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Sample records for south atlantic coast

  1. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  2. Linking the basement geology along the Africa-South America coasts in the South Atlantic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Sláma, Jiří; Košler, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 280, July (2016), s. 221-230 ISSN 0301-9268 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Gondwana reconstruction * South Atlantic Ocean * Plate tectonics * Kaoko Belt * Dom Feliciano Belt Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2016

  3. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.

  4. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Meriç

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in native South American Atlantic coast populations of smooth shelled mussels: hybridization with invasive European Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Trucco, María I; Wenne, Roman

    2018-02-22

    Throughout the world, harvesting of mussels Mytilus spp. is based on the exploitation of natural populations and aquaculture. Aquaculture activities include transfers of spat and live adult mussels between various geographic locations, which may result in large-scale changes in the world distribution of Mytilus taxa. Mytilus taxa are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish. In spite of much research on taxonomy, evolution and geographic distribution, the native Mytilus taxa of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly understood. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to clarify the taxonomic status of populations of smooth shelled mussels from the Pacific coast of South America. In this paper, we used a set of SNPs to characterize, for the first time, populations of smooth shelled mussels Mytilus from the Atlantic coast of South America. Mytilus spp. samples were collected from eastern South America. Six reference samples from the Northern Hemisphere were used: Mytilus edulis from USA and Northern Ireland, Mytilus trossulus from Canada, and Mytilus galloprovincialis from Spain and Italy. Two other reference samples from the Southern Hemisphere were included: M. galloprovincialis from New Zealand and Mytilus chilensis from Chile. Fifty-five SNPs were successfully genotyped, of which 51 were polymorphic. Population genetic analyses using the STRUCTURE program revealed the clustering of eight populations from Argentina (Mytilus platensis) and the clustering of the sample from Ushuaia with M. chilensis from Chile. All individuals in the Puerto Madryn (Argentina) sample were identified as M. platensis × M. galloprovincialis F2 (88.89%) hybrids, except one that was classified as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. No F1 hybrids were observed. We demonstrate that M. platensis (or Mytilus edulis platensis) and M. chilensis are distinct native taxa in South America, which indicates that the evolutionary histories of Mytilus taxa along the

  6. A new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the Atlantic Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus (Scombridae) off the Atlantic Coast of Florida and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah; de Buron, Isaure

    2013-04-01

    A new nematode species, Philometra atlantica n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from male and female specimens found in the ovary of the Atlantic Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill) (Scombridae, Perciformes), off the Atlantic coast of Florida and South Carolina. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species differs from most other gonad-infecting Philometra spp. in the length of spicules (111-126 μm), number and arrangement of genital papillae, and a U-shaped, dorsally interrupted caudal mound in the male. A unique feature among all gonad-infecting philometrids is the presence of 2 reflexed dorsal barbs on the distal end of the gubernaculum. From a few congeneric, gonad-infecting species with unknown males, it can be distinguished by some morphological and biometrical features found in gravid females (body length, length of first-stage larvae or esophagus, structure of caudal end) and by the host type (fish family) and geographical distribution. Philometra atlantica is the fourth valid gonad-infecting species of Philometra reported from fishes of the family Scombridae.

  7. The ecology of intertidal oyster reefs of the South Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Leonard M.; Lanier, William P.

    1981-01-01

    The functional role of the intertidal oyster reef community in the southeastern Atlantic coastal zone is described. This description is based on a compilation of published data, as well as some unpublished information presented as hypotheses. The profile is organized in a hierarchical manner, such that relevant details of reef oyster biology (autecology) are presented, followed by a description of the reef community level of organization. Then the reef community is described as a subsystem of the coastal marsh-ecosystem (synecoloqy). This information is also synthesized in a series of nested conceptual models of oyster reefs at the regional level, the drainage basin level, and the individual reef level. The final chapter includes a summary overview and a section on management implications and guidelines. Intertidal oyster reefs are relatively persistent features of the salt marsh estuarine ecosystem in the southeastern Atlantic coastal zone. The average areal extent of the oyster reef subsystem in this larger ecosystem is relatively small (about 0.05%). This proportion does not reflect, however, the functional importance of the reef subsystem in stablizing the marsh, providing food for estuarine consumers, mineralizing organic matter, and providing firm substrates in this otherwise soft environment.

  8. Bird Habitat Conservation at Various Scales in the Atlantic Coast Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Milliken; Craig Watson; Chuck Hayes

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Coast Joint Venture is a partnership focused on the conservation of habitats for migratory birds within the Atlantic Flyway/Atlantic Coast Region from Maine south to Puerto Rico. In order to be effective in planning and implementing conservation in this large and diverse area, the joint venture must work at multiple spatial scales, from the largest ?...

  9. Early Pleistocene lineages of Bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Ariidae, from the Atlantic coast of South America, with insights into the demography and biogeography of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wemerson C. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coastal and marine environments are characterized by a lack of evident physical barriers or geographic isolation, and it may be difficult to understand how divergence can arise and be sustained in marine environments. The identification of 'soft' barriers is a crucial step towards the understanding of gene flow in marine environments. The marine catfishes of the family Ariidae are a demersal group with restricted migratory behavior, no pelagic larval stages, and mechanisms of larval retention, representing a potentially useful model for the understanding of historical processes of allopatric speciation in the marine environment. In the present study, two lineages of the Coco sea catfish, Bagre bagre , were recognized from their complete segregation at both mitochondrial and morphological levels. One lineage is distributed between Venezuela and the northern coast of Brazil, including the semiarid northeast coast, while the second lineage is found on the eastern coast of Brazil, including the humid northeast coast. Based on distribution area, habitats preference, and genetic variability, inferences are made in relation to biogeography and demography of lineages in Atlantic coast of South America.

  10. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  11. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  12. VA Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  13. NOAA TIFF Image - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Miami, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Lost Coast Explorer - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 3x3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the continental shelf off of Jacksonville, FL in the South Atlantic...

  14. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  15. Evolutionary diversity among Atlantic coast mangroves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard S.; Rafii, Zara A.; Fromard, François; Blasco, François

    1998-06-01

    Current knowledge of intraspecific variation of mangrove species is limited in terms of rangewide distributions and is mostly restricted to morphological analyses, which have indicated a high degree of homogeneity. However, our analyses of the aliphatic hydrocarbon and triterpenoid fraction of foliar waxes (by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) of mangrove species ( Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa) from Gabon in West Africa and French Guiana in South America show significant genetic differentiation between eastern and western Atlantic provenances. The greater diversity in lipid composition, and the tendency for longer carbon chain lengths in all taxa from Africa, may suggest that American mangroves exhibit derived characteristics. A consequence of this hypothesis would be that Atlantic mangroves are unlikely to have dispersed from the Tethys via the Pacific, as has been proposed by some authors. More widespread sampling within the Atlantic and east Pacific region is needed to support and confirm these results.

  16. Post-Gondwana Africa and the vertebrate history of the Angolan Atlantic Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Louis L.; Polcyn, Michael J.; Mateus, Octávio; Schulp, Anne S.; Gonçalves, António Olímpio; Morais, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    The separation of Africa from South America and the growth of the South Atlantic are recorded in rocks exposed along the coast of Angola. Tectonic processes that led to the formation of Africa as a continent also controlled sedimentary basins that preserve fossils. The vertebrate fossil record in

  17. Drift pumice in the Indian and South Atlantic oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, C.; Kent, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-three samples of drift pumice, collected at the coasts of South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Cocos Islands, Australia, Indonesia, Brazil, Marion Island and Bouvet Island, were investigated petrographically and geochemically with a view to establishing the possible source areas. Geochemically five distinct groups could be distinguished and some could be liked to specific eruptions in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Group A pumice originated from a submarine eruption off Zavodovski Island in the South Sandwich Island Group in 1962. The pumice in Group B occurs mainly on the beaches bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and was found on the west coast of South Africa, on the sea floor south-west of South Africa, and in Brazil. The source of this group is unknown, but all the evidence indicates that it must have been from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic Ocean. The Group C pumice was found in the southern Indian Ocean, probably from the Mid-Indian Ridge. The fourth group originated from a submarine eruption along the Tonga Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Group E, which is by far the most homogeneous, includes samples from Australia, the Indian Ocean islands, East and South Africa and samples of the undisputed Krakatoan origin. Specimens from the Krakatoan eruption are still the most abundant type of drift pumice that can be found

  18. 76 FR 14378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico... AP will also review Amendment 19 to the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP regarding alternatives for bag...

  19. 77 FR 25144 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    .... The Council will consider input from the workgroup and workshops during its June meeting in Orlando... Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... public meeting and public workshop. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) will...

  20. 75 FR 71187 - Atlantic Coast Financial Corporation, Waycross, GA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-56 OTS No. H-4438] Atlantic Coast... November 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Atlantic Coast Federal, MHC and Atlantic Coast Bank, Waycross, Georgia, to convert to the stock form of organization. Copies of...

  1. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ...: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is requesting peer reviewed information that would be useful in the preparation of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is... information by electronic mail to: [email protected] . Please include your name and contact information in...

  2. Florida Atlantic Coast Telemetry (FACT) Array: A Working Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidt, Douglas; Ault, Erick; Ellis, Robert D.; Gruber, Samuel; Iafrate, Joseph; Kalinowsky, Chris; Kessel, Steven; Reyier, Eric; Snyder, David; Watwood, Stephanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Florida Atlantic Coast Telemetry (FACT) Array is a collaborative partnership of researchers from 24 different organizations using passive acoustic telemetry to document site fidelity, habitat preferences, seasonal migration patterns, and reproductive strategies of valuable sportfish, sharks, and marine turtles. FACT partners have found that by bundling resources, they can leverage a smaller investment to track highly mobile animals beyond a study area typically restrained in scale by funds and manpower. FACT is guided by several simple rules: use of the same type of equipment, locate receivers in areas that are beneficial to all researchers when feasible, maintain strong scientific ethics by recognizing that detection data on any receiver belongs to the tag owner, do not use other members detection data without permission and acknowledge FACT in publications. Partners have access to a network of 480 receivers deployed along a continuum of habitats from freshwater rivers to offshore reefs and covers 1100 km of coastline from the Dry Tortugas, Florida to South Carolina and extends to the Bahamas. Presently, 49 species, (25 covered by Fisheries Management Plans and five covered by the Endangered Species Act) have been tagged with 2736 tags in which 1767 tags are still active.

  3. 75 FR 54597 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic... are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  4. The impact of the subtropical South Atlantic SST on South American precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Taschetto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Community Climate Model (CCM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR is used to investigate the effect of the South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on interannual to decadal variability of South American precipitation. Two ensembles composed of multidecadal simulations forced with monthly SST data from the Hadley Centre for the period 1949 to 2001 are analysed.

    A statistical treatment based on signal-to-noise ratio and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF is applied to the ensembles in order to reduce the internal variability among the integrations. The ensemble treatment shows a spatial and temporal dependence of reproducibility. High degree of reproducibility is found in the tropics while the extratropics is apparently less reproducible. Austral autumn (MAM and spring (SON precipitation appears to be more reproducible over the South America-South Atlantic region than the summer (DJF and winter (JJA rainfall. While the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ region is dominated by external variance, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ over South America is predominantly determined by internal variance, which makes it a difficult phenomenon to predict. Alternatively, the SACZ over western South Atlantic appears to be more sensitive to the subtropical SST anomalies than over the continent.

    An attempt is made to separate the atmospheric response forced by the South Atlantic SST anomalies from that associated with the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Results show that both the South Atlantic and Pacific SSTs modulate the intensity and position of the SACZ during DJF. Particularly, the subtropical South Atlantic SSTs are more important than ENSO in determining the position of the SACZ over the southeast Brazilian coast during DJF. On the other hand, the ENSO signal seems to influence the intensity of the SACZ not only in DJF but especially its oceanic branch during MAM. Both local and

  5. 76 FR 37788 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... meeting of its Law Enforcement AP in Orlando, FL. DATES: The meeting will take place July 20, 2011. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Marriott Renaissance Orlando Hotel, 5445... the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine...

  6. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  7. Early life traits of farm and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and first generation hybrids in the south coast of Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoutene, D; Perez-Casanova, J; Burt, K; Lush, L; Caines, J; Collier, C; Hinks, R

    2017-06-01

    This study examined fertilization rates, survival and early life-trait differences of pure farm, wild and first generation (F1) hybrid origin embryos after crossing farm and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Results show that despite a trend towards higher in vitro fertilization success for wild females, differences in fertilization success in river water are not significantly different among crosses. In a hatchery environment, wild females' progeny (pure wild and hybrids with wild maternal parent) hatched 7-11 days earlier than pure farm crosses and hybrids with farm maternal parents. In addition, pure wild progeny had higher total lengths (L T ) at hatch than pure farm crosses and hybrids. Directions in trait differences need to be tested in a river environment, but results clearly show the maternal influence on early stages beyond egg-size differences. Differences in L T were no longer significant at 70 days post hatch (shortly after the onset of exogenous feeding) showing the need to investigate later developmental stages to better assess somatic growth disparities due to genetic differences. Higher mortality rates of the most likely hybrids (farm female × wild male hybrids) at egg and fry stages and their delayed hatch suggest that these F1 hybrids might be less likely to survive the early larval stages than wild stocks. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Fish Biology © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Analysis of landscapes of the south coast in São Paulo State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Renê Lepiani; Oliveira, Regina Célia de

    2012-01-01

    The South Coast of São Paulo is structured in two main areas morphostructural: Atlantic Orogenic Belt and Cenozoic Sedimentary Basins. In this area are found various morphologies, that are in the form of trims topographic scarps, valleys carved, organization of major river network, the sharp convex tops in the Atlantic Forest domain extensive plain with the presence of unconsolidated deposits and important environmental systems, such as those related to mangroves. The landscape in which organ...

  9. South Atlantic Humanities Center Seminars -- Spring 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The South Atlantic Humanities Center (SAHC) at Virginia Tech is sponsoring several seminars this spring.•À_•À_ SAHC is a partnership of the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Virginia Tech, and the University of Virginia.•À_•À_ SAHC focuses on the U.S. South Atlantic from a regional and transatlantic perspective. It explores and preserves the rich heritage of a region stretching from Virginia to the Virgin Islands.•À_•À_ It engages artists and performers, writers and filmmakers, teachers...

  10. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON, cloud amount/frequency and other data from COLUMBUS ISELIN in the North American Coastline-South and South Atlantic Ocean from 1990-05-23 to 1990-06-13 (NODC Accession 9100150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data was collected from R/V COLUMBUS ISELIN in South Atlantic Ocean and North American Coast line-South during the Amazon Shelf Sediment Study (AMASSEDS) between May...

  11. South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation South Coast Air Quality Management District Truck Evaluation Photo of heavy-duty truck cab. Electric drayage truck Cargo Transportation project, conducted in partnership with the South Coast Air Quality Management

  12. High resolution morphobathymetric analysis and short-term evolution of the upper part of the Capbreton submarine canyon (south-east Bay of Biscay - French Atlantic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Hervé; Mazières, Alaïs; Mulder, Thierry; Cremer, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The Capbreton Canyon stands out by its deep incision through continental shelf and slope and its present turbidite activity. The head of the canyon is anthropically disconnected from the Adour River since 1310 AD, but is located close enough to the coast to allow a direct supply by longshore drift. Sedimentary processes in upper part of the Capbreton Canyon are poorly documented. Several evidences, including sandy slide scars in the head, suggest that this area plays a major role in triggering downstream gravity currents). However, no modern sedimentary activity in the upper canyon had so far been evidenced. Our study is based on the analysis and comparison of several sets of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in 1998, 2010 and 2012 (up to 1.5 m resolution). The morphobathymetric analysis brought the following key observations: - The upper part of the canyon is characterised by a meandering talweg underlined by two kinds of terraces: (1) small elongated terraces standing only 10 to 15 m above the talweg axis and (2) large terraces standing 45 to 100 m above the talweg axis. - The regular 1° longitudinal slope of the talweg is interrupted by several 10 m high knickpoints. - The floor of the talweg shows some rough areas scattered with transversal bedforms similar to the sediment waves described in the Monterey Canyon upper part (Smith et al, 2005). The morphological evolutions in the upper part of the canyon over the last 14 years especially affect the floor of the talweg: - Between 1998 and 2010, we observe a downstream succession of accretion areas (up to 11m thick) and erosion areas (reaching -25 m). The largest and highest terraces remain stable over this period, whereas the smallest and lowest elongated terraces show active sedimentation (+5 to +8 m). - Difference between 2010 and 2012 DEMs reveals three localized erosion spots corresponding to 200 m backward stepping of the knickpoints. Such observation confirms the active headward erosion in this part of

  13. 77 FR 15721 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC... Biological Catch (ABC) values for managed stocks including the effect of revised recreational catch estimates...

  14. 76 FR 30921 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    .... SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council will hold a joint meeting of its Executive/Finance... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., Assessment and Review (SEDAR) Committee; Law Enforcement [[Page 30922

  15. Threatened fish and fishers along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana; Hallwass, Gustavo; Hanazaki, Natalia; Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M

    2017-12-01

    Small-scale fisheries of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast (BAFC) depend on fish resources for food and income. Thus, if the catch diminishes or if fish species that are a target for fishers are overexploited or impacted, this could affect fishers' livelihoods. The exclusion of threatened fish species from the catch is believed to be a threat to small-scale fisheries, which is likely to be the case along the BAFC. Many fish species are currently listed as threatened or vulnerable, whereas there is not enough biological information available to determine the status of the majority of the other species. Failure to protect the BAFC biodiversity might negatively impact fishers' income and the regional economy of local small-scale fisheries. We collected data from 1986 to 2009 through 347 interviews and 24-h food recall surveys at seven southeastern coastal sites of the Atlantic Forest. We show that important species of consumed fish are currently threatened: of the 65 species mentioned by fishers as the most consumed fishes, 33% are decreasing and 54% have an unknown status. Thus, biological and ecological data for BAFC marine species are urgently needed, along with co-management, to promote fish conservation.

  16. Haplosclerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the coast of Maranhao State, Brazil, Southwestern Atlantic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, M.; Mothes, B.; Eckert, R.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with haplosclerid sponges off the coast of Maranhão State, northeastern coast of Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). A new species is described, Haliclona (Halichoclona) lernerae. Four species are recorded for the first time for the Brazilian coast: Amphimedon caribica

  17. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. England

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean exchange of

  18. South Atlantic circulation in a world ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. England

    Full Text Available The circulation in the South Atlantic Ocean has been simulated within a global ocean general circulation model. Preliminary analysis of the modelled ocean circulation in the region indicates a rather close agreement of the simulated upper ocean flows with conventional notions of the large-scale geostrophic currents in the region. The modelled South Atlantic Ocean witnesses the return flow and export of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW at its northern boundary, the inflow of a rather barotropic Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC through the Drake Passage, and the inflow of warm saline Agulhas water around the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas leakage amounts to 8.7 Sv, within recent estimates of the mass transport shed westward at the Agulhas retroflection. Topographic steering of the ACC dominates the structure of flow in the circumpolar ocean. The Benguela Current is seen to be fed by a mixture of saline Indian Ocean water (originating from the Agulhas Current and fresher Subantarctic surface water (originating in the ACC. The Benguela Current is seen to modify its flow and fate with depth; near the surface it flows north-westwards bifurcating most of its transport northward into the North Atlantic Ocean (for ultimate replacement of North Atlantic surface waters lost to the NADW conveyor. Deeper in the water column, more of the Benguela Current is destined to return with the Brazil Current, though northward flows are still generated where the Benguela Current extension encounters the coast of South America. At intermediate levels, these northward currents trace the flow of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW equatorward, though even more AAIW is seen to recirculate poleward in the subtropical gyre. In spite of the model's rather coarse resolution, some subtle features of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence are simulated rather well, including the latitude at which the two currents meet. Conceptual diagrams of the recirculation and interocean

  19. 75 FR 42378 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... public. Those interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR. See FOR FURTHER... CONTACT: Kari Fenske, SEDAR Coordinator, 4055 Faber Place Drive, Suite 201, North Charleston, SC 29405; (843) 571- 4366; kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic...

  20. 78 FR 62587 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Essential Fish Habitat Policy Statements and receive training on the use of the Regional Habitat and... meeting of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat... of its Habitat AP in St. Petersburg, FL. The meeting is open to the public. DATES: The meeting will...

  1. 78 FR 23224 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Agenda, Tuesday, May 7, 2013, 8:30 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. 1. Review draft Essential Fish Habitat (EFH... of the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council's Habitat & Environmental Protection Advisory Panel (AP); Coral AP; Joint Meeting of the Habitat & Environmental Protection AP and Coral AP; and Deepwater...

  2. 75 FR 65298 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... five-year Essential Fish Habitat review, the Governor's South Atlantic Alliance Action Plan, a status... its Habitat and Environmental Protection (Habitat) Advisory Panel in North Charleston, SC. DATES: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Members of the Habitat Advisory Panel will meet from 9 a.m.-5 p.m...

  3. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  4. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland`s south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary`s Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia`s shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters.

  5. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    1999-01-01

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluters

  6. Atlantic Canada, on watch : Canadian Coast Guard sails to rescue of oiled wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W

    1999-08-02

    The impact that tanker ships have left on the marine ecosystem on Newfoundland's south coast was discussed. Tankers and container ships have sometimes discharged leftover bunker-C fuel before entering the St. Lawrence Seaway to save on cleaning services. It is estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 of the 30 million seabirds which reside or migrate through the ecological reserve around St. Mary's Bay, die each year from the effects of oil. Victims are mostly puffins, seagulls and murres. This paper discussed the involvement of the Canadian Coast Guard in the Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project. POW has compared British Columbia's shipping practices with those of Newfoundland. Although crude oil shipments along the B.C. coast exceed 250 million barrels annually, seabirds are not being oiled by passing tankers. It was suggested that in order to change attitudes in Atlantic waters, the maximum fine of $1 million against offenders should be imposed. So far, the highest penalty levied by Transport Canada has been $30,000. It was argued that this is not a significant deterrent for most polluter00.

