions to Australian Internet Content Regulation Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigi Goode

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a longitudinal study which surveys a targeted selection of Australian ISPs to determine both initial and subsequent effects of and attitudes towards the legislation. The paper observes that, initially, ISPs were generally opposed to the legislation, offering stiff opposition to its introduction. The initial results suggested dissatisfaction with the legislation on the part of ISPs, and foreshadowed adverse effects on the online industry. Concerns were also raised that the legislation would not be effective. Two years later, however, ISPs had generally observed little change in operations, arguing that the legislation had had little overall effect. The study also raises a number of interesting issues that are outside the scope of this paper. These issues merit further research.

  14. A comparative study of nutrient intakes of migrant and Australian children in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owles, E N

    1975-07-26

    Little is known about the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes of preschool children in Australia. A study was undertaken in Perth on Australian and migrant children to obtain information on preschool diets. It was found that, although the mean nutrient intakes in both groups were adequate, some individual migrant national groups showed deficiencies of one or more nutrients. Many children were obtaining excessive calories and protein. The consumption of "empty calorie" foods was also high. In order to find different ways to teach good principles and practice of nutrition, the types of media which might influence parents were studied. It was considered that television and, to a lesser degree, radio were media which might exert a considerable effect if they were used to the best advantage. These forms of communication particularly were of potential value, as some migrant parents could not read English and some were illiterate. A positive nutrition education programme to combat commerical food advertising of "empty calorie" foods is recommended.

  15. An Australian study of possible selves perceived by undergraduate engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn; Male, Sally A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we worked with second-year engineering students at an Australian university to examine previously identified threshold concepts within the theoretical framework of Possible Selves. Using workshops as the context for intensive work with students, students were encouraged to consider their future lives and work, including their engineering fears, expectations, and aspirations. The findings revealed many students to have a poor understanding of the realities of engineering work. Moreover, perceived gaps between self-efficacy and the requirements of engineering work appeared to be motivating if students deemed it possible to reduce the gap, but demotivating if they identified a characteristic over which there was perceived to be no control. The study suggests that these engineering students needed more opportunities to explore both the roles of engineers and their own possible selves. Overall, the findings indicate that higher education students may need encouragement and support to explore potential future roles, and they strengthen calls for further research in this area.

  16. Early mathematical competencies and later achievement: insights from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Amy; Carmichael, Colin

    2017-11-01

    International research suggests that early mathematical competence predicts later mathematical achievement. In this article, we explore the relationship between mathematical competencies at 4-5 years, as measured by teacher ratings, and later results on Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) numeracy tests. Data from a nationally representative sample of 2343 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) are examined. In line with international studies, we report moderate correlations between preschool-entry mathematics and later NAPLAN numeracy test results. However, analysis of individual growth trajectories indicates that early mathematics predicts the initial (Year 3) level, but not subsequent growth. This suggests that early mathematical competencies are important for enhancing achievement in early schooling, but that the quality of mathematics education provided in the schooling years is critical for future development.

  17. The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J

    2008-09-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.

  18. Disclosure of adverse events: a data linkage study reporting patient experiences among Australian adults aged ≥ 45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Merrilyn; Harrison, Reema; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Kelly, Patrick; Manias, Elizabeth; Jorm, Christine; Iedema, Rick

    2018-04-26

    Objective Since Australia initiated national open disclosure standards in 2002, open disclosure policies have been adopted in all Australian states and territories. Yet, research evidence regarding their adoption is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency with which patients who report an adverse event had information disclosed to them about the incident, including whether they participated in a formal open disclosure process, their experiences of the process and the extent to which these align with the current New South Wales (NSW) policy. Methods A cross-sectional survey about patient experiences of disclosure associated with an adverse event was administered to a random sample of 20000 participants in the 45 and Up Study who were hospitalised in NSW, Australia, between January and June 2014. Results Of the 18993 eligible potential participants, completed surveys were obtained from 7661 (40% response rate), with 474 (7%) patients reporting an adverse event. Of those who reported an adverse event, a significant majority reported an informal or bedside disclosure (91%; 430/474). Only 79 patients (17%) participated in a formal open disclosure meeting. Most informal disclosures were provided by nurses, with only 25% provided by medical practitioners. Conclusions Experiences of open disclosure may be enhanced by informing patients of their right to full disclosure in advance of or upon admission to hospital, and recognition of and support for informal or bedside disclosure for appropriate types of incidents. A review of the open disclosure guidelines in relation to the types of adverse events that require formal open disclosure and those more suitable to informal bedside disclosure is indicated. Guidelines for bedside disclosure should be drafted to assist medical practitioners and other health professionals facilitate and improve their communications about adverse events. Alignment of formal disclosure with policy requirements may also be

  19. Secondary Geography and the Australian Curriculum--Directions in School Implementation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    At first glance, the introduction of a national curriculum for Australian schools suggested a new era of revival for school geography. Since the late 1980s, the development and introduction of more integrated conceptions of curriculum design and implementation has seen the decline of Geography as a distinct subject in Australian schools, with…

  20. Influence of comorbidities on therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes I Vitry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using data from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA claims database between July 2000 and June 2008. The study included new users of metformin or sulfonylurea medicines. The outcome was the time to addition or switch to another antidiabetic treatment. The total number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was identified using the pharmaceutical-based comorbidity index, Rx-Risk-V. Competing risk regression analyses were conducted, with adjustments for a number of covariates that included age, gender, residential status, use of endocrinology service, number of hospitalisation episodes and adherence to diabetes medicines. Overall, 20,134 veterans were included in the study. At one year, 23.5% of patients with diabetes had a second medicine added or had switched to another medicine, with 41.4% progressing by 4 years. The number of unrelated comorbidities was significantly associated with the time to addition of an antidiabetic medicine or switch to insulin (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.91], P<0.001. Depression, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were individually associated with a decreased likelihood of therapeutic progression. Age, residential status, number of hospitalisations and adherence to anti-diabetic medicines delayed therapeutic progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing numbers of unrelated conditions decreased the likelihood of therapeutic progression in veterans with diabetes. These results have implications for the development of quality measures, clinical guidelines and the construction of models of care for management of diabetes in elderly people with comorbidities.

  1. Management of over-the-counter insomnia complaints in Australian community pharmacies: a standardized patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Krishneeta C; Nissen, Lisa M; Smith, Simon S; Kyle, Greg

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the current management of over-the-counter (OTC) insomnia complaints in Australian community pharmacies using standardized patient methodology. Trained standardized patients visited a sample of 100 randomly selected South East Queensland community pharmacies in June 2011. The standardized patients enacted two OTC insomnia scenarios: a direct product request (DPR) (n = 50) and a symptom-based request (SBR) (n = 50). Results of the interactions were documented immediately after each visit and evaluated using the Pharmaceutical Society of Australia's WHAT STOP GO protocol as a standard comparison. Of all DPRs, 30% were handled entirely by the pharmacist, 70% of staff enquired about specific symptoms and 28% investigated the cause of insomnia. No staff investigated the frequency of product use. The DPR scenario resulted in a 92% supply of the requested doxylamine product (Restavit). In the SBR scenario, 18% of requests were handled entirely by the pharmacist, 58% of staff enquired about specific symptoms and 44% investigated the cause of insomnia. Staff recommended medicated products (38%), or herbal (78%) or non-drug techniques (18%). Investigation into smoking and alcohol intake was not undertaken in DPR or SBR interactions, while questioning on caffeine intake was undertaken in 2 and 14% of cases respectively. There were no significant differences found in the handling of sleep requests by pharmacists compared to pharmacy assistants. The standardized patient methodology was a successful way to assess the community pharmacy counselling provided with OTC sleep requests and suboptimal staff responses were found when compared with recommended practice standards. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Indigenous Australians' Information Behaviour and Internet Use in Everyday Life: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia Tina; Haines, Jelina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the first stage of an ongoing information behaviour research project undertaken with a rural Indigenous community in South Australia. Method: Twenty-one Ngarrindjeri volunteers participated in the field study. Permission was granted and extensive community consultations were conducted. Analysis: Questionnaires and…

  3. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  4. A Survey of Medical Oncology Training in Australian Medical Schools: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Prawira, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Background Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with continuous advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Therefore, it is important that medical students are provided with the knowledge and experience required to care for oncology patients and enable them to diagnose and manage toxicities of novel therapeutic agents. Objective This study was performed to understand the medical students’ perspective of the oncology education provided in universities across Australia and identify areas of education that could potentially be modified or improved to ultimately attract more students to a career in oncology. Methods This pilot cross-sectional study consisted of an 18-question survey that was submitted online to medical students in their final year and interns rotating to the Tamworth Hospital. Results The survey was completed by 94 fifth-year medical students and interns. Oncology was taught both theoretically and clinically for 68% (63/93) of participants, and 48% (44/92) had an exclusive oncology rotation. Both theoretical and clinical oncology assessments were conducted for only 21% (19/92) of participants. Overall, 42% (38/91) of participants were satisfied with their oncology education, and 78% (40/51) were dissatisfied with the number of oncology teaching hours. The importance of a career in oncology was rated as low by 46% (41/90) of participants. Conclusions This pilot study indicates that there are potential areas to improve oncology teaching in Australian universities. The majority of surveyed students were dissatisfied with the number of teaching hours they receive in oncology. More global assessment of students and/or interns from other Australian institutes may yield further useful information. PMID:29233799

  5. The gambling behavior of indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Breen, Helen; Gordon, Ashley; Russell, Alex

    2014-06-01

    The gambling activities of minority groups such as Indigenous peoples are usually culturally complex and poorly understood. To redress the scarcity of information and contribute to a better understanding of gambling by Indigenous people, this paper presents quantitative evidence gathered at three Australian Indigenous festivals, online and in several Indigenous communities. With support from Indigenous communities, the study collected and analyzed surveys from 1,259 self-selected Indigenous adults. Approximately 33 % of respondents gambled on card games while 80 % gambled on commercial gambling forms in the previous year. Gambling participation and involvement are high, particularly on electronic gaming machines (EGMs), the favorite and most regular form of gambling. Men are significantly more likely to participate in gambling and to gamble more frequently on EGMs, horse/dog races, sports betting and instant scratch tickets. This elevated participation and frequency of gambling on continuous forms would appear to heighten gambling risks for Indigenous men. This is particularly the case for younger Indigenous men, who are more likely than their older counterparts to gamble on EGMs, table games and poker. While distinct differences between the gambling behaviors of our Indigenous sample and non-Indigenous Australians are apparent, Australian Indigenous behavior appears similar to that of some Indigenous and First Nations populations in other countries. Although this study represents the largest survey of Indigenous Australian gambling ever conducted in New South Wales and Queensland, further research is needed to extend our knowledge of Indigenous gambling and to limit the risks from gambling for Indigenous peoples.

  6. Effects of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive function in older Australians: results from the AIBL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittironnarit, Gobhathai; Ames, David; Bush, Ashley I; Faux, Noel; Flicker, Leon; Foster, Jonathan; Hilmer, Sarah; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Maruff, Paul; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Rowe, Christopher; Szoeke, Cassandra; Ellis, Kathryn A

    2011-01-01

    The nature and extent of adverse cognitive effects due to the prescription of anticholinergic drugs in older people with and without dementia is unclear. We calculated the anticholinergic load (ACL) of medications taken by participants of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of ageing, a cohort of 211 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 133 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 768 healthy controls (HC) all aged over 60 years. The association between ACL and cognitive function was examined for each diagnostic group (HC, MCI, AD). A high ACL within the HC group was associated with significantly slower response speeds for the Stroop color and incongruent trials. No other significant relationships between ACL and cognition were noted. In this large cohort, prescribed anticholinergic drugs appeared to have modest effects upon psychomotor speed and executive function, but not on other areas of cognition in healthy older adults. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Implementing two nurse practitioner models of service at an Australian male prison: A quality assurance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ides; Wright, Eryn; Santomauro, Damian; How, Raquel; Leary, Christopher; Harris, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    To examine the quality and safety of nurse practitioner services of two newly implemented nurse practitioner models of care at a correctional facility. Nurse practitioners could help to meet the physical and mental health needs of Australia's growing prison population; however, the nurse practitioner role has not previously been evaluated in this context. A quality assurance study conducted in an Australian prison where a primary health nurse practitioner and a mental health nurse practitioner were incorporated into an existing primary healthcare service. The study was guided by Donabedian's structure, processes and outcomes framework. Routinely collected information included surveys of staff attitudes to the implementation of the nurse practitioner models (n = 21 staff), consultation records describing clinical processes and time use (n = 289 consultations), and a patient satisfaction survey (n = 29 patients). Data were analysed descriptively and compared to external benchmarks where available. Over the two-month period, the nurse practitioners provided 289 consultations to 208 prisoners. The presenting problems treated indicated that most referrals were appropriate. A significant proportion of consultations involved medication review and management. Both nurse practitioners spent more than half of their time on individual patient-related care. Overall, multidisciplinary team staff agreed that the nurse practitioner services were necessary, safe, met patient need and reduced treatment delays. Findings suggest that the implementation of nurse practitioners into Australian correctional facilities is acceptable and feasible and has the potential to improve prisoners' access to health services. Structural factors (e.g., room availability and limited access to prisoners) may have reduced the efficiency of the nurse practitioners' clinical processes and service implementation. Results suggest that nurse practitioner models can be successfully integrated into a

  8. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-02-11

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy

  9. Exploring the paradox: A cross-sectional study of academic dishonesty among Australian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Melanie; Smithson, John; Antney, Janene; Zhao, Lin; Burkot, Camilla

    2018-06-01

    Universities' responsibility to ensure academic integrity is frustrated by software and communication tools that facilitate content reuse coupled with a growing international essay writing economy. A wide range of behaviours constitute academic dishonesty and while a complex phenomenon to examine, existing evidence suggests that there is sufficient proliferation (both in volume and variety) of these behaviours among Australian university students to warrant concern. This proliferation presents faculty and staff with new challenges in ensuring academic integrity. This paper reports findings of a nationwide cross-sectional survey of 361 students enrolled in an Australian nursing degree program and describes the extent of academic dishonesty among those surveyed. An online survey adapted from previous work was used to collect data on academic dishonesty, professional dishonesty and social desirability bias. Analysis of this data enabled identification of the prevalence of dishonesty, relationships between individual characteristics and dishonest behaviours, associations between academic and professional dishonesty, and the impact of deterrents to such behaviour. Plagiarism was the most frequently reported form of academic misconduct. Most participants indicated that threat of severe punishment and signing of verification statements would deter undesirable academic behaviour. Despite this, a relatively high proportion of students reported engaging in at least one form of academic misconduct, the likelihood of which was higher among younger age groups. Of concern was that a correlation was found between academic and professional misconduct, the most common being the recording of inaccurate or fabricated vital signs and breaching client privacy. In health professional education, there is a tendency to assume that the nobility of these disciplines would result in a lower incidence of cheating behaviours. The findings of this study support existing literature that refutes

  10. An Australian study to evaluate worker exposure to chrysotile in the automotive service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P; Patience, K; Apthorpe, L; Willcocks, D

    1999-07-01

    A study was conducted in Sydney, Australia, in 1996 to investigate the current exposure levels, control technologies, and work practices in five service garages (four car and one bus), three brake bonding workshops, and one gasket processing workshop. This study formed part of the assessment of chrysotile as a priority existing chemical under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. A total of 68 (11 personal and 57 area) air samples were collected, in accordance with the Australian standard membrane filter method. Fiber concentrations were determined by the traditional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method and 16 selected samples were analyzed by the more powerful transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chrysotile exposure of car mechanics measured by PCM was typically below the reportable detection limit of 0.05 f/mL, irrespective of whether disc brake, drum brake, or clutch was being serviced. These low levels can be attributed to the wet cleaning or aerosol spray methods used in recent years to replace the traditional compressed air jet cleaning. In the three brake shoe relining workshops, task-specific exposure reached up to 0.16 f/mL in the processes of cutting and radius grinding. TEM results were generally higher, due to its higher resolution power. The median diameter on samples taken from the service garages (passenger cars), as determined by TEM, was 0.5-1.0 micron; and was between 0.2-0.5 micron for the brake bonding and gasket processing workshops, while that for the bus service depot was 0.1-0.2 micron. Most of the respirable fibers (84%, mainly forsterite) from the bus service depot were below 0.2 micron in diameter which is the resolution limit of PCM. In the brake bonding and gasket cutting workshops, 34 percent and 44 percent of the chrysotile fibers were below 0.2 micron in diameter.

  11. The Etiology of Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition in Australian School Students: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, William; Anton-Mendez, Ines; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Levisen, Christina; Byrne, Brian; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    We present one of the first behavior-genetic studies of individual differences in school students' levels of achievement in instructed second language acquisition (ISLA). We assessed these language abilities in Australian twin pairs (maximum N pairs = 251) by means of teacher ratings, class rankings, and self-ratings of proficiency, and used the…

  12. Returnees, Student-Migrants and Second Chance Learners: Case Studies of Positional and Transformative Outcomes of Australian International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Shanthi; Hoare, Lynnel; Harwood, Aramiha

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear need for new research into the work and life outcomes for graduates of Australian international education. Drawing upon divergent post-study transitions, this article aims to present a multi-faceted, qualitative foundation for the consideration of both positional and transformative impacts of international education on graduates'…

  13. Are there returns from ancillary marketing communication expenditure? - A case study in the Australian financial services sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, V.L.; Hodgson, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tests if there are returns from investing in marketing communications expenditure (MCE) by using excess risk weighted accounting earnings as an output metric.We utilise panel data techniques and a case study of Australian credit unions that successfully invest in core relational

  14. Vaccine, Transmission and Treatment: An Exploratory Study of Viral Hepatitis Knowledge among Attendees of a Metropolitan Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Max; Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore knowledge of viral hepatitis among attendees of an Australian metropolitan university. Method: A short survey enquiring into viral hepatitis A, B and C (HAV, HBV and HCV, respectively) was administered to a convenience sample of people at a campus in Sydney, Australia during September 2011.…

  15. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-01-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated

  16. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  17. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E; Si, Damin

    2010-08-17

    Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Six hundred and eighty six (686) Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI). One hundred and twenty four (124) new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3), adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5) for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4) for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  18. Incidence of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal Australians: an 11-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiqiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is an important contributor to the health inequity between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This study aims to estimate incidence rates of diabetes and to assess its associations with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT among Aboriginal participants in a remote community. Methods Six hundred and eighty six (686 Aboriginal Australians aged 20 to 74 years free from diabetes at baseline were followed for a median of 11 years. During the follow-up period, new diabetes cases were identified through hospital records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess relationships of the incidence rates of diabetes with IFG, IGT and body mass index (BMI. Results One hundred and twenty four (124 new diabetes cases were diagnosed during the follow up period. Incidence rates increased with increasing age, from 2.2 per 1000 person-years for those younger than 25 years to 39.9 per 1000 person-years for those 45-54 years. By age of 60 years, cumulative incidence rates were 49% for Aboriginal men and 70% for Aboriginal women. The rate ratio for developing diabetes in the presence of either IFG or IGT at baseline was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3, adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Rate ratios for developing diabetes were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4, 3.5 for people who were overweight and 4.7 (95% CI: 3.0, 7.4 for people who were obese at baseline, with adjustment of age, sex and the presence of IFG/IGT. Conclusions Diabetes incidence rates are high in Aboriginal people. The lifetime risk of developing diabetes among Aboriginal men is one in two, and among Aboriginal women is two in three. Baseline IFG, IGT and obesity are important predictors of diabetes.

  19. Australians' views on personal genomic testing: focus group findings from the Genioz study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hickerton, Chriselle; Savard, Jacqueline; Terrill, Bronwyn; Turbitt, Erin; Gaff, Clara; Gray, Kathleen; Middleton, Anna; Wilson, Brenda; Newson, Ainsley J

    2018-04-30

    Personal genomic testing provides healthy individuals with access to information about their genetic makeup for purposes including ancestry, paternity, sporting ability and health. Such tests are available commercially and globally, with accessibility expected to continue to grow, including in Australia; yet little is known of the views/expectations of Australians. Focus groups were conducted within a multi-stage, cross-disciplinary project (Genioz) to explore this. In mid-2015, 56 members of the public participated in seven focus groups, allocated into three age groups: 18-24, 25-49, and ≥50 years. Three researchers coded transcripts independently and generated themes. Awareness of personal genomic testing was low, but most could deduce what "personal genomics" might entail. Very few had heard of the term "direct-to-consumer" testing, which has implications for organisations developing information to support individuals in their decision-making. Participants' understanding of genetics was varied and drawn from several sources. There were diverse perceptions of the relative influence of genetics and environment on health, mental health, behavior, talent, or personality. Views about having a personal genomic test were mixed, with greater interest in health-related tests if they believed there was a reason for doing so. However, many expressed scepticisms about the types of tests available, and how the information might be used; concerns were also raised about privacy and the potential for discrimination. These exploratory findings inform subsequent stages of the Genioz study, thereby contributing to strategies of supporting Australians to understand and make meaningful and well-considered decisions about the benefits, harms, and implications of personal genomic tests.

  20. Children's sleep patterns from 0 to 9 years: Australian population longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna M H; Brown, Judith E; Bittman, Michael; Wake, Melissa; Quach, Jon; Hiscock, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    To provide accurate population normative data documenting cross-sectional, age-specific sleep patterns in Australian children aged 0-9 years. The first three waves of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, comprising two cohorts recruited in 2004 at ages 0-1 years (n=5107) and 4-5 years (n=4983), and assessed biennially. Children with analysable sleep data for at least one wave. At every wave, parents prospectively completed 24-h time-use diaries for a randomly selected week or weekend day. 'Sleeping, napping' was one of the 26 precoded activities recorded in 15-min time intervals. From 0 to 9 years of age, 24-h sleep duration fell from a mean peak of 14 (SD 2.2) h at 4-6 months to 10 (SD 1.9) h at 9 years, mainly due to progressively later mean sleep onset time from 20:00 (SD 75 min) to 21:00 (SD 60 min) and declining length of day sleep from 3.0 (SD 1.7) h to 0.03 (SD 0.2) h. Number and duration of night wakings also fell. By primary school, wake and sleep onset times were markedly later on weekend days. The most striking feature of the centile charts is the huge variation at all ages in sleep duration, sleep onset time and, especially, wake time in this normal population. Parents and professionals can use these new centile charts to judge normalcy of children's sleep. In future research, these population parameters will now be used to empirically determine optimal child sleep patterns for child and parent outcomes like mental and physical health.

  1. Spectrum of illness among returned Australian travellers from Bali, Indonesia: a 5-year retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Asma; McGuinness, Sarah L; Lightowler, Rachel; Leder, Karin; Jomon, Bismi; Bain, Christopher A; Peleg, Anton Y

    2018-06-05

    Bali, Indonesia presents significant infectious and non-infectious health risks for Australian travellers. Understanding this spectrum of illnesses has the potential to assist clinicians in evaluating unwell returning travellers and guide provision of pre-travel advice. To describe the spectrum of illnesses seen in returned travellers from Bali. Using a novel text mining approach, we performed a retrospective, observational study of all adult emergency department (ED) presentations to a metropolitan health service in Melbourne, from 2011-2015. Outcome measures included demographic, clinical and laboratory features of travel-related illnesses. A total of 464 patients met inclusion criteria. Gastroenteritis (119/464, 26%), systemic febrile illness (88/464, 19%) and respiratory tract infection (51/464, 11%) were the most common diagnoses. Dengue was the most common laboratory-confirmed diagnosis (25/464, 5%). No cases of malaria were identified. Common non-infectious presentations included traumatic injury (47/464, 10%) and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (29/464, 6%). 110 patients (24%) were admitted to hospital; those presenting with systemic febrile illness were more likely to be admitted compared to those presenting with other illnesses (OR 3.42, CI 2.02-5.75, pBali by Australian travellers. While infections are important causes of illness, trauma and animal bites account for a significant number of hospital presentations. Our findings contribute to knowledge on the health risks for travellers to Bali, and will assist clinicians in relevant pre- and post-travel evaluations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  3. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  4. Designing and Using an Organisational Culture Inquiry Tool to Glimpse the Relational Nature of Leadership and Organisational Culture within a South Australian Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David; Bills, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This case study research found that the relational leadership and organisational culture at a public primary school situated in a high poverty location in South Australia was built upon the strength of the inter-relationships between the teachers, teachers and leadership, and between teachers and students. Supported by what we called "dynamic…

  5. Both natural selection and isolation by distance explain phenotypic divergence in bill size and body mass between South Australian little penguin colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Morphological variation between populations of the same species can arise as a response to genetic variation, local environmental conditions, or a combination of both. In this study, I examined small-scale geographic variation in bill size and body mass in little penguins ( Eudyptula minor ) across five breeding colonies in South Australia separated by penguin colonies.

  6. Data linkage in an established longitudinal cohort: the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Jenny A; Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H; Glauert, Rebecca A; de Klerk, Nick H; Straker, Leon M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2016-07-15

    The Western Australian Data Linkage System is one of a few comprehensive, population-based data linkage systems worldwide, creating links between information from different sources relating to the same individual, family, place or event, while maintaining privacy. The Raine Study is an established cohort study with more than 2000 currently active participants. Individual consent was obtained from participants for information in publicly held databases to be linked to their study data. A waiver of consent was granted where it was impracticable to obtain consent. Approvals to link the datasets were obtained from relevant ethics committees and data custodians. The Raine Study dataset was subsequently linked to academic testing data collected by the Western Australian Department of Education. Examination of diet and academic performance showed that children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 6 months scored higher academically at age 10 than children who were breastfed for less than 6 months. A further study found that better diet quality at ages 1, 2 and 3 years was associated with higher academic scores at ages 10 and 12 years. Examination of nutritional intake at 14 years of age found that a better dietary pattern was associated with higher academic performance. The detailed longitudinal data collected in the Raine Study allowed for adjustment for multiple covariates and confounders. Data linkage reduces the burden on cohort participants by providing additional information without the need to contact participants. It can give information on participants who have been lost to follow-up; provide or complement missing data; give the opportunity for validation studies comparing recall of participants with administrative records; increase the population sample of studies by adding control participants from the general population; and allow for the adjustment of multiple covariates and confounders. The Raine Study dataset is extensive and detailed, and can be

  7. Assessment techniques and South African community studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews: (i) trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment instruments currently in use and (ii) trauma and PTSD studies in South African children and adolescents. Rates of trauma exposure in South African children and adolescents range from 40% to 100% and rates of PTSD range from 6% to ...

  8. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  9. Knowledge about Inquiry: A Study in South African High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigher, Estelle; Lederman, Norman; Lederman, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on South African learners' knowledge about scientific inquiry using the Views About Scientific Inquiry (VASI) Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 105 grade 11 learners from 7 schools across the socio-economic spectrum in a South African city. A rubric for scoring the VASI Questionnaire was developed and refined during…

  10. The relationship between approaches to study and academic performance among Australian undergraduate occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2017-06-01

    The academic success and degree completion of tertiary students depends on their academic performance (AP), commonly measured by the percentage grades for the units they complete. No research has examined whether occupational therapy students' approaches to study are predictive of their AP. This study investigated whether approaches to study were predictive of the AP among a group of Australian undergraduate occupational therapy students. A total of 376 undergraduate occupational therapy students completed the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). Regression analysis was conducted using a range of demographic characteristics and the ASSIST scores as independent variables with students' self-reported by their self-reported mean percentage grade range (as a proxy indicator of their AP) as the dependent variable. The deep and the strategic approaches to study were not significantly correlated with occupational therapy students' AP. The ASSIST fear of failure subscale of the surface approach to study had a unique contribution to AP, accounting for 1.3% of its total variance. Occupational therapy students' year level of enrolment made a unique contribution to their AP, accounting for 4.2% of the total variance. Age and gender made a unique contribution to AP as well although their impact was small. Undergraduate occupational therapy students' approaches to study were predictive of their AP to a very limited degree. However, their AP was predicted by a number of demographic variables, including age, gender and year level of enrolment. Further study in this area is recommended. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for…

  12. Psychosis, Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Health Service Use in South Australia: Findings from the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eSweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between mental illness and poor physical health and socioeconomic outcomes has been well established. In the twenty-first century, the challenge of how mental illnesses such as psychosis are managed in the provision of public health services remains complex. Developing effective clinical mental health support and interventions for individuals requires a coordinated and robust mental health system supported by social as well as health policy that places a priority on addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in mental health cohorts. This paper thus examines the complex relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage, family/social supports, physical health and health service utilisation in a community sample of 402 participants diagnosed with psychosis. The paper utilises quantitative data collected from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis research project conducted in a socioeconomically disadvantaged region of Adelaide, South Australia. Participants (42% female provided information about socio-economic status, education, employment, physical health, contact with family and friends, and health service utilisation. The paper highlights that socio-economic disadvantage is related to increased self-reported use of emergency departments, decreased use of general practitioners for mental health reasons, higher body mass index, less family contact and less social support. In particular, the paper explores the multifaceted relationship between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health confronting individuals with psychosis, highlighting the complex link between socioeconomic disadvantage and poor health. It emphasizes that mental health service usage for those with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage differs from those experiencing lower levels of socioeconomic disadvantage. The paper also stresses that the development of health policy and practice that seeks to redress the socioeconomic and health inequalities created by

  13. Assessment of geothermal assisted coal-fired power generation using an Australian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Cheng [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Doroodchi, Elham [Priority Research Centre for Advanced Particle Processing and Transport, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Moghtaderi, Behdad [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Discipline of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Systematic techno-economic analyses of GAPG system completed for Australian conditions. • Greater utilisation efficiency of both geothermal and fossil fuel resources was achieved. • Reference maps developed to predict conditions when hybrid plant outperforms two stand-alone plants. • Carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are adequate. • HDR resources should be located no further than 20 km from the plant. - Abstract: A systematic techno-economic analysis of geothermal assisted power generation (GAPG) was performed for a 500 MW unit of a typical coal-fired power plant located at the upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Specifically, the GAPG viability and performance was examined by investigating the impacts of reservoir temperature, resource distance, hybridisation scheme, and economic conditions including carbon tax and Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). The process simulation package, Aspen HYSYS, was employed for all simulation purposes. Thermodynamically, GAPG system was found to increase the power output of the plant by up to 19% under the booster mode whilst in fuel saving mode the coal consumption reduced by up to 0.3 million tonne/year decreasing the Green House Gas (GHG) emission by up to 15% (0.6 million tonne/year). Economic analyses showed that for a typical HDR resource with a reservoir temperature about 150 °C located within a 5 km radius from the power plant, the GAPG system becomes economically competitive to the stand-alone fossil fuel based plant when minimum carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are introduced. The figure of merit analyses comparing GAPG system with both stand-alone fossil fuel and stand-alone geothermal plants showed that an economically feasible GAPG system requires the use of HDR resources located no further than 20 km from the plants. Reference maps were also developed to predict suitable conditions for which the hybrid plant outperforms the

  14. Assessment of geothermal assisted coal-fired power generation using an Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Doroodchi, Elham; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic techno-economic analyses of GAPG system completed for Australian conditions. • Greater utilisation efficiency of both geothermal and fossil fuel resources was achieved. • Reference maps developed to predict conditions when hybrid plant outperforms two stand-alone plants. • Carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are adequate. • HDR resources should be located no further than 20 km from the plant. - Abstract: A systematic techno-economic analysis of geothermal assisted power generation (GAPG) was performed for a 500 MW unit of a typical coal-fired power plant located at the upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Specifically, the GAPG viability and performance was examined by investigating the impacts of reservoir temperature, resource distance, hybridisation scheme, and economic conditions including carbon tax and Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). The process simulation package, Aspen HYSYS, was employed for all simulation purposes. Thermodynamically, GAPG system was found to increase the power output of the plant by up to 19% under the booster mode whilst in fuel saving mode the coal consumption reduced by up to 0.3 million tonne/year decreasing the Green House Gas (GHG) emission by up to 15% (0.6 million tonne/year). Economic analyses showed that for a typical HDR resource with a reservoir temperature about 150 °C located within a 5 km radius from the power plant, the GAPG system becomes economically competitive to the stand-alone fossil fuel based plant when minimum carbon tax and RECs rates of 40 $/tonne and 60 cents/kW h are introduced. The figure of merit analyses comparing GAPG system with both stand-alone fossil fuel and stand-alone geothermal plants showed that an economically feasible GAPG system requires the use of HDR resources located no further than 20 km from the plants. Reference maps were also developed to predict suitable conditions for which the hybrid plant outperforms the

  15. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  16. Preventative Therapeutics: A Study of Risk and Prevention in Australian Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McLachlan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available his study investigates the preventative therapeutics of two major Australian mental health organisations - beyondblue and The Black Dog Institute. The aim of this study is to examine how the resilience-based programs of both organisations reconfigure clinical and preventative expertise into new forms of ‘anticipatory action' (Anderson 2010. First, this article situates beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute within their historical contexts to consider how issues of risk and protection have become essential to mental health care today. Second, it examines the institutional practices of beyondblue and the Black Dog Institute and the role of clinical and preventative expertise as enacted forms of authority. Finally, this study investigates the intellectual and biokeeping technologies promoted through both organisations“ resilience-based pedagogies. The view taken in this study is that such technologies actively participate in the making of new therapeutic cultures and practices. Moreover, as biomarkers continue to act as indicators of future states of ‘unhealth' (Dumit 2012: 112, biokeeping technologies will continue to act as essential elements in the governmentality of mental health and wellbeing.

  17. Multicentre study of treatment outcomes in Australian adolescents and young adults commencing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischock, Leah; Kennedy, Sean E; Hayen, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to improve the understanding of outcomes and complications of dialysis in adolescents and young adults (AYA) to inform decisions about dialysis modality in this patient population. Registry data on Australian AYA aged 13 to 20 years who commenced dialysis between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2013 were retrieved from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation Registry and analyzed to determine associations between demographic characteristics, dialysis modality and outcomes. During the study period 300 AYA commenced dialysis at a median age of 17.2 years (IQR 15.6 to 18.6 years). Haemodialysis (HD) was the initial dialysis modality in 201 patients (67%). No significant differences between AYA receiving HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD) were noted in patient gender, age, race, primary renal disease, treating centre type, remoteness of residential area, lateness of referral or period of study. Mean haemoglobin levels were lower in the HD group (P = 0.005) and significantly fewer HD patients attended school full time compared to patients managed on PD (P = 0.002 first year; P = 0.05 second year). Dialysis modality choice does not appear to be influenced by patient characteristics nor dialysis outcomes. Future research is required to examine the reasons that HD is preferred over PD and to determine the optimal method of dialysis for this age group. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Can Australian radiographers assess screening mammograms accurately? First stage results from a four year prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, the role of the radiographer is changing; some countries have developed advanced roles with specific scopes of practice. Other countries, like Australia, are in the process of this change. The aim of this research is to assess the diagnostic outcomes reported by the radiographers and compare them to those reported by current screen readers. Method: Six experienced radiographers were invited to participate in a prospective study conducted between 2010 and 2011. They were required to read 2000 mammograms each. Their results were compared with those of the radiologists. Statistical analysis of the results included overall cancer detection rates, recall rates, levels of agreement, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Results: A total of 9348 women were included in the study. The percentage of cancers detected by the radiographers ranged from 53% to 100% of the cancers detected by the radiologists. Radiologist recall rate ranged between 3.4% and 5.5% and the radiographers' range was 2.9%–9.8%. Level of agreement of the radiographers with the radiologists ranged from 90 to 96%. Conclusion: The potential for accuracy in screen reading by Australian radiographers is supported by the results of this study. Implementation of formal training is likely to result in an increase in the diagnostic accuracy of radiographers. - Highlights: • Radiographers prospectively read 2000 screening mammograms each. • These results support potential for accuracy in screen reading by radiographers. • Will advanced practice be introduced within BreastScreen Australia?.

  19. Characteristics of effective interventions supporting quality pain management in Australian emergency departments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Ramon Z; Holzhauser, Kerri; Gillespie, Kerri; Huckson, Sue; Bennetts, Scott

    2012-02-01

    It is well established that pain is the most common presenting complaint in Emergency Departments. Despite great improvements in available pain management strategies, patients are left waiting for longer than 60min for pain relief on arrival to the emergency department. The aim of this study was to describe interventions that lead to successful implementation of the National Health and Medical Research Council approved guidelines Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence (2nd Edition) that include specific recommendations for best practice pain management. A two-phased, mixed-method, exploratory study of all 52 Australian hospital emergency departments participating in the National Emergency Care Pain Management Initiative incorporating interview and document analysis was undertaken. Interventions used by clinicians to improve pain management included nurse initiated analgesia, intranasal fentanyl for paediatric patients and lignocaine, and facio illiaca block. Education formed a major part of the intervention and the development of a working group of key stakeholders was critical in the successful implementation of change. Staff perceptions of patients' pain level and attitudes toward pain assessment and pain management were identified as barriers. This study highlighted how an effective framework to plan and implement practice change and tailored interventions, including education and training systems and products using the best available evidence, best equipped clinicians to manage pain in the ED. Copyright © 2011 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  1. The prevalence of dental anomalies in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, H Q; Constantine, S; Anderson, P J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies within an Australian paediatric population using panoramic radiographs. This was a prospective review of 1050 panoramic radiographs obtained as part of a school dental screening program in suburban and rural New South Wales, Australia. Fifty-four (5.14%) patients had a dental anomaly present. Agenesis was noted to have occurred 69 times across 45 patients (4.28%), along with seven cases of impaction (0.6%) and three cases of supernumerary teeth (0.28%). Dental anomalies rarely occur in the Australian population, which possesses a wide-ranging multiethnic cohort. Despite their rarity, they can be incidentally discovered so identification and management by dental practitioners are important. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  3. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  4. Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa | Strydom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Globalisation and its impact on higher education will be discussed, while globalisation as a critical external influence on the ...

  5. The South African Surgical Outcomes Study: a seven-day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LR Mathivha, TR Mokoena, S Monokoane, Rui Moreno, David ... Method: A seven-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted in 50 government-funded hospitals in South .... Dr George Mukhari Hospital.

  6. Study on the Tribological Characteristics of Australian Native First Generation and Second Generation Biodiesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesels are a renewable energy source, and they have the potential to be used as alternatives to diesel fuel. The aim of this study is to investigate the wear and friction characteristics of Australian native first generation and second generation biodiesels using a four-ball tribo tester. The biodiesel was produced through a two-step transesterification process and characterized according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards. The tribological experiment was carried out at a constant 1800 rpm and different loads and temperatures. In addition, the surface morphology of the ball was tested by scanning electron microscope (SEM/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The test results indicated that biodiesel fuels have a lower coefficient of frictions (COF and lower wear scar diameter (WSD up to 83.50% and 41.28%, respectively, compared to conventional diesel fuel. The worn surface area results showed that biodiesel fuel has a minimum percentage of C and O, except Fe, compared to diesel. In addition, the worn surface area for diesel was found (2.20%–27.92% to be higher than biodiesel. The findings of this study indicated that both first and second generation biodiesel fuels have better tribological performance than diesel fuel, and between the biodiesel fuels, macadamia biodiesel showed better lubrication performance.

  7. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bustam BM (2010 Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG. This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996 and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens of 36 species (33 species of Austrostipa, two species of Hesperostipa and one species of Anemanthele at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Twenty eight micro morphological characters were used. The data were collected from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves, and from the lemma epidermis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. ISWG provided the molecular data. Parsimony analysis and a distance method (Unweighteic Pair Group with Arithmatic Mean: UPGMA were used to analyze mico morphological and molecular data separately. Only UPGMA analysis was used to analyze the combined data. The results support the monophyly of Austrostipa. However, there is a little support for the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996, other than for the consistent recognition of Falcatae. The characters for comparisons between genera are too homoplasious at this level and do not contain enough information for analyses at subgeneric level, a problem apparently shared with the DNA sequences.

  8. Research capacity building in midwifery: Case study of an Australian Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Lewis, Lucy; Bayes, Sara; Keyes, Louise

    2015-09-01

    Having the research capacity to identify problems, create new knowledge and most importantly translate this knowledge into practice is essential within health care. Midwifery, as well as other health professions in Australia, is challenged in building its research capacity to contribute evidence to inform clinical practice. The aim of this project was to evaluate an innovative Graduate Midwifery Research Intern Programme offered at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Western Australia, to determine what was working well and how the programme could be improved. A case study approach was used to gain feedback from graduate midwives within a Graduate Research Intern (GRI) Programme. In addition outcomes were compiled of all projects the GRI midwives contributed to. Six GRI midwives participated in a survey comprising of four open ended questions to provide feedback about the programme. Findings confirm that the GRI programme increased the graduates understanding of how research works, its capacity to define a problem, generate new knowledge and inform clinical practice. The GRI midwives' feedback suggested the programme opened their thinking to future study and gave them enhanced insight into women's experiences around childbirth. To grow our knowledge as a professional group, midwives must develop and promote programmes to build our pool of research capable midwives. By sharing our programme evaluation we hope to entice other clinical settings to consider the value in replicating such a programme within their context. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food and nutrient consumption trends in older Australians: a 10-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, V M; Burlutsky, G; Webb, K L; Wang, J J; Smith, W T; Mitchell, P

    2010-06-01

    Few longitudinal population-based cohort studies of older people have described dietary intakes over time. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the food and nutrient intake in a cohort of older Australians, using longitudinal data collected over 10 years. Population-based cohort of people aged 49 years and over at baseline (82% of those eligible) living in two postcode areas, west of Sydney. In 1992-1994, 3654 people were examined; 2334 were reexamined after 5 years and 1952 after 10 years (75% survivors at both examinations). A 145-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food and nutrient intake on each occasion, and 1166 participants provided usable dietary data at all three examinations. Energy and sugar intake significantly increased among women over the 10-year period (P-value for trend bread consumption decreased in both men and women (P-value for trend choices. This information could be used to inform nutrition policy and programs targeted to older persons. These data highlight the need to identify barriers to better food choices.

  10. Non-prescription treatment of NSAID induced GORD by Australian pharmacies: a national simulated patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Brett; Matthews, Andrew; Bergin, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    Patients regularly present to community pharmacies for advice about and treatment for reflux symptoms and NSAIDs are a common cause of these symptoms. There is no published literature detailing the approach that pharmacies take to these enquiries, the pharmacotherapy they recommend or whether they contribute to the safe and effective use of reflux medicines. To assess in an observational study design the clinical history gathering, recommendations for GORD management and counselling provided by community pharmacies in a simulated patient scenario involving suspected NSAID induced reflux symptoms. Setting Australian community pharmacies. Simulated patients visited 223 community pharmacies to request treatment for reflux symptoms. The interaction was audiotaped and assessed against guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms. Alignment of community pharmacies with international expert gastroenterologist guidance and national professional practice guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms by pharmacists including: consultation with a pharmacist; confirmation of reflux diagnosis based on symptoms; recommendation of short courses proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy; advice on the safe and effective use of reflux medicines and referral to a doctor for further assessment. Pharmacists consulted with the simulated patient in 77% of cases. Symptoms were enquired about in 95% of cases and a medicines history taken in 69% of cases. Recommendations for treatment included: PPIs (18%), histamine H2 antagonists (57%) and antacids (19%). Advice on product use was given in 83% of cases. Referral to a doctor to discuss reflux symptoms was made in 63% of cases. When assessing patients for the symptoms of GORD, Australian pharmacists and non-pharmacist support staff take a comprehensive history including symptomatology, duration of symptoms, concomitant medicines and medical conditions and any GORD treatments previously trialled. They provide comprehensive counselling on the

  11. Identifying High Academic Potential in Australian Aboriginal Children Using Dynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffey, Graham W.; Bailey, Stan B.; Vine, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dynamic testing as a method for identifying high academic potential in Australian Aboriginal children. The 79 participating Aboriginal children were drawn from Years 3-5 in rural schools in northern New South Wales. The dynamic testing method used in this study involved a…

  12. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1987-01-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region. (author)

  13. Training at the Australian School of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culley, D.; Fredsall, J.R.; Toner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) was founded in 1964 as a joint enterprise of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and the University of New South Wales to support nuclear developments primarily in Australia. However, ASNT has developed into an important centre for nuclear science and technology training within the South East Asian Region with participants also attending from countries outside this Region

  14. A pilot study of the attitudes of Australian Rules footballers towards protective headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C F; McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Zazryn, T

    2003-12-01

    Despite a relatively high risk of injury to participants of Australian Rules football, very few players report wearing protective equipment. The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a pilot survey of the attitudes of community-level Australian Rules football players towards protective headgear and the risk of head injury. Seventy players from four purposefully chosen clubs in metropolitan Melbourne completed a self-report questionnaire at the end of the 2000-playing season. Almost all players (91.4%) reported they did not wear protective headgear during the 2000 season. Non-headgear users said that headgear was too uncomfortable (47.4%) and they didn't like it (42.1%). However, 80.0% of non-users said they would wear it if it prevented injury. The major motivation for wearing headgear was to prevent injury. Players considered rugby, boxing and driving a car, to be associated with a higher-risk of head injury than Australian Rules football. As a group, the players perceived the risk of head injury in Australian Rules football to be low to moderate when compared to other sports and activities. This partially explains why so few players wore protective headgear. Repeat surveys on a larger sample should be conducted to further understand the attitudes towards protective headgear and perceptions of risk in community-level Australian football players.

  15. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  16. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  17. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Gina

    1998-01-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  18. Nutrition Education in Australian Midwifery Programmes: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Arrish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has explored how nutrition content in midwifery education prepares midwives to provide prenatal nutrition advice. This study examined the nature and extent of nutrition education provided in Australian midwifery programmes. A mixed-methods approach was used, incorporating an online survey and telephone interviews. The survey analysis included 23 course coordinators representing 24 of 50 accredited midwifery programmes in 2012. Overall, the coordinators considered nutrition in midwifery curricula and the midwife’s role as important. All programmes included nutrition content; however, eleven had only 5 to <10 hours allocated to nutrition, while two had a designated unit. Various topics were covered. Dietitians/other nutrition experts were rarely involved in teaching or reviewing the nutrition content. Interviews with seven coordinators revealed that nutrition education tended to be problem-oriented and at times based on various assumptions. Nutrition content was not informed by professional or theoretical models. The development of nutrition assessment skills or practical training for midwifery students in providing nutrition advice was lacking. As nutrition is essential for maternal and foetal health, nutrition education in midwifery programmes needs to be reviewed and minimum requirements should be included to improve midwives’ effectiveness in this area. This may require collaboration between nutrition experts and midwifery bodies.

  19. Using Free Adoptions to Reduce Crowding and Euthanasia at Cat Shelters: An Australian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Heather M; Fontaine, Joseph B; Calver, Michael C

    2017-12-04

    Many healthy adult cats are euthanised annually in shelters, and novel approaches are required to reduce euthanasia rates. Waiving adoption fees is one such approach. However, concerns that less responsible owners will be attracted to free events persist among welfare groups. We evaluated evidence for differences in cat fate, health, and adherence to husbandry legislation via a case-study of a free adoption-drive for cats ≥1 year at a Western Australian shelter. Post-adoption outcomes were compared between free adopters and a control group of normal-fee adopters. The free adoption-drive rehomed 137 cats, increasing average weekly adoptions by 533%. First-time adopters were a significantly larger portion of the free cohort, as a result of mixed-media promotions. Both adopter groups selected cats of similar age; sex and pelage. Post-adoption, both groups retained >90% cats, reporting near identical incidences of medical and behavioural problems. Adopters did not differ in legislative compliance regarding fitting collars, registering cats, or allowing cats to roam. The shelter reported satisfaction with the adoption-drive, because in addition to relieving crowding of healthy adults, adoption of full-fee kittens increased 381%. Overall, we found no evidence for adverse outcomes associated with free adoptions. Shelters should not be dissuaded from occasional free adoption-drives during overflow periods.