  7. Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.; Heffter, J.L.; Mead, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    The Atlantic Coast Unique Regional Atmospheric Tracer Experiment (ACURATE) is a program designed to obtain data necessary to evaluate atmospheric transport and diffusion models used to calculate regional population doses caused by nuclear facility emissions to the atmosphere. This experiment will significantly improve the basis for evaluating the cost effectiveness of different methods of managing airborne nuclear wastes. During the period from March 1982 through September 1982, twice daily air samples have been collected at each of five sampling stations located on a radial from the SRP to Murray Hill, NJ (1000 km). Kr-85 emitted from the F and H area chemical separations facilities is being used as a tracer to determine the transport and diffusion of atmospheric releases from the SRP. The Kr-85 concentrations in the air samples will be compared with the calculated concentrations as predicted by the transport and diffusion models. The Kr-85 data and the meteorological data are being archived and will be made available to the modeling community

  8. Morphological and molecular evidence on the existence of a single estuarine and rocky intertidal acanthocephalan species of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Diaz, Julia I; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Profilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector, Mañé-Garzón & Dei-Cas, 1977 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) has been reported to parasitise different grapsid species as intermediate hosts along the South Atlantic shores, i.e. Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana) and Neohelice granulata (Dana) in Uruguay and Cyrtograpsus altimanus (Rathbun) in Argentina. Larvae of a similar acanthocephalan described as Profilicollis antarcticus Zdzitowiecki, 1985 were recorded in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Milne-Edwards) from an estuarine habitat on the Southeast Pacific shore in Chile. Earlier studies have questioned the specific assignation of the Chilean estuarine populations of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931. The aim of this study was to re-examine the identification of these acanthocephalans by means of morphological and molecular analyses of cystacanths of Profilicollis spp. gathered from C. angulatus, N. granulata, C. altimanus and H. crenulatus. Our analyses showed that a single species of Profilicollis, P. chasmagnathi, parasitises these four crab species. The assessment of specimens from the South Shetlands Islands, the type-locality of P. antarcticus, is needed before formally proposing that P. antarcticus is a junior subjective synonym of P. chasmagnathi.

  9. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  10. Tufa stromatolite ecosystems on the South African south coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the first description of living marine stromatolites along the South African east coast, new investigations along the south coast have revealed the occurrence of extensive fields of actively calcifying stromatolites. These stromatolites have been recorded at regular distances along a 200-km stretch of coastline, from Cape Recife in the east to the Storms River mouth in the west, with the highest density found between Schoenmakerskop and the Maitland River mouth. All active stromatolites are associated with freshwater seepage streams flowing from the dune cordon, which form rimstone dams and other accretions capable of retaining water in the supratidal platform. Resulting pools can reach a maximum depth of about 1 m and constitute a unique ecosystem in which freshwater and marine organisms alternate their dominance in response to vertical mixing and the balance between freshwater versus marine inflow. Although the factors controlling stromatolite growth are yet to be determined, nitrogen appears to be supplied mainly via the dune seeps. The epibenthic algal community within stromatolite pools is generally co-dominated by cyanobacteria and chlorophytes, with minimal diatom contribution.

  11. Determination of TBT in water and sediment samples along the Argentine Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waisbaum, R G; Rodriguez, C; Nudelman, N Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Cases of imposex have been reported for some organisms living in areas of the Argentine Atlantic coast. Since this is one of the known effects of the anti-fouling agent tributyltin (TBT), quantitative determinations of organotins in samples of water and sediments collected from sites along the Argentine coast were carried out. Severe cases of imposex were first reported for two gastropod species living in the Mar del Plata area, and determinations of TBT in samples collected from this site gave extremely high values and showed a close correlation between the degree of imposex and TBT concentration. Recent investigations in the area have shown a significant decrease. Surveys were also conducted in sites that exhibit highly irregular coastal profiles to examine the relevance of physical environments. Alarming concentrations of TBT were determined in most of the sites where heavy boat traffic and/or marine activities occur, demonstrating the urgent need for regulations to avoid further input of TBT. Reports from other sites in South America reveal that this should be a subject of regional concern in order to avoid severe damage to the biodiversity of regional marine organisms.

  12. Deriving nearshore wave climate along South African coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed aspects of the highly interrelated study area of coastal safety and vulnerability, climate change and setback lines for South African coast. A medium resolution numerical wave analysis was undertaken, in the form...

  13. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  14. Fires, East Falkland Island, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This near-nadir image (looking almost straight down) of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic was acquired at the southernmost extent of the International Space Station's latitudinal orbit range of approximately 52 degrees north to 52 degrees south relative to the surface of the Earth. The windy and relatively dry climate, which includes roughly 600 millimeters (24 inches) of precipitation annually, has given rise to natural vegetation comprised of treeless grassland with scattered bogs. The grasslands are ideal for sheep rearing--the dominant occupation until recent decades, when fishing (mainly squid for Spain) and tourism became the mainstays of the economy. These expanses of grassland provide ready fuel for fires, as indicated by the several long smoke plumes visible in this astronaut photograph. Astronaut photograph ISS015-E-30526 was acquired on September 25, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera fitted with a 58 mm lens. The image was taken by the Expedition 15 crew, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The image in this article has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast. Lens artifacts have been removed.

  15. The meteorological environment of the tropospheric ozone maximum over the tropical South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurti, T N; Fuelberg, H E; Bensman, E L; Sinha, M C; Oosterhof, D; Kumar, V B [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Department of Meteorology

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines atmospheric flow patterns over the Southern Atlantic Ocean, where a maximum of tropospheric ozone is observed just west of Southern Africa. The climatology of the South Atlantic basin is shown to favour flow off from South America and Africa converging into the area of high tropospheric ozone. This ozone is initially attributable to byproducts of biomass burning over both these continents. A case study, carried out over 6 days during October 1989, was used to determine the effect of a purely advective scheme (no photochemistry) on the distribution of ozone over the basin. The results showed a pattern in which ozone accumulated off the west coast of South Africa within 72 hours after beginning with an homogenous, zonally-symmetric distribution of ozone. 11 refs.

  16. South Atlantic Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart A - General...

  17. 76 FR 16730 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... migratory groups of king mackerel, Spanish mackerel and cobia. The amendment addresses establishment of... separate migratory groups of cobia (between the Gulf and South Atlantic), sector allocations, and possible...

  18. Variations of Sea Surface Temperature, Wind Stress, and Rainfall over the Tropical Atlantic and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Paulo; Srukla, J.

    1996-10-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (E0Fs) and composite analyses are used to investigate the development of sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly patterns over the tropical Atlantic. The evolution of large-scale rainfall anomaly patterns over the equatorial Atlantic and South America are also investigated. 71e EOF analyses revealed that a pattern of anomalous SST and wind stress asymmetric relative to the equator is the dominant mode of interannual and longer variability over the tropical Atlantic. The most important findings of this study are as follows.Atmospheric circulation anomalies precede the development of basinwide anomalous SST patterns over the tropical Atlantic. Anomalous SST originate off the African coast simultaneously with atmospheric circulation anomalies and expand westward afterward. The time lag between wind stress relaxation (strengthening) and maximum SST warming (cooling) is about two months.Anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns over northern tropical Atlantic are phase locked to the seasonal cycle. Composite fields of SLP and wind stress over northern tropical Atlantic can be distinguished from random only within a few months preceding the March-May (MAM) season. Observational evidence is presented to show that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the Pacific influences atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies over northern tropical Atlantic through atmospheric teleconnection patterns into higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.The well-known droughts over northeastern Brazil (Nordeste) are a local manifestation of a much larger-scale rainfall anomaly pattern encompassing the whole equatorial Atlantic and Amazon region. Negative rainfall anomalies to the south of the equator during MAM, which is the rainy season for the Nordeste region, are related to an early withdrawal of the intertropical convergence zone toward the warm SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic. Also, it is shown that precipitation anomalies

  19. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second... Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats will be participating...

  20. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... proposes to establish special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach... waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high- speed power boats are...

  1. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during... event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30...

  2. Tsunami impacts on morphology of beaches along south Kerala coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rasheed, K.A.A.; Das, V.K.; Revichandran, C.; Vijayan, P.R.; Thottam, T.J.

    TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA K. A. Abdul Rasheed *, V. Kesava Das, C. Revichandran, P. R. Vijayan and Tony. J. Thottam National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre (RC... large waves of height 11 to 11.5m in Kutch region (Pendse 1945). Most of the tsunamis are generated by the earthquake-initiated seabed displacements. Landslides (including underwater landslides), volcanic eruptions, impact of large objects (such...

  3. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  4. Market impact on cassava's development potential in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of markets on agricultural development was analyzed by means of a case study on cassava in the Atlantic Coast region of Colombia. In the development process, the demand for agricultural products changes considerably. Traditional food products, such as roots and tubers, face a

  5. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coast Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along t...

  6. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Monitoring the South Atlantic Anomaly Using ATSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Stefano; Arino, Olivier; Serpe, Danilo

    2010-12-01

    Space mission planning needs to quantify the risks arising from exposure to high doses of radiation, as to both the effects on human health and the impact on instrumental efficiency. Constant monitoring of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is therefore required as it is a major cause of radiation flux increase. In order to address this need, the time evolution of the particle induced noise of the SWIR channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) instrument series is analysed in the 1991-2009 time window. The data considered in this work are the night-time SWIR hot spots generated by energetic particles hitting the ATSR detectors when satellites pass through the SAA region. To avoid misinterpretation of results, hot spots due to wildfires (individuated from the ATSR World Fire Atlas products) have been removed. The location and area of the SAA are inferred by fitting a two-dimensional, elliptical Gaussian equation to the SWIR (1.6 μm) night- time hot spots detected over the SAA region. The location of the SAA is found to drift westwards with an average drift rate of about 0.35 deg/yr and northward with an average drift rate of about 0.12 deg/yr. These results are in very good agreement with latest works. Irregularities are found where the speed of the drift changes and the SAA moves eastward and southward, especially in the late 1991 and 2002-2003 time windows. These drift anomalies are attributed to geomagnetic jerks. Results indicate that, as expected, the strength and the area of the SAA are anti-correlated with the sun-spot numbers (SSN) and the 11.7 cm Solar Flux (SF).

  8. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  9. Boulder Deposits on the Southern Spanish Atlantic Coast: Possible Evidence for the 1755 AD Lisbon Tsunami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kelletat

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence of visible tsunami impacts in Europe is scarce. This research focused on an analysis of large littoral debris and accompanying geomorphic features and their rela- tionship to a tsunami event at Cabo de Trafalgar, located on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast. Relative dating of weathering features as well as minor bioconstructive forms in the littoral zone suggest the Lisbon tsunami of 1755 AD as the event responsible for the large deposits described. This tsunami had run up heights of more than 19 m and was generated at the Gorringe Bank, located 500 km west off the Cape. Tsunami deposits at Cabo de Tra- falgar are the first boulder deposits identified on the southern Spanish Atlantic coast and are located approximately 250 km southeast of the Algarve coast (Portugal, where other geo- morphic evidence for the Lisbon tsunami has been reported.

  10. Estuarine demersal fish assemblage from a transition region between the tropics and the subtropics of the South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Hostim-Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n3p153 Estuarine demersal fish assemblage from a transition region between the tropics and the subtropics of the South Atlantic. The coastal state of Espírito Santo is in the central region of Brazil, where biological productivity is considered low. The objective of this work is to present a current list of demersal, estuarine fish from northern Espírito Santo. This work is based on the compilation of data collected monthly using trawl nets. The ichthyofauna comprises 57 species, within 10 orders and 32 families. The family Sciaenidae has the largest number of species (8, followed by Carangidae (4 and Gerreidae (4. This coincides with what has been found for the Brazilian coast and for the coast of the South Atlantic. It is important to note that the total species richness in the estuaries of northern Espírito Santo is lower than other estuaries of the South West Atlantic coast. Most of the species are widely distributed in the Western Atlantic. Only a small part (14% of the fauna of northern Espírito Santo was evaluated in regards to risk of extinction, but conservation should be prioritized in the area due to overexploitation of species.

  11. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  12. 76 FR 34061 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with... Workshops are appointed by the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and...; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and...

  13. Preliminary exploration of south Kanara coast of Karnataka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh

    The port along the South Kanara coast of Karnataka, India were explored. At the port Gangolli, submergence of a few houses and sea level changes at the light house have been observed which were attributed to the transgression of the sea during...

  14. Projected inundations on the South African coast by tsunami waves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historical and recent evidence recorded along the South African coast suggests that five tsunami events have occurred since 1960. These were mostly associated with trigger mechanisms associated with sources of remote submarine seismicity along far-field subduction zones and local atmospheric disturbances ...

  15. 78 FR 57534 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... requirements, South Atlantic, Virgin Islands. Dated: September 12, 2013. Samuel D. Rauch III, Deputy Assistant... Mexico, and South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Mexico, and South Atlantic: Caribbean coral, Caribbean reef fish, Caribbean spiny lobster, Caribbean...

  16. 75 FR 61367 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  17. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published... California submitted the ``South Coast Air Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the...

  18. 76 FR 70888 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Management District--SCAQMD) (1) Rule 1143, ``Consumer Paint Thinners & Multi-purpose Solvents...

  19. 77 FR 66780 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Control Measure for Architectural Coatings,'' CARB, October 2007. 4. ``Improving Air Quality with Economic...

  20. Chemical residues in Dolphins from the US Atlantic coast including atlantic bottlenose obtained during the 1987/88 mass mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, D.W.; Haebler, R.; Potter, C.

    1991-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) collected during the 1987/88 mass mortality event along the Atlantic coast of the United States have been analyzed for anthropogenic chemical contaminants. Average contaminant concentrations in adult males were higher than the average concentrations measured in adult females. Females could be divided into two groups by contaminant concentrations, one with low concentrations, and another with concentrations 4.4 times (PCBs) to 8.9 times (p,p'-DDE) greater. Contaminant concentrations in bottlenose were generally greater than the concentrations measured in either common (Delphinus delphis) or white-sided (Lagernorhynchus acutus) dolphins from the western North Atlantic Ocean. A subset of animals screened for unusual chemical contaminants showed that numerous polybrominated chemicals were present, including polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers not previously found in marine mammals from U.S. coastal waters.

  1. Tsunami Warning Services for the U.S. and Canadian Atlantic Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Knight, W.

    2008-12-01

    In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) developed a tsunami warning program for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Within a year, this program extended further to the Atlantic coast of Canada and the Caribbean Sea. Warning services are provided to U.S. and Canadian coasts (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) by the NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) while the NOAA/Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) provides services for non-U.S. entities in the Caribbean Basin. The Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN) is also an active partner in the Caribbean Basin warning system. While the nature of the tsunami threat in the Atlantic Basin is different than in the Pacific, the warning system philosophy is similar. That is, initial messages are based strictly on seismic data so that information is provided to those at greatest risk as fast as possible while supplementary messages are refined with sea level observations and forecasts when possible. The Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs) acquire regional seismic data through many agencies, such as the United States Geological Survey, Earthquakes Canada, regional seismic networks, and the PRSN. Seismic data quantity and quality are generally sufficient throughout most of the Atlantic area-of-responsibility to issue initial information within five minutes of origin time. Sea level data are mainly provided by the NOAA/National Ocean Service. Coastal tide gage coverage is generally denser along the Atlantic coast than in the Pacific. Seven deep ocean pressure sensors (DARTs), operated by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Data Buoy Center, are located in the Atlantic Basin (5 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Caribbean, and 1 in the Gulf of Mexico). The DARTs provide TWCs with the means to verify tsunami generation in the Atlantic and provide critical data with which to calibrate forecast models. Tsunami warning response criteria in the Atlantic Basin

  2. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, E.; Sintes, E.; Herndl, G.J.; Varela, M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production

  3. 76 FR 78829 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Reference (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District (1) Rule 2005, ``New Source Review for RECLAIM...

  4. 77 FR 74372 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... of South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. South Coast Air Quality Management District v. EPA...

  5. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the...

  6. 76 FR 47074 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation... Submittal A. What rule did the State submit? We are approving South Coast Air Quality Management District...

  7. 78 FR 18853 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...) * * * (411) * * * (i) * * * (F) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 463, ``Organic Liquid...

  8. 76 FR 30896 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... overwhelmingly formed as a secondary pollutant. (South Coast 2007 Air Quality Management Plan, page ES-9...

  9. 76 FR 41717 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... Governor's Designee. (i) Incorporation by reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  10. 78 FR 59249 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'s Designee. (i) Incorporation by Reference. (A) South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1...

  11. 77 FR 73320 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... Implementation Plan (SIP) revision for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD or District... in a August 15, 2012 letter from the South Coast Air Quality Management District regarding specific...

  12. Phylogeography of Rattus norvegicus in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hingston

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway rats are a globally distributed invasive species, which have colonized many islands around the world, including in the South Atlantic Ocean. We investigated the phylogeography of Norway rats across the South Atlantic Ocean and bordering continental countries. We identified haplotypes from 517 bp of the hypervariable region I of the mitochondrial D-loop and constructed a Bayesian consensus tree and median-joining network incorporating all other publicly available haplotypes via an alignment of 364 bp. Three Norway rat haplotypes are present across the islands of the South Atlantic Ocean, including multiple haplotypes separated by geographic barriers within island groups. All three haplotypes have been previously recorded from European countries. Our results support the hypothesis of rapid Norway rat colonization of South Atlantic Ocean islands by sea-faring European nations from multiple European ports of origin. This seems to have been the predominant pathway for repeated Norway rat invasions of islands, even within the same archipelago, rather than within-island dispersal across geographic barriers.

  13. Climate control on late Holocene high-energy sedimentation along coasts of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier , Clément; Tessier , Bernadette; Chaumillon , Eric

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Abundant sedimentological and geochronological data gathered on European sandy coasts highlight major phases of increased high-energy sedimentation in the North Atlantic Ocean during the late Holocene. Owing to an inconsistent use of the terminology, it is often difficult to determine whether studies have described storm-built or wave-built deposits. Both deposits can be identified by overall similar coarse-grained sedimentary facies, but may provide contradictory pale...

  14. The influence of Atmospheric Rivers over the South Atlantic on rainfall in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Blamey, R. C.; Tome, R.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2017-12-01

    An automated atmospheric river (AR) detection algorithm is used for the South Atlantic Ocean basin, allowing the identification of the major ARs impinging on the west coast of South Africa during the austral winter months (April-September) for the period 1979-2014, using two reanalysis products (NCEP-NCAR and ERA-Interim). The two products show relatively good agreement, with 10-15 persistent ARs (lasting 18h or longer) occurring on average per winter and nearly two thirds of these systems occurring poleward of 35°S. The relationship between persistent AR activity and winter rainfall is demonstrated using South African Weather Service rainfall data. Most stations positioned in areas of high topography contained the highest percentage of rainfall contributed by persistent ARs, whereas stations downwind, to the east of the major topographic barriers, had the lowest contributions. Extreme rainfall days in the region are also ranked by their magnitude and spatial extent. It is found that around 70% of the top 50 daily winter rainfall extremes in South Africa were in some way linked to ARs (both persistent and non-persistent). Results suggest that although persistent ARs are important contributors to heavy rainfall events, they are not necessarily a prerequisite. Overall, the findings of this study support akin assessments in the last decade on ARs in the northern hemisphere bound for the western coasts of USA and Europe. AcknowledgementsThe financial support for attending this workshop was possible through FCT project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz. The author wishes also to acknowledge the contribution of project IMDROFLOOD - Improving Drought and Flood Early Warning, Forecasting and Mitigation using real-time hydroclimatic indicators (WaterJPI/0004/2014, Funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal (FCT)), with the data provided to achieve this work. A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/ SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  15. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... recreational ACL overage. This action is necessary to reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass... (AMs) be implemented to end overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management... overfishing, including black sea bass, and AMs if these ACLs are reached or exceeded. The recreational ACL for...

  16. 75 FR 12507 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... analysis. Members will develop fishing level recommendations for black and red grouper, and ABC and OFL... recommendations for black and red grouper, discuss Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) Control Rules, and recommend ABC values for South Atlantic managed species. The meeting will be held in North Charleston, SC. DATES...

  17. 76 FR 57958 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN: 0648-XA708 Fisheries...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC...-pane reviews social and economic information and reports its findings to the SSC. The SEP will discuss...

  18. Impact of Hurricane Irma in the post-recovery of Matthew in South Carolina, the South Atlantic Bight (Western Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. S.; Levine, N. S.; Jaume, S. C.; Hendricks, J. K.; Rubin, N. D.; Hernandez, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts on the Southeastern United States (SEUS, Western Atlantic) from Hurricane Irma in Sept 2017 were felt primarily on the active coastline with the third highest inland storm surge in Charleston and Savannah since the 19th Century. Coastal geometry, waves, and wind duration had a strong influence on the storm surge and coastal erosion impacts regionally. To the North and immediate South, impacts were much less. A full year after the 2016 hurricane season (Hurricane Matthew), the lack of regional recovery reduced protection against Irma. The most devastating impacts of Irma in the SAB occurred from 300 to 500 km away from the eye, on the opposite side of the Floridian peninsula. As Irma devastated the Caribbean, winds started to increases off the SAB on September 8 in the early morning, continuing for the next 3 days and blowing directly towards the SC and GA coasts. Tide gauges started to respond the night of September 8, while waves started arriving in the SEUS around Sept 6. Coastal erosion pre- and post-Irma has been calculated for Central SC using vertical and oblique aerial photos. Citizen Science initiatives through the Charleston Resilience Network have provided on-the-ground data during storms when transportation infrastructures were closed, and allow for ground-truth post-storm of surge and impacts. Said information was collected through Facebook, Google, and other social media. Pictures with timestamps and water heights were collected and are validating inundation flood maps generated for the Charleston SC region. The maps have 1-m horizontal and 7- to 15-cm vertical accuracy. Inundation surfaces were generated at MHHW up to a maximum surge in 6 inch increments. The flood extents of the modeled surge and the photographic evidence show a high correspondence. Storm surge measurements from RTK-GPS provide regional coverage of surge elevations from the coast, inland, and allow for testing of modeled results and model tuning. With Hurricane Irma

  19. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    . An examination of the electron photomicrographs revealed several features of the chromite grains (Figure 5 c to f ). Grains display mechanical breaking such as con- choidal to sub-conchoidal fractures, V-shaped impact depressions and irregular cracks... . In this article we describe the occurrence, mineralogy, geochemistry, transport mechanisms, provenance and economic feasibility of the chromite deposit of south Maharashtra coast. Methodology Surficial and sub-surficial samples from various physi- ographic...

  20. 75 FR 51242 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils; the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commissions; and NOAA... representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils...

  1. Power Scaling of the Mainland Shoreline of the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, E.; Barton, C. C.; Geise, G. R.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The fractal dimension of the mainland shoreline of the Atlantic coast of the United Stated from Maine to Homestead, FL has been measured in 1000 km increments using the box-counting method. The shoreline analyzed is the NOAA Medium Resolution Shoreline (https://shoreline.noaa.gov/data/datasheets/medres.html). The shoreline was reconstituted into sequentially numbered X-Y coordinate points in UTM Zone 18N which are spaced 50 meters apart, as measured continuously along the shoreline. We created a MATLAB computer code to measure the fractal dimension by box counting while "walking" along the shoreline. The range of box sizes is 0.7 to 450 km. The fractal dimension ranges from 1.0 to1.5 along the mainland shoreline of the Atlantic coast. The fractal dimension is compared with beach particle sizes (bedrock outcrop, cobbles, pebbles, sand, clay), tidal range, rate of sea level rise, rate and direction of vertical crustal movement, and wave energy, looking for correlation with the measured fractal dimensions. The results show a correlation between high fractal dimensions (1.3 - 1.4) and tectonically emergent coasts, and low fractal dimensions (1.0 - 1.2) along submergent and stable coastal regions. Fractal dimension averages 1.3 along shorelines with shoreline protection structures such as seawalls, jetties, and groins.

  2. Estuarine demersal fish assemblage from a transition region between the tropics and the subtropics of the South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Hostim-Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The coastal state of Espírito Santo is in the central region of Brazil, where biological productivity is considered low. The objective of this work is to present a current list of demersal, estuarine fish from northern Espírito Santo. This work is based on the compilation of data collected monthly using trawl nets. The ichthyofauna comprises 57 species, within 10 orders and 32 families. The family Sciaenidae has the largest number of species (8, followed by Carangidae (4 and Gerreidae (4. This coincides with what has been found for the Brazilian coast and for the coast of the South Atlantic. It is important to note that the total species richness in the estuaries of northern Espírito Santo is lower than other estuaries of the South West Atlantic coast. Most of the species are widely distributed in the Western Atlantic. Only a small part (14% of the fauna of northern Espírito Santo was evaluated in regards to risk of extinction, but conservation should be prioritized in the area due to overexploitation of species.

  3. Land-sea interface features of four estuaries on the South America Atlantic coast Características da interface continente-oceano de quatro estuários da zona costeira da America do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Bernardes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian coastal zone extends from 4º N to 34º S latitude and because of its long extension, the interface zone from continent to ocean includes a high diversity of geomorphologic and oceanographic characteristics. The rivers from the Northeast and East regions are marked by a typical unimodal seasonal flux patterns but with different amplitudes. As the climate indicates, the rivers from the Northeast are subject to an accentuated seasonal variability with an elevated input and flood pulses during the rainy season and low to negligible fluxes during the dry season. Small-scale rivers usually present typical torrential behaviour. In the humid eastern region, the unimodal seasonal cycle is dampened with a more constant input supply. Recently, some studies have shown that the material supply from rivers along the Northeast and Eastern coasts is diluted by surface tropical waters of oceanic currents and that the estuarine plume dispersal is restricted to a narrow coastal belt. However, human impacts of course mask or even override both natural hydrological cycles and CO2 emissions from terrestrial biomes, or depending on the nature of the human impact, can even increase extreme events. Henceforth this contribution addresses the typological, hydrological and biome diversity of the four estuarine systems fed and affected by the respective Amazon, São Francisco, Paraíba do Sul and Plata watersheds.A zona costeira brasileira se estende de 4º N a 34º S de latitude. Por causa de sua longa faixa de zona de interface do continente com o oceano, é encontrada uma grande diversidade nas características geomorfológicas e oceanográficas. Os rios das regiões nordeste e leste mostram um padrão de fluxo sazonal normalmente unimodal, mas diferentes em amplitude. Conforme o clima indica, os rios do nordeste estão sujeitos a uma acentuada variabilidade sazonal, com elevação da vazão em forma de pulsos de inundação durante a estação chuvosa e

  4. Wetland forest statistics for the South Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown; Greg M. Smith; Joseph McCollum

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-one percent, or 17.6 million acres, of the timberland in the South Atlantic States was classified as wetland timberland. Sixty percent of the region’s wetland timberland was under nonindustrial private forest ownership. Forty-eight percent of the region’s wetland timberland was classified as sawtimber-sized stands. Lowland hardwood types made up 62 percent of...

  5. Decadal change of the south Atlantic ocean Angola-Benguela frontal zone since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.; Sun, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution simulations with a regional atmospheric model coupled to an intermediate-level mixed layer ocean model along with multiple atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses are analyzed to understand how and why the Angola-Benguela frontal Zone (ABFZ) has changed since 1980. A southward shift of 0.05°-0.55° latitude decade-1 in the annual mean ABFZ position accompanied by an intensification of + 0.05 to + 0.13 K/100-km decade-1 has occurred as ocean mixed layer temperatures have warmed (cooled) equatorward (poleward) of the front over the 1980-2014 period. These changes are captured in a 35-year model integration. The oceanic warming north of the ABFZ is associated with a weakening of vertical entrainment, reduced cooling associated with vertical diffusion, and a deepening of the mixed layer along the Angola coast. These changes coincide with a steady weakening of the onshore atmospheric flow as the zonal pressure gradient between the eastern equatorial Atlantic and the Congo Basin weakens. Oceanic cooling poleward of the ABFZ is primarily due to enhanced advection of cooler water from the south and east, increased cooling by vertical diffusion, and shoaling of the mixed layer depth. In the atmosphere, these changes are related to an intensification and poleward shift of the South Atlantic sub-tropical anticyclone as surface winds, hence the westward mixed layer ocean currents, intensify in the Benguela upwelling region along the Namibian coast. With a few caveats, these findings demonstrate that air/sea interactions play a prominent role in influencing the observed decadal variability of the ABFZ over the southeastern Atlantic since 1980.

  6. Further evidence for the invasion and establishment of Pterois volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H.S.; Wyanski, D.M.; Loefer, J.K.; Ross, Steve W.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We document the continued population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal waters of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding populations on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs off North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 40-99 m and 13.8-24.4??C, respectively. Eleven juvenile lionfish, believed to be expatriated from southeastern waters, were collected in estuaries along the coast of Long Island, NY, at depths of 0-5 m and water temperatures ranging from 13.8-16.5??C. Twelve of the total 70 specimens collected or observed were positively identified as red lionfish. Based on histological assessment of gonad tissue, two reproductively-active males and one immature female were collected. The life history of red lionfish, especially their reproductive biology and food habits, should be investigated along the east coast of the US to determine the potential impacts of this species on ecosystems they have invaded.

  7. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  8. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the modern Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between 1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South Atlantic, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the early Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South Atlantic. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the early Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South Atlantic sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced

  9. The Future of the South Atlantic Anomaly and Implications for Radiation Damage in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    South Atlantic Anomaly of the geomagnetic field plays a dominant role in where radiation damage occurs in near Earth orbits. The historic and recent variations of the geomagnetic field in the South Atlantic are used to estimate the extent of the South Atlantic Anomaly until the year 2000. This projection indicates that radiation damage to spacecraft and humans in space will greatly increase and cover a much larger geographic area than present.

  10. Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks in relation to historic food habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Kidwell, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Food selection among Atlantic Coast seaducks during 1999-2005 was determined from hunter-killed ducks and compared to data from historic food habits file (1885-1985) for major migrational and wintering areas in the Atlantic Flyway. Food selection was determined by analyses of the gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) and gizzard of 860 ducks and summarized by aggregate percent for each species. When sample size was adequate comparisons were made among age and sex groupings and also among local sites in major habitat areas. Common eiders in Maine and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly (53%) on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Scoters in Massachusetts, Maine, and the Canadian Maritimes fed predominantly on the blue mussel (46%), Atlantic jackknife clam (Ensis directus; 19%), and Atlantic surf clam (Spisula solidissima; 15%), whereas scoters in the Chesapeake Bay fed predominantly on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum; 42%), the stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius; 22%), and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis; 15%). The amethyst gem clam (Gemma gemma) was the predominant food (45%) of long-tailed ducks in Chesapeake Bay. Buffleheads and common goldeneyes fed on a mixed diet of mollusks and soft bodied invertebrates (amphipods, isopods and polychaetes). No major differences were noticed between the sexes in regard to food selection in any of the wintering areas. Comparisons to historic food habits in all areas failed to detect major differences. However, several invertebrate species recorded in historic samples were not found in current samples and two invasive species (Atlantic Rangia, Rangia cuneata and green crab, Carcinas maenas) were recorded in modem samples, but not in historic samples. Benthic sampling in areas where seaducks were collected showed a close correlation between consumption and availability. Each seaduck species appears to fill a unique niche in regard to feeding ecology, although there is much overlap of prey species selected. Understanding

  11. A phylogeographic investigation of the kelp genus Laminaria (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae), with emphasis on the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mark D; Mattio, Lydiane; Anderson, Robert J; Bolton, John J

    2017-08-01

    The genus Laminaria has a wide distribution range compared with other kelp genera because it is found in both the North and the South Atlantic, on both sides of the North Pacific, as well as in the Mediterranean. Hypotheses behind this biogeographical pattern have been discussed by several authors but have not yet been fully evaluated with time-calibrated phylogenies. Based on the analysis of four molecular markers (ITS2, rbcL, atp8 and trnWI), our goal was to reassess the Laminaria species diversity in South Africa, assess its relationship with the other species distributed in the South Atlantic and reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. Our results confirm the occurrence of a single species, L. pallida, in southern Africa, and its sister relationship with the North Atlantic L. ochroleuca. Both species belonged to a clade containing the other South Atlantic species: L. abyssalis from Brazil, and the Mediterranean L. rodriguezii. Our time-calibrated phylogenies suggest that Laminaria originated in the northern Pacific around 25 mya, followed by at least two migration events through the Bering Strait after its opening (~5.32 mya). Today, the first is represented by L. solidungula in the Arctic, while the second gave rise to the rest of the Atlantic species. The colonization of the North Atlantic was followed by a gradual colonization southward along the west coast of Europe, into the Mediterranean (~2.07 mya) and two recent, but disconnected, migrations (~1.34 and 0.87 mya) across the equator, giving rise to L. abyssalis in Brazil and L. pallida in southern Africa, respectively. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  12. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden Tilefish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden...

  13. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy Grouper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of snowy...

  14. 78 FR 32995 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Golden Tilefish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden...

  15. Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Matthew along the Atlantic coast of the United States, October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eric R.; Byrne,, Michael L.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Harden, Stephen L.

    2017-11-02

    IntroductionHurricane Matthew moved adjacent to the coasts of Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The hurricane made landfall once near McClellanville, South Carolina, on October 8, 2016, as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of storm-tide sensors at 284 sites along the Atlantic coast from Florida to North Carolina to record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Matthew. Storm tide, as defined by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is the water-level rise generated by a combination of storm surge and astronomical tide during a coastal storm.The deployment for Hurricane Matthew was the largest deployment of storm-tide sensors in USGS history and was completed as part of a coordinated Federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act (Public Law 92–288, 42 U.S.C. 5121–5207) under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In total, 543 high-water marks (HWMs) also were collected after Hurricane Matthew, and this was the second largest HWM recovery effort in USGS history after Hurricane Sandy in 2012.During the hurricane, real-time water-level data collected at temporary rapid deployment gages (RDGs) and long-term USGS streamgage stations were relayed immediately for display on the USGS Flood Event Viewer (https://stn.wim.usgs.gov/FEV/#MatthewOctober2016). These data provided emergency managers and responders with critical information for tracking flood-effected areas and directing assistance to effected communities. Data collected from this hurricane can be used to calibrate and evaluate the performance of storm-tide models for maximum and incremental water level and flood extent, and the site-specific effects of storm tide on natural and anthropogenic features of the environment.

  16. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay...

  17. Interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and synoptic type association

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and different synoptic types as well as selected teleconnections is explored. Synoptic circulation over the region is classified into different...

  18. Tropical Atlantic Contributions to Strong Rainfall Variability Along the Northeast Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Hounsou-gbo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Atlantic (TA Ocean-atmosphere interactions and their contributions to strong variability of rainfall along the Northeast Brazilian (NEB coast were investigated for the years 1974–2008. The core rainy seasons of March-April and June-July were identified for Fortaleza (northern NEB; NNEB and Recife (eastern NEB; ENEB, respectively. Lagged linear regressions between sea surface temperature (SST and pseudo wind stress (PWS anomalies over the entire TA and strong rainfall anomalies at Fortaleza and Recife show that the rainfall variability of these regions is differentially influenced by the dynamics of the TA. When the Intertropical Convergence Zone is abnormally displaced southward a few months prior to the NNEB rainy season, the associated meridional mode increases humidity and precipitation during the rainy season. Additionally, this study shows predictive effect of SST, meridional PWS, and barrier layer thickness, in the Northwestern equatorial Atlantic, on the NNEB rainfall. The dynamical influence of the TA on the June-July ENEB rainfall variability shows a northwestward-propagating area of strong, positively correlated SST from the southeastern TA to the southwestern Atlantic warm pool (SAWP offshore of Brazil. Our results also show predictive effect of SST, zonal PWS, and mixed layer depth, in the SAWP, on the ENEB rainfall.

  19. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  20. Examining South Atlantic Subtropical Cyclone Anita using the Satellite-Enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies Hourly Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaicberg, H.; Palmeira, A. C. P. A.; Nunes, A.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on South Atlantic cyclones are mainly compromised by scarcity of observations. Therefore, remote sensing and global (re) analysis products are usually employed in investigations of their evolution. However, the frequent use of global reanalysis might difficult the assessment of the characteristics of the cyclones found in South Atlantic. In that regard, studies on "subtropical" cyclones have been performed using the 25-km resolution, Satellite-enhanced Regional Downscaling for Applied Studies (SRDAS), a product developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. In SRDAS, the Regional Spectral Model assimilates precipitation estimates from environmental satellites, while dynamically downscaling a global reanalysis using the spectral nudging technique to maintain the large-scale features in agreement with the regional model solution. The use of regional models in the downscaling of general circulation models provides more detailed information on weather and climate. As a way of illustrating the usefulness of SRDAS in the study of the subtropical South Atlantic cyclones, the subtropical cyclone Anita was selected because of its intensity. Anita developed near Brazilian south/southeast coast, with damages to local communities. Comparisons with available observations demonstrated the skill of SRDAS in simulating such an extreme event.

  1. 75 FR 39638 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the South Atlantic Region; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 for the South Atlantic region that published in the Federal Register...

  2. 76 FR 54384 - California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9457-6] California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule... Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerned South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1143...

  3. 78 FR 37757 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Index rather than on 1-hour ozone forecasted values; (b) forecast criteria for allowing a...

  4. 78 FR 30768 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  5. 78 FR 7703 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Proposed Rule... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... digesters. Rule 1127 was designed to implement the 2003 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) control measure...

  6. 76 FR 41744 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9432-1] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  7. 76 FR 40303 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of... designated nonattainment for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  8. 75 FR 32293 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... submit regulations that control the primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS...

  9. 75 FR 46880 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0503; FRL-9183-5] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  10. 76 FR 78871 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0897; FRL-9499-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...

  11. 78 FR 56639 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does...

  12. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing approval of a permitting rule submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The State is...

  13. 77 FR 1895 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 317, ``Clean Air Act Non- Attainment Fee... Air Quality Management District There are two 1-hour ozone nonattainment areas within the jurisdiction...

  14. 77 FR 32398 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and...

  15. 77 FR 13495 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  16. 76 FR 50128 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under...

  17. 78 FR 18244 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October...

  18. 75 FR 32353 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2010-0276; FRL-9139-8] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  19. 77 FR 32483 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0236; FRL-9670-9] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  20. 75 FR 46845 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California..., this action: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management...

  1. 76 FR 72142 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not...

  2. 75 FR 25775 - Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2009-0573; FRL-9146-5] Disapproval of State Implementation Plan Revisions, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan...

  3. 78 FR 5305 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  4. 77 FR 58076 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California State... Quality Standards (NAAQS). The revisions to the primary and secondary Lead NAAQS were to provide increased...

  5. The sea-level budget along the Northwest Atlantic coast : GIA, mass changes, and large-scale ocean dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederikse, T.; Simon, K.M.; Katsman, C.A.; Riva, R.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-level rise and decadal variability along the northwestern coast of the North Atlantic Ocean are studied in a self-consistent framework that takes into account the effects of solid-earth deformation and geoid changes due to large-scale mass redistribution processes. Observations of sea and

  6. Wind speed forecasting in the South Coast of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas, Erasmo [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Santiago Tapia No. 403, Centro (Mexico); Rivera, Wilfrido [Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 34, Temixco 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Comparison of two techniques for wind speed forecasting in the South Coast of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico is presented in this paper. The Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) methods are applied to a time series conformed by 7 years of wind speed measurements. Six years were used in the formulation of the models and the last year was used to validate and compare the effectiveness of the generated prediction by the techniques mentioned above. Seasonal ARIMA models present a better sensitivity to the adjustment and prediction of the wind speed for this case in particular. Nevertheless, it was shown both developed models can be used to predict in a reasonable way, the monthly electricity production of the wind power stations in La Venta, Oaxaca, Mexico to support the operators of the Electric Utility Control Centre. (author)

  7. Improving geomagnetic observatory data in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Pinheiro, Katia

    2016-04-01

    The Swarm mission clearly proofs the benefit of coordinated geomagnetic measurements from a well-tailored constellation in order to recover as good as possible the contributions of the various geomagnetic field sources. A similar truth applies to geomagnetic observatories. Their scientific value can be maximised by properly arranging the position of individual observatories with respect to the geometry of the external current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, with respect to regions of particular interest for secular variation, and with respect to regions of anomalous electric conductivity in the ground. Here, we report on our plans and recent efforts to upgrade geomagnetic observatories and to recover unpublished data from geomagnetic observatories at low latitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly. In particular, we target the magnetic equator with the equatorial electrojet and low latitudes to characterise the Sq- and ring current. The observatory network that we present allows also to study the longitudinal structure of these external current systems. The South Atlantic Anomaly region is very interesting due to its secular variation. We will show newly recovered data and comparisons with existing data sets. On the technical side, we introduce low-power data loggers. In addition, we use mobile phone data transfer, which is rapidly evolving in the region and allows timely data access and quality control at remote sites that previously were not connected to the internet.

  8. 76 FR 69230 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ...: PART 622--FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC 1. The authority citation for part 622... and styles used in the South Atlantic snapper- grouper fishery. (b) Extended reach handle. The... appropriate to secure the range of hook sizes and styles used in the South Atlantic snapper-grouper fishery...

  9. 77 FR 4493 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC 0 1. The authority citation for part 622 continues to read as follows... and styles used in the South Atlantic snapper- grouper fishery. (b) Extended reach handle. The... appropriate to secure the range of hook sizes and styles used in the South Atlantic snapper-grouper fishery...

  10. 77 FR 51771 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Process Webinar for Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish Mackerel and Cobia AGENCY: National Marine... of SEDAR 28 Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish mackerel and cobia assessment webinar. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 28 assessment of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Spanish mackerel and cobia fisheries...

  11. 77 FR 75613 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Data Webinar for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... discuss data needs and treatments. Special Accommodations These meetings are physically accessible to... the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment and Review (SEDAR); Data Webinar for South Atlantic...: Notice of SEDAR 32 data webinar for South Atlantic gray triggerfish and blueline tilefish. SUMMARY: The...

  12. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  13. OXIDATIVE STRESS BIOMARKERS IN MUSSELS SAMPLED FROM FOUR SITES ALONG THE MOROCCAN ATLANTIC COAST (BIG CASABLANCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAILA EL JOURMI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalase (CAT activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level in whole bodies of the mussel perna perna, collected from four stations along the Moroccan Atlantic coast (Big Casablanca area, were monitored to evaluate stress effects on mussels collected from the selected sites. The oxidative stress biomarkers showed statistically significant differences at the polluted sites when compared to the control ones. In general, our data indicated that CAT activity and MDA concentration are a higher and significant (p < 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted site when compared to specimen sampled from control ones. In conclusion, the oxidative stress biomarkers response obtained for October 2010 and 2011, clearly demonstrate the potential presence of different contaminants in Site 4 and Site 3 reflecting the intensity of pollution in these areas.

  14. Hydroelectric resources. Inventory of the hydroelectric resources of the Atlantic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, R.M.; Insignares R, G.