  20. Using Free Adoptions to Reduce Crowding and Euthanasia at Cat Shelters: An Australian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Crawford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many healthy adult cats are euthanised annually in shelters, and novel approaches are required to reduce euthanasia rates. Waiving adoption fees is one such approach. However, concerns that less responsible owners will be attracted to free events persist among welfare groups. We evaluated evidence for differences in cat fate, health, and adherence to husbandry legislation via a case-study of a free adoption-drive for cats ≥1 year at a Western Australian shelter. Post-adoption outcomes were compared between free adopters and a control group of normal-fee adopters. The free adoption-drive rehomed 137 cats, increasing average weekly adoptions by 533%. First-time adopters were a significantly larger portion of the free cohort, as a result of mixed-media promotions. Both adopter groups selected cats of similar age; sex and pelage. Post-adoption, both groups retained >90% cats, reporting near identical incidences of medical and behavioural problems. Adopters did not differ in legislative compliance regarding fitting collars, registering cats, or allowing cats to roam. The shelter reported satisfaction with the adoption-drive, because in addition to relieving crowding of healthy adults, adoption of full-fee kittens increased 381%. Overall, we found no evidence for adverse outcomes associated with free adoptions. Shelters should not be dissuaded from occasional free adoption-drives during overflow periods.

  1. Defining fitness to practise in Australian radiation therapy: A focus group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Caroline A.; Jolly, Brian; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Baird, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to investigate how Australian radiation therapists define fitness to practise. Method: A qualitative approach was taken to data collection with focus groups being employed to gather the data. Analysis was informed by grounded theory. Following ethics approval, three homogeneous focus groups were conducted comprising a total of 21 participants, with 5-8 participants per group. The discussions were transcribed, verified by the researcher and participants, then unitised, coded and a sample checked by a second coder. Findings: There was no consensus on the definition of fitness to practise. The terms professionalism and competence were used interchangeably in some definitions. Four themes emerged from the data, these were; fitness as a continuum (individual differences and longevity in the profession), fitness as behaviour and conduct (professionalism and competence), fitness as a state of mind (attitudes and intangible elements) and fitness as being qualified (course completion means fitness to practise). Three concepts which were not raised were illegal behaviour, impaired practice and dose errors. Conclusion: There is no consensus among radiation therapists about fitness to practise. There was confusion with how Fitness to practise relates to professionalism and competence with little mention of how impairment is interwoven into the notion of fitness to practise. Without an unambiguous definition and robust criteria, making the 'judgement call' as to whether a practitioners' fitness to practise is impaired will continue to be a challenge for educators, departmental managers and registration boards.

  2. Defining fitness to practise in Australian radiation therapy: A focus group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Caroline A., E-mail: caroline.wright@med.monash.edu.a [Monash University, Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Clayton Campus, Wellington Road Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Jolly, Brian [Monash University, Centre for Medical and Health Sciences Education (Australia); Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.; Baird, Marilyn A. [Monash University, Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Clayton Campus, Wellington Road Clayton, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to investigate how Australian radiation therapists define fitness to practise. Method: A qualitative approach was taken to data collection with focus groups being employed to gather the data. Analysis was informed by grounded theory. Following ethics approval, three homogeneous focus groups were conducted comprising a total of 21 participants, with 5-8 participants per group. The discussions were transcribed, verified by the researcher and participants, then unitised, coded and a sample checked by a second coder. Findings: There was no consensus on the definition of fitness to practise. The terms professionalism and competence were used interchangeably in some definitions. Four themes emerged from the data, these were; fitness as a continuum (individual differences and longevity in the profession), fitness as behaviour and conduct (professionalism and competence), fitness as a state of mind (attitudes and intangible elements) and fitness as being qualified (course completion means fitness to practise). Three concepts which were not raised were illegal behaviour, impaired practice and dose errors. Conclusion: There is no consensus among radiation therapists about fitness to practise. There was confusion with how Fitness to practise relates to professionalism and competence with little mention of how impairment is interwoven into the notion of fitness to practise. Without an unambiguous definition and robust criteria, making the 'judgement call' as to whether a practitioners' fitness to practise is impaired will continue to be a challenge for educators, departmental managers and registration boards.

  3. Online Education Systems in Scandinavian and Australian Universities: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of online education systems in Norwegian, Swedish, and Australian universities. The online education systems discussed comprise content creation tools and systems for learning management, student management, and accounting. The author of this article arrives at the conclusion that there seems to be a general lack of integration between theses systems in all three countries. Further, there seems to be little focus on standards specifications such as IMS Global Learning Consortium (IMS and Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM in higher education in all three countries. It was found that both Norway and Sweden value the importance of nationally developed learning management systems and student management systems; however, this does not seem to be the case in Australia. There also seems to be much more national coordination and governmental coercion concerning the choice of student management systems used in Sweden and Norway, than is the case in Australia. Finally, with regard to online education, the most striking difference between these three countries is that of economic policy. In Australia, education is considered an important export industry. In Norway and Sweden, however, the export of education does not seem to be an issue for public discussion.

  4. The discourse of "social licence to operate": case study of the Australian wind industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina L. Hall

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social Licence to Operate is a concept from the mining industry that reflects the ongoing acceptance or approval for a development granted by local stakeholders. It is now being applied by wind farm developers. Using the Australian wind industry as a case study, this discourse analysis examined how Social Licence to Operate is perceived and operationalised, and the key themes in this conceptual and applied discourse. Discourse analysis acknowledges that language choices are not accidental and discourse reflects power relationships. The wind industry representatives interviewed considered power over the Social Licence to Operate was shared with community stakeholders. They recognised the stakeholders' power to delay or prevent projects, but rejected the notion that every stakeholder group should have veto power. Social Licence to Operate is seen by the wind industry through a business-oriented perspective, with an emphasis on business risk, and they describe the opposition to wind farms by invoking a metaphor of "battle". The industry respondents described Social Licence to Operate as incorporating the values of trust, transparency and participation—which all contribute to creating "authentic" relationships. These findings can inform Social Licence to Operate research, engagement practices, and also encourage reflection by industry representatives on their implicit intentions for stakeholder engagement.

  5. Fostering eGovernment as State Social Responsibility (SSR: Case Study of an Australian City Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara Rao Karna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available           Democracies around the world now face Citizen-apathy. This is a concern now more than ever faced by countries around the globe. eGovernment is undoubtedly a platform to deliberate and enable citizens regain confidence and faith in democratic  processes. Citizens now seek Verifiable, Open, Transparent, Empathetic, Responsive and Sensitive Electronic Democracy and Government (VOTERS EDG, Karna, 2012. Similar to corporate world, there are voices stressing on govenments for the need to understand the stakeholders, their involvement, relationships and responsibilities of a state in eGovernance. Citizens everywhere now demand Verifiable, Open, Transparent, Empathetic, Responsive and Sensitive Electronically Democratic Government as a State Social Responsibity (SSR. Peoples movements and outbursts against authorities with the help of Word of Mouse (Karna, 2012 have established that transparent and open governance is the need of the hour. This paper presents findings of the study conducted in an Australian City Council for preparing the city council for ‘City e-readiness’ to initiate e-Government activities. We propose the idea of ‘Centrality of Citizens’ in context of eGovernment. We further build upon the original concept of deeming eGovernment as ‘State Social Responsibility’ (SSR (Karna, 2010, by governments at all levels.  

  6. Teamwork: a study of Australian and US student speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Susan C; Lincoln, Michelle A; Reed, Vicki A

    2009-05-01

    In the discipline of speech-language pathology little is known about the explicit and implicit team skills taught within university curricula. This study surveyed 281 speech-language pathology students to determine a baseline of their perceived ability to participate in interprofessional teams. The students were enrolled in programs in Australia and the USA and were surveyed about their perceptions of their attitudes, knowledge and skills in teamwork. MANCOVA analysis for main effects of age, university program and clinical experience showed that age was not significant, negating the perception that life experiences improve perceived team skills. Clinical experience was significant in that students with more clinical experience rated themselves more highly on their team abilities. Post Hoc analysis revealed that Australian students rated themselves higher than their US counterparts on their knowledge about working on teams, but lower on attitudes to teams; all students perceived that they had the skills to work on teams. These results provide insight about teamwork training components in current speech-language pathology curricula. Implications are discussed with reference to enhancing university training programs.

  7. Process Philosophy and the Text-Image Interface: A Study of Three Western Australian Botanical Illustrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical illustration combines scientific knowledge and artistic technique. However, whereas illustrated botanical images record static visual qualities, such as form and color, written botanical narratives supply crucial sensory, ecological, historical, and cultural contexts that complement visual representation. Understanding the text-image interface—where images and words intersect—contributes to humanities-based analyses of botanical illustration and illustrators. More specifically, a process philosophy perspective reveals the extent to which botanical representations engage the temporality, cyclicality, and contextuality of the living plants being illustrated. This article takes up these themes through a comparative theoretical study of three female Western Australian botanical illustrators, Georgiana Leake (1812–1869, Emily Pelloe (1877–1941, and Philippa Nikulinsky (born 1942, whose lives together span the 183 year history of the Swan River Colony and the state of Western Australia. I apply a processist framework to examine the text-image interface of their works. All three illustrators use some form of textuality: marginalia, annotations, written accompaniments, introductory statements, and other narrative materials. In examining their written commentaries and traces, I identify the emergence of a process mode of botanical illustration that represents plants as ecological, historical, cultural, and temporal organisms.

  8. A study of the presence of brominated flame retardants in Australian fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R.; Burniston, D.; Piro, N.; Stevenson, G.; Yates, A. [Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, Sydney (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Brominated flame retardants, in particular polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) gained prominence in the late nineties when Noren et al. reported an exponential increase in PBDE levels found in Swedish mothers milk over a quarter of a century period with an associated decrease in levels of dioxin-like compounds. PBDEs have since become exceptionally widely studied being detected in most environmental compartments and food as well as human tissues. Only limited information on the distribution if PBDEs is available for the Southern Hemisphere, however, elevated levels of PBDEs in pork fat were detected during the routine screening for organochlorine pesticide residues. More recently an investigation of breast milk for PBDE levels also demonstrated that levels were comparable with those in the Northern Hemisphere. BFRs are not manufactured in Australia but it has been estimated that over 500 tonnes are imported yearly of which 340 tonnes are PBDEs. In addition, the amount of PBDEs that are contained in imported articles used both in domestic and industrial applications is unknown. In this paper, we report levels of PBDEs in a range of different Australian fauna that show that these POPs have indeed become widely distributed both in terms of the types of the fauna but also the levels determined.

  9. Influenza-associated Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis Study 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Philip N; Dale, Russell C; Blyth, Christopher C; Macartney, Kristine; Crawford, Nigel W; Marshall, Helen; Clark, Julia E; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Webster, Richard I; Cheng, Allen C; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl A

    2017-11-01

    Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE) is an important cause of acute encephalitis syndrome in children. IAE includes a series of clinicoradiologic syndromes or acute encephalopathy syndromes that have been infrequently reported outside East Asia. We aimed to describe cases of IAE identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis study. Children ≤ 14 years of age with suspected encephalitis were prospectively identified in 5 hospitals in Australia. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome at discharge data were reviewed by an expert panel and cases were categorized by using predetermined case definitions. We extracted cases associated with laboratory identification of influenza virus for this analysis; among these cases, specific IAE syndromes were identified where clinical and radiologic features were consistent with descriptions in the published literature. We identified 13 cases of IAE during 3 southern hemisphere influenza seasons at 5 tertiary children's hospitals in Australia; 8 children with specific acute encephalopathy syndromes including: acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late diffusion restriction, mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion, and hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome. Use of influenza-specific antiviral therapy and prior influenza vaccination were infrequent. In contrast, death or significant neurologic morbidity occurred in 7 of the 13 children (54%). The conditions comprising IAE are heterogeneous with varied clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging changes, and outcomes. Overall, outcome of IAE is poor emphasizing the need for optimized prevention, early recognition, and empiric management.

  10. Factors associated with unwanted sexual experiences of young Australian females: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L; Wark, John D; Gorelik, Alexandra; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    Background Behavioural and lifestyle factors associated with childhood unwanted sexual experiences (USE) have yet to be investigated in Australian females aged less than 18 years. Women aged 16-25 years living in Victoria were recruited via targeted advertising on Facebook. A web-based validated questionnaire was used to collect information on participant demographics, mental health, USE and sexual behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between a history of childhood (<16 years) and adolescent (16-18 years) USE and indices of sexual orientation. Data were collected from 639 females (mean±s.d. age 22±3 years). Approximately 14% reported childhood USE and 15% reported adolescent USE. Approximately 37% of survivors of childhood USE reported penile-genital contact in relation to their USE. Participants who reported depression were almost four times as likely to have experienced childhood USE than those who did not report suffering from depression (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.1-6.0, P<0.001). Positive associations between childhood USE, same-sex relationships and smoking were also detected. A strong relationship between childhood USE, depression and same-sex sexual behaviours was found, but results did not determine the direction of this association. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to investigate whether there are groups of individuals who are at a high risk of experiencing childhood USE, so that appropriate support systems can be put in place.

  11. Australian primary school communities' understandings of SunSmart: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, Matthew; Wright, Bradley; Dudley, Dean; Cotton, Wayne; Brown, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer represents a major health issue for Australia. Childhood sun exposure is an important risk factor and evidence suggests the use of sun protection measures by Australian school children could be improved. This study examines how the SunSmart Program, a school-based skin cancer prevention resource, can be supported to further increase sun protection behaviours to assist in lowering skin cancer incidence. The Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework was adopted to select key stakeholders from a convenience sample of five school communities. Students, teaching staff and parents participated in semi-structured focus group and individual interviews. A thematic analysis was used to extract key themes from the data. Although these school communities were aware of sun protection practices and the risks associated with sun exposure, their understandings of the SunSmart Program were limited. Sun protection policy implementation was inconsistent and students were unlikely to engage in sun protection practices beyond the school setting. School communities require additional support and engagement to holistically enforce the principles of the SunSmart Program. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Work-related stress and reward: an Australian study of multidisciplinary pediatric oncology healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C

    2015-11-01

    Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Attitudes to infant feeding decision-making--a mixed-methods study of Australian medical students and GP registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Fallon, Tony; Jackson, Claire; Hegney, Desley

    2010-03-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health issue. While medical practitioners can have a significant impact on breastfeeding initiation and duration, there are few studies investigating their views regarding women's infant feeding decisions. This mixed-methods study employed qualitative (focus groups and interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire) data collection techniques to investigate the attitudes and views of Australian medical students and GP registrars about infant feeding decision-making. Three approaches to infant feeding decisions were evident: 'the moral choice' (women were expected to breastfeed); 'the free choice' (doctors should not influence a woman's decision); and 'the equal choice' (the outcome of the decision was unimportant). Participants were uncertain about differences between artificial-feeding and breastfeeding outcomes, and there was some concern that advising a mother to breastfeed may lead to maternal feelings of guilt and failure. These findings, the first in an Australian setting, provide a foundation on which to base further educational interventions for medical practitioners.

  14. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  15. Co-evolutionary organisational response development model (CORD): a case study of an Australian energy company climate change responses

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    The thesis reports an investigation of the effects of the complex, evolving relationships between organisations and their environments. This examination is a case study of the responses of an Australian energy company to effects of climate change, and aims to enhance understanding of how organisational responses to climate change develop and evolve over time.    The impact of climate change on the contemporary organisational environment has multiple aspects – natural, ec...

  16. DNA metabarcoding for diet analysis and biodiversity: A case study using the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea)

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Tina E.; Osterrieder, Sylvia K.; Murray, D?ith? C.; Coghlan, Megan L.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Grealy, Alicia K.; Stat, Michael; Bejder, Lars; Bunce, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The analysis of apex predator diet has the ability to deliver valuable insights into ecosystem health, and the potential impacts a predator might have on commercially relevant species. The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) is an endemic apex predator and one of the world's most endangered pinnipeds. Given that prey availability is vital to the survival of top predators, this study set out to understand what dietary information DNA metabarcoding could yield from 36 sea lion scats...

  17. Nationwide incidence of blindness in South Korea: a 12-year study from 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Eun Jee; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-11-01

    Blindness is an important public health issue. The background of the study is to determine the incidence of blindness in South Korea. Nationwide population-based retrospective study. All individuals from South Korea (n = 47 516 098). Patients confirmed with legal blindness based on the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2013 were included. The Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS) database was used. Using the World Health Organization definition, blindness was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes of blindness during the 12-year period was estimated. The population of South Korea was estimated using census data in 2005 and 2010. The total number of legal blindness cases in the KNHIS database. We identified 195 004 and 20 492 cases of newly developed legal blindness based on the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes, respectively, and the mean incidences of blindness were 34.2 and 3.6 cases/100 000 person-years, respectively. The prevalence of blindness based on the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes was 425.3 and 57.7 cases/100 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of blindness based on the worse-seeing eye was higher in men than in women overall. Additionally, the incidence increased with age and showed a decreasing trend from 2002 to 2013. The prevalence of blindness showed an increasing trend from 2002 to 2013. The findings of our study will help in the assessment of the blindness-related socio-economic burden and in healthcare planning. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Susan; Halkett, Georgia; Sale, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development

  19. Australian radiation therapy – Part two: Reflections of the past, the present, the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Susan [Radiation Oncology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Curtin Health Innovative Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA (Australia); Halkett, Georgia [Curtin Health Innovative Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA (Australia); Sale, Charlotte [Radiation Oncology, Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Vic. (Australia); Radiation Oncology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Collaboration: Grad Cert Grief & Pall Care Counselling, MIR

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Documentation on the history of Australian radiotherapy is limited. This study provides radiation therapists' (RTs) perspectives of the people, workplace, and work practices in Australian radiotherapy centres from 1960 onwards. It provides a follow-up to our previous study: Australian radiation therapy: An overview – Part one, which outlines the history and development of radiotherapy from conception until present day. Methods: Four focus groups were conducted on separate occasions in 2010, one in South Australia and three in Victoria, Australia. Participants who worked in radiotherapy were purposively selected to ensure a range of experience, age, and years of work. Results: From a RT perspective, radiotherapy has evolved from a physically demanding ‘hands-on’ work environment, often with unpleasant sights and smells of disease, to a more technology-driven workplace. Conclusion: Understanding these changes and their subsequent effects on the role of Australian RTs will assist future directions in advanced role development.

  20. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  1. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  2. QUALITY PREMIUMS FOR AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN THE GROWING ASIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Stanmore, Roland G.

    1994-01-01

    An hedonic price function is applied to Australia's wheat exports to the growing Asian markets. The values for the quality characteristics in the wheat markets of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand are estimated. The data base for the study is from the Australian Wheat Board shipments over the period 1984 to 1991. The sample is divided into two separate time periods to test the consistency in demand for export wheat and to trace recent trends in quality premiums. The im...

  3. The Australian biomarker, imaging and lifestyle study: phase 1 amyloid imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C. C.; Pike, K.; Villemagne, V. L.; Morandeau, L.; Masters, C. L.; Ames, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Background: Phase 1 of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing, a three-year prospective longitudinal study recruiting 1,112 volunteers from a cross-section of Australia's elderly population, concluded with more than a quarter of the participants undergoing PiB-PET. Methods: 287 participants received PiB PET scans: 177 Healthy controls (HC); 57 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subjects; and 53 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. HC were further classified according to their subjective memory complaints and genetic predisposition. All participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination, a 3D T1 MP-RAGE and T2 FSE MR, and a PiB-PET scan. Regional and global cortical SUVR were calculated using the cerebellar cortex as reference region. A SUVR cut-off of 1.40 was used to define PiB scans as normal or abnormal. Results: Cortical PIB binding was markedly elevated in all AD patients except one. MCI subjects presented either an AD-like (63%) or normal pattern. Cortical PiB retention was abnormal in 34% of HC and the prevalence increased with age. HC with subjective memory complaints carrying an ApoE4 allele had significantly higher A burdens than non ApoE4 carriers. Conclusions: Phase 1 of the AIBL study has set the foundations for the longitudinal assessment of A burden in HC, MCI and AD. This wil assist the development of techniques for early detection of AD providing a cohort suitable for targeted early intervention studies.

  4. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter D; Valery, Patricia C; Whop, Lisa J; Moore, Suzanne P; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Brotherton, Julia M L; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Sarfati, Diana; Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth; Condon, John R

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women. Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+), for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women. Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4%) compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0%) and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%). Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality) when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4), indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality. Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted. The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and multidisciplinary

  5. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Diaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women.Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+, for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women.Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4% compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0% and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%. Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4, indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality.Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted.The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and

  6. Parental exercise is associated with Australian children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between parental physical activity and children's physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been well studied in the Australian context. Given the increasing focus on physical activity and childhood obesity, it is important to understand correlates of children's physical activity. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exercise was associated with children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods The data were drawn from a nationally representative sample (n = 8,484 of 7–15 year old Australian schoolchildren, surveyed as part of the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey in 1985. A subset of 5,929 children aged 9–15 years reported their participation in extracurricular sports and their parents' exercise. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 1.6 km (1-mile run/walk and in addition for children aged 9, 12 or 15 years, using a physical work capacity test (PWC170. Results While the magnitude of the differences were small, parental exercise was positively associated with children's extracurricular sports participation (p p 170 (p = 0.013. In most instances, when only one parent was active, the sex of that parent was not an independent predictor of the child's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion Parental exercise may influence their children's participation in extracurricular sports and their cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Understanding the correlates of children's extracurricular sport participation is important for the targeting of health promotion and public health interventions, and may influence children's future health status.

  7. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Carragher, Natacha; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-11-18

    Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations.

  8. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. Objective This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. Methods The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. Results The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. Conclusions The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations. PMID:26582408

  9. How big is a food portion? A pilot study in Australian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clare E; Bucher, Tamara; Taylor, Aimee; Pezdirc, Kristine; Lucas, Hannah; Watson, Jane; Rollo, Megan; Duncanson, Kerith; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Burrows, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    It is not known whether individuals can accurately estimate the portion size of foods usually consumed relative to standard serving sizes in national food selection guides. The aim of the present cross-sectional pilot study was to quantify what adults and children deem a typical portion for a variety of foods and compare these with the serving sizes specified in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE). Adults and children were independently asked to serve out their typical portion of 10 common foods (rice, pasta, breakfast cereal, chocolate, confectionary, ice cream, meat, vegetables, soft drink and milk). They were also asked to serve what they perceived a small, medium and large portion of each food to be. Each portion was weighed and recorded by an assessor and compared with the standard AGHE serving sizes. Twenty-one individuals (nine mothers, one father, 11 children) participated in the study. There was a large degree of variability in portion sizes measured out by both parents and children, with means exceeding the standard AGHE serving size for all items, except for soft drink and milk, where mean portion sizes were less than the AGHE serving size. The greatest mean overestimations were for pasta (155%; mean 116 g; range 94-139 g) and chocolate (151%; mean 38 g; range 25-50 g), each of which represented approximately 1.5 standard AGHE servings. The findings of the present study indicate that there is variability between parents' and children's estimation of typical portion sizes compared with national recommendations. SO WHAT? Dietary interventions to improve individuals' dietary patterns should target education regarding portion size.