    1987-01-01

    Basically this report gives a clear vision of the possibilities of energy development in the Colombian Atlantic Coast, projects that contemplate a wide range as soon as it refers that is to say to generation ranges, they have been identified at level macro in the Sierra Nevada region and the Peasant with a profitable hydroelectric potential of 631 MW; in the Sinu region, 3 projects were identified with a profitable potential of 1186 MW and in the Magdalena region, was also identified 3 projects whose profitable potential is of 475 MW. At level micro, the carried out studies defined in the same previous regions a series of projects that they necessarily reach the megawatt. The report contains a description of each one of the identified projects and its current situation. It also presents a review of the makers of turbines that exist at the moment in the country

  15. The oil industry along the Atlantic coast of Cameroon: assessing impacts and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieudonne Alemagi

    2007-01-01

    While the oil industry along the Atlantic coast of Cameroon has made important contributions to the national economy, this has been accompanied with adverse environmental impacts. There has been significant pollution from oil drilling, refinery waste, oil spillage, gas and flaring. After discussing these impacts, this paper argues that prevailing regulations are inadequate and need overhauling. It proposes that cleaner production requires: (i) specific laws to protect dwellers in the neighbourhood of oil refineries, filling stations, service stations and pipelines; (ii) adoption of national standards for levels of industrial effluents, and allocation of sufficient resources for monitoring these standards; (iii) formation of industry-government research partnerships; (iv) the divorcing of gas flaring; and (v) a more comprehensive legislation enabling a robust public participation in environmental impact assessment and nomination of indicators to evaluate corporate environmental management plans. (author)

  16. South Atlantic Anomaly evolution by means of Swarm data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavon-Carrasco, F. Javier; Qamili, Enkelejda; De Santis, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The study of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation. This large magnetic anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and covers a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean between Southwest Brazil and South Africa. This great depression of the geomagnetic field strength at the Earth's surface has an internal deep origin: it is caused by a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the outer core. Since the Earth's magnetic field has an important protective role for the all geosphere because it deflects a large part of the solar radiation that would otherwise reach the Earth's surface, a large increase of the SAA could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies. In the last three decades, an almost constant monitoring of the SAA has been carried out using satellite data showing a clear picture of the behaviour and evolution of the SAA, which area is growing alarmingly during the most recent years at the Earth's surface and at the core mantle boundary. In this context, the ESA Swarm mission (constituted by a constellation of three satellites in near-polar low orbits at two different altitudes) is providing detailed measurements of the intensity and directional elements of the geomagnetic field with high-precision and resolution never reached in the former space missions. This work aims to analyse in detail in space and time the SAA from the Earth's surface up to the satellite altitude. In order to carry out this study, comprehensive geomagnetic models at regional and global scale will be performed using the dataset provided by the Swarm satellites and all the available ground data. This kind of study is crucial to understand the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field in this area, and to possibly predict its future behaviour.

  17. 77 FR 10430 - Revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... South Coast Air Quality Management District Portion of the California State Implementation Plan, South... South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California SIP. This SIP revision... Coast Air Quality Management District New Source Review by Gerardo C. Rios, October 24, 1996 (TSD). \\2...

  18. ATLANTIC BATS: a data set of bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Renata D L; Stevens, Richard D; Esbérard, Carlos E L; Mello, Marco A R; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Faria, Deborah; Weber, Marcelo D M; Kerches Rogeri, Patricia; Regolin, André L; Oliveira, Hernani F M D; Costa, Luciana D M; Barros, Marília A S; Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Crepaldi de Morais, Mara Ariane; Kavagutti, Vinicius S; Passos, Fernando C; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Maia, Felipe G M; Ribeiro, Milton C; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that is highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. The ATLANTIC BATS data set comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest. The data set includes information on more than 90,000 captures of 98 bat species of eight families. Species richness averaged 12.1 per site, with a median value of 10 species (ranging from 1 to 53 species). Six species occurred in more than 50% of the communities: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Glossophaga soricina, and Platyrrhinus lineatus. The number of captures divided by sampling effort, a proxy for abundance, varied from 0.000001 to 0.77 individuals·h -1 ·m -2 (0.04 ± 0.007 individuals·h -1 ·m -2 ). Our data set reveals a hyper-dominance of eight species that together that comprise 80% of all captures: Platyrrhinus lineatus (2.3%), Molossus molossus (2.8%), Artibeus obscurus (3.4%), Artibeus planirostris (5.2%), Artibeus fimbriatus (7%), Sturnira lilium (14.5%), Carollia perspicillata (15.6%), and Artibeus lituratus (29.2%). © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Surf zone dynamics along the south Karnataka Coast between Bhatkal and Ullal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    stronger in June, and relatively low and steady during the rest of the year. Coast between Padubidri and Ullal experienced relatively stronger longshore currents than the coast between Maravanthe and Malpe. Longshore sediment transport rate was relatively...

  20. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: South Carolina 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area June...

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  2. National Assessment Of Shoreline Change: Part 2, Historical Shoreline Changes And Associated Coastal Land Loss Along The U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Miller, Tara L.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This report on states comprising the Southeast Atlantic Coast (east Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina) represents the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico and will eventually include the Northeast Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. The report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results, provides explanations regarding the historical and present trends and rates of change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. Shoreline change evaluations are based on comparing three historical shorelines with a recent shoreline derived from lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) topographic surveys. The historical shorelines generally represent the following periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s, whereas the lidar shoreline is 1998-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated using four shorelines (1800s to lidar shoreline), whereas short-term rates of change are calculated for the most recent period (1970s to lidar shoreline). The historical rates of change presented in

  3. Population genetic structure of Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis from the southwestern Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ywasaki Lima

    Full Text Available Sotalia guianensis is a small dolphin that is vulnerable to anthropogenic impacts. Along the Brazilian Atlantic coast, this species is threatened with extinction. A prioritized action plan for conservation strategies relies on increased knowledge of the population. The scarcity of studies about genetic diversity and assessments of population structure for this animal have precluded effective action in the region. Here, we assessed, for the first time, the genetic differentiation at 14 microsatellite loci in 90 S. guianensis specimens stranded on the southeastern Atlantic coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We estimated population parameters and structure, measured the significance of global gametic disequilibrium and the intensity of non-random multiallelic interallelic associations and constructed a provisional synteny map using Bos taurus, the closest terrestrial mammal with a reference genome available. All microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with at least three and a maximum of ten alleles each. Allele frequencies ranged from 0.01 to 0.97. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.701. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.103. Three loci were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium even when missing genotypes were inferred. Although 77 of the 91 possible two-locus associations were in global gametic equilibrium, we unveiled 13 statistically significant, sign-based, non-random multiallelic interallelic associations in 10 two-locus combinations with either coupling (D' values ranging from 0.782 to 0.353 or repulsion (D' values -0.517 to -1.000 forces. Most of the interallelic associations did not involve the major alleles. Thus, for either physically or non-physically linked loci, measuring the intensity of non-random interallelic associations is important for defining the evolutionary forces at equilibrium. We uncovered a small degree of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.010; P-value = 0.463 with a hierarchical clustering into one

  4. Parameterization of synoptic weather systems in the South Atlantic Bight for modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Voulgaris, George; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2017-10-01

    An event based, long-term, climatological analysis is presented that allows the creation of coastal ocean atmospheric forcing on the coastal ocean that preserves both frequency of occurrence and event time history. An algorithm is developed that identifies individual storm event (cold fronts, warm fronts, and tropical storms) from meteorological records. The algorithm has been applied to a location along the South Atlantic Bight, off South Carolina, an area prone to cyclogenesis occurrence and passages of atmospheric fronts. Comparison against daily weather maps confirms that the algorithm is efficient in identifying cold fronts and warm fronts, while the identification of tropical storms is less successful. The average state of the storm events and their variability are represented by the temporal evolution of atmospheric pressure, air temperature, wind velocity, and wave directional spectral energy. The use of uncorrected algorithm-detected events provides climatologies that show a little deviation from those derived using corrected events. The effectiveness of this analysis method is further verified by numerically simulating the wave conditions driven by the characteristic wind forcing and comparing the results with the wave climatology that corresponds to each storm type. A high level of consistency found in the comparison indicates that this analysis method can be used for accurately characterizing event-based oceanic processes and long-term storm-induced morphodynamic processes on wind-dominated coasts.

  5. 76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as... implemented, this rule would revise the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit...

  6. 76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as prepared and... the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit; establishes an annual catch limit...

  7. 76 FR 30110 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic..., Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of the South Atlantic Region. The applicant has requested.... HHSN261200900012C) between the National Cancer Institute ( http://www.cancer.gov/ ) and the Coral Reef Research...

  8. Clean Coal Technology: Region 4 Market Description, South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Region 4 Market Description Summary provides information that can be used in developing an understanding of the potential markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs) in the South Atlantic Region. This region (which geographically is Federal Region 4) consists of the following eight states: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. In order to understand the potential market. A description is provided of the region's energy use, power generation capacity, and potential growth. Highlights of state government activities that could have a bearing on commercial deployment of CCTs are also presented. The potential markets characterized in this summary center on electric power generation by investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal electric utilities and involve planned new capacity additions and actions taken by utilities to comply with Phases I and II of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Regulations, policies, utility business strategies, and organizational changes that could impact the role of CCTs as a utility option are identified and discussed. The information used to develop the Region 4 Market Description is based mainly on an extensive review of plans and annual reports of 29 investor-owned, cooperative, and municipal coal-using electric utilities and public information on strategies and actions for complying with the CAAA of 1990

  9. 77 FR 30506 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic; Comprehensive Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Golden Crab Fishery of the Atlantic (Golden Crab FMP); the Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region... ``search.'' Comments received through means not specified in this rule will not be considered. FOR FURTHER..., dolphin and wahoo, golden crab, shrimp and spiny lobster fisheries in the exclusive economic zone are...

  10. North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study Phase I: Statistical Analysis of Historical Extreme Water Levels with Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    14-7 ii Abstract The U.S. North Atlantic coast is subject to coastal flooding as a result of both severe extratropical storms (e.g., Nor’easters...Products and Services, excluding any kind of high-resolution hydrodynamic modeling. Tropical and extratropical storms were treated as a single...joint probability analysis and high-fidelity modeling of tropical and extratropical storms

  11. Surface circulation over the shelf off the east coast of India during the south west monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    upwelling in the southern regions off the East Coast of India. Vertical temperature and salinity structures north of Visakhapatnam show a predominant estuarine character and upwelling is not evident. In the northern regions, the flow is directed south...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, E.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    In vitro antimicrobial screening of nine marine sponges (Porifera) and two seaweeds, collected from south east coast of India, against selected clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi was conducted in this study. Methanolic extracts of all...

  13. 78 FR 27957 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic, Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ..., describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future... to evaluate stock status, estimate population benchmarks and management criteria, and project future... South Atlantic stock of snowy [[Page 27958

  14. Multibeam Mapping of the South Atlantic Bight: Georgia 2005, a Proposed MPA on the Continental Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Fisheries laboratory in Panama City, Florida coordinated an acoustic survey at the new proposed Marine Protected Areas in the South Atlantic Bight area June...

  15. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1980-01-31

    Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)

  16. Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inshore small-mesh trawling survey of the Cape south coast. Part 5. Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Isopoda and. Decapoda. B. Kensley and C.D. Buxton. Port Elizabeth Museum, Port Elizabeth. Forty-six species of Crustacea from the shallow marine waters of the southern Cape coast are listed. Five new records for the area.

  17. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  18. Screening of antimicrobial activity of macroalgae extracts from the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Wahidi, M; El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Bamhaoud, T

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is the screening of the antimicrobial activity of seaweed extracts against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of ten marine macroalgae collected from the Moroccan's Atlantic coast (El-Jadida) was tested against two Gram+ (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram- (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) human pathogenic bacteria, and against two pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) using the agar disk-diffusion method. Seven algae (70%) of ten seaweeds are active against at least one pathogenic microorganisms studied. Five (50%) are active against the two studied yeast with an inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm for Cystoseira brachycarpa. Six (60%) seaweeds are active against at least one studied bacteria with five (50%) algae exhibiting antibacterial inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm. Cystoseira brachycarpa, Cystoseira compressa, Fucus vesiculosus, and Gelidium sesquipedale have a better antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum antimicrobial and are a potential source of antimicrobial compounds and can be subject of isolation of the natural antimicrobials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of epidemiological indicators: Bovine brucellosis on the Atlantic coast and Antioquia - Colombia, 2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Oviedo-Pastrana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the situation of the bovine brucellosis in the Atlantic Coast and Antioquia (CAA by analysis of epidemiological indicators during 2005-2013. Materials and methods. The data was obtained from epidemiological reports of the Colombian Agricultural Institute and the National Agricultural Census 2014. The annual departmental average of the variables studied was compared and it was performed a temporal analysis through graphical representation. Results. 44% of the positive farms were focused on the CAA; the positivity rate of farms in the CAA (27.9% was higher and statistically significant when related to the average rate in the country (24.8% being promoted by the least producing departments. Regarding to the cattle population, the CAA concentrated 47.0% of positive cattle in the country; however, the bovine positivity rate (5.8% was statistically equal to the national average (5.3%; yet, the departments with lower cattle population had the highest rates. The best surveillance for bovine brucellosis was observed between 2005 and 2009, in contrast, during 2010, 2011 and 2013 there was a considerable reduction in the number of diagnoses, in both farms and cattle. In the least producing departments the temporary distribution of epidemiological indicators favored more the presence of the disease. Conclusions. The National Prevention Control and Eradication Program of Bovine Brucellosis in the CAA presented promising results, however, the lack of continuity in the diagnostic surveillance during some years and mainly in the least producing departments affected negatively their development.

  20. Anisakis simplex (Nematoda: Anisakidae from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in Atlantic coast of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Shawket

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the description of the Anisakis simplex (A. simplex parasites of Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Atlantic coast of Mehdia (Kenitra, Morocco from December 2014 to November 2015. Methods: A total of 1 012 Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758 obtained from commercial fishing were performed autopsy for their parasitic Nematoda. Then 6 695 specimens of A. simplex were collected from their abdominal cavity. These parasites were attached on different organs particularly on ovaries and testes. All parasites were counted, measured and photographed under microscopy. Results: The infection levels of fishes by larval A. simplex are expressed by prevalence (35.28%, mean intensity (18.75 and abundance (6.6. The effect of parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations were found between host length and A. simplex occurrence, and abundance. The variation observed in the infection levels was discussed within the seasons and climatic change.

  1. Occurrence of Vibrio and Salmonella species in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannas, Hasna; Mimouni, Rachida; Chaouqy, Noureddine; Hamadi, Fatima; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of different Vibrio and Salmonella species in 52 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the Atlantic coast between Agadir and Essaouira (Anza, Cap Ghir, Imssouane and Essaouira). The level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. In this study three methods were used : AFNOR NF EN ISO 6579 V08-013 for Salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely used by several laboratories (Institut Pasteur, Paris,…) for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the seafood, and the most probable number method (MPN) using Norm ISO/TS 16649-3 (2005) for E. coli. The most frequently isolated Vibrios were Vibrio alginolyticus (90.4% of samples), followed by V. cholerae non O1 non O139 (15.4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (7.7%). Salmonella spp. was found in 15% of the samples. The number of E. coli ranged between 0.2/100 g and 1.8 10(3) /100 g of mussel soft tissues. This study indicates the potential sanitary risk associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in cultivated mussels in the two populous regions of southern Morocco, where shellfish production and maritime tourism are important to the local economy.

  2. Flowering and biomass allocation in U.S. Atlantic coast Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Sarah C; Ivens-Duran, Morgan; Bertness, Mark D; Davey, Earl; Deegan, Linda A; Leslie, Heather M

    2015-05-01

    Salt marshes are highly productive and valuable ecosystems, providing many services on which people depend. Spartina alterniflora Loisel (Poaceae) is a foundation species that builds and maintains salt marshes. Despite this species' importance, much of its basic reproductive biology is not well understood, including flowering phenology, seed production, and the effects of flowering on growth and biomass allocation. We sought to better understand these life history traits and use that knowledge to consider how this species may be affected by climate change. We examined temporal and spatial patterns in flowering and seed production in S. alterniflora at a latitudinal scale (along the U.S. Atlantic coast), regional scale (within New England), and local scale (among subhabitats within marshes) and determined the impact of flowering on growth allocation using field and greenhouse studies. Flowering stem density did not vary along a latitudinal gradient, while at the local scale plants in the less submerged panne subhabitats produced fewer flowers and seeds than those in more frequently submerged subhabitats. We also found that a shift in biomass allocation from above to belowground was temporally related to flowering phenology. We expect that environmental change will affect seed production and that the phenological relationship with flowering will result in limitations to belowground production and thus affect marsh elevation gain. Salt marshes provide an excellent model system for exploring the interactions between plant ecology and ecosystem functioning, enabling better predictions of climate change impacts. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Bimonthly assessment of PAH content in wild mussels from the Spanish Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Campillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2013-14 wild mussels were bimonthly sampled in five stations along the Spanish Atlantic coast in order to assess any temporal variation in the concentration of parent PAHs. The sampling stations selected (Oia, Raxó, Mera, Avilés and Pedreña included both polluted and unpolluted sites and tried to reflect the different situations in the area (coastal and more estuarine waters. The samples were shipped to the lab and three homogenates from each site were prepared and frozen until analysis. 13 parent PAHs were quantified using HPLC with fluorescence detection. In general, the highest concentrations were found in the January-March sampling, during the pre-spawning period. PAHs contents were related to mussel biochemical composition, mainly carbohydrates and lipids, and to mussel reproductive stage. In general the 4-ring PAHs is the most abundant group of PAHs. The input of the HMW PAHs (4-5 rings to the total PAH burden generally increases in the winter months probably due to both different sources in that season (building heatings and the remobilization of sediments.

  4. The National Assessment of Shoreline Change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the U.S. southeast Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tara L.; Morton, Robert A.; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2006-01-01

    The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and shoreline change rates for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina). These data, which are presented herein, were compiled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information including rates and trends of shoreline migration. There is also a critical need for shoreline change data that is consistent from one coastal region to another. One purpose of this work is to develop standard repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic updates of shorelines and shoreline change rates can be made nationally that are systematic and internally consistent. This data compilation for open-ocean, sandy shorelines of the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast is the second in a series that already includes the Gulf of Mexico, and will eventually include the Pacific Coast, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. Short- and long-term shoreline change evaluations are based on merging three historical shorelines with a modern shoreline derived from lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic surveys. Historical shorelines generally represent the following time periods: 1800s, 1920s-1930s, and 1970s. The most recent shoreline is derived from data collected over the period of 1997-2002. Long-term rates of change are calculated by linear regression using all four shorelines. Short-term rates of change are simple end-point rate calculations using the two most recent shorelines. Please refer to our full report on shoreline change for the U.S. Southeast Atlantic Coast at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1401/ to get additional

  5. 75 FR 39917 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the Southern Atlantic... regulations implementing the Fishery Management Plan for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hardbottom Habitat of... Cancer Institute (http:// [[Page 39918

  6. 75 FR 20985 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeastern Data, Assessment, and Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....net SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and..., environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and state and federal...

  7. 75 FR 23676 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States... of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast... fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International experts; and staff of Councils, Commissions, and...

  8. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 h...

  9. Taxonomic review of the species of Mugil (Teleostei: Perciformes: Mugilidae) from the Atlantic South Caribbean and South America, with integration of morphological, cytogenetic and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Naércio A; Nirchio, Mauro; De Oliveira, Cláudio; Siccharamirez, Raquel

    2015-01-10

    Analysis of morphological, molecular and cytological data helped to define and more precisely characterize the species of Mugil from the Atlantic coasts of South Caribbean and South America, allowing a correction of prior misidentifications and distributional ranges. A new species from Venezuela is described and all the species from the area are redescribed. It is demonstrated that the apparent similarity in morphological traits, which contradicted the results from recent molecular studies, is the result of the misuse of traditional morphological characters, and thus both the molecular and cytological data instead are congruent with the morphological differences that are found among mullet species. The presence of Mugil hospes Jordan & Culver in the western south Atlantic is refuted based on the comparison of type material of this species with specimens from this area that also indicated a very significant morphological difference, what on the other hand justifies the recognition of these specimens as Mugil brevirostris (Ribeiro). The distribution of Mugil incilis Hancock is restricted and the similarities among the species formerly depicted in a prior dendrogram is modified following the inclusion of recently obtained molecular data for Mugil curvidens Valenciennes.

  10. Sea-water/groundwater interactions along a small catchment of the European Atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einsiedl, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The geochemistry and isotopic composition of a karstic coastal aquifer in western Ireland has shed light on the effect of sea-water/groundwater interactions on the water quality of Ireland’s Atlantic coastal zone. The use of stable isotope data from the IAEA precipitation station in Valentia, located in SW Ireland has facilitated the characterization of groundwater recharge conditions in the western part of Ireland and suggests that groundwater is mostly replenished by the isotopically light winter precipitation. The dissolved SO 4 2- in the karstic groundwater that was collected during baseflow conditions with δ 34 S values between 4.6‰ and 18‰ may be composed of S stemming from three principal sources: SO 4 2- derived from precipitation which is composed of both sea-spray S (δ 34 S: 20‰) and an isotopically light anthropogenic source (δ 34 S: 1–5‰), SO 4 2- stemming from animal slurries (δ 34 S: ∼5‰), and intruding sea-water SO 4 2- (δ 34 S: 20.2‰). The isotopic composition of δ 18 O in dissolved groundwater SO 4 2- collected during baseflow conditions is interpreted as reflecting sea-water intrusion to the karstic coastal groundwater system. The highest δ 18 O values in dissolved groundwater SO 4 2- were in samples collected near the coast (4.8 ± 0.4‰) and the lowest (2 ± 0.5‰) were collected further inland. The δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of groundwater NO 3 - were between 3.4‰ and 11.4‰ and approximately 7.7‰, respectively, and reflect geochemical conditions in the aquifer that do not promote attenuation of NO 3 - through denitrification. As a result N loading to Kinvara Bay that is controlled by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) was calculated as 5 tons/day on average compared to an estimated N-input that derives from precipitation of approximately 2.5 tons/a. SGD into the bay may result in near coastal sea-water quality changes. These results represent one of the first studies addressing the effect of groundwater

  11. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  12. 75 FR 71293 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of California; 2007 South Coast State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... formed in the atmosphere as a result of various chemical reactions from precursor emissions of nitrogen... quality modeling demonstration as meeting the requirements of the CAA and EPA guidance. EPA is proposing... 2. Air Quality Modeling in the South Coast 2007 AQMP 3. PM 2.5 Precursors Addressed in the South...

  13. 78 FR 18936 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0920; FRL-9779-1] Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the South...

  14. Starting a DNA barcode reference library for shallow water polychaetes from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jorge; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Ferreira, Maria S G; Hollatz, Claudia; Gomes, Pedro T; Sousa, Ronaldo; Ravara, Ascensão; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    Annelid polychaetes have been seldom the focus of dedicated DNA barcoding studies, despite their ecological relevance and often dominance, particularly in soft-bottom estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we report the first assessment of the performance of DNA barcodes in the discrimination of shallow water polychaete species from the southern European Atlantic coast, focusing on specimens collected in estuaries and coastal ecosystems of Portugal. We analysed cytochrome oxidase I DNA barcodes (COI-5P) from 164 specimens, which were assigned to 51 morphospecies. To our data set from Portugal, we added available published sequences selected from the same species, genus or family, to inspect for taxonomic congruence among studies and collection location. The final data set comprised 290 specimens and 79 morphospecies, which generated 99 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) within Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). Among these, 22 BINs were singletons, 47 other BINs were concordant, confirming the initial identification based on morphological characters, and 30 were discordant, most of which consisted on multiple BINs found for the same morphospecies. Some of the most prominent cases in the latter category include Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (7), Eulalia viridis (Linnaeus, 1767) (2) and Owenia fusiformis (delle Chiaje, 1844) (5), all of them reported from Portugal and frequently used in ecological studies as environmental quality indicators. Our results for these species showed discordance between molecular lineages and morphospecies, or added additional relatively divergent lineages. The potential inaccuracies in environmental assessments, where underpinning polychaete species diversity is poorly resolved or clarified, demand additional and extensive investigation of the DNA barcode diversity in this group, in parallel with alpha taxonomy efforts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Variation in salt marsh CO2 fluxes across a latitudinal gradient along the US Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Nahrawi, H. B.; Leclerc, M.; O'Connell, J. L.; Mishra, D. R.; Fogarty, M. C.; Edson, J. B.; Lule, A. V.; Vargas, R.; Giblin, A. E.; Alber, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt marshes occur at the dynamic interface of land and ocean, where they play an important role as sink and source of nutrients, carbon (C) and sediment. They often are strong carbon sinks, because they continuously accumulate soil organic matter and sediment to keep their position relative to sea level. Decadal average C sequestration rates can be inferred from soil carbon density and mass accumulation rates, but little information about biological and climatic controls on C cycling and storage in these systems exists. In this study, we report measurements of atmospheric CO2 exchange from salt marshes along the US Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Georgia. These measurements were made over periods from one to five years. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant vegetation at all sites. At the northern most site, Plum Island Ecosystems (PIE) LTER, and the southern most site, Georgia Coastal Ecosystems (GCE) LTER, flux measurements over several years have shown variations in the net CO2 flux influenced by the local climate. For example, annual net C uptake at the PIE LTER over 5 years (2013-2017) depends on rainfall in the growing season (June-August) which modulates soil salinity levels. This pattern is not as evident at the GCE LTER (2014-2015). Furthermore, the growing season length differs between both sites. Based on the CO2 flux measurements, a temperature threshold of 15o C limits the net C uptake at both sites and daily rates of net C uptake are generally smaller during the longer growing season in Georgia. Nevertheless, gross primary production (GPP) is similar for both sites. We will extend this analysis to include sites from Delaware and North Carolina to assess controls (e.g. leaf area using MODIS vegetation indices, temperature, photoperiod) on Spartina phenology and CO2 exchange.

  16. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL fatty acids (FAs and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight varied from 7.1% (winter to 8.6% (spring. Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring to 50.4% (winter. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter. Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter. Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5% and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5% were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter. Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin.

  17. Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagorn, Flore; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Kendel, Melha; Beninger, Peter G.; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2016-01-01

    Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. PMID:27231919

  18. Exploring the Dominant Modes of Shoreline Change Along the Central Florida Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, M. P.; Adams, P. N.; Jaeger, J. M.; MacKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geomorphic change within the littoral zone can place communities, ecosystems, and critical infrastructure at risk as the coastal environment responds to changes in sea level, sediment supply, and wave climate. At NASA's Kennedy Space Center near Cape Canaveral, Florida, chronic shoreline retreat currently threatens critical launch infrastructure, but the spatial (alongshore) pattern of this hazard has not been well documented. During a 5-year monitoring campaign (2009-2014), 86 monthly and rapid-response RTK GPS surveys were completed along this 11 km-long coastal reach in order to monitor and characterize shoreline change and identify links between ocean forcing and beach morphology. Results indicate that the study area can be divided into four behaviorally-distinct alongshore regions based on seasonal variability in shoreline change, mediated by the complex offshore bathymetry of the Cape Canaveral shoals. In addition, seasonal erosion/accretion cycles are regularly interrupted by large erosive storm events, especially during the anomalous wave climates produced during winter Nor'Easter storms. An effective tool for analyzing multidimensional datasets like this one is Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, a technique to determine the dominant spatial and temporal signals within a dataset. Using this approach, it is possible to identify the main time and space scales (modes) along which coastal changes are occurring. Through correlation of these changes with oceanographic forcing mechanisms, we are enabled to infer the principal drivers of shoreline change at this site. Here, we document the results of EOF analysis applied to the Cape Canaveral shoreline change dataset, and further correlate the results of this analysis with oceanographic forcings in order to reveal the dominant modes as well as drivers of coastal variability along the central Atlantic coast of Florida. This EOF-based analysis, which is the first such analysis in the region, is shedding

  19. Vegetation change and pollen geochronology from the Atlantic Coast of the United States during the last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, M.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Clear, J.; Corbett, D. R.; Horton, B.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation changes related to anthropogenic and climatic change have been reconstructed at many locations. Synthesizing observations from multiple locations improves our understanding of the regionality of these impacts and drivers. Human alterations to the plant communities vary spatially in timing and impact. For example, deforestation occurred at different times, rates, and magnitudes along the Atlantic Coast of the United States, while of the introduction of non-native plants into ecosystems varies by region. Gradual climate shifts cause the appearance of migration in sensitive plants, so climate-related transitions can be traced from one location to another. Here, we combine new and published pollen data from Florida to Connecticut to produce a regional synthesis of vegetation changes for the last 1000 years. We have produced detailed reconstructions of vegetation changes in response to anthropogenic and climatic forcing. Our database contains pollen assemblages from more than 10 locations along the Atlantic coast of the United States, including new reconstructions from the Florida Keys, Delaware Estuary, and northern New Jersey. All pollen assemblages are placed in a geochronological framework with as fine as decadal resolution using composite chronologies of radiocarbon, pollution histories and cesium isotopes. Anthropogenic impacts, including deforestation from European settlement and the introduction of non-native plants, are observed in the pollen record and serve as useful markers of time. For example, the abrupt increase in Ambrosia pollen in the mid-Atlantic corresponds to 18th Century deforestation. Climate transitions that can be seen in the pollen record during the last millennium include the Medieval Climate Optimum, Little Ice Age, and human-induced warming following industrialization in the 20th century. Plant communities of the United States Atlantic Coast adapted to the evolving climate. For example, Picea and Tsuga are indicative of cooler

  20. Profile and bottle data collected on the RV Melville (cruise Vancouver 06) from the Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Transport Experiment (ASTTEX) in the Atlantic Ocean from 20030102 to 20030115 (NODC Accession 0074001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Introduction: The Agulhas-South Atlantic Thermohaline Experiment (ASTTEX) examined the fluxes of heat, salt and mass entering the South Atlantic ocean via the...

  1. 77 FR 74119 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Accountability Measure and Closure for South Atlantic Snowy Grouper AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the commercial sector for snowy...

  2. 77 FR 29555 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ...; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 2 for the South Atlantic Region; Correction AGENCY: National Marine...: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: This action corrects the final rule implementing the Comprehensive Ecosystem...

  3. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  4. Tropical South-East Atlantic response to ENSO as an ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases were selected based on indices of Pacific sea surface temperature and South-East African rainfall. ... an El Niño event, and higher sardine Sardinops sagax catches tend to follow a La Niña event, through the northward and southward shift respectively of the South Atlantic anticyclone and attendant coastal upwelling.

  5. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  6. Comparative morphometrics of two populations of Mugil curema (Pisces: Mugilidae on the Atlantic and Mexican Pacific coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Ibáñez-Aguirre

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A population of Mugil curema in the Gulf of Mexico was compared with one in the Pacific Ocean using nine morphometric variables. The allometries of each measurement were estimated in relation to total length. Morphometric variations were analyzed using the normalization of the individuals of each group and two multivariate methods: correspondence analysis, used to explore the information, and discriminant analysis. Results indicated that the diameter of the eye differentiated the populations of both coasts, the Atlantic population showed a larger eye diameter. However, other than this and the body width (which can be strongly influenced by sexual maturation there was no difference between the shapes of both populations. We discuss the larger morphometric variability of the Atlantic population which may be due to the presence of more than one population unlike the Pacific population.

  7. Estimation of survival of adult Florida manatees in the Crystal River, at Blue Spring, and on the Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We applied Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models to manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) photo-identification databases to estimate adult survival probabilities. The computer programs JOLLY and RECAPCO were used to estimate survival of 677 individuals in three study areas: Crystal River (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), Blue Spring (winters 1977-78 to 1990-91), and the Atlantic Coast (winters 1984-85 to 1990-91). We also estimated annual survival from observations of 111 manatees tagged for studies with radiotelemetry. Survival estimated from observations with telemetry had broader confidence intervals than survival estimated with the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models. Annual probabilities of capture based on photo-identification records were generally high. The mean annual adult survival estimated from sighting-resighting records was 0.959-0.962 in the Crystal River and 0.936-0.948 at Blue Spring and may be high enough to permit population growth, given the values of other life-history parameters. On the Atlantic Coast, the estimated annual adult survival (range of means = 0.877-0.885) may signify a declining population. However, for several reasons, interpretation of data from the latter study group should be tempered with caution. Adult survivorship seems to be constant with age in all three study groups. No strong differences were apparent between adult survival ofmales and females in the Crystal River or at Blue Spring; the basis of significant differences between sexes on the Atlantic Coast is unclear. Future research into estimating survival with photo-identification and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber models should be vigorously pursued. Estimates of annual survival can provide an additional indication of Florida manatee population status with a stronger statistical basis than aerial counts and carcass totals.

  8. Study of the copepods population in the Oum Er Rbia estuary (Atlantic Moroccan coast): tides and reservoir release effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khalki, A.; Moncef, M.

    2007-01-01

    Variation of environmental parameters and copepods population were studied in the Oum Er Rbia estuary (Atlantic - Moroccan coast) according to the seasons, ( August 1995 to August 1997), tides and reservoir release events. Environemental variability influences copepods diversity and abundance. Salinity (5 to 20 g l-1) appears as the main controlling factor. Among the 27 copepod species recorded, only three marine species (Oithona helgolandica, Euterpina acutifrons, Acartia clausi) and one freshwater species (Acanthocyclops robustus) are able to maintain significant populations due to their large degree of tolerance to salinity changes. (author)

  9. The Japanese alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) on the South Atlantic Ocean: first report of an invasive macroalga inhabiting oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. Emilia; Parodi, Elisa R.

    2014-06-01

    Conspicuous tufts of the filamentous algae Polysiphonia Greville inhabit the reefs of Crassostrea gigas on the Atlantic Patagonian coast. The population was recorded for the first time in 1994 and identified as P. argentinica. This study exhaustively investigated the morphology and reproduction of specimens and the seasonality of the population. The results revealed the identity of the specimens as the invasive Japanese macroalga Polysiphonia morrowii Harvey, on the basis of several striking features: the setaceous and tufted thalli, the corymbose growing apices, the endogenous axillary branches, the urceolate cystocarps and the sharply pointed branches. Sexual reproduction was evidenced; however, fertile male gametophytes were absent in the samples. The population was found almost all year round, but its abundance became higher in autumn and winter. The present study constitutes the first record of this invasive macroalga on the South Atlantic Ocean; the fourth record of an exotic macroalgal species on the Atlantic Patagonian coast; and the first record of an invasive species related to the establishment of C. gigas in Atlantic Patagonia.

  10. The extreme 2014 flood in south-western Amazon basin: the role of tropical-subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Marengo, José Antonio; Ronchail, Josyane; Carpio, Jorge Molina; Flores, Luís Noriega; Guyot, Jean Loup

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented wet conditions are reported in the 2014 summer (December–March) in South-western Amazon, with rainfall about 100% above normal. Discharge in the Madeira River (the main southern Amazon tributary) has been 74% higher than normal (58 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Porto Velho and 380% (25 000 m 3 s −1 ) at Rurrenabaque, at the exit of the Andes in summer, while levels of the Rio Negro at Manaus were 29.47 m in June 2014, corresponding to the fifth highest record during the 113 years record of the Rio Negro. While previous floods in Amazonia have been related to La Niña and/or warmer than normal tropical South Atlantic, the 2014 rainfall and flood anomalies are associated with warm condition in the western Pacific-Indian Ocean and with an exceptionally warm Subtropical South Atlantic. Our results suggest that the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic SST gradient is a main driver for moisture transport from the Atlantic toward south-western Amazon, and this became exceptionally intense during summer of 2014. (letter)

  11. National Assessment of Shoreline Change; historical shoreline change along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2011-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along many open-ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of this study, the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts is the fifth in a series of reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the Gulf of Mexico, the Southeast Atlantic, and, for California, the sandy shoreline and the coastal cliffs. The rates of change presented in this report represent conditions up to the date of the most recent shoreline data and therefore are not intended for predicting future shoreline positions or rates of change. Because of the geomorphology of the New England and Mid-Atlantic (rocky coastlines, large embayments and beaches) as well as data gaps in some areas, this report presents beach erosion rates for 78 percent of the 1,360 kilometers of the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts. The New England and Mid-Atlantic shores were subdivided into a total of 10 analysis regions for the purpose of reporting regional trends in shoreline change rates. The average rate of long

  12. 76 FR 53413 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...; fax: (843) 769-4520; e-mail: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Meeting Dates 1. Joint... terms of reference (TOR) and appointments for the SEDAR 28 stock assessment for Atlantic and Gulf...

  13. 78 FR 30866 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... catches versus ACLs for Atlantic group King Mackerel, Spanish Mackerel and Cobia. 2. Receive and discuss an SSC report on SEDAR 28, pertaining to Spanish Mackerel and Cobia, and take action as necessary. 3...

  14. Thermal responses of marine animals with reference to Kalpakkam Coast (South East Coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.

    2008-01-01

    Kalpakkam has been chosen as model coastal site to study the impact of thermal discharges on water qualities, benthic animals and fishes. The results of this study are expected to be valid for any given open coastal location on the east and west coast of India. The present study investigates, the impact of the elevated temperature due to thermal discharge on two groups of marine animals viz. Benthos (non-swimming bottom dwellers) and fishes

  15. 76 FR 56120 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; North and South Atlantic Swordfish Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... recreational fishing for swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, by... http://www.iccat.int/en/ . One swordfish measure adopted at the 2010 meeting, and one swordfish measure...

  16. Linking the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the Global Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, H.; Dong, S.; Goni, G. J.; Lee, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether low frequency decadal variability of the South Atlantic meridional heat transport (SAMHT) influences decadal variability of the global monsoons. A multi-century run from a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model is used as basis for the analysis. Our findings indicate that multi-decadal variability of the South Atlantic Ocean plays a key role in modulating atmospheric circulation via interhemispheric changes in Atlantic Ocean heat content. Weaker SAMHT produces anomalous ocean heat divergence over the South Atlantic resulting in negative ocean heat content anomaly about 15 years later. This, in turn, forces a thermally direct anomalous interhemispheric Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, transporting heat from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) and moisture from the SH to the NH, thereby intensify (weaken) summer (winter) monsoon in the NH and winter (summer) monsoon in the SH. Results also show that anomalous atmospheric eddies, both transient and stationary, transport heat northward in both hemispheres producing eddy heat flux convergence (divergence) in the NH (SH) around 15-30°, reinforcing the anomalous Hadley circulation. Overall, SAMHT decadal variability leads its atmospheric response by about 15 years, suggesting that the South Atlantic is a potential predictor of global climate variability.

  17. maqualand coast on the west coast of South Africa, which covered a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    , Rondebosch 7701, South ... The selection was designed to ensure ... monitoring event, the primary space covered by sessile ...... the size of sexual maturity, rendering the mussel bed ..... spatial patterns of distribution of intertidal invertebrates.

  18. 75 FR 27658 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... reduce overfishing of red snapper in the South Atlantic implemented by a temporary rule published by NMFS... reduce overfishing of red snapper in the South Atlantic. DATES: The effective date for the interim rule... extension of the rule is to reduce the overfishing of red snapper while long-term management measures are...

  19. 77 FR 32572 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA935 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic... conditions, various species of reef fish, crabs, and lobsters in Federal waters off South Carolina and North...

  20. 77 FR 25407 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs Off the Southern Atlantic... South Carolina Aquarium to collect, with certain conditions, various species of reef fish, crabs, and..., marine sanctuaries, special management zones, or artificial reefs without additional authorization...

  1. 77 FR 1908 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    .... SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 20A to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic... for the wreckfish individual transferable quota (ITQ) program, including actions to define and revert...

  2. 76 FR 82183 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC 0 1. The authority citation for part 622 continues to read as... appropriate to secure the range of hook sizes and styles used in the South Atlantic snapper- grouper fishery.... The device must be of a size appropriate to secure the range of hook sizes and styles used in the...

  3. 76 FR 82403 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and Reef Fish Fishery Management Plans of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin... South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and Reef Fish Fishery Management Plans of Puerto Rico and...

  4. 77 FR 23632 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Generic Annual Catch Limits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    .... 100217097-2404-03] RIN 0648-AY22 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Generic... recordkeeping requirements, Virgin Islands. Dated: April 16, 2012. Samuel D. Rauch III, Acting Assistant... making the following correcting amendment: PART 622--FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  5. 78 FR 46923 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic... following an ACL overage, could have adverse economic and social impacts on fishery participants... implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA; 40 CFR parts 1500-1508...

  6. 78 FR 62586 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    .... Participants will present summary data and will discuss data needs and treatments. Although non-emergency... the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting...), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of SEDAR 38 data webinar for Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic King Mackerel...

  7. Landscape structure in the northern coast of Paraná state, a hotspot for the brazilian Atlantic Forest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Emed Kauano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Serra do Mar" region comprises the largest remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The coast of the Paraná State is part of the core area of the "Serra do Mar" corridor and where actions for biodiversity conservation must be planned. In this study we aimed at characterizing the landscape structure in the APA-Guaraqueçaba, the largest protected area in this region, in order to assist environmental policies of this region. Based on a supervised classification of a mosaic of LANDSAT-5-TM satellite images (from March 2009, we developed a map (1:75,000 scale with seven classes of land use and land cover and analyzed the relative quantities of forests and modified areas in slopes and lowlands. The APA-Guaraqueçaba is comprised mainly by the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (68.6% of total area and secondary forests (9.1%, indicating a forested landscape matrix; anthropogenic and bare soil areas (0.8% and the Pasture/Grasslands class (4.2% were less representative. Slopes were less fragmented and more preserved (96.3% of Dense Ombrophilous Forest and secondary forest than lowlands (71.3%, suggesting that restoration initiatives in the lowlands must be stimulated in this region. We concluded that most of the region sustains well-conserved ecosystems, highlighting the importance of Paraná northern coast for the biodiversity maintenance of the Atlantic Forest.

  8. Developing an Event-Tree Probabilistic Tsunami Inundation Model for NE Atlantic Coasts: Application to a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Matias, L.; Baptista, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    This study constitutes a preliminary assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region. We developed an event-tree approach to calculate the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height for a given exposure time. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account local, regional, and far-field sources. The approach used here consists of an event-tree method that gathers probability models for seismic sources, tsunami numerical modeling, and statistical methods. It also includes a treatment of aleatoric uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage. Epistemic uncertainties are not addressed in this study. The methodology is applied to the coastal test-site of Sines located in the NE Atlantic coast of Portugal. We derive probabilistic high-resolution maximum wave amplitudes and flood distributions for the study test-site considering 100- and 500-year exposure times. We find that the probability that maximum wave amplitude exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 60 % for an exposure time of 100 years and is up to 97 % for an exposure time of 500 years. The probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth >0 m) varies between 10 % and 57 %, and from 20 % up to 95 % for 100- and 500-year exposure times, respectively. No validation has been performed here with historical tsunamis. This paper illustrates a methodology through a case study, which is not an operational assessment.

  9. ATSH ATL DIET (stomach contents of Atlantic sharpnose shark on east coast of FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A reassessment of the diet of the Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae was conducted to provide an update on their trophic level (n390)....

  10. 76 FR 41561 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; California; 2007 South Coast PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... formed in the atmosphere as a result of various chemical reactions from precursor emissions of nitrogen... the emissions inventories; air quality modeling; reasonably available control measures/reasonably... Quality Modeling in the South Coast 2007 AQMP 3. PM 2.5 Precursors Addressed in the South Coast 2007 AQMP...

  11. South-coast cyclone in Japan during El Niño-caused warm winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Amagai, Yuusuke; Hayasaki, Masamitsu

    2017-05-01

    La Niña conditions during boreal winter sometimes brings excessive snowfall in Japan, especially on the East Sea/Sea of Japan coastal and mountain areas through intensified northwesterly cold winds caused by La-Niña related atmospheric teleconnection. Meanwhile, snowfall events also increase in the Pacific coast area of Japan during the El Niño state due to extratropical cyclones passing along the south coast of Japan (hereafter referred to as South-coast cyclone). In the present study, we investigated year-to-year snowfall/rainfall variations based on meteorological station data and cyclone tracks identified by using the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis. The result clearly indicates increase of the South-coast cyclone during El Niño-developing winters, which is consistent with excessive snow-fall in the northern part of the Pacific coast. Strong subtropical jet hampers cyclogenesis due to less vertical interaction through the trapping of upper-level eddies. During El Niño-developing winters, the subtropical jet is weakened over East Asia, indicating dynamic linkage to increased cyclone frequency. In addition to this, both the deepening of the upper-tropospheric trough over East Asia and anomalous low-tropospheric northwest anticyclones extending from the Philippines toward Japan are also consistent with the enhancement of cyclogenesis over the East China Sea as well as warm winter in Japan.

  12. Developing an event-tree probabilistic tsunami inundation model for NE Atlantic coasts: Application to case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Matias, Luis

    2015-04-01

    This study constitutes the first assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region, using an event-tree approach. It aims to develop a probabilistic tsunami inundation approach for the NE Atlantic coast with an application to two test sites of ASTARTE project, Tangier-Morocco and Sines-Portugal. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account near-, regional- and far-filed sources. The multidisciplinary approach, proposed here, consists of an event-tree method that gathers seismic hazard assessment, tsunami numerical modelling, and statistical methods. It presents also a treatment of uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage in order to derive the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height during a given return period. We derive high-resolution probabilistic maximum wave heights and flood distributions for both test-sites Tangier and Sines considering 100-, 500-, and 1000-year return periods. We find that the probability that a maximum wave height exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 55% for 100-year return period, and is up to 100% for 1000-year return period. Along Tangier coast, the probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth > 0m) is up to 45% for 100-year return period and reaches 96% in some near-shore costal location for 500-year return period. Acknowledgements: This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).