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Asian and Anglo-Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugnell, Claudia; M N Renzaho, Andre; Ridley, Kate; Burns, Cate

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) participation varies among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) adolescents. The present study examined differences in PA and SB among a CALD sample of Chinese Australian, South-east Asian and Anglo-Australian adolescents. Data from 286 adolescents aged 12-16 years involved in the Chinese and Australian Adolescent Health Survey in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were analysed. Accelerometry outcomes included median activity counts per minute (counts x min(-1)) and minutes per day (min x day(-1)) spent in light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST). Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and sequential multiple hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine CALD differences in PA and ST. Multivariate analyses of accelerometry data found Chinese Australian and South-east Asian adolescents engaged in significantly less daily MVPA (5-8 min x day(-1)) and LPA (50-58 min x day(-1); P Asian adolescents compared with Anglo-Australian adolescents. These findings have important public health implications in furthering our understanding of CALD differences in PA and SB. SO WHAT? An understanding of the CALD differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian adolescents has important implications for intervention planning and delivery as well as the wider health implications of these behaviours. This article furthers the current understanding of CALD adolescents' participation in physical activity and sedentary behaviour, of which limited information is available.

  11. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Tiffany K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI. Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls. In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR for obesity comparing sleeping Conclusion Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  12. An exploratory study of cannabis withdrawal among Indigenous Australian prison inmates: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Bernadette; Copeland, Jan; Buttner, Petra; Bohanna, India; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Clough, Alan R

    2013-05-28

    Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, has not been examined in Indigenous populations. Owing to the exceptionally high rates of cannabis use in the community, high proportions of Australian Indigenous prisoners may suffer from withdrawal upon entry to custody. 60 male and 60 female Indigenous prisoners (18-40 years) at a high risk of cannabis dependence will be recruited upon entry to custody. A pictorial representation of the standard Cannabis Withdrawal Scale will be tested for reliability and validity. Cortisol markers will be measured in saliva, as the indicators of onset and severity of cannabis withdrawal and psychological distress. The characteristics will be described as percentages and mean or median values with 95% CI. Receiver operator curve analysis will determine an ideal cut-off of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and generalised estimating equations modelling will test changes over time. The acceptability and efficacy of proposed resources will be assessed qualitatively using thematic analysis. A valid and reliable measure of cannabis withdrawal for use with Indigenous populations, the onset and time course of withdrawal symptoms in this population and the development of culturally acceptable resources and interventions to identify and manage cannabis withdrawal. The project has been approved by the James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number H4651).The results will be reported via peer reviewed publications, conference, seminar presentations and on-line media for national and international dissemination.

  13. Accounting window dressing and template regulation: A case study of the Australian credit union industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.; Stevenson-Clarke, P.; Lhaopadchan, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article documents the response of cooperative institutions that were required to adhere to new capital adequacy regulations traditionally geared for profit-maximising organisations. Using data from the Australian credit union industry, we demonstrate that the cooperative philosophy and internal

  14. Economic rationalism and the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, C; Carey, L B

    2000-01-01

    Health care reform is also occurring in Australia and effects hospital chaplaincy programs. "Economic rationalism" is the philosophic foundation of this effort and its contrast with the values inherit in hospital chaplaincy are highlighted. Selected research results from the Australian system are described and the authors offer a perspective on the cost efficiency of hospital chaplaincy.

  15. Using Aptitude Testing to Diversify Higher Education Intake--An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Australian higher education is currently entering a new phase of growth. Within the remit of this expansion is an express commitment to widen participation in higher education among under-represented groups--in particular those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper argues that one key mechanism for achieving this goal should be the…

  16. Will Australians pay for health care advice from a community pharmacist? A video vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Deepa; McManus, Alexandra; Emmerton, Lynne; Jiwa, Moyez

    2015-01-01

    Large proportion of Australians have access to pharmacists' health advice at no cost. The impact of a proposed co-payment levy for general practitioner (GP) consultation by Australian government is unclear. This raises an interesting question about consumers' perceived value of health-related consultations. This survey of representative sample of Western Australians explores the hypothesis that Australians are willing to pay for advanced model of pharmacy consultation. Two videos illustrating current-services and quality-enhanced-service (QES) incorporating systematic assessment of symptoms and referral to GP if necessary, were used. Participants viewed videos online and completed a willingness-to-pay (WTP) questionnaire about their perception and WTP for each service. Logistic regression and McNemar tests were used to identify WTP groups. Of the 175 respondents, one in nine (19/175, 11%) were willing to pay and (35/175) 20% might consider paying for advice at pharmacies as per current-practice. Almost one in four (49/175, 28%) were willing to pay and (47/175) 27% would consider paying for QES (McNemar Test P pay for consultation at pharmacies that offers more private, time-intensive experience with documented GP referral where required. Further research is warranted to test WTP with actual customers to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transitioning Beliefs in Teachers of Chinese as a Foreign Language: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn; Xu, HuiLing

    2015-01-01

    With the economic rise of China, there is global demand for effective teaching and learning of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). There has been limited sustained success in Chinese language learning in Australian schools, however, and this has been attributed, amongst other factors, to pedagogy employed by teachers. Today, it is commonplace to…

  18. Development of Resource Sharing Networks. Study No. 6. Towards an Australian Industry Information Newwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This report describes recent progress towards the provision of SDI services, current awareness bulletins, and retrospective search facilities to the potential users in Australian industry. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of periodical literature, reports, and patent literature. A list of information bulletins available from the…

  19. Patterns of Student Enrolment and Attrition in Australian Open Access Online Education: A Preliminary Case Study

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    Greenland, Steven J.; Moore, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Swinburne University of Technology has experienced tremendous growth in open access online learning and as such is typical of the many Australian institutions that have ventured into online tertiary education. While research in online education continues to expand, comparatively little investigates students' enrolment and attrition. This research…

  20. Identifying the Education Needs of the Business Analyst: An Australian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Richards

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Business Analyst (BA plays a key role in ensuring that technology is appropriately used to achieve the organisation’s goals. This important mediating role is currently in high (unmet demand in many English-speaking countries and thus more people need to be trained for this role. To determine the educational and/or training needs of a BA we conducted a survey in the Information and Communication Technology industry in Australia. The survey items are based on prior studies of information systems educational requirements and the internationally-developed Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA that has been endorsed by the Australian Computer Society. From the literature we identified three types of skills: soft, business and technical. With the increasing importance of GreenIT and the pivotal role that the BA could play in green decision making, we added a fourth type of skill: green. The survey considers 85 skills, their importance, the level of attainment of that skill, skill gaps and types of skills. Results show that all soft skills were considered to be important with the smallest knowledge gaps. Selected business skills and green skills were seen to be important. Technical skills were considered less important, but also where the largest knowledge gaps existed. Further we asked respondents whether each skill should be acquired via an undergraduate or postgraduate degree and/or industry training and experience. We found that the workplace was considered the most appropriate place to acquire and/or develop all skills, except the ability to innovate. While we found that softskills should be taught almost equally at the undergraduate and postgraduate level, business and green skills were more appropriate in a postgraduate degree. In contrast, technical skills were best acquired in an undergraduate program of study.

  1. Provision of a Medicines Information Service to Consumers on Facebook: An Australian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Spagnardi, Sarah; Beer, Troy; Aslani, Parisa

    2015-11-23

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have changed the way people communicate. They may also change the way people seek health advice. This study describes the provision of a medicines information service on Facebook to individual consumers. It aimed to discuss the pros and cons, and inform health and pharmacy stakeholders and researchers about the opportunities and challenges of providing such a service. We adopted an exploratory approach using a case study method. NPS MedicineWise, an independent, not-for-profit Australian organization, runs a public question-and-answer service on Facebook, dubbed Pharmacist Hour. Consumers following the organization's Facebook page are invited to post medication-related questions often with a suggested health topic. A wide range of questions and comments are posted related to medication usage. The pharmacist answers the queries, providing evidence-based medicines information and using consumer-friendly language, during the specific 1-hour period. The most popular questions in the past 12 months were related to adverse effects, treatment options for conditions, and drug interactions. The service had a mean number of engagements (defined as a like or share of the Pharmacy Hour post) of 38 (SD 19) people and a mean 5 (SD 3) questions per session. The Pharmacist Hour Facebook service addresses the medicines information needs of consumers and indirectly promotes other appropriate and relevant NPS MedicineWise products and services to further assist consumers. The service offers a new medium for a quality use of medicines organization committed to promoting awareness about the correct and safe use of medicines in Australia.

  2. Improving the management and care of refugees in Australian hospitals: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lindsey; Harding, Catherine; Seal, Alexa; Duncan, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate healthcare provider perceptions of the impact of refugee patients at two public hospitals, one rural and one urban, in designated refugee resettlement areas. Healthcare professionals' views regarding improvements that could be made in this area were also sought. Methods Two-page anonymous questionnaires containing demographic, quantitative and open-ended questions were distributed to 150 healthcare providers at each research site. Results Response rates at the rural and urban sites were 50% and 49%, respectively. Refugees were seen at least monthly by 40% of respondents. Additional support was requested by 70% of respondents. Confidence was associated with being born overseas (P=0.029) and increased time working with refugees (r s =0.418, Prefugees. Midwives saw refugees more than nursing and allied healthcare staff combined, and this was significant at the rural hospital (Prefugees enhanced their practice (P=0.025), although felt significantly less confident (PRefugees were seen frequently in both settings and most respondents requested additional support, highlighting that caring for refugees in Australian hospitals is a significant challenge. Additional support and education should be targeted to those caring for refugees most frequently, particularly midwifery services, to reduce barriers to care. What is known about the topic? Refugees are a vulnerable group, often with complex health needs. These needs are often unmet because of issues including language and cultural barriers. What does this paper add? Refugees were seen frequently in the two public hospital settings involved in the present study and most often by midwifery services. Healthcare professionals require more support, more information about available services and better access to interpreter services. These issues were more pronounced in the rural setting where very limited research exists. What are the implications for practitioners

  3. Personal and Network Dynamics in Performance of Knowledge Workers: A Study of Australian Breast Radiologists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedamir Tavakoli Taba

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a theoretical model based upon previous studies about personal and social network dynamics of job performance. We provide empirical support for this model using real-world data within the context of the Australian radiology profession. An examination of radiologists' professional network topology through structural-positional and relational dimensions and radiologists' personal characteristics in terms of knowledge, experience and self-esteem is provided. Thirty one breast imaging radiologists completed a purpose designed questionnaire regarding their network characteristics and personal attributes. These radiologists also independently read a test set of 60 mammographic cases: 20 cases with cancer and 40 normal cases. A Jackknife free response operating characteristic (JAFROC method was used to measure the performance of the radiologists' in detecting breast cancers.Correlational analyses showed that reader performance was positively correlated with the social network variables of degree centrality and effective size, but negatively correlated with constraint and hierarchy. For personal characteristics, the number of mammograms read per year and self-esteem (self-evaluation positively correlated with reader performance. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that the combination of number of mammograms read per year and network's effective size, hierarchy and tie strength was the best fitting model, explaining 63.4% of the variance in reader performance. The results from this study indicate the positive relationship between reading high volumes of cases by radiologists and expertise development, but also strongly emphasise the association between effective social/professional interactions and informal knowledge sharing with high performance.

  4. Factors affecting pharmacists’ recommendation of complementary medicines – a qualitative pilot study of Australian pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culverhouse Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are widely used by the Australian public, and pharmacies are major suppliers of these medicines. The integration of CMs into pharmacy practice is well documented, but the behaviours of pharmacists in recommending CMs to customers are less well studied. This study reports on factors that influence whether or not pharmacists in Australia recommend CMs to their customers. Methods Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with twelve practicing pharmacists based in Brisbane, Australia. The qualitative data were analysed by thematic analysis. Results The primary driver of the recommendation of CMs was a desire to provide a health benefit to the customer. Other important drivers were an awareness of evidence of efficacy, customer feedback and pharmacy protocols to recommend a CM alongside a particular pharmaceutical medication. The primary barrier to the recommendation of CMs was safety concerns around patients on multiple medications or with complex health issues. Also, a lack of knowledge of CMs, a perceived lack of evidence or a lack of time to counsel patients were identified as barriers. There was a desire to see a greater integration of CM into formal pharmacy education. Additionally, the provision of good quality educational materials was seen as important to allow pharmacists to assess levels of evidence for CMs and educate them on their safe and appropriate use. Conclusions Pharmacists who frequently recommend CMs identify many potential benefits for patients and see it as an important part of providing a ‘healthcare solution’. To encourage the informed use of CMs in pharmacy there is a need for the development of accessible, quality resources on CMs. In addition, incorporation of CM education into pharmacy curricula would better prepare graduate pharmacists for community practice. Ultimately, such moves would contribute to the safe and effective use of CMs to the benefit of

  5. A comparative study of blood alcohol concentrations in Australian night-time entertainment districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Pennay, Amy; Droste, Nicolas; Butler, Erin; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Hyder, Shannon; Quinn, Brendan; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Tomsen, Stephen; Wadds, Phillip; Jones, Sandra C; Palmer, Darren; Barrie, Lance; Lam, Tina; Gilmore, William; Lubman, Dan I

    2014-07-01

    There is little research describing how intoxication levels change throughout the night in entertainment districts. This research aims to describe levels of alcohol intoxication across multiple Australian metropolitan and regional nightlife districts. This study was conducted in the night-time entertainment districts of three metropolitan cities (Sydney, Melbourne and Perth) and two regional cities (Wollongong and Geelong) in Australia. Data collection occurred approximately fortnightly in each city on a Friday or Saturday night between 8 pm and 5 am. Brief structured interviews (3-10 min) and breathalyser tests were undertaken in busy thoroughfares over six months. Of the 7037 individuals approached to participate in the study, 6998 [61.8% male, mean age 24.89 years (standard deviation 6.37; range 18-73)] agreed to be interviewed. There was a linear increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels throughout the night. Post hoc testing revealed significantly more highly intoxicated participants (i.e. BAC above 0.10 mg of alcohol per 100 mL of blood) after midnight (P gender differences disappeared by 3 am. There was no age differences in intoxication earlier in the night, but after midnight, patrons over the age of 21 showed increasing BAC levels. There is a consistent trend across the cities of high to very high levels of intoxication later in the night, with trends after midnight being significantly different to those before. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Barriers to Optimal Pain Management in Aged Care Facilities: An Australian Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Felicity; Williams, Mackenzie; Bereznicki, Luke; Cummings, Elizabeth; Thompson, Angus; Peterson, Gregory; Winzenberg, Tania

    2018-04-01

    Up to 80% of residents in aged care facilities (ACFs) experience pain, which is often suboptimally managed. The purpose of this study was to characterize pain management in ACFs and identify the barriers to optimal pain management. This exploratory descriptive qualitative study used semistructured interviews in five Southern Tasmania, Australian ACFs. Interviewees included 23 staff members (18 nurses and 5 facility managers) and were conducted from September to November 2015. Interviews included questions about how pain was measured or assessed, what happened if pain was identified, barriers to pain management, and potential ways to overcome these barriers. Interviewees noted that there were no formal requirements regarding pain assessment at the ACFs reviewed; however, pain was often informally assessed. Staff noted the importance of adequate pain management for the residents' quality of life and employed both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic techniques to reduce pain when identified. The barriers to optimal pain management included difficulty identifying and assessing pain, residents' resistance to reporting pain and/or taking medications, and communication barriers between the nursing staff and GPs. Staff interviewed were dedicated to managing residents' pain effectively; however, actions in a number of areas could improve resident outcomes. These include a more consistent approach to documenting pain in residents' progress notes and improving nurse-GP communications to ensure that new or escalating pain is identified and expedient changes can be made to the resident's management. Additionally, resident, family, nurse, and carer education, conducted within the facilities on a regular basis, could help improve the pain management of residents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Masturbation, paying for sex, and other sexual activities: the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Juliet; de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Smith, Anthony M A; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M; Grulich, Andrew E

    2014-11-01

    Background This study describes the prevalence of (solo) masturbation, paying for sex and a range of other sexual practices among Australians. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years (participation rate among eligible people, 66.2%) were recruited by landline and mobile phone random-digit dialling and computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2012-13. Many respondents (men, 72%; women, 42%) had masturbated in the past year. Half (51%) of the men and 24% of women had masturbated in the past 4 weeks. In the past year, more than two-fifths of respondents (men, 63%; women, 20%) had looked at pornography in any medium. Approximately 15% of men and 21% of women had used a sex toy. Digital-anal stimulation with a partner was practised by 19% of men and 15% of women, and oral-anal stimulation by 7% of men and 4% of women. Sexual role playing or dressing up were engaged in by 7-8%. Online sex, swinging, group sex, BDSM (bondage and discipline, 'sadomasochism' or dominance and submission) and fisting (rectal or vaginal) were each engaged in by less than 3% of the sample. Seventeen per cent of men said they had ever paid for sex; 2% had done so in the past year. Most of the solo practices studied were engaged in by more men than women, but women were more likely to have used a sex toy. Autoerotic activities are both substitutes for partnered sex and additional sources of pleasure for people with sexual partners.

  8. The protective rate of the feline immunodeficiency virus vaccine: An Australian field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, M E; Malik, R; Hall, E; Harris, M; Norris, J M

    2016-09-07

    A case-control field study was undertaken to determine the level of protection conferred to client-owned cats in Australia against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using a commercial vaccine. 440 cats with outdoor access from five Australian states/territories underwent testing, comprising 139 potential cases (complete course of primary FIV vaccinations and annual boosters for three or more years), and 301 potential controls (age, sex and postcode matched FIV-unvaccinated cats). FIV status was determined using a combination of antibody testing (using point-of-care test kits) and nucleic acid amplification, as well as virus isolation in cases where results were discordant and in all suspected FIV-vaccinated/FIV-infected cats ('vaccine breakthroughs'). Stringent inclusion criteria were applied to both 'cases' and 'controls'; 89 FIV-vaccinated cats and 212 FIV-unvaccinated cats ultimately satisfied the inclusion criteria. Five vaccine breakthroughs (5/89; 6%), and 25 FIV-infected controls (25/212; 12%) were identified, giving a vaccine protective rate of 56% (95% CI -20 to 84). The difference in FIV prevalence rates between the two groups was not significant (P=0.14). Findings from this study raise doubt concerning the efficacy of Fel-O-Vax FIV® under field conditions. Screening for FIV infection may be prudent before annual FIV re-vaccination and for sick FIV-vaccinated cats. Owners should not rely on vaccination alone to protect cats against the risk of acquiring FIV infection; other measures such as cat curfews, the use of 'modular pet parks' or keeping cats exclusively indoors, are recommended. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Sleep and academic performance in Indigenous Australian children from a remote community: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick; Kohler, Mark; Blunden, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Disruptions to sleep in childhood are associated with poor behaviour and deficits in academic performance and executive function. Although academic performance of indigenous children from remote communities in Australia is documented as well below that of non-indigenous children, the extent of sleep disruption and its contribution to academic performance among this population has not been assessed. This pilot study aimed to objectively assess the sleep of remote indigenous children and the association between sleep disruption and both academic performance and executive function. Twenty-one children from a remote Australian indigenous community aged 6-13 years wore actigraphy for two consecutive nights, reported subjective sleepiness, and were objectively assessed for academic performance (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd Edition) and executive function (NEuroloPSYcological Assessment-II). Results show marked reduction in sleep time, sleep fragmentation, academic performance and auditory attention compared with non-indigenous norms. Sleep duration was not associated with performance, possibly because of reduced sleep and performance observed across the entire group. Sleep fragmentation was associated with reduced reading and numerical skills (P sleep of indigenous children in remote communities is an important area of future inquiry, and our initial findings of poor sleep and an association between sleep disruption and academic performance may have important implications for intervention strategies aimed at 'closing the gap'. Further studies should assess a broader range of demographic, social and economic factors to better understand the associations reported here and guide future intervention. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Compliance with Dietary Guidelines Varies by Weight Status: A Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly A. Hendrie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Population surveys have rarely identified dietary patterns associated with excess energy intake in relation to risk of obesity. This study uses self-reported food intake data from the validated Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO Healthy Diet Score survey to examine whether apparent compliance with dietary guidelines varies by weight status. The sample of 185,951 Australian adults were majority female (71.8%, with 30.2%, 35.3% and 31.0% aged between 18–30, 31–50 and 51–70 years respectively. Using multinomial regression, in the adjusted model controlling for gender and age, individuals in the lowest quintile of diet quality were almost three times more likely to be obese than those in the highest quintile (OR 2.99, CI: 2.88:3.11; p < 0.001. The differential components of diet quality between normal and obese adults were fruit (difference in compliance score 12.9 points out of a possible 100, CI: 12.3:13.5; p < 0.001, discretionary foods (8.7 points, CI: 8.1:9.2; p < 0.001, and healthy fats (7.7 points, CI: 7.2:8.1; p < 0.001. Discretionary foods was the lowest scoring component across all gender and weight status groups, and are an important intervention target to improve diet quality. This study contributes to the evidence that diet quality is associated with health outcomes, including weight status, and will be useful in framing recommendations for obesity prevention and management.

  11. Implementation of Mandatory Nutritional Guidelines in South Australian Primary School Canteens: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abery, Elizabeth; Drummond, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Primary schools are identified as being in a primary position to offer nutrition education. Moreover, primary schools can offer an environment which is conducive to the promotion of healthy eating while influencing eating behaviours of children to benefit their health, well-being and academic development and performance. School canteens are one…

  12. Australian University International Student Finances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study…

  13. Mental health, sexual identity, and interpersonal violence: Findings from the Australian longitudinal Women's health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah

    2017-09-30

    We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities

  14. Supportive and palliative care needs of families of children who die from cancer: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterosso, Leanne; Kristjanson, Linda J

    2008-01-01

    To obtain feedback from parents of children who died from cancer about their understanding of palliative care, their experiences of palliative and supportive care received during their child's illness, and their palliative and supportive care needs. A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. 24 parents from Perth (n = 10), Melbourne (n = 5), Brisbane (n = 5) and Sydney (n = 4). Five Australian tertiary paediatric oncology centres. Results Parents whose children died from cancer live within a context of chronic uncertainty and apprehension. Parents construed palliative care negatively as an independent process at the end of their children's lives rather than as a component of a wider and continuous process where children and their families are offered both curative and palliative care throughout the cancer trajectory. The concept of palliative care was perceived to be misunderstood by key health professionals involved in the care of the child and family. The importance and therapeutic value of authentic and honest relationships between health professionals and parents, and between health professionals and children were highlighted as a critical aspect of care. Also highlighted was the need to include children and adolescents in decision making, and for the delivery of compassionate end-of-life care that is sensitive to the developmental needs of the children, their parents and siblings. There is a need for health professionals to better understand the concept of palliative care, and factors that contribute to honest, open, authentic and therapeutic relationships of those concerned in the care of the dying child. This will facilitate a better understanding by both parents and their children with cancer, and acceptance of the integration of palliative and supportive care in routine cancer care.

  15. Preschooler obesity and parenting styles of mothers and fathers: Australian national population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Hardy, Pollyanna; Smith, Katherine

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine relationships between BMI status at ages 4 to 5 years and mothers' and fathers' parenting dimensions and parenting styles. Participants were composed of all 4983 of the 4- to 5-year-old children in wave 1 of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children with complete BMI and maternal parenting data. Mothers and fathers self-reported their parenting behaviors on 3 multi-item continuous scales (warmth, control, and irritability) and were each categorized as having 1 of 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged) using internal warmth and control tertile cut points. Using a proportional odds model, odds ratios for children being in a higher BMI category were computed for mothers and fathers separately and together, after adjustment for factors associated with child BMI, including mothers' and fathers' BMI status. The sample was composed of 2537 boys and 2446 girls with a mean age 56.9 months; 15% were overweight and 5% were obese (International Obesity Task Force criteria). Mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were not associated in any model with higher odds of children being in a heavier BMI category, with or without multiple imputation to account for missing maternal BMI data. Higher father control scores were associated with lower odds of the child being in a higher BMI category. Compared with the reference authoritative style, children of fathers with permissive and disengaged parenting styles had higher odds of being in a higher BMI category. This article is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the parenting of both parents in relation to preschoolers' BMI status while also adjusting for parental BMI status. Fathers' but not mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were associated with increased risks of preschooler overweight and obesity. Longitudinal impacts of parenting on BMI gain remain to be determined.