  13. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Air Pollutants in the South Coast Basin Using Low Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of small, portable, low-cost air sensors has encouraged a shift from traditional monitoring approaches for air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (SCAQMD) Air Quality ...

  14. 76 FR 59155 - Notice of Availability of South Coast Draft Resource Management Plan Revision and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... policies and emphasis on the management of public lands and local land use planning; and new data that have... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAD06000, L16100000.DP0000] Notice of Availability of South Coast Draft Resource Management Plan Revision and Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

  15. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  16. 76 FR 50891 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) AGENCY... sources, to achieve emissions reductions milestones, to attain and maintain ambient air quality standards... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  17. 77 FR 53773 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0236; FRL-9711-2] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) AGENCY... ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order...

  18. Food habits of some deep-sea fish off South Africa's west coast. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of five species of eels and one species of spiny eel collected from the upper continental slope off the Cape west coast and Agulhas Bank, South Africa, are described. All are members of a defined demersal micro- or mesocarnivore feeding guild except Simenchelys parasitica, a scavenger. Two congrids ...

  19. Radiometric characteristics of heavy mineral deposits along the west coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdonald, W.G.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    During the last decade, exploration and mining of modern-Tertiary heavy mineral beach and raised beach sands along the west coast of South Africa has developed into a major industry. High resolution radiometric techniques have demonstrated their use as a quantitative indicator of total heavy mineral

  20. 76 FR 69927 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Attainment Plan for 1997...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...). See TSD at Section II.A (referencing, inter alia, South Coast 2007 AQMP at Appendix III and 2007 State... these assertions, CBE states that: (1) A 2002 Harvard University modeling study \\11\\ concludes that... satisfy RACT/RACM requirements. \\11\\ Fiore, et al, Harvard University, Linking ozone pollution and climate...

  1. Mechanisms and Attribution of Changes in Austral Summer Precipitation Related to the South Atlantic Convergence Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Marcia Terezinha

    weakening of the poleward winds along the eastern Brazilian coast that reduces the dynamic support necessary for convection along the equatorward margin of the SACZ. Additionally, this analysis also identifies a decrease in low-to-mid troposphere (700hPa) moisture over the tropical Atlantic in the recent decade that further reduces the moisture transported into the convective margin of the SACZ. Both mechanisms contribute to reducing precipitation over eastern tropical Brazil and characterize the poleward shift of the SACZ. The final chapter focuses on evaluating the contribution of natural variability and anthropogenic-related forcings to the poleward shift of the SACZ and drying conditions over eastern Brazil at the end of 20th century. Simulations from different scenarios of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMPI5) models capable of reproducing the SACZ climatology suggest significant contribution of anthropogenic forcing on the SACZ-related precipitation trends. Despite the large discrepancies in the simulated precipitation trends, similarities among the ensemble members provide compelling evidence that the poleward shift of the SACZ in the last three decades of the 20 th century is largely enhanced by anthropogenic forcing. Collectively, the three chapters of this dissertation characterize the recent changes in precipitation related to a poleward shift of the SACZ and give novel insights into the influence of anthropogenic-related forcing on these changes. These findings advance the scientific understanding of the consequences of recent climate variability and change over eastern tropical South America, particularly over the SACZ.

  2. Southern limit of the Western South Atlantic mangroves: Assessment of the potential effects of global warming from a biogeographical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mário Luiz Gomes; Estrada, Gustavo Calderucio Duque; Fernandez, Viviane; Tognella, Mônica Maria Pereira

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the exact location of the latitudinal limit of western South Atlantic mangroves, and to describe how these forests develop at this limit; as well as to analyze the potential responses of these communities to global warming. The study was carried out along the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Specific studies on mangrove structure were carried out in the Santo Antônio Lagoon (28°28'34″S; 48°51'40″W). The coastline of Santa Catarina was surveyed for the occurrence of mangrove species. In the mangrove located at the southernmost distributional limit, the forest structure was characterized. Mean height and diameter, trunks density and basal area were calculated. Climatic and oceanographic factors controlling the occurrence and development of the mangrove forests at their latitudinal limit were analyzed, as well as the possible changes of this limit based on global warming scenarios. The results confirmed that the Santo Antônio Lagoon is the southern limit of the western South Atlantic mangroves. At this limit, the mangrove forests show a low degree of development, defined by low mean diameter and height, and high trunks density and trunks/tree ratio. The observed structural pattern and the local alternation of these forests with salt marsh species are typical of mangrove forests at their latitudinal limits. The absence of mangroves south of Laguna and forest structure at the latitudinal limit are controlled by rigorous climate and oceanographic characteristics. In response to the planetary warming process, we expect that mangroves will expand southward, as a consequence of an increase in air and ocean surface temperatures, a reduction in the incidence of frosts, an increased influence of the Brazil Current and a decreased influence of the Falkland Current, and the availability of sheltered estuarine systems for the establishment of new mangroves.

  3. Otolith chemical composition as a useful tool for sciaenid stock discrimination in the south-western Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Striped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa and whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri are important commercial and recreational species found in abundance along the South American Atlantic coast. In recent years otolith chemical composition has been used as a tool for identifying fish stocks for several species. The chemical composition of C. guatucupa and M. furnieri otoliths was determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in samples from coastal sites (Partido de La Costa, Mar del Plata and San Blás Bay. Significant differences in the ratios of Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca and Sr/Ca for C. guatucupa otoliths and Cd/Ca, Cu/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Zn/Ca for M. furnieri otoliths suggest the existence of two different fish stocks, one originating in the north (including Samborombón Bay and Partido de La Costa fisheries and another originating in the south (including “El Rincón” and San Blás fisheries. These results agree with previous studies on the same species using different methodologies. These stocks may be separated by an oceanographic barrier, the “Frente El Rincón”. Otolith chemical composition has not been previously used in South America for identifying fish stocks and may be a simple, quick and useful tool for the sustainable exploitation and management of commercial species.

  4. Discovery of a chemosynthesis-based community in the western South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giongo, Adriana; Haag, Taiana; Simão, Taiz L. Lopes; Medina-Silva, Renata; Utz, Laura R. P.; Bogo, Maurício R.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Zamberlan, Priscilla M.; Augustin, Adolpho H.; Lourega, Rogério V.; Rodrigues, Luiz F.; Sbrissa, Gesiane F.; Kowsmann, Renato O.; Freire, Antonio F. M.; Miller, Dennis J.; Viana, Adriano R.; Ketzer, João M. M.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Chemosynthetic communities have been described from a variety of deep-sea environments across the world's oceans. They constitute very interesting biological systems in terms of their ecology, evolution and biogeography, and also given their potential as indicators of the presence and abundance of consistent hydrocarbon-based nutritional sources. Up to now such peculiar biotic assemblages have not been reported for the western South Atlantic Ocean, leaving this large region undocumented with respect to the presence, composition and history of such communities. Here we report on the presence of a chemosynthetic community off the coast of southern Brazil, in an area where high-levels of methane and the presence of gas hydrates have been detected. We performed metagenomic analyses of the microbial community present at this site, and also employed molecular approaches to identify components of its benthic fauna. We conducted phylogenetic analyses comparing the components of this assemblage to those found elsewhere in the world, which allowed a historical assessment of the structure and dynamics of these systems. Our results revealed that the microbial community at this site is quite diverse, and contains many components that are very closely related to lineages previously sampled in ecologically similar environments across the globe. Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaeal groups were found to be very abundant at this site, suggesting that methane is indeed an important source of nutrition for this community. In addition, we document the presence at this site of a vestimentiferan siboglinid polychaete and the bivalve Acharax sp., both of which are typical components of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities. The remarkable similarity in biotic composition between this area and other deep-sea communities across the world supports the interpretation that these assemblages are historically connected across the global oceans, undergoing colonization from distant sites and

  5. 75 FR 28783 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... event the red snapper benchmark stock assessment allows for modification to the proposed management... (SSCs) regarding Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of king mackerel and Spanish mackerel. The... snapper, including ending overfishing and rebuilding the stock. Management measures include a closure...

  6. 78 FR 79673 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Joint Coastal Migratory Pelagics Framework Amendment for 2014; [email protected] for... the Coastal Migratory Pelagics FMP; [email protected] for Joint Amendment 26 to the Coastal...

  7. 75 FR 44223 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; South Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the... condition. In the South Atlantic Region, red grouper is subject to overfishing and is in an overfished...; overfishing is occurring, a stock is in an overfished condition, or a stock is approaching an overfished...

  8. 78 FR 16657 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and... and gray triggerfish. SUMMARY: The SEDAR 32 assessments of the South Atlantic stocks of blueline... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...

  9. 75 FR 24883 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Assessment Process is a stock assessment report which describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research... South Atlantic stock of red snapper will consist of a series of workshops and webinars: a Data Workshop...

  10. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XA701 Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic.... SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden tilefish in...

  11. 76 FR 18532 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... interested in participating should contact Kari Fenske at SEDAR (See FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT to request an invitation providing webinar access information.) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kari Fenske...-mail: kari.fenske@safmc.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and...

  12. 78 FR 34041 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); scoping meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast Region... in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS), and before voting to submit the FMP to... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management Plan for the...

  13. 78 FR 34042 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); scoping meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast Region... in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS), and before voting to submit the FMP to... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management Plan for the...

  14. 76 FR 17625 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...: Participants will present summary data, and discuss data needs and treatments. Special Accommodations The... the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of Southeast Data and Review (SEDAR) 26 data webinar for Caribbean Silk snapper, Queen snapper, and...

  15. High energy electron and proton observations in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nagata, K.; Kohno, T.; Murakami, H.

    1988-01-01

    The method developed by researchers of cooperation agreement between Japan and Brazil, to observe high energy particles in the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly, is described. The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons and protons, using silicon detectors of good energy resolution and two spectrometers with different geometrical factors, on board of the OHZORA satellite, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. The Security of the South Atlantic: Is It a Case for ’SATO’--South Atlantic Treaty Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-10

    p. 704. 21Ibid. 2 2 Ibid. 2 3A.R.A. Nicolas Piccaluga, Control Del Trafico Maritimo en el Atlantic Sud. Politics para la Defensa v Seguridad de las...1981. Piccaluga, A. R. A, Nicolis. Control Del Trafico Maritimo En El Atlantico Sud. Politicar, Para La Defensa Y Seguridad De Las Rutas Maritimas En

  17. State and local governments plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J G; Hudgens, D E; Kassakian, J M; Trescott, D L; Craghan, M; Nuckols, W H; Hershner, C H; Linn, C J; Merritt, P G; McCue, T M; O'Connell, J F; Tanski, J; Wang, J

    2009-01-01

    Rising sea level threatens existing coastal wetlands. Overall ecosystems could often survive by migrating inland, if adjacent lands remained vacant. On the basis of 131 state and local land use plans, we estimate that almost 60% of the land below 1 m along the US Atlantic coast is expected to be developed and thus unavailable for the inland migration of wetlands. Less than 10% of the land below 1 m has been set aside for conservation. Environmental regulators routinely grant permits for shore protection structures (which block wetland migration) on the basis of a federal finding that these structures have no cumulative environmental impact. Our results suggest that shore protection does have a cumulative impact. If sea level rise is taken into account, wetland policies that previously seemed to comply with federal law probably violate the Clean Water Act.

  18. Influence of Surface Processes over Africa on the Atlantic Marine ITCZ and South American Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies show that the climatological precipitation over South America, particularly the Nordeste region, is influenced by the presence of the African continent. Here the influence of African topography and surface wetness on the Atlantic marine ITCZ (AMI) and South American precipitation are investigated.Cross-equatorial flow over the Atlantic Ocean introduced by north south asymmetry in surface conditions over Africa shifts the AMI in the direction of the flow. African topography, for example, introduces an anomalous high over the southern Atlantic Ocean and a low to the north. This results in a northward migration of the AMI and dry conditions over the Nordeste region.The implications of this process on variability are then studied by analyzing the response of the AMI to soil moisture anomalies over tropical Africa. Northerly flow induced by equatorially asymmetric perturbations in soil moisture over northern tropical Africa shifts the AMI southward, increasing the climatological precipitation over northeastern South America. Flow associated with an equatorially symmetric perturbation in soil moisture, however, has a very weak cross-equatorial component and very weak influence on the AMI and South American precipitation. The sensitivity of the AMI to soil moisture perturbations over certain regions of Africa can possibly improve the skill of prediction.

  19. Dispersion in North Atlantic Deep Water transfer between the northern source region and the South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Oliver; Roether, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) represents the Atlantic part of the deep, southward return arm of the oceanic 'conveyor belt', which moderates Europe's climate and effects most of the water transfer from the ocean surface into the deep waters globally. The transfer starts from the NADW formation regions, which in the case of upper NADW (approx. 1500-2000 m depth) is the Labrador Sea (far NW Atlantic). NADW is found concentrated toward the continental slope of the Americas, but subject to meandering, and to recirculation into, and mixing with, the waters of the interior Atlantic. Individual water parcels thus follow a complex ensemble of trajectories. We have obtained characteristics of that ensemble by fitting the free parameters of a suitable function using extensive observations of the transient tracers CFC-11, CFC-12, CCl{sub 4}, and tritium. A tracer transfer function of ocean-surface concentrations to those in newly formed NADW was derived as a precursory step. In the upper NADW we obtain RMS transfer-time dispersions on the way from the Labrador Sea of 31 years at 6 N rising to 53 years at 20 S, compared to mean transfer times ranging 46 to 79 years ({+-}20 %); furthermore, approximately 10 % to 40 % of the water is old, tracer-free water admixed on the way. Similar results have been obtained for lower NADW (approx. 2500-4000 m). The combination of tritium and CFC observations is particularly suited to constrain the dispersion, since it acts on the concentrations of these tracers in an opposite way. The tracer-adjusted transfer functions allow quantification of the NADW transport of pollutants and other compounds delivered to the NADW formation region. The results can furthermore check mean transfer times and large-scale dispersion of the NADW part of dynamic ocean circulation models.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Reef Fish Species along the Southeast US Atlantic Coast Inferred from Underwater Video Survey Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Bacheler

    Full Text Available Marine fish abundance and distribution often varies across spatial scales for a variety of reasons, and this variability has significant ecological and management consequences. We quantified the distribution of reef-associated fish species along the southeast United States Atlantic coast using underwater video survey samples (N = 4,855 in 2011-2014 to elucidate variability within species across space, depths, and habitats, as well as describe broad-scale patterns in species richness. Thirty-two species were seen at least 10 times on video, and the most commonly observed species were red porgy (Pagrus pagrus; 41.4% of videos, gray triggerfish (Balistes capriscus; 31.0%, black sea bass (Centropristis striata; 29.1%, vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens; 27.7%, and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus; 22.6%. Using generalized additive models, we found that most species were non-randomly distributed across space, depths, and habitats. Most rare species were observed along the continental shelf break, except for goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, which was found on the continental shelf in Florida and Georgia. We also observed higher numbers of species in shelf-break habitats from southern North Carolina to Georgia, and fewer in shallower water and at the northern and southern ends of the southeast United States Atlantic coast. Our study provides the first broad-scale description of the spatial distribution of reef fish in the region to be based on fishery-independent data, reinforces the utility of underwater video to survey reef fish, and can help improve the management of reef fish in the SEUS, for example, by improving indices of abundance.

  1. How does dynamical downscaling affect model biases and future projections of explosive extratropical cyclones along North America's Atlantic coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Zwiers, F. W.; Hodges, K. I.; Scinocca, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    Explosive extratropical cyclones (EETCs) are rapidly intensifying low pressure systems that generate severe weather along North America's Atlantic coast. Global climate models (GCMs) tend to simulate too few EETCs, perhaps partly due to their coarse horizontal resolution and poorly resolved moist diabatic processes. This study explores whether dynamical downscaling can reduce EETC frequency biases, and whether this affects future projections of storms along North America's Atlantic coast. A regional climate model (CanRCM4) is forced with the CanESM2 GCM for the periods 1981 to 2000 and 2081 to 2100. EETCs are tracked from relative vorticity using an objective feature tracking algorithm. CanESM2 simulates 38% fewer EETC tracks compared to reanalysis data, which is consistent with a negative Eady growth rate bias (-0.1 day^{-1}). Downscaling CanESM2 with CanRCM4 increases EETC frequency by one third, which reduces the frequency bias to -22%, and increases maximum EETC precipitation by 22%. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing is projected to decrease EETC frequency (-15%, -18%) and Eady growth rate (-0.2 day^{-1}, -0.2 day^{-1}), and increase maximum EETC precipitation (46%, 52%) in CanESM2 and CanRCM4, respectively. The limited effect of dynamical downscaling on EETC frequency projections is consistent with the lack of impact on the maximum Eady growth rate. The coarse spatial resolution of GCMs presents an important limitation for simulating extreme ETCs, but Eady growth rate biases are likely just as relevant. Further bias reductions could be achieved by addressing processes that lead to an underestimation of lower tropospheric meridional temperature gradients.

  2. Climatology of transport and diffusion conditions along the United States Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the atmospheric transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts was conducted to aid in planning and site selection for potentially polluting installations. This paper presents selected results from an extensive statistical study. Regular hourly observational data were obtained from 30 coastal stations from Maine to Texas and analyzed in terms of conditions important to emission transport and diffusion. The 30 stations included four pairs with one of each pair at a greater distance from the coast than the other but near the same latitude

  3. Were sea level changes during the Pleistocene in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain a driver of speciation in Petunia (Solanaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fregonezi, Aline M C; Fregonezi, Jeferson N; Cybis, Gabriela B; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2015-05-20

    Quaternary climatic changes led to variations in sea level and these variations played a significant role in the generation of marine terrace deposits in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. The main consequence of the increase in sea level was local extinction or population displacement, such that coastal species would be found around the new coastline. Our main goal was to investigate the effects of sea level changes on the geographical structure and variability of genetic lineages from a Petunia species endemic to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain. We employed a phylogeographic approach based on plastid sequences obtained from individuals collected from the complete geographic distribution of Petunia integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group. We used population genetics tests to evaluate the degree of genetic variation and structure among and within populations, and we used haplotype network analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to estimate divergence times and population growth. We observed three major genetic lineages whose geographical distribution may be related to different transgression/regression events that occurred in this region during the Pleistocene. The divergence time between the monophyletic group P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata and its sister group (P. integrifolia ssp. integrifolia) was compatible with geological estimates of the availability of the coastal plain. Similarly, the origin of each genetic lineage is congruent with geological estimates of habitat availability. Diversification of P. integrifolia ssp. depauperata possibly occurred as a consequence of the marine transgression/regression cycles during the Pleistocene. In periods of high sea level, plants were most likely restricted to a refuge area corresponding to fossil dunes and granitic hills, from which they colonized the coast once the sea level came down. The modern pattern of lineage geographical distribution and population variation was established by a range

  4. Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsen, L.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Fontoura, L.; Kautsky, N.; Gullström, M.; Berkström, C.

    2017-09-01

    Seascape connectivity is regarded essential for healthy reef fish communities in tropical shallow systems. A number of reef fish species use separate adult and nursery habitats, and hence contribute to nutrient and energy transfer between habitats. Seagrass beds and mangroves often constitute important nursery habitats, with high structural complexity and protection from predation. Here, we investigated if reef fish assemblages in the tropical south-western Atlantic demonstrate ontogenetic habitat connectivity and identify possible nurseries on three reef systems along the eastern Brazilian coast. Fish were surveyed in fore reef, back reef, Halodule wrightii seagrass beds and seaweed beds. Seagrass beds contained lower abundances and species richness of fish than expected, while Sargassum-dominated seaweed beds contained significantly more juveniles than all other habitats (average juvenile fish densities: 32.6 per 40 m2 in Sargassum beds, 11.2 per 40 m2 in back reef, 10.1 per 40 m2 in fore reef, and 5.04 per 40 m2 in seagrass beds), including several species that are found in the reef habitats as adults. Species that in other regions worldwide (e.g. the Caribbean) utilise seagrass beds as nursery habitats were here instead observed in Sargassum beds or back reef habitats. Coral cover was not correlated to adult fish distribution patterns; instead, type of turf was an important variable. Connectivity, and thus pathways of nutrient transfer, seems to function differently in east Brazil compared to many tropical regions. Sargassum-dominated beds might be more important as nurseries for a larger number of fish species than seagrass beds. Due to the low abundance of structurally complex seagrass beds we suggest that seaweed beds might influence adult reef fish abundances, being essential for several keystone species of reef fish in the tropical south-western Atlantic.

  5. The Atlantic Coast of Maryland, Sediment Budget Update: Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    111 – Rivers and Harbors Act), the navigational structures at the Ocean City Inlet, and a number of Federally authorized channels (Figure 1). Reed...Tier 2, Assateague Island and Ocean City Inlet by Ernest R. Smith, Joseph C. Reed, and Ian L. Delwiche PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics...of the Atlantic Ocean shoreline within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Baltimore District’s Area of Responsibility, which for coastal

  6. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure

  7. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure.

  8. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion

  9. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers, with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae. Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited.

  10. 76 FR 76927 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... ). If yes, where should they be located? (6) What are the pros and cons to the Coast Guard designating... the Docket Management Facility on or before January 31, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments... Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . (2) Fax: (202) 493-2251. (3) Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30...

  11. Regional-scale migrations and habitat use of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) in the US South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyier, Eric A; Franks, Bryan R; Chapman, Demian D; Scheidt, Douglas M; Stolen, Eric D; Gruber, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    Resolving the geographic extent and timing of coastal shark migrations, as well as their environmental cues, is essential for refining shark management strategies in anticipation of increasing anthropogenic stressors to coastal ecosystems. We employed a regional-scale passive acoustic telemetry array encompassing 300 km of the east Florida coast to assess what factors influence site fidelity of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) to an exposed coastal nursery at Cape Canaveral, and to document the timing and rate of their seasonal migrations. Movements of 54 juvenile lemon sharks were monitored for three years with individuals tracked for up to 751 days. While most sharks demonstrated site fidelity to the Cape Canaveral region December through February under typical winter water temperatures, historically extreme declines in ocean temperature were accompanied by rapid and often temporary, southward displacements of up to 190 km along the Florida east coast. From late February through April each year, most sharks initiated a northward migration at speeds of up to 64 km day(-1) with several individuals then detected in compatible estuarine telemetry arrays in Georgia and South Carolina up to 472 km from release locations. Nineteen sharks returned for a second or even third consecutive winter, thus demonstrating strong seasonal philopatry to the Cape Canaveral region. The long distance movements and habitat associations of immature lemon sharks along the US southeast coast contrast sharply with the natal site fidelity observed in this species at other sites in the western Atlantic Ocean. These findings validate the existing multi-state management strategies now in place. Results also affirm the value of collaborative passive arrays for resolving seasonal movements and habitat preferences of migratory coastal shark species not easily studied with other tagging techniques.

  12. Sound Speed Structure of the Western South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    note possible, and there are many involved. First of all, special thanks must be given to Louis P. Solomon, Robert F. Gardner, and Jones Hicks Ford...March 1981 that have been published by Georgi, Amos, Draganovic, and Raymer (1979). 0 Austral winter T-5 XBT profiles collected in Marsden square 339 by R...and M. Raymer (1979). STD Observations in the Southwest Atlantic from Cruise 16, Leg 9 of the R/V CONRAD and Cruise 7-75 of the ISLAS ORCADAS. Woods

  13. Distribution of oxygen isotopes in the water masses of Drake Passage and the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Grose, Katie E.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; Heywood, Karen J.; Frew, Russell D.; Dennis, Paul F.

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of the ratio of stable isotopes of oxygen (18O and 16O) from samples collected on World Ocean Circulation Experiment sections SR1b (eastern Drake Passage) and A11 (Punta Arenas to Cape Town) are used, together with hydrographic data, to deduce information about the formation and variability of South Atlantic and Southern Ocean water masses. The Drake Passage surface waters south of the Polar Front (PF) are isotopically light (δ18O around -0.4‰) owing to the influence of meteoric waters. The salinity and δ18O of the A11 surface waters yield an apparent freshwater end-member which is much isotopically lighter than the local precipitation, thus advection of these waters from farther south dominates over local effects in determining the surface water properties. The Drake Passage section shows unusual proximity of the two main fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (the PF and Subantarctic Front (SAF)), and we observe cold, fresh, and isotopically light water derived from the temperature-minimum Winter Water at the SAF. This water is of the correct density to freshen the intermediate water north of the SAF and thus play a role in the formation of the comparatively fresh Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) of the South Atlantic. This confirms the role of Antarctic water in forming the South Atlantic variety of AAIW. Across the A11 section the oxygen isotope and salinity data at the AAIW core show very similar traces, with waters in the Malvinas Current loop showing lowest values of both. At the eastern boundary of the South Atlantic, the input of Red Sea Water from east of South Africa is observed via the presence of anomalously isotopically heavy AAIW. We deduce potentially significant temporal variability in the isotopic composition of Weddell Sea Deep Water (WSDW) by comparing the Drake Passage data to earlier data covering the outflow of the Weddell Sea. The A11 data show WSDW consistent with such variability, indicating that its effects could

  14. 75 FR 26921 - South Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW43 South...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings..., social and economic impacts of management measures, and sustainability of fishing practices. On January...

  15. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  16. 76 FR 41764 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [RIN 0648-XA491] Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs off the Southern Atlantic... sanctuaries, special management zones, or artificial reefs without additional authorization. A report on the...

  17. 76 FR 59371 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-BB26 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based... Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted the Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment (CE... were established under the Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 and include Cape Lookout Coral...

  18. 76 FR 35409 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Atlantic States AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric..., red drum, coastal migratory pelagics, stone crab, and lobsters in the Gulf, and snapper-grouper, coastal migratory pelagics, dolphin and wahoo, and lobsters in the South Atlantic. The EFP exempts...

  19. Topographic asymmetry of the South Atlantic from global models of mantle flow and lithospheric stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Williams, Simon; Seton, Maria; Skogseid, Jakob; Heine, Christian; Müller, Dietmar

    2014-05-01

    The relief of the South Atlantic is characterized by elevated passive continental margins along southern Africa and eastern Brazil, and by the bathymetric asymmetry of the southern oceanic basin where the western flank is much deeper than the eastern flank. We investigate the origin of these topographic features in the present and over time since the Jurassic with a model of global mantle flow and lithospheric deformation. The model progressively assimilates plate kinematics, plate boundaries and lithospheric age derived from global tectonic reconstructions with deforming plates, and predicts the evolution of mantle temperature, continental crustal thickness, long-wavelength dynamic topography, and isostatic topography. Mantle viscosity and the kinematics of the opening of the South Atlantic are adjustable parameters in multiple model cases. Model predictions are compared to observables both for the present-day and in the past. Present-day predictions are compared to topography, mantle tomography, and an estimate of residual topography. Predictions for the past are compared to tectonic subsidence from backstripped borehole data along the South American passive margin, and to dynamic uplift as constrained by thermochronology in southern Africa. Comparison between model predictions and observations suggests that the first-order features of the topography of the South Atlantic are due to long-wavelength dynamic topography, rather than to asthenospheric processes. We find the uplift of southern Africa to be best reproduced with a lower mantle that is at least 40 times more viscous than the upper mantle.

  20. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in the lower troposphere of the North-and South-Atlantic Ocean. Studies of global baseline pollution. Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreitmueller, J.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified in air samples of the tropospheric boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples were taken on the German research vessel 'Polarstern' during north-south cruises across the Atlantic Ocean (1990, 1991), and on the Capo Verde islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (1992). Values for the sum of PCB were between 48 pg/m 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [ in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 1.3; PCB 52: 5.0; PCB 101: 3.0; PCB 118: ≤0.5; PCB 138: 1; PCB 153: 1; PCB 180: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.3; PCB 52: 3.4; PCB 101: ≤0.5; PCB 118: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.6; PCB 52: 11.7; PCB 101: 28.4; PCB 118: 9; PCB 138: 21; PCB 153: 18; PCB 180: 5.5) were measured of the coast of South Patagonia. A difference depending on latitude and on terrestrial influenced air masses between the lower and the higher chlorinated congeners was observed. The levels of three- and tetrachlorinated congeners were highest in the Trade Wind regions. The contents of the higher chlorinated congeners had maxima in samples influenced by continental air masses. A correlation of the levels of the lower chlorinated congeners in air over the South Atlantic with the surface water temperature and thus with the temperature dependent gas/water partition coefficient K gw was observed. (orig.)

  1. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... tides, a natural phenomenon, are now common in many coastal waters. Various factors contribute to red tide formation such as insolation, wind, rain, salinity and nutrient input from land or by upwelling. Nitrogen and phosphorus are involved in phytoplank...

  2. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choudhary, R.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.

    -494 #02060313 Copyright ©2013 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data RICHA CHOUDHARY 1 , R. GOWTHAMAN 2 AND V. SANIL KUMAR 2 1... years period. Gangavali river mouth has narrowed due to siltation. Significant changes in the geomorphic features like spit growth, braided island, creeks, tidal flat are observed near Kali and Gangavali river mouth. Keywords: Remote sensing...

  3. Particle precipitation and atmospheric X-and gamma-rays in the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly by balloon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.M. da.

    1981-06-01

    Studies concerning particle precipitation and atmospheric X-and low energy gamma-rays in the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly by balloons experiments that have been made at INPE since 1968 are reported. (Author) [pt

  4. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis

  5. 75 FR 51983 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management Councils, in conjunction... Caribbean Fishery Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  6. 75 FR 39918 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-4366. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center... researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's; International...

  7. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissa.mckinney@uconn.edu [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dudley, Sheldon F.J. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Zungu, M. Philip [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg{sup −1} dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ{sup 15}N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ{sup 13}C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local

  8. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Dudley, Sheldon F.J.; Zungu, M. Philip; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH_3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg"−"1 dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg"−"1 dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ"1"5N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ"1"3C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local emissions. • Length and

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACTS OF RHODOPHYCEAE FROM THE ATLANTIC AND THE MEDITERRANEAN COASTS OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimou Bouhlal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundred eight of organic extracts from eighteen red marine algae of Atlantic-Mediterranean have been tested for the production of antibacterial compounds. These extracts were obtained for two methods, maceration and using soxhlet. This study shows that most of the algal extracts were significantly active. The highest rates of biologically activity were found in five species, Pterosiphonia complanata, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius, Plocamium cartilagineum, Asparagopsis armata and Boergeseniella thuyoides. Among the methanolic and chloroforme-methanolic extracts showed the greatest biologically active.

  10. Convective Lofting Links Indian Ocean Air Pollution to Recurrent South Atlantic Ozone Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.

    2003-12-01

    We extend on our analysis of equatorial tropospheric ozone to illustrate the contributions of South Asian pollution export in forming episodes of high O3 over the Atlantic Ocean. We amplify on an earlier description of a broad resolution of the "Atlantic Paradox," for the Jan-Feb-March period, which included initial indications of a very long-distance contribution from South Asia. The approach has been to describe typical periods of significant maximum and minimum tropospheric ozone for early 1999, exploiting TOMS tropospheric ozone estimates jointly with characteristic features of the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) ozone soundings. Further investigation of the Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) record for all of 1999 suggests that there are repeated periods of very long-distance Asian influence crossing Africa, with an apparent effect on those portions of the Atlantic Equatorial troposphere which are downwind. Trajectory analyses suggest that the pattern over the Indian Ocean is complex: a sequence invoving multiple or mixed combustion sources, low level transport, cumulonimbus venting, and high-level transport to the west seem to be indicated by the TTO record. Biomass burning, fossil and biofuel combustion, and lighting seem to all contribute. For the Atlantic, burning and lighting on adjacent continents as well as episodes of this cross-Africa long-distance transport are all linked in a coordinated seasonal march: all are related by movement of the sun. However, interseasonal tropical variability related to the Madden-Julian oscillation allows intermittent ozone buildups that depart from the seasonal norm.

  11. Gastroptychus Cavimurus sp. nov., a new Chirostylid (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from off the western coast of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the second cruise of the Japanese Research Vessel "Kaiyo Maru" to the western coast of South America in 1968-69, Dr. Osame Tabeta of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, then on the staff of the Kyushu University, collected a number of galatheids off the northern Peruvian coast. All of

  12. 76 FR 3091 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... 10 a.m. to 12 p.m., EST on Thursday, March 3, 2011. Listening stations are available at the South... scientific materials. The SSC will discuss recommendations of the Council's Social and Economic Sciences sub...

  13. KAPEX RAFOS float data report 1997 - 1999. Pt. A. The Agulhas- and South Atlantic current components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boebel, O.; Anderson-Fontana, S.; Lazarevich, P.; Prater, M.; Rossby, T. [Rhode Island Univ., Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Schmid, C.; Zenk, W. [Institut fuer Meereskunde an der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Ansorge, I.; Lutjeharms, J. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Oceanography

    2000-10-01

    This data report presents trajectories and corresponding in-situ data for all acoustically tracked RAFOS floats that were deployed within the Agulhas and the South Atlantic Current components of KAPEX. KAPEX stands for Cape of Good Hope Experiment, Kaap die Goeie Hoop Eksperimente or Kap der Guten Hoffnung Experiment in the three languages of the participating authors. The objective of the program was to study the interocean exchange of subsurface waters south of Africa between the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans. A total of 92 floats were deployed during four cruises at depths between 100 - 1200 m during March 1997 and June 1998. It is the first time that eddy-resolving floats are used to measure ocean flow patterns at intermediate and thermocline levels off southern Africa. (orig.)

  14. Ascension and Port Stanley geomagnetic observatories and monitoring the South Atlantic Anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macmillan, S.; Turbitt, C.; Thomson, A.

    2009-01-01

    Our 15-year experience of operating two remote observatories, Ascension and Port Stanley, in the south Atlantic is described. These observatories help monitor the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region of weak magnetic field which causes considerable problems for spacecraft operators. One-minute and one-second values from these observatories, and other observatories both inside and outside the SAA, are analysed. We investigate whether the SAA, and its growth over time, are having any tangible effect on the observed external field variations. Whilst only able to illustrate the long-term characteristics of the irregular external field related to the solar cycle and not due to any long-term changes in the internal field, we do isolate micro pulsation signals at sites inside the SAA which contain more power than at sites outside.

  15. Climate Change in U.S. South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Fisheries Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffer, M. A.; Hernandez, D. L.; Lamkin, J. T.; Pugliese, R.; Reichert, M.; Hall, C.

    2016-02-01

    A review of the recent evidence that climate change is affecting marine ecosystems in the U.S. fishery management zones of the South Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean regions will be presented. This will include affects on the living marine resources (including fish, invertebrates, marine mammals and turtles), fisheries, habitat and people. Emphasis will be given on the effects that impact managed species and the likely new challenges that they present to fishery managers. The evidence is being derived from the results of the "Climate Variability and Fisheries Workshop: Setting Research Priorities for the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Regions," October 26-28, 2015 in St. Petersburg Beach, Florida. Commonalities and regional differences will be presented in terms of how climate variability is likely to impact distribution, catch, catchability, socioeconomics, and management.

  16. A Nuclear Submarine in the South Atlantic: The Framing of Threats and Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Herz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we analyse one aspect of Brazilian nuclear policy during the tenure of the Workers Party (2003–2016: the development of a nuclear-propelled submarine. We propose that the project of building a nuclear-propelled submarine has become possible partly because of the mobilisation of a set of arguments for the construction of the South Atlantic as a strategic area, framed in terms of security and development. On the other hand, we contend that the need for a nuclear-propelled submarine is framed through the mobilisation of a specific notion of deterrence. In other words, we claim that the notions of ‘strategic area’, ‘general deterrence’, ‘conventional deterrence’, and ‘deterrence by denial’ can help us analyse the fundamental aspects involved in the framing of the South Atlantic as a security concern, justifying the nuclear-propelled submarine project.

  17. Freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean in 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Wenjun; Shi, Jiuxin

    2016-01-01

    Basin-scaled freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is reported to have dominated South Atlantic Ocean during period from 2005 to 2014, as shown by the gridded monthly means Argo (Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography) data. The relevant investigation was also revealed by two transatlantic occupations of repeated section along 30° S, from World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Freshening of the AAIW was compensated by the opposing salinity increase o...

  18. Freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean in 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    W. Yao; J. Shi; X. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Basin-scale freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is reported to have occurred in the South Atlantic Ocean during the period from 2005 to 2014, as shown by the gridded monthly means of the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) data. This phenomenon was also revealed by two repeated transects along a section at 30° S, performed during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Freshening of the AAIW was compensated for by a salinity...

  19. Measurements of additional X-ray flux in South Atlantic magnetic anomaly region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the calculation of the additional X-ray flux (20 - 150 KeV), produced by electron precipitation in the South Atlantic anomaly region. The kind of detector and the technique employed in the observations of this flux, utilizing stratospheric balloons as a means of transport of the payload across the anomaly region, are described. The results of two balloon launchins in Sao Jose dos Campos in July 1968, with the expected flux, are compared. (author) [pt

  20. South Atlantic meridional transports from NEMO-based simulations and reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignac, Davi; Ferreira, David; Haines, Keith

    2018-02-01

    The meridional heat transport (MHT) of the South Atlantic plays a key role in the global heat budget: it is the only equatorward basin-scale ocean heat transport and it sets the northward direction of the global cross-equatorial transport. Its strength and variability, however, are not well known. The South Atlantic transports are evaluated for four state-of-the-art global ocean reanalyses (ORAs) and two free-running models (FRMs) in the period 1997-2010. All products employ the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Oceans (NEMO) model, and the ORAs share very similar configurations. Very few previous works have looked at ocean circulation patterns in reanalysis products, but here we show that the ORA basin interior transports are consistently improved by the assimilated in situ and satellite observations relative to the FRMs, especially in the Argo period. The ORAs also exhibit systematically higher meridional transports than the FRMs, which is in closer agreement with observational estimates at 35 and 11° S. However, the data assimilation impact on the meridional transports still greatly varies among the ORAs, leading to differences up to ˜ 8 Sv and 0.4 PW in the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the MHTs, respectively. We narrow this down to large inter-product discrepancies in the western boundary currents (WBCs) at both upper and deep levels explaining up to ˜ 85 % of the inter-product differences in MHT. We show that meridional velocity differences, rather than temperature differences, in the WBCs drive ˜ 83 % of this MHT spread. These findings show that the present ocean observation network and data assimilation schemes can be used to consistently constrain the South Atlantic interior circulation but not the overturning component, which is dominated by the narrow western boundary currents. This will likely limit the effectiveness of ORA products for climate or decadal prediction studies.

  1. Paleomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Leitner, Marko; Leonhardt, Roman; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heunemann, Christoph; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ashley, Jack A. D.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    The South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (SAA) is known as a region of the geomagnetic field that is approximately 25 μT in intensity, compared to an expected value of ˜43 μT. Geomagnetic field models do not find evidence for the SAA being a persistent feature of the geomagnetic field, however these models are constructed from paleomagnetic data that is sparse in the southern hemisphere. We present a full-vector paleomagnetic study of 40Ar/39Ar dated Late Pleistocene lavas from Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean (Shah et al., 2016; EPSL). Paleointensity estimations using the Thellier method of eight lava flows yield an average paleointensity of the Tristan da Cunha lavas as 18 ± 6 μT and an average virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.1 ± 1.2 × 1022 Am2. Comparing the VADM of the lava flows against the PADM2M, PINT and SINT-800 databases indicates that the lava flows represent four distinct periods of anomalously weak intensity in the South Atlantic between 43 and 90 ka ago, constrained by newly obtained 40Ar/39Ar ages. This anomalously weak intensity in the Late Pleistocene is similar to the present-day SAA and SAA-like anomalous behavior found in the recent archeomagnetic study by Tarduno et al. (2015; Nat. Commun.). Our dataset provides evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South Atlantic, and potentially indicates such anomalies are the geomagnetic field manifestation of the long-existing core-mantle boundary heterogeneity seismically identified as the African Large Low Velocity Shear Province (LLSVP).

  2. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  5. Palaeomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Leitner, Marko; Leonhardt, Roman; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heunemann, Christoph; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ashley, Jack A. D.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We present a dataset of a full-vector palaeomagnetic study of Late Pleistocene lavas from the island Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean. The current day geomagnetic field intensity in this region is approximately 25 μT, compared to an expected value of ∼43 μT; this phenomenon is known as the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (SAA). Geomagnetic field models extending back to the last 10 ka find no evidence for this being a persistent feature of the geomagnetic field, albeit, all models are constructed from data which is particularly sparse in the southern hemisphere. New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating dating indicates the studied lavas from Tristan da Cunha extruded between 90 and 46 ka. Palaeointensity estimations of eight lava flows made using the Thellier method yield an average palaeointensity of 18 ± 6 μT and virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.1 ± 1.2 ×1022 Am2. The lava flows demonstrate four time intervals comparable to the present day SAA, where the average VADM of the Tristan da Cunha lavas is weaker than the global VADM average. This suggests a persistent or recurring low intensity anomaly to the main geomagnetic field similar to the SAA existed in the South Atlantic between 46 and 90 ka.

  6. Transport and diffusion climatology of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Hayes, J.V.

    1980-01-01

    This study is part of a larger study of coastal meteorology and diffusion and was planned to assist in site selection of energy facilities by describing the transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts in as much detail as can be extracted from readily available meteorological data. The area covered in this study is the United States east and Gulf coasts from Maine to Texas. The region studied is all within the coastal plain and is generally characterized by flat beaches and very gentle slopes inland except in New England, where the coast is more rugged and the terrain hilly close to the sea. Meteorological variables of primary concern in this study are those which govern or influence transport and diffusion of airborne gases and particles. The most important are wind direction and speed and some measure of diffusive capacity such as turbulence, gustiness or lapse rate. Eight stations were chosen to give four pairs for comparison between a coastal station and another somewhat farther inland. The pairs are Boston and Bedford, Massachusetts; Belmar and Lakehurst, New Jersey; Cape Kennedy and Orlando, Florida; and Galveston and Houston, Texas. The same years of data were obtained for both stations in each pair. Results of selected examples are presented. The frequency of calms and of winds in the three sectors relative to the coastline is reported for the 25 coastal stations from Portland, Maine (PWM) to Brownsville, Texas (BRO). Differences between day and night in wind direction distribution are shown for six selected stations. The frequency of the five diffusion rating classes at the same coastal stations during onshore winds is also shown. Differences in dffusion conditions between day and night at six selected stations are given. The results obtained were arranged for easy use with diffusion models in which the primary meteorological inputs are wind speed and measures of lateral and vertical diffusion

  7. Analysis of the most important river plumes on the Atlantic and Mediterranean Iberian coast by means of satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez Novoa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rivers discharges cause the formation of buoyant plumes in the adjacent coastal area at their mouths, which are characterized by low-salinity water and controlled by outflow inertia, rotation (Coriolis effects, buoyancy, wind, and tide forcing. The turbid plumes influence the adjacent coastal area, since they control the patterns of nutrients, sediments and/or pollutants of fluvial origin on the coastal ocean and can promote strong physical and chemical changes on seawater. These changes affect the biological characteristics of the area, such as primary production, species composition, abundance and distribution of existing microorganism, which demonstrates its high ecological importance. The characterization of the most important river plumes along the Atlantic Iberian coast and the influence of the main forcing drivers (river discharge, wind and tide on them, was carried out through the analysis of plume mean-state images calculated using water leaving radiance data (nLw555 obtained from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor onboard the Aqua satellite during 2003-2013. Satellite data are downloaded from Ocean Color web site (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov. Daily high-resolution L1 files from MODIS-Aqua were processed through SeaDAS software. Composite images, interpolated to a regular pixel grid with an approximate resolution of 500m, were built for different synoptic conditions of river discharge, wind regimes and tide, in order to obtain a representative average plume image of each situation and river for the posterior analysis. Results showed that the river discharge is the main forcing factor in the river plume extension. Wind effect is noticeable under high river discharge and tide is important for the estuarine outflow regimes although with some remarkable similarities and differences between the Atlantic rivers due to their intrinsic characteristics.