  16. Health inequalities, physician citizens and professional medical associations: an Australian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naccarella Lucio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values

  17. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taren Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i waist circumference (WC and (ii waist-to-height ratio (WtHR across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (βboys  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14; βgirls  −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05 and WtHR (βboys  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01; βgirls  −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49. Associations among boys were contingent upon age (p  valuesage∗green  space40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys.

  18. Travel Medicine Encounters of Australian General Practice Trainees-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke L; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie A; Davey, Andrew R; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Magin, Parker J

    2015-01-01

    Travel medicine is a common and challenging area of clinical practice and practitioners need up-to-date knowledge and experience in a range of areas. Australian general practitioners (GPs) play a significant role in the delivery of travel medicine advice. We aimed to describe the rate and nature of travel medicine consultations, including both the clinical and educational aspects of the consultations. A cross-sectional analysis from an ongoing cohort study of GP trainees' clinical consultations was performed. Trainees contemporaneously recorded demographic, clinical, and educational details of consecutive patient consultations. Proportions of all problems/diagnoses managed in these consultations that were coded "travel-related" and "travel advice" were both calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations of a problem/diagnosis being "travel-related" or "travel advice" were tested using simple logistic regression within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. A total of 856 trainees contributed data on 169,307 problems from 108,759 consultations (2010-2014). Travel-related and travel advice problems were managed at a rate of 1.1 and 0.5 problems per 100 encounters, respectively. Significant positive associations of travel-related problems were younger trainee and patient age; new patient to the trainee and practice; privately billing, larger, urban, and higher socioeconomic status practices; and involvement of the practice nurse. Trainees sought in-consultation information and generated learning goals in 34.7 and 20.8% of travel advice problems, respectively, significantly more than in non-travel advice problems. Significant positive associations of travel advice problems were seeking in-consultation information, generation of learning goals, longer consultation duration, and more problems managed. Our findings reinforce the importance of focused training in travel medicine for GP trainees and adequate exposure to patients in the practice

  19. The relationship of bilingualism to cognitive decline: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadam, Naaheed; Jichi, Fatima; Green, David; Livingston, Gill

    2018-02-01

    We wished to clarify the link between bilingualism and cognitive decline, and examine whether improved executive function due to bilingualism may be a factor in preventing cognitive decline. We used the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing which collected data on 2087 participants aged over 65 over 20 years. We compared baseline demographics, health, and social characteristics between bilingual and non-bilingual participants. We used linear mixed models analysis to explore the effect of bilingualism on MMSE score over time and linear regression to explore the effect of bilingualism on baseline MMSE scores, controlling for pre-specified potential confounders. Bilingual participants had lower baseline MMSE scores than the non-bilingual population (mean difference = -2.3 points; 95% confidence intervals = 1.56-2.90). This was fully explained by education and National Adult Reading Test scores (17.4; standard deviation [SD] =7.7 versus 28.1; SD = 8.2) which also partly explained baseline executive function test scores differences. Bilingual and non-bilingual participants did not differ in MMSE decline over time (-0.33 points, P = 0.31) nor on baseline tests of executive function (-0.26, P = 0.051). In this cohort, education rather than bilingualism was a predictor of MMSE score, and being bilingual did not protect from cognitive decline. We conclude that bilingualism is complex, and when it is not the result of greater educational attainment, it does not always protect from cognitive decline. Neuroprotective effects of bilingualism over time may be attributable to the precise patterns of language use but not to bilingualism per se. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Generating political priority for regulatory interventions targeting obesity prevention: an Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as

  1. Transformation of mortality in a remote Australian Aboriginal community: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Mott, Susan Anne; McLeod, Beverly June

    2017-08-11

    To describe trends in ages and causes of death in a remote-living Australian Aboriginal group over a recent 50-year period. A retrospective observational study, from 1960 to 2010, of deaths and people starting dialysis, using data from local clinic, parish, dialysis and birthweight registers. A remote island community in the Top End of Australia's Northern Territory, where a Catholic mission was established in 1911. The estimated Aboriginal population was about 800 in 1960 and 2260 in 2011. All Aboriginal residents of this community whose deaths had been recorded. Annual frequencies and rates of terminal events (deaths and dialysis starts) by age group and cause of death. Against a background of high rates of low birth weight, 223 deaths in infants and children and 934 deaths in adults (age > 15 years) were recorded; 88% were of natural causes. Most deaths in the 1960s were in infants and children. However, over time these fell dramatically, across the birthweight spectrum, while adult deaths progressively increased. The leading causes of adult natural deaths were chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease and, more recently, renal failure, and rates were increased twofold in those of low birth weight. However, rates of natural adult deaths have been falling briskly since 1986, most markedly among people of age ≥45 years. The population is increasing and its age structure is maturing. The changes in death profiles, the expression of the Barker hypothesis and the ongoing increases in adult life expectancy reflect epidemiological and health transitions of astonishing rapidity. These probably flow from advances in public health policy and healthcare delivery, as well as improved inter-sectoral services, which are all to be celebrated. Other remote communities in Australia are experiencing the same phenomena, and similar events are well advanced in many developing countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  2. Safer sex and condom use: findings from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard O; Badcock, Paul B; Rissel, Chris; Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; Grulich, Andrew E; Simpson, Judy M

    2014-11-01

    Background It is important to have current and reliable estimates of the frequency and correlates of condom use among Australian adults. A representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years, from all states and territories, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews. The overall participation rate among eligible people was 66.2%. Although most respondents had used a condom at some time in their lives, fewer than half of those who were sexually active in the year before being interviewed had used a condom in that year. Condom use in the last year was associated with youth, speaking a language other than English at home, bisexual identity, greater education, residence in major cities, lower income and having multiple sexual partners in the last year. One-quarter of respondents used a condom the last time they had vaginal intercourse and one-sixth of these were put on after genital contact. Condom use during most recent vaginal sex was associated with youth, lower income, having sex with a non-regular partner and not using another form of contraception. Condom use appears to have increased between 2001-02 and 2012-13. Consistent with other research, this study showed that condom use was strongly associated with partner type and use of other contraception. There may be a need to highlight among people with multiple sexual partners the fact that non-barrier methods of contraception do not offer protection against sexually transmissible infections. The finding that many condoms were applied after genital contact suggests a need to promote both use and correct use of condoms.

  3. Australian Journalists' Professional and Ethical Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, John

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the first comprehensive national study of Australian journalists. Finds that Australian journalists are similar to their United States colleagues in distributions of age, sex, and socioeconomic background, but have less formal education. Shows that Australians have mixed professional and ethical values and are committed both to…

  4. More than a name: Heterogeneity in characteristics of models of maternity care reported from the Australian Maternity Care Classification System validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnolley, Natasha R; Chambers, Georgina M; Butler-Henderson, Kerryn A; Chapman, Michael G; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    Without a standard terminology to classify models of maternity care, it is problematic to compare and evaluate clinical outcomes across different models. The Maternity Care Classification System is a novel system developed in Australia to classify models of maternity care based on their characteristics and an overarching broad model descriptor (Major Model Category). This study aimed to assess the extent of variability in the defining characteristics of models of care grouped to the same Major Model Category, using the Maternity Care Classification System. All public hospital maternity services in New South Wales, Australia, were invited to complete a web-based survey classifying two local models of care using the Maternity Care Classification System. A descriptive analysis of the variation in 15 attributes of models of care was conducted to evaluate the level of heterogeneity within and across Major Model Categories. Sixty-nine out of seventy hospitals responded, classifying 129 models of care. There was wide variation in a number of important attributes of models classified to the same Major Model Category. The category of 'Public hospital maternity care' contained the most variation across all characteristics. This study demonstrated that although models of care can be grouped into a distinct set of Major Model Categories, there are significant variations in models of the same type. This could result in seemingly 'like' models of care being incorrectly compared if grouped only by the Major Model Category. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nineteen and Up study (19Up): understanding pathways to mental health disorders in young Australian twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; O'Callaghan, Victoria; Parker, Richard; Mills, Natalie; Kirk, Katherine M; Scott, Jan; Vinkhuyzen, Anna; Hermens, Daniel F; Lind, Penelope A; Davenport, Tracey A; Burns, Jane M; Connell, Melissa; Zietsch, Brendan P; Scott, James; Wright, Margaret J; Medland, Sarah E; McGrath, John; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian B; Gillespie, Nathan A

    2018-03-17

    The Nineteen and Up study (19Up) assessed a range of mental health and behavioural problems and associated risk factors in a genetically informative Australian cohort of young adult twins and their non-twin siblings. As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). Twins and their non-twin siblings from Queensland, Australia; mostly from European ancestry. Data were collected between 2009 and 2016 on 2773 participants (age range 18-38, 57.8% female, 372 complete monozygotic pairs, 493 dizygotic pairs, 640 non-twin siblings, 403 singleton twins). A structured clinical assessment (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) was used to collect lifetime prevalence of diagnostic statistical manual (4th edition) (DSM-IV) diagnoses of major depressive disorder, (hypo)mania, social anxiety, cannabis use disorder, alcohol use disorder, panic disorder and psychotic symptoms. Here, we further describe the comorbidities and ages of onset for these mental disorders. Notably, two-thirds of the sample reported one or more lifetime mental disorder.In addition, the 19Up study assessed general health, drug use, work activity, education level, personality, migraine/headaches, suicidal thoughts, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology, sleep-wake patterns, romantic preferences, friendships, familial environment, stress, anorexia and bulimia as well as baldness, acne, asthma, endometriosis, joint flexibility and internet use.The overlap with previous waves of the BLTS means that 84% of the 19Up participants are genotyped, 36% imaged using multimodal MRI and most have been assessed for psychological symptoms at up to four time points. Furthermore, IQ is available for 57%, parental report of ADHD symptomatology for 100% and electroencephalography for 30%. The 19Up study complements a phenotypically rich, longitudinal collection of

  6. A case-control study of employment status and mortality in a cohort of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C; Western, J

    1999-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a link in young populations between unemployment and ill health. The purpose of this study is to correlate mortality with employment status in two cohorts of young Australian males, aged 17-25 years, from 1984 to 1988. Two youth cohorts consisting of an initially unemployed sample (n = 1424 males) and a population sample (n = 4573 males), were surveyed annually throughout the study period. Those lost to follow-up during the survey period were matched with death registries across Australia. Employment status was determined from weekly diaries and death certificates and was designated as: employed or student; unemployed; not in the work force (excluding students). Conditional logistic regression, using age- and cohort- matched cases (deaths) and controls (alive), was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of dying with regard to employment status, taking into account potential confounders such as ethnicity, aboriginality, educational attainment, pre-existing health problems, socio-economic status of parents, and other factors. Twenty three male survey respondents were positively matched to death registry records. Compared to those employed or students (referent group), significantly elevated ORs were found to be associated with neither being in the workforce nor a student for all cause, external cause, and external cause mortality other than suicide. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, survey cohort, ethnicity, pre-existing physical and mental health status, education level, and socio-economic status of parent(s). A statistically significant increasing linear trend in odds ratios of male mortality for most cause groups was found across the employment categories, from those employed or student (lowest ORs), through those unemployed, to those not in the workforce (highest ORs). Suicide was higher, but not statistically significantly, in those unemployed or not in the workforce. Suicide also was associated, though not significantly, with

  7. Prevalence of Exercise Addiction Symptomology and Disordered Eating in Australian Students Studying Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has reported the existence of disordered eating in students studying nutrition and dietetics. However, the occurrence of exercise addiction, previously linked to disordered eating, is poorly understood in this group. The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of exercise addiction and the association with disordered eating in a sample of students studying nutrition and dietetics. A secondary objective was to compare the prevalence of exercise addiction to students enrolled in another health-related degree. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 165 undergraduate students. Participants were students of both sexes enrolled in nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy degree programs at an Australian university in August 2013. Participants completed four validated questionnaires for assessment of exercise- and eating-related attitudes and behaviors measuring scores for exercise addiction, weekly volume of physical activity (PA), eating disorder symptoms, and cognitive restraint. Stretch stature and body mass were measured and body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ 2 test were completed to compare groups of students based on sex, degree, or eating attitudes. Spearman's correlation was performed to explore associations between continuous variables (exercise addiction scores, PA volume, and scores for eating attitudes and cognitive restraint). Approximately 23% of nutrition and dietetics students were found to be at risk of exercise addiction (20% females and 35% males; P=0.205), while the majority demonstrated some symptoms of exercise addiction. A similar proportion of at risk individuals was found in the female occupational therapy group (19%; P=1.000). In females (nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy combined), the exercise addiction scores were associated with three other outcome measures: PA volume (r s

  8. EPR spectra of synthetic, and natural Australian opals - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, D.R.; Troup, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The EPR spectra of some synthetic opals, and of some Australian natural opals of various provenance, have been obtained, with the use of a Varian E-12 EPR spectrometer operating at ∼9.2 Ghz. The synthetic opals, from Swiss Gilson showed here a broad ESR signal in the g =2 region, with little identifiable structure . The natural Australian opals from Coober Pedy, Lightning Ridge, and Mintabie all showed the clear presence of Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ and a free radical like signal, suspected to be localised on an Al atom. Examples of the various spectra will be presented. It is not yet certain how the spectra correlate with provenance, but the synthetic spectra are quite different from the natural ones

  9. Accounting window dressing and template regulation: A case study of the Australian credit union industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.; Stevenson-Clarke, P.; Lhaopadchan, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article documents the response of cooperative institutions that were required to adhere to new capital adequacy regulations traditionally geared for profit-maximising organisations. Using data from the Australian credit union industry, we demonstrate that the cooperative philosophy and internal corporate governance structure of cooperatives will lead management to increase capital adequacy ratios through the application of accounting window dressing techniques. This is opposite to the in...

  10. Exploring Australian women?s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant wo...

  11. Australian guidelines for cost-effectiveness studies of pharmaceuticals: the thin end of the boomerang?

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Drummond

    1991-01-01

    In the summer of 1990, the Australian government took a major step by requiring evidence of cost-effectiveness of new medicines prior to reimbursement by the public health care system. This paper assesses whether the methodological principles behind the guidelines are sound and whether they raise important new logistical and policy implications. It is concluded that, whilst the guidelines may represent ‘the thin end of the wedge’ for the pharmaceutical industry, in that other countries may fo...

  12. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Brew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. Methods The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline. Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Results Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β −0.33, 95 % CI −0.53, −0.13 and wellbeing (β −0.21(95 % CI −0.35, −0.06 than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98. All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97. Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 % or mental health needs (75 % and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Conclusions Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health

  13. The health and wellbeing of Australian farmers: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Bronwyn; Inder, Kerry; Allen, Joanne; Thomas, Matthew; Kelly, Brian

    2016-09-15

    Isolation, long work days, climate change and globalization are just some of the many pressures that make farming a vulnerable occupation for incurring mental health issues. The objective of this study was to determine whether farming in Australia is associated with poorer wellbeing, physical and mental health, and less health service use. The Australian Rural Mental Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study was analysed over four time points comparing farmers with non-farming workers (n = 1184 at baseline). Participants were recruited from rural NSW, Australia. A number of physical, mental health, wellbeing, service use outcomes were assessed using generalised estimating equations including all waves in each model. Barriers to seeking help were also assessed. Farmers who lived remotely reported worse mental health (β -0.33, 95 % CI -0.53, -0.13) and wellbeing (β -0.21(95 % CI -0.35, -0.06) than remote non-farm workers regardless of financial hardship, rural specific factors eg drought worry, or recent adverse events. All farmers were no different to non-farming workers on physical health aspects except for chronic illnesses, where they reported fewer illnesses (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.44, 0.98). All farmers were half as likely to visit a general practitioner (GP) or a mental health professional in the last 12 months as compared to non-farm workers regardless of location (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.35, 0.97). Rural workers felt that they preferred to manage themselves rather than access help for physical health needs (50 %) or mental health needs (75 %) and there was little difference between farmers and non-farm workers in reasons for not seeking help. Remoteness is a significant factor in the mental health and wellbeing of farmers, more so than financial stress, rural factors and recent adverse events. Creative programs and policies that improve access for farmers to GPs and mental health professionals should be supported.

  14. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amanda N; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. The Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES) was a 5- to 6-year follow-up of the Sydney Myopia Study (SMS). At follow-up, 2103 children were reexamined: 892 (50.5%) from the younger cohort and 1211 (51.5%) from the older cohort. Of these, 863 in the younger cohort and 1196 in the older cohort had complete refraction data. Cycloplegic autorefraction (cyclopentolate 1%; Canon RK-F1; Canon, Tokyo, Japan) was measured at baseline and follow-up. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of ≤-0.50 diopters (D). Children were classified as having incident myopia if they were nonmyopic at baseline and myopic in either eye at follow-up. A comprehensive questionnaire determined the amount of time children spent outdoors and doing near work per week at baseline, as well as ethnicity, parental myopia, and socioeconomic status. Incident myopia. Children who became myopic spent less time outdoors compared with children who remained nonmyopic (younger cohort, 16.3 vs. 21.0 hours, respectively, Phours, respectively, P=0.001). Children who became myopic performed significantly more near work (19.4 vs. 17.6 hours; P=0.02) in the younger cohort, but not in the older cohort (P=0.06). Children with 1 or 2 parents who were myopic had greater odds of incident myopia (1 parent: odds ratio [OR], 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-5.2; both parents: OR, 3.3, 95% CI, 1.6-6.8) in the younger but not the older cohort. Children of East Asian ethnicity had a higher incidence of myopia compared with children of European Caucasian ethnicity (both Pwork, parental myopia, and ethnicity to the model significantly improved the predictive power (Pwork and parental myopia were additional significant risk factors for myopia only in the younger cohort. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article

  15. pedagogical guidance for south african consumer studies education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    preferred teaching-learning strategies utilised internationally in subjects related to Consumer. ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 42, 2014. 48. Pedagogical guidance for South African Consumer Studies education. 1 The seven theory content topics contained in the Consumer Studies ...

  16. The Relevance of (South African) Renaissance Studies | Wright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first is that in South Africa the humanities in general, and Renaissance Studies in particular, are stymied by a lack of strategic thinking from those in the academy. The second is that the humanities, and Renaissance Studies, and Shakespeare, are valid and needed in this country, possibly as never before. Shakespeare ...

  17. Prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manit; Diwan, Ashish D; Harris, Ian A

    2014-12-01

    To assess the prevalence and factors of burnout among Australian orthopaedic trainees. 236 orthopaedic registrars of the Australian Orthopaedic Association were invited to participate in a 32-item survey by email. The questionnaire assessed potential factors associated with burnout, satisfaction with the choice of orthopaedics as a career and work-life balance, and subjective overall health, as well as 3 subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey for assessing burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment. Participants with high levels of either emotional exhaustion or depersonalisation were defined as having burnout. Those with and without burnout were compared. 51 (22%) of the 236 trainees completed the questionnaire. Of whom, 88% were satisfied with their choice of orthopaedics as a career, whereas 27% were satisfied with their work-life balance. 27 (53%) respondents were considered burned out. Compared with those who did not burn out, those who burned out were less satisfied with their careers (p=0.004) and work-life balance (p=0.021). 53% of Australian orthopaedic trainees were burned out. Burnout trainees were more likely to be dissatisfied with their career choice and worklife balance. Active interventions to combat burnout and improve work-life balance are needed.

  18. Association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment and 10-year mortality amongst Indigenous Australians: the Central Australian Ocular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José; Kaidonis, Georgia; Henderson, Tim; Craig, Jamie E; Landers, John

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly impairs the length and quality of life, but little is known of its impact in Indigenous Australians. To investigate the association of disease-specific causes of visual impairment with all-cause mortality. A retrospective cohort analysis. A total of 1347 Indigenous Australians aged over 40 years. Participants visiting remote medical clinics underwent clinical examinations including visual acuity, subjective refraction and slit-lamp examination of the anterior and posterior segments. The major ocular cause of visual impairment was determined. Patients were assessed periodically in these remote clinics for the succeeding 10 years after recruitment. Mortality rates were obtained from relevant departments. All-cause 10-year mortality and its association with disease-specific causes of visual impairment. The all-cause mortality rate for the entire cohort was 29.3% at the 10-year completion of follow-up. Of those with visual impairment, the overall mortality rate was 44.9%. The mortality rates differed for those with visual impairment due to cataract (59.8%), diabetic retinopathy (48.4%), trachoma (46.6%), 'other' (36.2%) and refractive error (33.4%) (P visual impairment from diabetic retinopathy were any more likely to die during the 10 years of follow-up when compared with those without visual impairment (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.87; P = 0.049). Visual impairment was associated with all-cause mortality in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. However, diabetic retinopathy was the only ocular disease that significantly increased the risk of mortality. Visual impairment secondary to diabetic retinopathy may be an important predictor of mortality. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Stress, lifestyle, and quality of life in midlife and older Australian women: results from the Stress and the Health of Women Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Whiteside, Eliza; Lee, Kathryn; Humphreys, Janice; Tran, Tiet Hanh Dao; Chopin, Lisa; Anderson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic psychological stress may pose a serious threat to health, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study examines the impact of stress on modifiable lifestyle factors, depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic illness in older Australian women. Cross-sectional data were collected from a random sample of 181 older adults aged 60 to 70 years from rural and urban areas of South-East Queensland, Australia. We used structural equation modelling to examine associations between stress, modifiable lifestyle factors, HRQOL, and chronic illness. Parameter estimates show that older women who reported life stressors where they felt helpless and feared for their life (high-magnitude stressors) also reported higher body mass index (p = .03) and more chronic illness (p unhealthy lifestyle factors. Findings highlight the need for more research on how stress reduction, a healthy lifestyle, and positive coping strategies can be used to reduce the effects of high-magnitude stress on HRQOL and chronic illness. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CareTrack Kids—part 1. Assessing the appropriateness of healthcare delivered to Australian children: study protocol for clinical indicator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Louise K; Hooper, Tamara D; Hibbert, Peter D; White, Les; Mealing, Nicole; Jaffe, Adam; Cowell, Christopher T; Runciman, William B; Goldstein, Stan; Hallahan, Andrew R; Wakefield, John G; Murphy, Elisabeth; Lau, Annie; Wheaton, Gavin; Williams, Helena M; Hughes, Clifford; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite the widespread availability of clinical guidelines, considerable gaps remain between the care that is recommended (appropriate care) and the care provided. This protocol describes a research methodology to develop clinical indicators for appropriate care for common paediatric conditions. Methods and analysis We will identify conditions amenable to population-level appropriateness of care research and develop clinical indicators for each condition. Candidate conditions have been identified from published research; burden of disease, prevalence and frequency of presentation data; and quality of care priority lists. Clinical indicators will be developed through searches of national and international guidelines, and formatted with explicit criteria for inclusion, exclusion, time frame and setting. Experts will review the indicators using a wiki-based approach and modified Delphi process. A formative evaluation of the wiki process will be undertaken. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from Sydney Children's Hospital Network, Children's Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, and the Women's and Children's Health Network (South Australia). Applications are under review with Macquarie University and the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. We will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer national and international presentations. PMID:25854976

  1. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Vanessa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young people with a particular emphasis on the social and cultural processes that underlie tobacco use patterns among this group. Methods This project was undertaken in northern Australia. We undertook group interviews with 65 participants and individual in-depth interviews with 11 youth aged 13–20 years led by trained youth ‘peer researchers.’ We also used visual methods (photo-elicitation with individual interviewees to investigate the social context in which young people do or do not smoke. Included in the sample were a smaller number of non-Indigenous youth to explore any significant differences between ethnic groups in determinants of early smoking experiences. The theory of triadic influence, an ecological model of health behaviour, was used as an organising theory for analysis. Results Family and peer influences play a central role in smoking uptake among Indigenous youth. Social influences to smoke are similar between Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth but are more pervasive (especially in the family domain among Indigenous youth. While Indigenous youth report high levels of exposure to smoking role models and smoking socialisation practices among their family and social networks, this study provides some indication of a progressive denormalisation of smoking among some Indigenous youth. Conclusions Future initiatives aimed at preventing smoking uptake in this population need to focus on changing social normative beliefs around smoking, both at a

  2. Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-03-27

    Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional, remote, and very remote) regions were compared using data from a 2003-04 Australian national survey of the mental health literacy of 3998 adults. Measures included the perceived helpfulness of a range of professionals, non-professionals and interventions, and the causes, prognosis, and outcomes after treatment for four case vignettes describing depression, depression with suicidal ideation, early schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia. Participant awareness of Australia's national depression initiative and depression in the media, their symptoms of depression and exposure to the conditions depicted in the vignettes were also compared. Mental health literacy was similar across remoteness categories. However, inner regional residents showed superior identification of the disorders depicted in the suicidal ideation and chronic schizophrenia vignettes. They were also more likely to report having heard of Australia's national depression health promotion campaign. Conversely, they were less likely than major city residents to rate the evidence-based treatment of psychotherapy helpful for depression. Both inner regional and outer-remote residents were less likely to rate psychologists as helpful for depression alone. The rural groups were more likely to rate the non-evidence based interventions of drinking and painkillers as helpful for a depression vignette. In addition, outer-remote residents were more likely to identify the evidence based treatment of antipsychotics as harmful for early schizophrenia and less likely to endorse psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and general

  3. Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. Methods The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional, remote, and very remote regions were compared using data from a 2003–04 Australian national survey of the mental health literacy of 3998 adults. Measures included the perceived helpfulness of a range of professionals, non-professionals and interventions, and the causes, prognosis, and outcomes after treatment for four case vignettes describing depression, depression with suicidal ideation, early schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia. Participant awareness of Australia's national depression initiative and depression in the media, their symptoms of depression and exposure to the conditions depicted in the vignettes were also compared. Results Mental health literacy was similar across remoteness categories. However, inner regional residents showed superior identification of the disorders depicted in the suicidal ideation and chronic schizophrenia vignettes. They were also more likely to report having heard of Australia's national depression health promotion campaign. Conversely, they were less likely than major city residents to rate the evidence-based treatment of psychotherapy helpful for depression. Both inner regional and outer-remote residents were less likely to rate psychologists as helpful for depression alone. The rural groups were more likely to rate the non-evidence based interventions of drinking and painkillers as helpful for a depression vignette. In addition, outer-remote residents were more likely to identify the evidence based treatment of antipsychotics as harmful for early schizophrenia and less likely to endorse

  4. Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F

    2009-01-01

    Background Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. Methods The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional, remote, and very remote) regions were compared using data from a 2003–04 Australian national survey of the mental health literacy of 3998 adults. Measures included the perceived helpfulness of a range of professionals, non-professionals and interventions, and the causes, prognosis, and outcomes after treatment for four case vignettes describing depression, depression with suicidal ideation, early schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia. Participant awareness of Australia's national depression initiative and depression in the media, their symptoms of depression and exposure to the conditions depicted in the vignettes were also compared. Results Mental health literacy was similar across remoteness categories. However, inner regional residents showed superior identification of the disorders depicted in the suicidal ideation and chronic schizophrenia vignettes. They were also more likely to report having heard of Australia's national depression health promotion campaign. Conversely, they were less likely than major city residents to rate the evidence-based treatment of psychotherapy helpful for depression. Both inner regional and outer-remote residents were less likely to rate psychologists as helpful for depression alone. The rural groups were more likely to rate the non-evidence based interventions of drinking and painkillers as helpful for a depression vignette. In addition, outer-remote residents were more likely to identify the evidence based treatment of antipsychotics as harmful for early schizophrenia and less likely to endorse psychiatrists, psychologists

  5. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Setting Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. Participants A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. Outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Results Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Conclusions These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and

  6. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. Livingstone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor diet, characterized by a low diet quality score, has been associated with greater prevelence of obesity and hypertension. However, the evidence is inconsistent across diet quality scores and by sex. The aim was to investigate the relationship between diet quality and obesity and hypertension. Methods Adults (n = 4908; age 45.2 ± 0.24 years were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011–2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls were used to derive the dietary guideline index (DGI and recommended food score (RFS. Logistic regression investigated relationships between diet quality score and odds ratio of obesity, hypertension and obesity-associated hypertension. Results In the highest tertile of DGI, but not RFS, individuals were less likely to be obese (men: OR 0.64, CI: 0.45, 0.92, P-trend = 0.014; women: 0.68, 0.48, 0.96, P-trend = 0.025 and to have central adiposity (men: 0.68, 0.48, 0.97, P-trend = 0.030; women: 0.53, 0.37, 0.77, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the lowest tertile. Men, but not women, in the highest tertile of DGI and RFS were less likely to be hypertensive (DGI: 0.56, 0.37, 0.85, P-trend = 0.006; RFS: 0.62, 0.41, 0.94, P-trend = 0.021 compared with the lowest tertile. In men with obesity, but not normal weight men or women, those in the highest tertile of DGI were less likely to be hypertensive (0.53, 0.36, 0.78, P-trend = 0.001 compared with the highest tertile. Conclusions Higher diet quality, as estimated using DGI, was associated with lower odds ratio of obesity in men and women. Odds ratio of hypertension was lower in men, but not women, with a high diet quality score compared with a low score, while obesity-associated hypertension was only associated with diet quality score in men with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether diet quality predicts risk of obesity and hypertension.

  7. Exploring current and potential roles of Australian community pharmacists in gout management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counsell, Allyce B; Nguyen, Amy D; Baysari, Melissa T; Kannangara, Diluk R W; McLachlan, Andrew J; Day, Richard O

    2018-05-09

    Gout is an increasingly prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis. Although effective treatments for gout exist, current management is suboptimal due to low medication adherence rates and treatments that are non-concordant with guidelines. Medications are the mainstay and most effective form of gout management. Thus, there is potential for community pharmacists to play an important primary health care role in gout management, however their current role and their potential to improve management of gout treatment is currently unclear. The purpose of the study is to explore the views of Australian pharmacists on their roles in gout management and to identify factors influencing their involvement in gout management. A convenience sample of community pharmacists were invited to participate using a snowballing recruitment strategy. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 pharmacists of varying age, gender and pharmacy experience. Interviews focused on pharmacists' experiences of managing gout, interactions with people living with gout and their perceived roles and responsibilities in gout management. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and independently analysed by two reviewers to identify themes. The main role of pharmacists reported in gout management was providing patient education. The greatest facilitator to pharmacists involvement in gout management was identified to be pharmacists' good understanding of gout and its management. Barriers to pharmacists involvement were identified to be difficulties in monitoring adherence to gout medications, low priority given to gout in the pharmacy compared to other chronic health conditions, and lack of specific training and/or continuing education in gout prevention and management. Pharmacists can expand their primary health care role in gout management, particularly in the area of ongoing provision of education to people living with gout and in monitoring medication adherence in patients. However, a

  8. Assessing “gas transition” pathways to low carbon electricity – An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesz, Jenny; Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; MacGill, Iain

    2015-01-01

    industries may involve minimising energy sourced from gas, and increasing renewable generation. In the Australian case study considered, the modelling suggests it is appropriate to target renewable energy penetrations approaching 60% of energy by 2030 and 80–100% by 2050. In the lowest cost and lowest risk portfolios, firm capacity is provided primarily by the transition of existing coal-fired plant into a peaking role, and later by further investment in peaking open cycle gas turbine plant. These results are found to be robust to a wide range of assumptions around future carbon prices

  9. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how

  10. Negotiating health and chronic illness in Filipino-Australians: a qualitative study with implications for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneze, Della; Ramjan, Lucie; DiGiacomo, Michelle; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia Mary; Salamonson, Yenna

    2018-08-01

    In spite of the healthy immigrant effect, the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases among migrants is reported to approximate that of the host country with longer duration of stay. For example, higher rates of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and hypertension have been observed among Filipino migrants and these have been linked to acculturation. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Filipino-Australian migrants in managing their chronic health conditions in a Western host country. This paper reports on qualitative findings of a mixed methods study that used an explanatory sequential design. Nine focus group discussions were undertaken with 58 Filipino-Australian migrants with chronic disease. Thematic analysis was undertaken using a five-stage general purpose thematic framework ensuring that themes closely identified key participants' experiences . Findings revealed that health benefits provided by the health system in Australia were considered advantageous. However, a lack of social and instrumental support compounded isolation and disempowerment, limiting self-management strategies for chronic illnesses. Cultural beliefs and practices influenced their knowledge, attitude to and management of chronic disease, which health service providers overlooked because of perceived acculturation and English language skills. Overall this study has clearly identified recognition of cultural beliefs, language needs and support as three core needs of Filipino-Australian migrants with the elderly the most vulnerable. This paper highlights that self-management of chronic disease among elderly Filipino immigrants may be adversely affected by host language difficulties, a lack of social support and cultural issues, impacting on access to services, health-seeking behaviours and participation in health promotion initiatives. Language, culture-specific health interventions and resources and enhancing social support are likely important strategies in

  11. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  12. Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Falster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been a shift to later childbearing in high-income countries. There is limited large-scale evidence of the relationship between maternal age and child outcomes beyond the perinatal period. The objective of this study is to quantify a child's risk of developmental vulnerability at age five, according to their mother's age at childbirth.Linkage of population-level perinatal, hospital, and birth registration datasets to data from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC and school enrolments in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales (NSW, enabled us to follow a cohort of 99,530 children from birth to their first year of school in 2009 or 2012. The study outcome was teacher-reported child development on five domains measured by the AEDC, including physical health and well-being, emotional maturity, social competence, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. Developmental vulnerability was defined as domain scores below the 2009 AEDC 10th percentile cut point. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 29.6 years (standard deviation [SD], 5.7, with 4,382 children (4.4% born to mothers aged <20 years and 20,026 children (20.1% born to mothers aged ≥35 years. The proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains was 21% overall and followed a reverse J-shaped distribution according to maternal age: it was highest in children born to mothers aged ≤15 years, at 40% (95% CI, 32-49, and was lowest in children born to mothers aged between 30 years and ≤35 years, at 17%-18%. For maternal ages 36 years to ≥45 years, the proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains increased to 17%-24%. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics significantly attenuated vulnerability risk in children born to younger mothers, while adjustment for potentially modifiable factors, such as antenatal visits, had little additional impact across all ages. Although the multi-agency linkage yielded a broad range of

  13. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Warren; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  14. Australian football players' Achilles tendons respond to game loads within 2 days: an ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengarten, Samuel D; Cook, Jill L; Bryant, Adam L; Cordy, Justin T; Daffy, John; Docking, Sean I

    2015-02-01

    The Achilles tendon is a tissue that responds to mechanical loads at a molecular and cellular level. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the expression of anabolic and/or catabolic proteins can change within hours of loading and return to baseline levels within 72 h. These biochemical changes have not been correlated with changes in whole tendon structure on imaging. We examined the nature and temporal sequence of changes in Achilles tendon structure in response to competitive game loads in elite Australian football players. Elite male Australian football players with no history of Achilles tendinopathy were recruited. Achilles tendon structure was quantified using ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) imaging, a valid and reliable measure of intratendinous structure, the day prior to the match (day 0), and then reimaged on days 1, 2 and 4 postgame. Of the 18 participants eligible for this study, 12 had no history of tendinopathy (NORM) and 6 had a history of patellar or hamstring tendinopathy (TEN). Differences in baseline UTC echopattern were observed between the NORM and TEN groups, with the Achilles of the TEN group exhibiting altered UTC echopattern, consistent with a slightly disorganised tendon structure. In the NORM group, a significant reduction in echo-type I (normal tendon structure) was seen on day 2 (p=0.012) that returned to baseline on day 4. There was a transient change in UTC echopattern in the Achilles tendon as a result of an Australian football game in individuals without a history of lower limb tendinopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Cathy M; White, Katherine M; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Starfelt, Louise C; Wihardjo, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explored fully as a medium for improving sun-protective behaviour in adults. This paper presents the study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an online intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) that aims to improve sun safety among Australian adults. Approximately 420 adults aged 18 and over and predominantly from Queensland, Australia, will be recruited and randomised to the intervention (n = 200), information only (n = 200) or the control group (n = 20). The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive attitudes and beliefs toward sun-protective behaviour, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over sun protection. The intervention will be delivered online over a single session. Data will be collected immediately prior to the intervention (Time 1), immediately following the intervention (Time 1b), and one week (Time 2) and one month (Time 3) post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun-protective behaviour. Secondary outcomes are the participants’ attitudes toward sun protection, perceptions of normative support for sun protection (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, personal norms and image norms) and perceptions of control/self-efficacy toward sun protection. The study will contribute to an understanding of the effectiveness of a TPB-based online intervention to improve Australian adults’ sun-protective behaviour. Australian and New Zealand Trials

  16. Immunisation against hepatitis B viral infection a study of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-10-10

    Oct 10, 1995 ... for HBsAg has been inserted by recombinant technology. Both vaccines are expensive.and recommendations for their optimal use remain controversial. Only one previous study, conducted in Bloemfontein in 1986, investigated the prevalence of HBV markers in South African anaesthesiologists.5 In 1986 ...

  17. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies - Vol 34 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Internment of Japanese Americans during World War II: A Case study of National Trauma and Institutional Violence · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... Attitudes and Perceptions of South African Military Academy Students towards information and Communication Technology and Computers · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  18. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies: Advanced Search ... Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., archive ((journal OR conference) NOT theses); Search for an exact phrase by putting it ...

  19. Genetic studies on the South African Mutton Merino: growth traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    breed has undergone such a metamorphosis that it no longer bears much, if any, resemblance to its European ancestor. The need for a separate genetic characterization of this distinct South African strain is therefore evident. The aim of this study was to determine the applicable non-genetic factors and to estimate genetic ...

  20. Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morale among French colonial troops on the Western Front during World War I: 1914–1918. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  1. Case Study: Intra-abdominal hypertension | Veldsman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Case Study: Intra-abdominal hypertension.

  2. Supervision and feedback for junior medical staff in Australian emergency departments: findings from the emergency medicine capacity assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiland Tracey J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical supervision and feedback are important for the development of competency in junior doctors. This study aimed to determine the adequacy of supervision of junior medical staff in Australian emergency departments (EDs and perceived feedback provided. Methods Semi-structured telephone surveys sought quantitative and qualitative data from ED Directors, Directors of Emergency Medicine Training, registrars and interns in 37 representative Australian hospitals; quantitative data were analysed with SPSS 15.0 and qualitative data subjected to content analysis identifying themes. Results Thirty six of 37 hospitals took part. Of 233 potential interviewees, 95 (40.1% granted interviews including 100% (36/36 of ED Directors, and 96.2% (25/26 of eligible DEMTs, 24% (19/81 of advanced trainee/registrars, and 17% (15/90 of interns. Most participants (61% felt the ED was adequately supervised in general and (64.2% that medical staff were adequately supervised. Consultants and registrars were felt to provide most intern supervision, but this varied depending on shift times, with registrars more likely to provide supervision on night shift and at weekends. Senior ED medical staff (64% and junior staff (79% agreed that interns received adequate clinical supervision. Qualitative analysis revealed that good processes were in place to ensure adequate supervision, but that service demands, particularly related to access block and overcrowding, had detrimental effects on both supervision and feedback. Conclusions Consultants appear to provide the majority of supervision of junior medical staff in Australian EDs. Supervision and feedback are generally felt to be adequate, but are threatened by service demands, particularly related to access block and ED overcrowding.

  3. The Use of Scaffolding in the Financial Planning Classroom: An Australian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Cowen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on changes that can be adopted to ease students’ difficulties when challenged to prepare a personal financial plan. It reports the experiences of one Australian university’s use of a ‘scaffolding’ approach that was developed specifically to support students with this task. Such scaffolds provide a support for students to accomplish the task of constructing the financial plan by providing them with early, but temporary, supporting structures at particular points in the process. Over time these supports are removed. This pedagogic approach has proved successful and has assisted students in building confidence in, and mastery of, the financial planning process.

  4. 'Aussie normals': an a priori study to develop clinical chemistry reference intervals in a healthy Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E

    2015-02-01

    Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.

  5. Spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production: An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderton, Nikki; Kingwell, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol production is increasingly commonplace in many grain-producing regions. This paper uses the grain-producing region of south-western Australia to illustrate spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production. Specifically, this study examines how price variability of various wheat grades, combined with spatial and temporal variability in production of those grades, affects the costs of grain accumulation. These costs are the main components of an ethanol plant's operating costs so lessening these costs can offer a comparative advantage for a plant owner. Logistics models based on mathematical programming are constructed for a range of plant sizes and locations for ethanol production. Modelling results identify low-cost sites that generate cost savings, in present value terms, of between 5 and 7.5 per cent, depending on plant size, over the 9-year study period. At all locations, small to medium-sized plants offer advantages of lower and less variable costs of grain accumulation. Yet, all locations and all plant sizes are characterised by marked volatility in the cost of grain accumulation. The profitability of ethanol production based on wheat in this region of Australia is particularly exposed to any prolonged period of high grain prices relative to petroleum prices, given current biofuel-policy settings in Australia. (author)

  6. Assessing junk food consumption among Australian children: trends and associated characteristics from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Boylan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitous supply of junk foods in our food environment has been partly blamed for the increased rates in overweight and obesity. However, consumption of these foods has generally been examined individually perhaps obscuring the true extent of their combined consumption and impact on health. An overall measure of children’s junk food consumption may prove useful in the development of child obesity prevention strategies. We describe the development of a children’s Junk Food Intake Measure (JFIM to summarise temporal change in junk food consumption and examine the association between the JFIM and health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional population surveillance survey of Australian children age 5–16 years collected in 2010 and 2015. Data were collected by questionnaire with parent’s proxy reporting for children in years K, 2 and 4 and children in years 6, 8 and 10 by self-report. Information on diet, screen-time and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires. The JFIM comprised consumption of fried potato products, potato crisps/salty snacks, sweet and savoury biscuits/cakes/doughnuts, confectionary and, ice cream/ice blocks. Results A total of 7565 (missing = 493, 6.1% and 6944 (missing n = 611, 8.1% children had complete data on consumption of junk foods, in 2010 and 2015, respectively. The 2015 survey data showed that among students from high socio-economic status neighbourhoods, there were fewer high junk food consumers than low junk food consumers. Children from Middle Eastern cultural backgrounds had higher junk food consumption. High junk food consumers were more likely to consume take-away ≥3/week, eat dinner in front of the television, receive sweet rewards, be allowed to consume snacks anytime, have soft drinks available at home and a TV in their bedroom. There was a lower proportion of high junk food consumers in 2015 compared to 2010. Conclusion This is the first study

  7. Assessing junk food consumption among Australian children: trends and associated characteristics from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, S; Hardy, L L; Drayton, B A; Grunseit, A; Mihrshahi, S

    2017-04-05

    The ubiquitous supply of junk foods in our food environment has been partly blamed for the increased rates in overweight and obesity. However, consumption of these foods has generally been examined individually perhaps obscuring the true extent of their combined consumption and impact on health. An overall measure of children's junk food consumption may prove useful in the development of child obesity prevention strategies. We describe the development of a children's Junk Food Intake Measure (JFIM) to summarise temporal change in junk food consumption and examine the association between the JFIM and health-related behaviours. Cross-sectional population surveillance survey of Australian children age 5-16 years collected in 2010 and 2015. Data were collected by questionnaire with parent's proxy reporting for children in years K, 2 and 4 and children in years 6, 8 and 10 by self-report. Information on diet, screen-time and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires. The JFIM comprised consumption of fried potato products, potato crisps/salty snacks, sweet and savoury biscuits/cakes/doughnuts, confectionary and, ice cream/ice blocks. A total of 7565 (missing = 493, 6.1%) and 6944 (missing n = 611, 8.1%) children had complete data on consumption of junk foods, in 2010 and 2015, respectively. The 2015 survey data showed that among students from high socio-economic status neighbourhoods, there were fewer high junk food consumers than low junk food consumers. Children from Middle Eastern cultural backgrounds had higher junk food consumption. High junk food consumers were more likely to consume take-away ≥3/week, eat dinner in front of the television, receive sweet rewards, be allowed to consume snacks anytime, have soft drinks available at home and a TV in their bedroom. There was a lower proportion of high junk food consumers in 2015 compared to 2010. This is the first study to provide and examine a summary measure of overall junk food

  8. Physiotherapy postgraduate studies in South Africa: Facilitators and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Cobbing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the facilitators and barriers to attaining a postgraduate physiotherapy degree in South Africa. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional design using an internet-based survey was employed. The population of the study included all qualified physiotherapists who had completed community service and who were on the South African Society of Physiotherapy e-mailing list at the time of the study. Results: In all, 425 valid responses were received. The study participants were predominantly white women with a mean age of 36.9 and the majority were working in private practice. A total of 20.5% of respondents had completed a master’s or doctoral degree in physiotherapy, while a further 13% of respondents were registered for a postgraduate degree in physiotherapy at the time of the study. Study participants who had obtained a postgraduate degree identified the same main barriers (namely cost/lack of financial support, family commitments and lack of time and the same main facilitators (namely gaining of expertise, fulfilment of a personal goal and improvement of patient care as participants who had not obtained a postgraduate degree. Participants who had not obtained a postgraduate degree were significantly more likely (p < 0.05 to report concerns regarding their own ability and a lack of motivation as barriers to further study. Conclusion: South African physiotherapists with and without a postgraduate degree reported common facilitators and barriers to pursuing postgraduate studies. In order to ensure that a greater number and diversity of physiotherapists see postgraduate studies as a worthwhile career option, stakeholders in health and education in both the South African public and private sectors need to be engaged to limit the barriers to postgraduate study and seek novel methods of making postgraduate study a more attractive option from a personal development and career perspective.

  9. A Delphi study on research priorities in radiation therapy: The Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Jennifer; Halkett, Georgia; Anderson, Claudia; Heard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapists (RTs) need to engage more in research to establish an evidence base for their daily practice. However, RTs world-wide conduct little research themselves, although positive moves have been made in some countries. This project is the second stage of a Delphi process aimed at prioritising RT areas of research interest. A questionnaire was constructed using responses to a previous questionnaire which identified the research interests of Australian RTs. Fifty-three Research Areas were identified from these responses and grouped into 12 categories such as 'imaging in radiation therapy', 'symptom management', 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment'. The survey was sent to all Australian departments of radiation oncology, and RTs were asked to form interest groups to discuss and prioritise the Research Areas. There was a 50% response rate (18 of 36 departments surveyed). The highest ranked research Category was 'imaging in radiation therapy'. Six of the top 10 ranked Research Areas were within Central RT practice ('imaging in radiation therapy'; 'symptom management'; 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment') and the other four were within broader RT practice ('diversification, recognition and other professional issues'; and 'management and staff issues'). Patient Care was also considered to be an area requiring more research. This prioritization of Research Areas and categories provides a useful list of future research for RTs, which will enable them to decide whether their research ideas are a high priority, and spend less time deciding on a relevant research topic that needs investigation in their own workplaces.

  10. An Australian casemix classification for palliative care: lessons and policy implications of a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kathy; Gordon, Robert; Green, Janette; Smith, Michael

    2004-04-01

    To provide a nontechnical discussion of the development of a palliative care casemix classification and some policy implications of its implementation. 3866 palliative care patients who, in a three month period, had 4596 episodes of care provided by 58 palliative care services in Australia and New Zealand. A detailed clinical and service utilization profile was collected on each patient with staff time and other resources measured on a daily basis. A statistical summary of the clinical variables was compiled as the first stage of the analysis. Palliative care phase was found to be a good predictor of resource use, with patients fairly evenly distributed across the five categories. Clients treated in an inpatient setting had poorer function and higher symptom severity scores than those treated in an ambulatory setting, a result that is not surprising in this Australian setting. Implementation of the resultant AN-SNAP classification has been proceeding since 1998 in some Australian jurisdictions. The development and implementation of a classification such as AN-SNAP provides the possibility of having a consistent approach to collecting palliative care data in Australia as well as a growing body of experience on how to progressively improve the classification over time.

  11. Can Australian radiographers assess screening mammograms accurately? Biennial follow-up from a four year prospective study and lesion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Globally, the role of the radiographer is changing; some countries have developed advanced roles with specific scopes of practice. Other countries, like Australia, are in the process of this change. This paper demonstrates the abilities of Australian radiographers in mammogram screen reading, highlighting some of their specific difficulties with different lesion types. Method: Six experienced radiographers participated in a prospective study, screen reading 2000 mammograms each between 2010 and 2011. This paper looks at the results of those same women at biennial re-screen. Analysis of the results included validation of normal results by negative follow-up screens and new cancers at biennial review; there is also analysis on the types of lesions detected and missed. Results: After biennial review, three cancers in 2013/2014 had been marked as abnormal by one radiographer two years prior, which increased her sensitivity from 64% to 85%. Sensitivity for the radiologists decreased from the assumed 100% to 95%. Radiographers appeared to be skilled in detection of calcifications and architectural distortions but had difficulty with non-specific densities. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential for Australian radiographers to enhance the accuracy of screen reading programs. - Highlights: • Radiographers have the potential to increase breast cancer detection rates. • Radiographers appear to be skilled at detecting calcifications. • Lesions commonly overlooked by radiographers could be targeted for training.

  12. Exploring staff willingness to attend work during a disaster: a study of nurses employed in four Australian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbon, Paul; Cusack, Lynette; Ranse, Jamie; Shaban, Ramon Z; Considine, Julie; Kako, Mayumi; Woodman, Richard J; Mitchell, Belinda; Bahnisch, Laura; Hammad, Karen

    2013-08-01

    Much of the literature about emergency nurses willingness to work during disasters has been from a non-Australian perspective. Despite the many recent disasters, little is known of Australian nurse's willingness to participate in disaster response. This paper presents findings from a study that explored nurses willingness to attend work during a disaster and the factors that influenced this decision. Data were collected consecutively using a combination of focus group and interview methods. Participants in this study, registered nurses from emergency departments, were recruited through convenience sampling from four hospitals in Australia. Participant narrative was electronically recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The participants for both the focus groups and interviews compromised a mix of ages, genders and years of experience as emergency nurses from across four jurisdictions within Australia. Three major themes that influenced willingness emerged with a number of subthemes. Theme one reflected the uncertainty of the situation such as the type of disaster. The second theme surrounded the preparedness of the workplace, emergency nurse and colleagues, and the third theme considered personal and professional choice based on home and work circumstances and responsibilities. The decision to attend work or not during a disaster, includes a number of complex personal, work-related and professional factors that can change, depending on the type of disaster, preparedness of the work environment and the emergency nurses' personal responsibilities at that time. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Why (not) alcohol energy drinks? A qualitative study with Australian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Barrie, Lance; Berry, Nina

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) are a recent entry to the ready-to-drink market, but there is an absence of research into the reasons young people consume these products and their consumption-related experiences. The aim of the current study was to investigate university students' perceptions of, and experiences with, pre-mixed AEDs. Four focus groups with undergraduate university students in a large regional city in New South Wales; with transcripts coded for key themes. Participants reported a number of benefits of AED consumption, many of which were similar to other ready-to-drinks, such as taste and image. However, the primary benefits of AEDs related to their capacity to wake the drinker up at the beginning of the evening and facilitate partying and drinking over a longer period. Many of the participants reported experiencing or observing negative effects from drinking AEDs, some quite severe, but this did not appear to act as a deterrent to their consumption. Given the popularity and perceived benefits of AEDs-and evidence from previous research that their consumption is associated with increases in intoxication levels, risky behaviours and harmful alcohol-related consequences-there is a need to consider a range of strategies to reduce harmful consumption of AEDs. While educational interventions may be of benefit, there is also a role for regulation of the packaging and marketing of a product that is associated with substantial harms. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Measuring adolescent mental health around the globe: psychometric properties of the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in South Africa, and comparison with UK, Australian and Chinese data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, P. J.; Davids, E. L.; Mathews, C.; Aarø, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Self-Report (SDQ-S) in South African adolescents, and compared findings with data from the UK, Australia and China. A sample of 3451 South African adolescents in grade 8, the first year of secondary

  15. Effectiveness of employer financial incentives in reducing time to report worker injury: an interrupted time series study of two Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tyler J; Gray, Shannon; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Collie, Alex

    2018-01-05

    Early intervention following occupational injury can improve health outcomes and reduce the duration and cost of workers' compensation claims. Financial early reporting incentives (ERIs) for employers may shorten the time between injury and access to compensation benefits and services. We examined ERI effect on time spent in the claim lodgement process in two Australian states: South Australia (SA), which introduced them in January 2009, and Tasmania (TAS), which introduced them in July 2010. Using administrative records of 1.47 million claims lodged between July 2006 and June 2012, we conducted an interrupted time series study of ERI impact on monthly median days in the claim lodgement process. Time periods included claim reporting, insurer decision, and total time. The 18-month gap in implementation between the states allowed for a multiple baseline design. In SA, we analysed periods within claim reporting: worker and employer reporting times (similar data were not available in TAS). To account for external threats to validity, we examined impact in reference to a comparator of other Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions. Total time in the process did not immediately change, though trend significantly decreased in both jurisdictions (SA: -0.36 days per month, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.09; TAS: 0.35, -0.50 to -0.20). Claim reporting time also decreased in both (SA: -1.6 days, -2.4 to -0.8; TAS: -5.4, -7.4 to -3.3). In TAS, there was a significant increase in insurer decision time (4.6, 3.9 to 5.4) and a similar but non-significant pattern in SA. In SA, worker reporting time significantly decreased (-4.7, -5.8 to -3.5), but employer reporting time did not (-0.3, -0.8 to 0.2). The results suggest that ERIs reduced claim lodgement time and, in the long-term, reduced total time in the claim lodgement process. However, only worker reporting time significantly decreased in SA, indicating that ERIs may not have shortened the process through the intended target of

  16. Australian energy statistics - Australian energy update 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, K.

    2005-06-15

    ABARE's energy statistics include comprehensive coverage of Australian energy consumption, by state, by industry and by fuel. Australian Energy Update 2005 provides an overview of recent trends and description of the full coverage of the dataset. There are 14 Australian energy statistical tables available as free downloads (product codes 13172 to 13185).

  17. Case studies: Mining and milling activities - South African facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, P.E.; Woude, S. van der

    2000-01-01

    The mining and milling of minerals is a very important industry in South Africa that employs more than 300,000 people. South Africa extracts minerals with naturally occurring radionuclides, amongst which uranium, monazite and zircon. Two case studies involving environmental restoration activities that are typically associated with mining and minerals processing are discussed. The first case study, Katdoringbos, describes the restoration of a contaminated site where scrap material originating from the mining and minerals processing facilities had been recycled. The other case study, Crown 4, deals with the restoration of a contaminated site where a mine tailings dam had been removed and the owner of the land wished to develop it for commercial exploitation. (author)

  18. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  19. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Genevieve N; Wijndaele, Katrien; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Salmon, Jo; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2008-02-01

    We examined the associations of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity with continuous indexes of metabolic risk in Australian adults without known diabetes. An accelerometer was used to derive the percentage of monitoring time spent sedentary and in light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity, as well as mean activity intensity, in 169 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) participants (mean age 53.4 years). Associations with waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, resting blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and a clustered metabolic risk score were examined. Independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity, there were significant associations of sedentary time, light-intensity time, and mean activity intensity with waist circumference and clustered metabolic risk. Independent of waist circumference, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity time was significantly beneficially associated with triglycerides. These findings highlight the importance of decreasing sedentary time, as well as increasing time spent in physical activity, for metabolic health.

  20. Service utilisation and costs of language impairment in children: The early language in Victoria Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ha N D; Gold, Lisa; Mensah, Fiona; Eadie, Patricia; Bavin, Edith L; Bretherton, Lesley; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-08-01

    To examine (1) the patterns of service use and costs associated with language impairment in a community cohort of children from ages 4-9 years and (2) the relationship between language impairment and health service utilisation. Participants were children and caregivers of six local government areas in Melbourne participating in the community-based Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS). Health service use was reported by parents. Costs were valued in Australian dollars in 2014, from the government and family perspectives. Depending on age, the Australian adapted Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals - Pre-school, 2nd Edition (CELF-P2) or the CELF, 4th Edition (CELF4) was used to assess expressive and receptive language. At 5, 7 and 9 years respectively 21%, 11% and 8% of families reported using services for speech and/or language concerns. The annual costs associated with using services averaged A$612 (A$255 to government, A$357 to family) at 5 years and A$992 (A$317 to government, A$675 to family) at 7 years. Children with persistent language impairment had significantly higher service costs than those with typical language. Language impairment in 4-9-year-old children is associated with higher use of services and costs to both families and government compared to typical language.

  1. A Profile of Pornography Users in Australia: Findings From the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Richters, Juliet; de Visser, Richard O; McKee, Alan; Yeung, Anna; Caruana, Theresa

    2017-02-01

    There are societal concerns that looking at pornography has adverse consequences among those exposed. However, looking at sexually explicit material could have educative and relationship benefits. This article identifies factors associated with looking at pornography ever or within the past 12 months for men and women in Australia, and the extent to which reporting an "addiction" to pornography is associated with reported bad effects. Data from the Second Australian Study of Health and Relationships (ASHR2) were used: computer-assisted telephone interviews (CASIs) completed by a representative sample of 9,963 men and 10,131 women aged 16 to 69 years from all Australian states and territories, with an overall participation rate of 66%. Most men (84%) and half of the women (54%) had ever looked at pornographic material. Three-quarters of these men (76%) and more than one-third of these women (41%) had looked at pornographic material in the past year. Very few respondents reported that they were addicted to pornography (men 4%, women 1%), and of those who said they were addicted about half also reported that using pornography had had a bad effect on them. Looking at pornographic material appears to be reasonably common in Australia, with adverse effects reported by a small minority.

  2. Friend or foe? An exploratory study of Australian parents' use of asynchronous discussion boards in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jessica; Fowler, Cathrine; Brown, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The use of Internet and social media is increasing in every area of life. Parents are increasingly using online mediums to seek information about their children's health. Therefore, this is becoming an increasingly important topic area for health professionals to acknowledge. Developing an understanding about the dissemination of child health information through these online mediums will assist health professional to continue to engage and support parents to seek and share accurate and safe child health information. To explore parents' use of asynchronous online discussion boards for child health information seeking, advice and social support. A qualitative descriptive approach using an a priori template analysis was used to explore 34 discussions threads sampled from two Australian based online parenting discussion forums. To contain the scope of this study the threads chosen focused on childhood obesity in the Australian context. Four major themes related to parents' use of asynchronous online discussion boards were found. These were seeking advice, sharing advice, social support and making judgement. This final theme of making judgements included parents' perceptions of health professionals' advice. Asynchronous online discussion boards are online mediums being utilised for seeking and sharing child health related information and support between parents. The notion

  3. Empowering students to respond to alcohol advertisements: results from a pilot study of an Australian media literacy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy programs in the United States have increased students' media literacy skills and lowered pre-drinking behaviour. In Australia, no such programs have yet been implemented or evaluated. This pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility and potential impact of an alcohol media literacy program for Australian upper-primary school children. Thirty-seven Year 5 and 6 students (aged 10-12) from one school in the Sydney region participated in 10 one-hour media lessons. Teacher interviews, student exit slips, teacher observations and a researcher reflective journal were analysed to examine the implementation process, while a pre- and post-questionnaire was analysed to measure outcome. Key factors in implementation were the importance of school context; attainment of English and PDHPE learning outcomes to differing extents; program's useability provided flexibility; perceived complexity and achievability of the lessons and program's engagement and relevance for the students. The program significantly increased media literacy skills and understanding of persuasive intent; decreased interest in alcohol branded merchandise; and lowered perception of drinking norms. An Australian alcohol media literacy program for upper-primary school children appears feasible, and has potential to lead to measurable outcomes. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Socio-demographic correlates of prolonged television viewing time in Australian men and women: the AusDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bronwyn Kay; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2010-09-01

    Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥ 2 hours/day and ≥ 4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥ 2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥ 2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥ 4 hours/day. Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.

  5. The politics of China studies in South Korea: A critical examination of South Korean historiography of modern China since 1945

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyoun HWANG

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the South Korean scholarship on modem Chinese history since 1945 can be characterized as apolitical with its objectivism,positivism,liberalism,and anti-communist nationalism.This characteristic is a product of not only the Cold War and the military regimes of South Korea but also the political orientation and stance of the senior historians who played an initial and decisive role in determining the goal,direc tion,and research methods of South Korean studies concerning modem China.The SouthKorean perspective they promoted usually meant the study of liberal,apolitical topics in Chinese history from a nationalist perspective without any political/ideological influences.The utility of modern Chinese history has mainly lain in helping to construct an anti-socialist,modern Korean nation-state through modernization.South Korean historians of modem China,the paper argues,have not been able to induce a meaningful,broad discussion of critical historical issues in modem China as they might pertain to South Korean society,thus failing to utilize them to help challenge and transform the undemocratic South Korean society and regimes.Hence,the future success of new academic undertakings since the 1990s by South Korean historians will be determined by whether or not they are able to make a radical break from the previous scholarship,in particular,from its objectivism and nationalism.

  6. Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Ding, Ding; Gale, Joanne; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Banks, Emily; Bauman, Adrian E

    2017-04-01

    The vegetarian diet is thought to have health benefits including reductions in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Evidence to date suggests that vegetarians tend to have lower mortality rates when compared with non-vegetarians, but most studies are not population-based and other healthy lifestyle factors may have confounded apparent protective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between categories of vegetarian diet (including complete, semi and pesco-vegetarian) and all-cause mortality in a large population-based Australian cohort. The 45 and Up Study is a cohort study of 267,180 men and women aged ≥45years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Vegetarian diet status was assessed by baseline questionnaire and participants were categorized into complete vegetarians, semi-vegetarians (eat meat≤once/week), pesco-vegetarians and regular meat eaters. All-cause mortality was determined by linked registry data to mid-2014. Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors. Among 243,096 participants (mean age: 62.3years, 46.7% men) there were 16,836 deaths over a mean 6.1years of follow-up. Following extensive adjustment for potential confounding factors there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality for vegetarians versus non-vegetarians [HR=1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45)]. There was also no significant difference in mortality risk between pesco-vegetarians [HR=0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.06)] or semi-vegetarians [HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.96-1.31)] versus regular meat eaters. We found no evidence that following a vegetarian diet, semi-vegetarian diet or a pesco-vegetarian diet has an independent protective effect on all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Kathryn

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Methods A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used. Discussion The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.

  8. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Lowther

    Full Text Available The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  9. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service

  10. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-05-18

    Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service providers) through a reference group, and writing of summary

  11. Can We Do Business? A Study of the Attitudes of Chinese and Australian Business Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit K. Basu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s business relationship with China is growing. However, there are culturaldifferences between the residents of the two countries that may lead to differences inattitudes and actions. These differences can present obstacles to optimising thebenefits to be gained from mutual business cooperation. In order to understand howthe future business leaders (present students view the potentiality for doing businessin each others’ countries, groups of commerce students in Australia and China weresurveyed using the same set of questions. The results identified interesting similaritiesand differences. Analysis of the responses helps us to detect the knowledge gaps anddifferences in perceptions and future outlooks between Australian and Chinesestudents which may impact on the future business relationship between the twocountries.

  12. A 30-month study of patient complaints at a major Australian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K; Allan, D; Finucane, P

    2001-12-01

    Health practitioners often regard complaints about the quality of patient care in a negative light. However, complaints can indicate strategies to improve care. Therefore, an audit was undertaken of all formal complaints about patient care at a major Australian hospital over a 30-month period. The profile of complainants, the reasons for complaints, and the outcome were analysed. A total of 1308 complaints, concerning the care of 1267 patients, were received. The complaint rate was 1.12 per 1000 occasions of service. In all, 57% of complaints were lodged by advocates and 71% of complaints related to poor communication or to the treatment provided. In 97% of occasions, an explanation and/or an apology resulted. To date, no complaint has proceeded to litigation. Complaints are potentially useful quality assurance tools and can identify remediable system flaws. Health professionals and employers should understand why patients complain and be able to respond appropriately.

  13. A Delphi study on research priorities in radiation therapy: The Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Jennifer [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, P.O. Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: jenny.cox@usyd.edu.au; Halkett, Georgia [Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Health Research Campus, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)], E-mail: g.halkett@curtin.edu.au; Anderson, Claudia [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, P.O. Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: claudia.anderson@usyd.edu.au; Heard, Robert [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, P.O. Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)], E-mail: r.heard@staff.usyd.edu.au

    2010-02-15

    Radiation therapists (RTs) need to engage more in research to establish an evidence base for their daily practice. However, RTs world-wide conduct little research themselves, although positive moves have been made in some countries. This project is the second stage of a Delphi process aimed at prioritising RT areas of research interest. A questionnaire was constructed using responses to a previous questionnaire which identified the research interests of Australian RTs. Fifty-three Research Areas were identified from these responses and grouped into 12 categories such as 'imaging in radiation therapy', 'symptom management', 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment'. The survey was sent to all Australian departments of radiation oncology, and RTs were asked to form interest groups to discuss and prioritise the Research Areas. There was a 50% response rate (18 of 36 departments surveyed). The highest ranked research Category was 'imaging in radiation therapy'. Six of the top 10 ranked Research Areas were within Central RT practice ('imaging in radiation therapy'; 'symptom management'; 'accuracy of patient positioning' and 'techniques/equipment') and the other four were within broader RT practice ('diversification, recognition and other professional issues'; and 'management and staff issues'). Patient Care was also considered to be an area requiring more research. This prioritization of Research Areas and categories provides a useful list of future research for RTs, which will enable them to decide whether their research ideas are a high priority, and spend less time deciding on a relevant research topic that needs investigation in their own workplaces.

  14. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  15. Acculturation Strategies Among South Asian Immigrants: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Bagchi, Pramita; Kim, Catherine; Mukherjea, Arnab; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2017-04-01

    In the past, epidemiologic research on acculturation and health has been criticized for its conceptual ambiguity and simplistic measurement approaches. This study applied a widely-used theoretical framework from cross-cultural psychology to identify acculturation strategies among South Asian immigrants in the US and to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. Data were from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. We used latent class analysis to identify groups of individuals that were similar based on cultural attitudes and behaviors. We used latent class regression analysis to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. We found that South Asian immigrants employed three acculturation strategies, including separation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for South Asian culture over US culture), assimilation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for US culture over South Asian culture), and integration (characterized by a similar level of preference for South Asian and US cultures). Respondents with no religious affiliation, those with higher levels of income, those who lived a greater percentage of their lives in the US, and those who spoke English well or very well were less likely to use the separation strategy than the assimilation or integration strategies. Using epidemiologic cohort data, this study illustrated a conceptual and methodological approach that addresses limitations of previous research on acculturation and health. More work is needed to understand how the acculturation strategies identified in this study affect the health of South Asian immigrants in the US.

  16. A point prevalence cross-sectional study of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections in six Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Anne; Mitchell, Brett; Beckingham, Wendy; Fasugba, Oyebola

    2014-07-29

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for over 30% of healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine healthcare-associated UTI (HAUTI) and catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) point prevalence in six Australian hospitals to inform a national point prevalence process and compare two internationally accepted HAUTI definitions. We also described the level and comprehensiveness of clinical record documentation, microbiology laboratory and coding data at identifying HAUTIs and CAUTIs. Data were collected from three public and three private Australian hospitals over the first 6 months of 2013. A total of 1109 patients were surveyed. Records of patients of all ages, hospitalised on the day of the point prevalence at the study sites, were eligible for inclusion. Outpatients, patients in adult mental health units, patients categorised as maintenance care type (ie, patients waiting to be transferred to a long-term care facility) and those in the emergency department during the duration of the survey were excluded. The primary outcome measures were the HAUTI and CAUTI point prevalence. Overall HAUTI and CAUTI prevalence was 1.4% (15/1109) and 0.9% (10/1109), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species were the most common pathogens. One-quarter (26.3%) of patients had a urinary catheter and fewer than half had appropriate documentation. Eight of the 15 patients ascertained to have a HAUTI based on clinical records (6 being CAUTI) were coded by the medical records department with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for UTI diagnosis. The Health Protection Agency Surveillance definition had a positive predictive value of 91.67% (CI 64.61 to 98.51) compared against the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. These study results provide a foundation for a national Australian point prevalence study and inform the development and implementation of targeted healthcare-associated infection surveillance more

  17. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with…

  18. EcoTurf - a case study: genetic variation and agronomic potential of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) germplasm collected from Australian biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Cynodon germplasm has not been comprehensively exploited for bermudagrass improvement. In this paper we will describe ‘EcoTurf’ a four year (2007-2011) project to develop water and nutrient use efficient bermudagrasses from Australian biodiversity. We describe the sampling strategies of A...

  19. Incidences and variations of hospital acquired venous thromboembolism in Australian hospitals: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assareh, Hassan; Chen, Jack; Ou, Lixin; Hillman, Ken; Flabouris, Arthas

    2016-09-22

    Data on hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) incidence, case fatality rate and variation amongst patient groups and health providers is lacking. We aim to explore HA-VTE incidences, associated mortality, trends and variations across all acute hospitals in New South Wales (NSW)-Australia. A population-based study using all admitted patients (aged 18-90 with a length of stay of at least two days and not transferred to another acute care facility) in 104 NSW acute public and private hospitals during 2002-2009. Poisson mixed models were used to derive adjusted rate ratios (IRR) in presence of patient and hospital characteristics. Amongst, 3,331,677 patients, the incidence of HA-VTE was 11.45 per 1000 patients and one in ten who developed HA-VTE died in hospital. HA-VTE incidence, initially rose, but subsequently declined, whereas case fatality rate consistently declined by 22 % over the study period. Surgical patients were 128 % (IRR = 2.28, 95 % CI: 2.19-2.38) more likely to develop HA-VTE, but had similar case fatality rates compared to medical patients. Private hospitals, in comparison to public hospitals had a higher incidence of HA-VTE (IRR = 1.76; 95 % CI: 1.42-2.18) for medical patients. However, they had a similar incidence (IRR = 0.91; 95 % CI: 0.75-1.11), but a lower mortality (IRR = 0.59; 95 % CI: 0.47-0.75) amongst surgical patients. Smaller public hospitals had a lower HA-VTE incidence rate compared to larger hospitals (IRR  1.71). Hospitals with a lower reported HA-VTE incidence tended to have a higher HA-VTE case fatality rate. Despite the decline in HA-VTE incidence and case fatality, there were large variations in incidents between medical and surgical patients, public and private hospitals, and different hospital groups. The causes of such differences warrant further investigation and may provide potential for targeted interventions and quality improvement initiatives.

  20. Dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle: associations with blood pressure in a sample of Australian adults (the Food BP study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, S; Sharma, S; Irwin, C; Sun, J

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between dietary patterns, nutrition knowledge and lifestyle with blood pressure (BP) in a sample of Australian adults. Adults with normal and high BP were included in a cross-sectional study. Dietary intake data was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrition knowledge and lifestyle surveys were included in the questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis followed by cluster analysis. Associations were analysed using logistic regression. Four hundred and seven participants were included. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western; Snack and alcohol; and Balanced. Participants with high BP had a higher intake of Western and a lower intake of Balanced dietary pattern. A significant and higher frequency of discretionary foods and oils consumption, as well as lower nutrition knowledge score and activity frequency, were observed in the high BP group. Regression analysis indicated that the intake of Western and Snack and alcohol dietary patterns increases the likelihood of having high BP by 2.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-4.49) and 2.76 (95% CI: 1.52-5.00), respectively, when nutrition knowledge and lifestyle were controlled for as moderator variables. The likelihood of high BP was not associated with nutrition knowledge, but increased with physical inactivity. This study indicates that poor dietary patterns and inactivity are associated with increases in the likelihood of high BP, and the association is not influenced by nutrition knowledge. These findings indicate the importance of developing public health strategies with an emphasis on improving the dietary patterns of individuals to prevent and control high BP in Australian adults.

  1. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  2. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Singleton, Michele; Doran, Christopher

    2013-08-07

    While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and

  3. Incorporating online teaching in an introductory pharmaceutical practice course: a study of student perceptions within an Australian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benino D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine student perceptions regarding online lectures and quizzes undertaken during a pharmaceutical practice course for first year undergraduate students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course at an Australian University.Methods: The University uses a standard instrument to collect feedback from students regarding unit satisfaction. Data were collected for three different teaching modalities: traditional face-to-face, online and partially online. Results: Descriptive statistics support that, from a student's perspective, partial online delivery is the preferred teaching methodology for an introductory pharmaceutical practice unit. Conclusion: This study has served to highlight that while there are a few points of significant difference between traditional and online teaching and learning, a combination of the two provides a reasonable avenue for teaching exploration. This result has implications for teaching practice generally, and within the pharmacy discipline, specifically.

  4. Incorporating online teaching in an introductory pharmaceutical practice course: a study of student perceptions within an Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benino, Diana; Girardi, Antonia; Czarniak, Petra

    2011-10-01

    To examine student perceptions regarding online lectures and quizzes undertaken during a pharmaceutical practice course for first year undergraduate students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy course at an Australian University. The University uses a standard instrument to collect feedback from students regarding unit satisfaction. Data were collected for three different teaching modalities: traditional face-to-face, online and partially online. Descriptive statistics support that, from a student's perspective, partial online delivery is the preferred teaching methodology for an introductory pharmaceutical practice unit. This study has served to highlight that while there are a few points of significant difference between traditional and online teaching and learning, a combination of the two provides a reasonable avenue for teaching exploration. This result has implications for teaching practice generally, and within the pharmacy discipline, specifically.

  5. Exploring the diet and lifestyle changes contributing to weight gain among Australian West African women following migration: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde-Sowole, Olutoyin O; Power, Tamara; Davidson, Patricia; Ballard, Charlotte; Jackson, Debra

    2018-04-10

    This paper reports on women's experiences of weight gain and obesity as they became acculturated to the Australian diet and lifestyle. Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa have a much higher risk of obesity than the native population when settling in industrialised countries. Qualitative. Women in this study reported weight gain post-migration. This was attributed to increased access to a wide variety of food including takeaway food and more sedentary lifestyles. Obesity has long-term consequences for health and well-being. Further research is needed to support a healthy transition to life in Australia. Gaining insight into the underlying reasons that West African immigrants to Australia become obese could contribute to assisting health professionals design culturally appropriate interventions and health education programmes to support new arrivals.

  6. The Australian optometric workforce 2005, analysed by local government areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Horton, Peregrine; Chakman, Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies of the Australian optometric workforce have taken a coarse view of the distribution of optometrists, at best comparing concentrations of optometrists in city and country areas and between states and territories. A more discriminating approach recognising the size and variation in population density of the country is necessary for a more realistic insight into the optometric workforce. This study addresses the distribution of optometrists across smaller geographic units, known as local government areas (LGAs). The number of equivalent full-time optometrists in each Australian LGA was determined using data from the Optometrists Association Australia database. Data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian national health program (Medicare) were applied to determine the demand for services based on age distributions in LGAs and to calculate the adequacy of the number of optometrists. Optometrists are concentrated in areas of high population with capital city regions and their surrounds well-serviced but with rural and remote LGAs with low populations generally not having optometrists. The highest excesses of optometrists occur in the capital city LGAs of Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide (64, 60 and 28.4 equivalent full-time optometrists respectively). The highest deficits occur in Casey (Victoria), Lake Macquarie (New South Wales) and Onkaparinga (South Australia), (-16.4, -15.6 and -13.4 equivalent full-time optometrists, respectively). There are substantial variations in the distribution of optometrists across LGAs in Australia but the variation is often a poor indicator of the ease with which people can access optometric services. In metropolitan areas, people may live close to an optometric practice in a neighbouring LGA. In rural areas, an LGA may appear to have an adequate number of optometrists but some residents may be several hours from the nearest optometrist or the optometric service is provided on a part-time basis.

  7. A grounded exploration of the dimensions of managerial capability: A preliminary study of top Australian pharmacist owner-managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Australian community pharmacies are experiencing challenges, including government prescription pricing reform and a dramatically increasing competitive environment. Enacting appropriate responsive actions requires capable pharmacy managers. 'Capability' implies managing effectively in the present, but with unknown or emerging contexts and with new problems. A conceptual understanding of managerial capability as practiced by pharmacist owner-managers is unavailable in the literature. This research aimed to address the question: How can we understand managerial capability in relation to effective community pharmacy management? The study's objective was to develop preliminary theoretical departure points for continuing research responding to the research question. The objective was approached by exploring how 5 top Australian pharmacy owner-managers accomplish the management of their businesses in a changing business environment. Qualitative research methods were employed to develop a social process perspective of how the managers enact their management practices. In-depth semi-structured life-world interviews were undertaken as the major method of data collection. Interview text thematic analysis was carried out identifying rich conceptual properties and dimensions, which 'dimensionalized' 3 key integrated categories. The findings show how the managers are immersed in their business, managerial and personal practices in a holistic and relational manner. Managerial processes, reported through three conceptual categories, their properties and dimensions, reveal the highly situational nature of the reality the managers were experiencing, including their need to express their personal/professional identity. The properties and dimensions of the category 'learning generatively' in particular, reveal how the pharmacy owner-managers shape their business activities and their emerging context as time passes. The preliminary interpretive view of managerial capability describes

  8. Early life socioeconomic determinants of dietary score and pattern trajectories across six waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Constantine E; Mensah, Fiona K; Kerr, Jessica A; Wake, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Social patterning of dietary-related diseases may partly be explained by population disparities in children's diets. This study aimed to determine which early life socioeconomic factors best predict dietary trajectories across childhood. For waves 2-6 of the Baby (B) Cohort (ages 2-3 to 10-11 years) and waves 1-6 of the Kindergarten (K) Cohort (ages 4-5 to 14-15 years) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, we constructed trajectories of dietary scores and of empirically derived dietary patterns. Dietary scores, based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines, summed children's consumption frequencies of seven groups of foods or drinks over the last 24 hours. Dietary patterns at each wave were derived using factor analyses of 12-16 food or drink items. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we examined associations of baseline single (parental education, remoteness area, parental employment, income, food security and home ownership) and composite (socioeconomic position and neighbourhood disadvantage) factors with adherence to dietary trajectories. All dietary trajectory outcomes across both cohorts showed profound gradients by composite socioeconomic position but not by neighbourhood disadvantage. For example, odds for children in the lowest relative to highest socioeconomic position quintile being in the 'never healthy' relative to the 'always healthy' score trajectory were OR=16.40, 95% CI 9.40 to 28.61 (B Cohort). Among the single variables, only parental education consistently predicted dietary trajectories. Child dietary trajectories vary profoundly by family socioeconomic position. If causal, reducing dietary inequities may require researching underlying pathways, tackling socioeconomic inequities and targeting health promoting interventions to less educated families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  9. DNA metabarcoding for diet analysis and biodiversity: A case study using the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tina E; Osterrieder, Sylvia K; Murray, Dáithí C; Coghlan, Megan L; Richardson, Anthony J; Grealy, Alicia K; Stat, Michael; Bejder, Lars; Bunce, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of apex predator diet has the ability to deliver valuable insights into ecosystem health, and the potential impacts a predator might have on commercially relevant species. The Australian sea lion ( Neophoca cinerea ) is an endemic apex predator and one of the world's most endangered pinnipeds. Given that prey availability is vital to the survival of top predators, this study set out to understand what dietary information DNA metabarcoding could yield from 36 sea lion scats collected across 1,500 km of its distribution in southwest Western Australia. A combination of PCR assays were designed to target a variety of potential sea lion prey, including mammals, fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and birds. Over 1.2 million metabarcodes identified six classes from three phyla, together representing over 80 taxa. The results confirm that the Australian sea lion is a wide-ranging opportunistic predator that consumes an array of mainly demersal fauna. Further, the important commercial species Sepioteuthis australis (southern calamari squid) and Panulirus cygnus (western rock lobster) were detected, but were present in fish, sharks and rays, clarify previous knowledge of sea lion prey, and some, such as eel taxa and two gastropod species, represent new dietary insights. Even with modest sample sizes, a spatial analysis of taxa and operational taxonomic units found within the scat shows significant differences in diet between many of the sample locations and identifies the primary taxa that are driving this variance. This study provides new insights into the diet of this endangered predator and confirms the efficacy of DNA metabarcoding of scat as a noninvasive tool to more broadly define regional biodiversity.

  10. Pre pregnancy dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality, and risk of developing gestational diabetes: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health : The Australian longitudinal study on women's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looman, M.; Schoenaker, D.A.J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mishra, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    Carbohydrate quantity and quality affect postprandial glucose response, glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association of pre-pregnancy dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality with the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We

  11. Testing the Australian Megatsunami Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Claire; Strotz, Luke; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2010-05-01

    In the wake of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, many countries have been forced to reassess the risk of tsunamis to their coasts. Australia, with relative tectonic stability, has previously been considered at low risk of tsunami inundation. Within written history, only small tsunamis have struck the Australian coast, causing little damage. However, a body of work has arisen that sheds doubt on this apparent low risk, with researchers suggesting that megatsunamis have affected the east Australian coast, in particular southern New South Wales. With proposed run-ups in excess of 100m, recurrence of such megatsunamis in the now densely populated New South Wales coastal region would be catastrophic. The disjunct between historical and geological records demands a thorough re-evaluation of New South Wales sites purported to contain evidence of megatsunamis. In addition, the unique set of diagnostic criteria previously used to identify Australian palaeotsunami deposits is distinctly different to criteria applied to paleotsunamis globally. To address these issues, four coastal lagoonal sites in southern New South Wales were identified for further investigation. In addition to paleotsunami investigation, these sites were selected to provide a geological record of significant events during the Holocene. Site selection was based on small accommodation space and a high preservation potential with back barrier depressions closed to the sea. A suite of diagnostic criteria developed over the past two decades to identify palaeotsunamis have been applied to cores extracted from these sites. Methods used include sedimentary description, grain size analysis, micropalaeontology, geochemistry and a variety of dating techniques such as radiocarbon and lead 210. Preliminary analysis of these results will be presented, with particular focus on sites where there is evidence that could indicate catastrophic saltwater inundation.

  12. The Influences on Teaching Perspectives of Australian Physical Education Teacher Education Students: The First-Year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brendon P.; Pill, Shane

    2016-01-01

    There has been a paucity of literature investigating the teaching beliefs and intentions of Australian physical education teacher education (PETE) students that enter teacher training. The First-year Influences on Teaching Perspectives Exploratory (FIT-PE) study explores the teaching perspectives of first year PETE students; including teaching…

  13. Economic and Social Analysis of the Adoption of B2B Electronic Marketplaces: A Case Study in the Australian Beef Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driedonks, C.F.; Gregor, S.; Wassenaar, Arjen; van Heck, E.

    2005-01-01

    The factors that affect the adoption of B2B electronic marketplaces as innovations are investigated through a case study of AuctionsPlus, an electronic marketplace in the Australian beef industry. Two theories help to explain the relatively slow adoption of this system. Kambil and van Heck's model

  14. Older Australian's Motivation for University Enrollment and Their Perception of the Role of Tertiary Education in Promoting Healthy Aging: A National Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of older Australian university students (aged 60+ years); to identify the factors that motivate late-life, tertiary-level learning; and to capture older students' views about the role of tertiary-level learning in promoting healthy aging. In 2012, an invitation to participate in the study…

  15. Qonsequences of Cultural and Behavioral Difference of Tourist: Study of Australian and Indonesian Tourist Who Visit Lombok Island, West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Handayani Rinuastuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying behavior differences of Australian tourists and domestic tourists who visit Lombok island, and determining as well as analyzing the Hofstede cultural variables (power distance, individualistic-collectivist, uncertainty avoidance, masculine-feminine, long-term orientation that may explain the differences in behavioral intention (to have activities, to interact, and to transact of Australian and domestic tourists. This study was conducted on 160 Australian and domestic tourists who were visiting the island. Sampling was done by convenience sampling. Methods of data analysis were conducted by using t-test and discriminant analysis. The results of this study showed that there are differences in behavioral intentions of Australian travelers and the domestic ones in having activities, interacting, and transacting, and these differences can be explained by the cultural background of the tourists that are based on cultural orientation at the individual level. This study extends the use of CVSCALE and may be considered as an addition to the use of secondary data in determining the value of culture, as well as providing clearer framework on the limits of the relationship of cultural values and the various tourist behaviors. Keywords: Individualist-Collectivists, Longterm orientation, Masculine-feminine, Power distance, Tourist behavior, Uncertainty avoidance

  16. The Influence of Chorion Type on Health Measures at Birth and Dental Development in Australian and Dutch Twins: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailidis, S.; Bockmann, M.; McConnell, E.; Hughes, T.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; McMaster, M.T.; Townsend, G.

    2015-01-01

    Chorion type may significantly influence the prenatal environment of twins. This study explored the associations between chorion type and gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and the timing of emergence of the first primary tooth in two populations of twins, Australian and Dutch.

  17. Stress-reduction interventions in an Australian university: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of awareness of stress-reduction interventions on employee well-being and work attitudes using a mixed methods design. Cross-sectional data are presented from 247 employees who completed questionnaires in 2004 at one Australian university. Analyses indicated that employees, who reported that interventions had been undertaken, scored higher on job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, perceived procedural justice and trust in senior management than those who were not aware of the measures, although they did not differ in psychological strain. Details of the stress-reduction interventions implemented by the Occupational Health and Safety department at the university are also reported. Thematic analyses of the perceived causes of both decreases and increases in stress for employees showed that staff reported workload and staffing pressures as key sources of increases in stress. On the other hand, new supervisors and/or management were identified as sources of decreased stress. Areas for consideration in future efforts to develop and refine stress interventions are also discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A study investigating the travel habits and preferences of older Australian adults with a falls risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Annie; Thurtell, Andrew; Clemson, Lindy; Kendig, Hal

    2011-12-01

      To investigate the travel habits and preferences of city-dwelling older Australians with a falls risk, and factors influencing outings.   A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted with 96 community-dwelling adults with a falls risk.   The mean age of participants was 78.2 years (SD 5.33). The majority were women (77%). Most (75%) went on five or more outings per week (mean 6.9 outings). Men drove more than women (41% vs 31%). Shopping was the most common reason for outings. Walking was the most frequent mode of travel, and buses were both the easiest and most difficult. Factors that enabled bus travel included bus stop location, good services and cheap fares. Primary reasons for restricting outings were poor health, transport barriers, neighbourhood safety and personal motivation.   These older adults went out nearly every day. Findings can be used to improve transport services for older people. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  19. Addressing the workplace needs of Western Australian midwives: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Bayes, Sara J; Robertson, Jeanette M

    2012-05-01

    To determine the workplace needs of Western Australian midwives working in public metropolitan secondary hospitals. Using a three-round Delphi approach, Round 1 incorporated focus groups and a questionnaire. Fifteen focus groups were conducted with midwives also having the option of contributing through an open-ended questionnaire. During Round 2, 38 items reflecting seven themes were prioritised with a final ranking performed in Round 3. In total, 114 midwives participated in Round 1, 72 in Round 2 and 89 in Round 3. During Round 1, workplace needs identified as being met included: working across all areas of midwifery; ability to work in areas of interest; opportunity to work with low to moderate risk women; supportive colleagues; accessible parking; hospital close to home and friendly work atmosphere. Round 2 items revealed the five top unmet needs as: adequate midwifery staff coverage; access to maintained equipment; competitive pay scales; patient safety issues and opportunities to implement midwifery models. The top ranked needs from Round 3 included: recognising the unpredictable nature of midwifery services; provision of competent medical coverage, and adequate midwifery staff coverage. Demand for maternity services is unpredictable; however, in order to maintain a sustainable maternity workforce, WA midwives' prioritised needs would suggest health management focus upon expanding the availability of midwifery models of care, fostering flexible working conditions and ensuring collaboration between maternity health professionals occurs within clinically safe staffing levels.

  20. Assisting an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2017-08-02

    Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.

  1. A Qualitative Study of HR/OHS Stress Interventions in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Boyd, Carolyn M; Provis, Chris

    2018-01-09

    To enhance the understanding of psychosocial factors and extend research on work stress interventions, we investigated the key human resource (HR)/occupational health and safety (OHS) stress interventions implemented at five Australian universities over a three-year period. Five senior HR Directors completed an online survey to identify the intervention strategies taken at their university in order to reduce stress and enhance employee well-being and morale. We also explored the types of individual-, organization-, and individual/organization-directed interventions that were implemented, and the strategies that were prioritized at each university. Across universities, the dominant interventions were strategies that aimed to balance the social exchange in the work contract between employee-organization with an emphasis on initiatives to: enhance training, career development and promotional opportunities; improve remuneration and recognition practices; and to enhance the fairness of organizational policies and procedures. Strategies to improve work-life balance were also prominent. The interventions implemented were predominantly proactive (primary) strategies focused at the organizational level and aimed at eliminating or reducing or altering work stressors. The findings contribute to the improved management of people at work by identifying university-specific HR/OHS initiatives, specifically leadership development and management skills programs which were identified as priorities at three universities.

  2. A Qualitative Study of HR/OHS Stress Interventions in Australian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the understanding of psychosocial factors and extend research on work stress interventions, we investigated the key human resource (HR/occupational health and safety (OHS stress interventions implemented at five Australian universities over a three-year period. Five senior HR Directors completed an online survey to identify the intervention strategies taken at their university in order to reduce stress and enhance employee well-being and morale. We also explored the types of individual-, organization-, and individual/organization-directed interventions that were implemented, and the strategies that were prioritized at each university. Across universities, the dominant interventions were strategies that aimed to balance the social exchange in the work contract between employee-organization with an emphasis on initiatives to: enhance training, career development and promotional opportunities; improve remuneration and recognition practices; and to enhance the fairness of organizational policies and procedures. Strategies to improve work-life balance were also prominent. The interventions implemented were predominantly proactive (primary strategies focused at the organizational level and aimed at eliminating or reducing or altering work stressors. The findings contribute to the improved management of people at work by identifying university-specific HR/OHS initiatives, specifically leadership development and management skills programs which were identified as priorities at three universities.

  3. A Qualitative Study of HR/OHS Stress Interventions in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, Anthony H.; Boyd, Carolyn M.

    2018-01-01

    To enhance the understanding of psychosocial factors and extend research on work stress interventions, we investigated the key human resource (HR)/occupational health and safety (OHS) stress interventions implemented at five Australian universities over a three-year period. Five senior HR Directors completed an online survey to identify the intervention strategies taken at their university in order to reduce stress and enhance employee well-being and morale. We also explored the types of individual-, organization-, and individual/organization-directed interventions that were implemented, and the strategies that were prioritized at each university. Across universities, the dominant interventions were strategies that aimed to balance the social exchange in the work contract between employee-organization with an emphasis on initiatives to: enhance training, career development and promotional opportunities; improve remuneration and recognition practices; and to enhance the fairness of organizational policies and procedures. Strategies to improve work-life balance were also prominent. The interventions implemented were predominantly proactive (primary) strategies focused at the organizational level and aimed at eliminating or reducing or altering work stressors. The findings contribute to the improved management of people at work by identifying university-specific HR/OHS initiatives, specifically leadership development and management skills programs which were identified as priorities at three universities. PMID:29315278

  4. Factors That Influence Adoption of Cloud Computing: An Empirical Study of Australian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishan Senarathna

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a recent computing paradigm enabling organizations to have access to sophisticated computing services via the Internet on a fee-for-service basis. It provides Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs with opportunities to become as technologically advanced as their larger counterparts, without significant financial outlays. This paper examined the important factors that influence SMEs’ adoption of cloud computing technology. Drawing upon aspects of the Technology, Organization and Environment framework and Diffusion of Innovation Theory, we developed a research model of SMEs’ adoption of cloud computing and tested it through an online survey of 149 Australian SMEs. Data was analyzed using multiple regression methods, with results showing that SMEs were influenced by factors related to advantaging their organizational capability (i.e., relative advantage, quality of service and awareness rather than risk-related factors (i.e., security, privacy and flexibility. The findings offer insights to SMEs owners, Cloud service providers and government in establishing Cloud computing adoption strategies for SMEs.

  5. Digital Modeling, Integrated Project Delivery and Industry Transformation: An Australian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy A. Kraatz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on realizing productivity benefits for the delivery of transport infrastructure in the Australian construction industry through the use of building information modeling (BIM, virtual design and construction (VDC and integrated project delivery (IPD. Specific objectives include: (I building an understanding of the institutional environment, business systems and support mechanisms (e.g., training and skilling which impact on the uptake of BIM/VDC; (II gathering data to undertake a cross-country analysis of these environments; and (III providing strategic and practical outcomes to guide the uptake of such processes in Australia. Activities which will inform this research include a review of academic literature and industry documentation, semi-formal interviews in Australia and Sweden, and a cross-country comparative analysis to determine factors affecting uptake and associated productivity improvements. These activities will seek to highlight the gaps between current-practice and best-practice which are impacting on widespread adoption of BIM/VDC and IPD. Early findings will be discussed with intended outcomes of this research being used to: inform a national public procurement strategy; provide guidelines for new contractual frameworks; and contribute to closing skill gaps.

  6. Fertility knowledge and intentions to have children in a national study of Australian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Pitts, Marian K; Patrick, Kent; Mitchell, Anne

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on fertility knowledge and intentions to have children among a national sample of students in years 10-12. Data were from the Fifth National Survey of Australian Secondary Students and Sexual Health. Students identified factors that could affect fertility, if they wanted children and at what age. Most students wanted to have children (77%). Of those who wanted children or were unsure (n=1,780), 54% were able to identify six of eight factors that could affect fertility. Male students had poorer knowledge than females. Poorer knowledge was also reported by male students who were born overseas or used marijuana and by female students who were sexually active or religious. More than half the students (59%) wanted their first child aged 25-29, while 19% wanted their first child after 30. Intentions to have children at an earlier age were associated with being religious, sexually active (females), and using marijuana (males). Students not exclusively attracted to the opposite sex were more likely to want children at an older age. Most students typically want children in their late 20s. Many were unaware of factors that could affect their fertility and there was a mismatch between intentions and likely behaviour. These factors could be addressed as part of relationship education. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Representation of work stress in an Australian public hospital. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubshaw, E A; Dollard, M F

    2001-09-01

    Content analysis of the view of occupational stress presented in the Annual Reports of an Australian public hospital revealed scant attention to occupational health and safety issues and less still to the issue of workplace stress. The hospital aimed to "provide for all employees a working environment with maximum job satisfaction and opportunities for personal growth," yet stepped up surveillance of "sick leave not absolutely necessary or related to medical conditions." Investigation of the hospital's employee assistance programs revealed a "band aid" approach of individually focused stress management techniques rather than preventative organizational procedures. The researchers concluded that management considered workplace stress to be a problem in the employee not in the workplace, evident also in an increase of almost 1,000% in the number of clients visiting the staff counseling center in a 10 year period. Although a shift to focus on prevention was noticed in most recent reports consistent with the World Health Organization's target of stress prevention, the holistic public safety of workers appears an unmet challenge in this health industry.