  8. Groundwater availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Coes, Alissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers and confining units of North and South Carolina are composed of crystalline carbonate rocks, sand, clay, silt, and gravel and contain large volumes of high-quality groundwater. The aquifers have a long history of use dating back to the earliest days of European settlement in the late 1600s. Although extensive areas of some of the aquifers have or currently (2009) are areas of groundwater level declines from large-scale, concentrated pumping centers, large areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain substantial quantities of high-quality groundwater that currently (2009) are unused. Groundwater use from the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in North Carolina and South Carolina has increased during the past 60 years as the population has increased along with demands for municipal, industrial, and agricultural water needs. While North Carolina and South Carolina work to increase development of water supplies in response to the rapid growth in these coastal populations, both States recognize that they are facing a number of unanswered questions regarding availability of groundwater supplies and the best methods to manage these important supplies. An in-depth assessment of groundwater availability of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers of North and South Carolina has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. This assessment includes (1) a determination of the present status of the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater resources; (2) an explanation for how these resources have changed over time; and (3) development of tools to assess the system's response to stresses from potential future climate variability. Results from numerous previous investigations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain by Federal and State agencies have been incorporated into this effort. The primary products of this effort are (1) comprehensive hydrologic datasets such as groundwater levels, groundwater use, and aquifer properties; (2) a

  9. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea

  10. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Pütz

    Full Text Available Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18 from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF, a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  11. Post-fledging dispersal of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from two breeding sites in the South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütz, Klemens; Trathan, Phil N; Pedrana, Julieta; Collins, Martin A; Poncet, Sally; Lüthi, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is known about juvenile dispersal, a period when individuals may be susceptible to increased mortality given their naïve foraging behaviour. Therefore, we used satellite telemetry to study king penguin fledglings (n = 18) from two sites in the Southwest Atlantic in December 2007. The two sites differed with respect to climate and proximity to the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), a key oceanographic feature generally thought to be important for king penguin foraging success. Accordingly, birds from both sites foraged predominantly in the vicinity of the APF. Eight king penguins were tracked for periods greater than 120 days; seven of these (three from the Falkland Islands and four from South Georgia) migrated into the Pacific. Only one bird from the Falkland Islands moved into the Indian Ocean, visiting the northern limit of the winter pack-ice. Three others from the Falkland Islands migrated to the eastern coast of Tierra del Fuego before travelling south. Derived tracking parameters describing their migratory behaviour showed no significant differences between sites. Nevertheless, generalized linear habitat modelling revealed that juveniles from the Falkland Islands spent more time in comparatively shallow waters with low sea surface temperature, sea surface height and chlorophyll variability. Birds from South Georgia spent more time in deeper waters with low sea surface temperature and sea surface height, but high concentrations of chlorophyll. Our results indicate that inexperienced king penguins, irrespective of the location of their natal site in relation to the position of the APF, develop their foraging skills progressively over time, including specific adaptations to the environment around their prospective breeding site.

  12. Assessment of wave energy potential along the south coast of Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingyang; Mayerle, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    The south coast of Java Island has a great potential for wave energy. A long-term analysis of a 10-year wave dataset obtained from the ERA-Interim database is performed for preliminary wave energy assessment in this area, and it was seen that the annual median power is expected to exceed 20kW/m along the coast. A coastal wave model with an unstructured grid was run to reveal the wave conditions and to assess the wave energy potential along the coast in detail. The effect of swells and local wind on the wave conditions is investigated. Annual median wave power, water depth and distance from the coast are selected as criteria for the identification of suitable locations for wave energy conversion. Two zones within the study area emerge to be suitable for wave energy extraction. Swells from the southwest turned out to be the major source of wave energy and highest monthly median wave power reached about 33kW/m.

  13. Trace Gas Measurements Along the South Korean Coast Aboard the Jangmok During KOCOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Flynn, J. H., III

    2017-12-01

    The University of Houston deployed four instruments aboard the Jangmok during the KOrean Coastal water Ocean & Atmosphere (KOCOA) project to quantify O3, NOx, CO, and SO2 along the South Korea coast. The study explores influences of China pollution transport, estimation of the East Asia O3 background, comparisons with ground, ship, and airborne based measurements, and potential source regions along the coast. The Jangmok sailed from May 20 to June 5, 2016 from Ulsan on the east coast traversing along the southern coast to Bigeum in the west. The ship docked each night and measurements were collected only while the vessel was at sea. Sampling was divided into three profiles: anchored, drifting, and transits. Measurements while anchored and drifting provide good temporal data in a small area while transit data provide spatial coverage. The combination of sampling profiles give a better understanding of pollutants over the open water around southern Korea. A few case studies address pollutant transport from China, exploration of the relatively high East Asia O3 background, and coastal emissions along the Jangmok route and ports. The KOCOA project was conducted at the same time as the KORUS project, which provides a number of measurement platforms to compare observations. The Onnuri vessel was sailing as part of the KORUS-OC, while KORUS-AQ included a number of NIER monitoring sites and aircraft measurements. While a number of factors limited close proximity measurements with the other platforms, comparisons were explored where applicable.

  14. Abundance and fragmentation patterns of the ecosystem engineer Lithophyllum byssoides (Lamarck) Foslie along the Iberian Peninsula Atlantic coast. Conservation and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    The crustose calcareous red macroalgae Lithophyllum byssoides (Lamarck) Foslie is a common ecosystem engineer along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. This species is threatened by several anthropogenic impacts acting at different spatial scales, such as pollution or global warming. The aim of this study is to identify scales of spatial variation in the abundance and fragmentation patterns of L. byssoides along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. For this aim we used a hierarchical sampling design considering four spatial scales (from metres to 100s of kilometres). Results of the present study indicated no significant variability among regions investigated whereas significant variability was found at the scales of shore and site in spatial patterns of abundance and fragmentation of L. byssoides. Variance components were higher at the spatial scale of shore for abundance and fragmentation of L. byssoides with the only exception of percentage cover and thus, processes acting at the scale of 10s of kilometres seem to be more relevant in shaping the spatial variability both in abundance and fragmentation of L. byssoides. These results provided quantitative estimates of abundance and fragmentation of L. byssoides at the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula establishing the observational basis for future assessment, monitoring and experimental investigations to identify the processes and anthropogenic impacts affecting L. byssoides populations. Finally we have also identified percentage cover and patch density as the best variables for long-term monitoring programs aimed to detect future anthropogenic impacts on L. byssoides. Therefore, our results have important implications for conservation and management of this valuable ecosystem engineer along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Identification of Surface Water Quality along the Coast of Sanya, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Zhen; Che, Zhi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) are utilized to identify the effects caused by human activities on water quality along the coast of Sanya, South China Sea. PCA and CA identify the seasonality of water quality (dry and wet seasons) and polluted status (polluted area). The seasonality of water quality is related to climate change and Southeast monsoons. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities (especially land input of pollutions). PCA reveals the characteristics underlying the generation of coastal water quality. The temporal and spatial variation of the trophic status along the coast of Sanya is governed by hydrodynamics and human activities. The results provide a novel typological understanding of seasonal trophic status in a shallow, tropical, open marine bay. PMID:25894980

  16. Rising water temperatures, reproduction and recruitment of an invasive oyster, Crassostrea gigas, on the French Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutertre, Mickaël; Beninger, Peter G; Barillé, Laurent; Papin, Mathias; Haure, Joël

    2010-02-01

    The recent appearance and invasion of feral oysters (Crassostrea gigas) along the northern European Atlantic coast, underscores the necessity to investigate the relationship between environmental variables, reproductive physiology, larval development and recruitment. We studied these relationships at both high (HT) and intermediate (IT) - turbidity sites, through historical data on water temperatures, multi-parameter environmental probes, histological analyses, and field collections of planktonic larvae and settled post-larvae in 2005 and 2006. A progressive warming trend was observed, especially since 1995, when oyster proliferation first became severe. Threshold temperatures for oocyte growth, larval development and settlement were achieved in both 2005 and 2006. The HT site showed greater numbers of larvae and post-larvae than the IT site for both years, with the highest numbers of post-larvae observed at both sites during the warmer summer of 2006. These results suggest that increased temperatures in northern European waters allow successful reproduction, larval development, and recruitment of C. gigas. High turbidity conditions further enhance this success. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A floodplain continuum for Atlantic coast rivers of the Southeastern US: Predictable changes in floodplain biota along a river's length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzer, Darold P.; Noe, Gregory; Lee, Linda; Galatowitsch, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Floodplains are among the world’s economically-most-valuable, environmentally-most-threatened, and yet conceptually-least-understood ecosystems. Drawing on concepts from existing riverine and wetland models, and empirical data from floodplains of Atlantic Coast rivers in the Southeastern US (and elsewhere when possible), we introduce a conceptual model to explain a continuum of longitudinal variation in floodplain ecosystem functions with a particular focus on biotic change. Our hypothesis maintains that major controls on floodplain ecology are either external (ecotonal interactions with uplands or stream/river channels) or internal (wetland-specific functions), and the relative importance of these controls changes progressively from headwater to mid-river to lower-river floodplains. Inputs of water, sediments, nutrients, flora, and fauna from uplands-to-floodplains decrease, while the impacts of wetland biogeochemistry and obligate wetland plants and animals within-floodplains increase, along the length of a river floodplain. Inputs of water, sediment, nutrients, and fauna from river/stream channels to floodplains are greatest mid-river, and lower either up- or down-stream. While the floodplain continuum we develop is regional in scope, we review how aspects may apply more broadly. Management of coupled floodplain-river ecosystems would be improved by accounting for how factors controlling the floodplain ecosystem progressively change along longitudinal riverine gradients.

  18. High dark inorganic carbon fixation rates by specific microbial groups in the Atlantic off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Feijóo, Elisa; Sintes, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J; Varela, Marta M

    2018-02-01

    Bulk dark dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation rates were determined and compared to microbial heterotrophic production in subsurface, meso- and bathypelagic Atlantic waters off the Galician coast (NW Iberian margin). DIC fixation rates were slightly higher than heterotrophic production throughout the water column, however, more prominently in the bathypelagic waters. Microautoradiography combined with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (MICRO-CARD-FISH) allowed us to identify several microbial groups involved in dark DIC uptake. The contribution of SAR406 (Marinimicrobia), SAR324 (Deltaproteobacteria) and Alteromonas (Gammaproteobacteria) to the dark DIC fixation was significantly higher than that of SAR202 (Chloroflexi) and Thaumarchaeota, in agreement with their contribution to microbial abundance. Q-PCR on the gene encoding for the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) from the putatively high versus low ammonia concentration ecotypes revealed their depth-stratified distribution pattern. Taken together, our results indicate that chemoautotrophy is widespread among microbes in the dark ocean, particularly in bathypelagic waters. This chemolithoautotrophic biomass production in the dark ocean, depleted in bio-available organic matter, might play a substantial role in sustaining the dark ocean's food web. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Behaviour of Talitrus saltator (Crustacea: Amphipoda) on a rehabilitated sandy beach on the European Atlantic Coast (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Filipa; Rossano, Claudia; Nourisson, Delphine; Gambineri, Simone; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and human controls are widely accepted as the main structuring forces of the macrofauna communities on sandy beaches. A population of the talitrid amphipod Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) was investigated on an exposed sandy beach on the Atlantic coast of Portugal (Leirosa beach) to estimate orientation capabilities and endogenous rhythms in conditions of recent changes in the landscape (artificial reconstruction of the foredune) and beach morphodynamics (stabilization against erosion from the sea). We tested sun orientation of talitrids on the beach and recorded their locomotor activity rhythms under constant conditions in the laboratory. The orientation data were analysed with circular statistics and multiple regression models adapted to angular distributions, to highlight the main factors and variables influencing the variation of orientation. The talitrids used the sun compass, visual cues (landscape and sun visibility) to orient and the precision of orientation varied according to the tidal regime (rising or ebbing tides). A well-defined free-running rhythm (circadian with in addition a bimodal rhythmicity, likely tidal) was highlighted in this population. This showed a stable behavioural adaptation on a beach that has experienced a process of artificial stabilization of the dune through nourishment actions over a decade. Monitoring the conditions of such dynamic environments and the resilience capacity of the inhabiting macroinfauna is a main challenge for sandy beach ecologists.

  20. Multiple Beneficial Lipids Including Lecithin Detected in the Edible Invasive Mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2014-01-01

    The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin. PMID:25532566

  1. Multiple beneficial lipids including lecithin detected in the edible invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagorn, Flore; Buzin, Florence; Couzinet-Mossion, Aurélie; Decottignies, Priscilla; Viau, Michèle; Rabesaotra, Vony; Barnathan, Gilles; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane

    2014-12-22

    The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL) composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight), including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs), and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs) were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture) revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4%) and 22:6n-3 (7.3%) acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin.

  2. Factors influencing the microplastic contamination of bivalves from the French Atlantic coast: Location, season and/or mode of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nam Ngoc; Poirier, Laurence; Pham, Quoc Tuan; Lagarde, Fabienne; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring the presence of microplastics (MP) in marine organisms is currently of high importance. This paper presents the qualitative and quantitative MP contamination of two bivalves from the French Atlantic coasts: the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Three factors potentially influencing the contamination were investigated by collecting at different sampling sites and different seasons, organisms both wild and cultivated. Inter- and intra-species comparisons were also achieved. MP quantity in organisms was evaluated at 0.61±0.56 and 2.1±1.7MP per individual respectively for mussels and oysters. Eight different polymers were identified. Most of the MPs were fragments; about a half of MPs were grey colored and a half with a size ranging from 50 to 100μm for both studied species. Some inter-specific differences were found but no evidence for sampling site, season or mode of life effect was highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological response to millennial variability of dust and nutrient supply in the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert F; Barker, Stephen; Fleisher, Martin; Gersonde, Rainer; Goldstein, Steven L; Kuhn, Gerhard; Mortyn, P Graham; Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-07-13

    Fluxes of lithogenic material and fluxes of three palaeo-productivity proxies (organic carbon, biogenic opal and alkenones) over the past 100,000 years were determined using the (230)Th-normalization method in three sediment cores from the Subantarctic South Atlantic Ocean. Features in the lithogenic flux record of each core correspond to similar features in the record of dust deposition in the EPICA Dome C ice core. Biogenic fluxes correlate with lithogenic fluxes in each sediment core. Our preferred interpretation is that South American dust, most probably from Patagonia, constitutes a major source of lithogenic material in Subantarctic South Atlantic sediments, and that past biological productivity in this region responded to variability in the supply of dust, probably due to biologically available iron carried by the dust. Greater nutrient supply as well as greater nutrient utilization (stimulated by dust) contributed to Subantarctic productivity during cold periods, in contrast to the region south of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), where reduced nutrient supply during cold periods was the principal factor limiting productivity. The anti-phased patterns of productivity on opposite sides of the APF point to shifts in the physical supply of nutrients and to dust as cofactors regulating productivity in the Southern Ocean. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  5. Whale, Whale, Everywhere: Increasing Abundance of Western South Atlantic Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Their Wintering Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Guilherme A; Danilewicz, Daniel; Andriolo, Artur; Secchi, Eduardo R; Zerbini, Alexandre N

    2016-01-01

    The western South Atlantic (WSA) humpback whale population inhabits the coast of Brazil during the breeding and calving season in winter and spring. This population was depleted to near extinction by whaling in the mid-twentieth century. Despite recent signs of recovery, increasing coastal and offshore development pose potential threats to these animals. Therefore, continuous monitoring is needed to assess population status and support conservation strategies. The aim of this work was to present ship-based line-transect estimates of abundance for humpback whales in their WSA breeding ground and to investigate potential changes in population size. Two cruises surveyed the coast of Brazil during August-September in 2008 and 2012. The area surveyed in 2008 corresponded to the currently recognized population breeding area; effort in 2012 was limited due to unfavorable weather conditions. WSA humpback whale population size in 2008 was estimated at 16,410 (CV = 0.228, 95% CI = 10,563-25,495) animals. In order to compare abundance between 2008 and 2012, estimates for the area between Salvador and Cabo Frio, which were consistently covered in the two years, were computed at 15,332 (CV = 0.243, 95% CI = 9,595-24,500) and 19,429 (CV = 0.101, 95% CI = 15,958-23,654) whales, respectively. The difference in the two estimates represents an increase of 26.7% in whale numbers in a 4-year period. The estimated abundance for 2008 is considered the most robust for the WSA humpback whale population because the ship survey conducted in that year minimized bias from various sources. Results presented here indicate that in 2008, the WSA humpback whale population was at least around 60% of its estimated pre-modern whaling abundance and that it may recover to its pre-exploitation size sooner than previously estimated.

  6. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide in the marine boundary layer over the South Atlantic during the OOMPH cruise in March 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H.; Pozzer, A.; Schmitt, T.; Jöckel, P.; Klippel, T.; Taraborrelli, D.; Lelieveld, J.

    2015-06-01

    In the OOMPH (Ocean Organics Modifying Particles in both Hemispheres) project a ship measurement cruise took place in the late austral summer from 01 to 23 March 2007. The French research vessel Marion Dufresne sailed from Punta Arenas, Chile (70.85° W, 53.12° S), to Réunion island (55.36° E, 21.06° S) across the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone were performed and are compared to simulations with the atmospheric chemistry global circulation model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). The model generally reproduces the measured trace gas levels, but it underestimates hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios at high wind speeds, indicating too-strong dry deposition to the ocean surface. An interesting feature during the cruise is a strong increase of hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and ozone shortly after midnight off the west coast of Africa due to an increase in the boundary layer height, leading to downward transport from the free troposphere, which is qualitatively reproduced by the model.

  8. Orbital Forcing driving climate variability on Tropical South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.; Dwyer, G. S.; Chiessi, C. M.; Rigsby, C. A.; Ferreira, F.

    2017-12-01

    Past research on climate response to orbital forcing in tropical South America has emphasized on high precession cycles influencing low latitude hydrologic cycles, and driving the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).However, marine proxy records from the tropical Pacific Ocean showed a strong 41-ka periodicities in Pleistocene seawater temperature and productivity related to fluctuations in Earth's obliquity. It Indicates that the western Pacific ITCZ migration was influenced by combined precession and obliquity changes. To reconstruct different climate regimes over the continent and understand the orbital cycle forcing over Tropical South America climate, hydrological reconstruction have been undertaken on sediment cores located on the Brazilian continental slope, representing the past 1.6 million years. Core CDH 79 site is located on a 2345 m deep seamount on the northern Brazilian continental slope (00° 39.6853' N, 44° 20.7723' W), 320 km from modern coastline of the Maranhão Gulf. High-resolution XRF analyses of Fe, Ti, K and Ca are used to define the changes in precipitation and sedimentary input history of Tropical South America. The response of the hydrology cycle to orbital forcing was studied using spectral analysis.The 1600 ka records of dry/wet conditions presented here indicates that orbital time-scale climate change has been a dominant feature of tropical climate. We conclude that the observed oscillation reflects variability in the ITCZ activity associated with the Earth's tilt. The prevalence of the eccentricity and obliquity signals in continental hydrology proxies (Ti/Ca and Fe/K) as implicated in our precipitation records, highlights that these orbital forcings play an important role in tropics hydrologic cycles. Throughout the Quaternary abrupt shifts of tropical variability are temporally correlated with abrupt climate changes and atmospheric reorganization during Mid-Pleistocene Transition and Mid-Brunhes Events

  9. Paleoseismic Records of 1762 and Similar Prior Earthquakes Along the South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D. R.; McHugh, C. M.; Mortlock, R. A.; Gurung, D.; Bastas-Hernandez, A.; Steckler, M. S.; Seeber, L.; Mustaque, S.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Akhter, S. H.; Saha, P.

    2014-12-01

    The great 1762 Arakan earthquake caused subsidence and uplift along 700km of the Arakan coast, and is thought to derive from a huge megathrust rupture reaching northward onto the southeastern coast of Bangladesh. Paleoseismic investigations were conducted in that area to document effects of that and prior earthquakes. U/Th ages obtained from isochron analysis of uplifted dead coral heads of the Poritesspecies, collected along a south to north transect from the islands east coast reveal at least three growth interruptions caused by abrupt relative sea-level changes within the past 1300 years that we interpret to be associated with megathrust ruptures. The ages show distinct events approximately 250, 900 and 1300 years ago. The youngest of these events corresponds to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. The two prior events at ~1100 and 700 AD, suggest an average recurrence interval of 400-600 years. Along the coast of Teknaf, we mapped a ~2m uplifted terrace. Marine shells on top of the terrace dated with C-14 at 1695-1791 AD link the uplift to the 1762 Great Arakan earthquake. Based on this evidence and previous work (Wang et al., 2013 and Aung et al., 2008), we estimated the 1762 rupture to be at least 700 km long, from Chebuda Island to the Sitakund anticline encompassing the Teknaf Peninsula. Considering 14 mm/yr convergence rate and 400-600 yrs recurrence interval, this rupture zone has now accumulated elastic deformation to generate a M~8.4 earthquake, close to the M8.8 estimated by Cummins (2007) for the 1762 earthquake. Published recurrence intervals based on C-14 ages along the Myanmar coast ~90 km south of Bangladesh reveal three ruptures within the last 3400 years with an average recurrence interval of 1000-2000 years (Aung et al., 2008). While the 1762 rupture reached across both areas, some of the prior ruptures may be confined to one or the other of these areas, with a smaller magnitude. Our precise U-Th ages provide evidence of recurrence intervals of

  10. Rebuilding natural coastlines after sediment mining: the example of the Brittany coasts (English Channel and Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnauld, Herve

    2016-04-01

    Rebuilding natural coastlines after sediment mining: the example of the Brittany coasts (English Channel and Atlantic Ocean). H.Regnauld (1) , J.N. Proust (2) and H.Mahmoud (1) (1) University of Rennes 2, (2) CNRS-University of Rennes 1, France A large part of the coasts of Brittany (western France) have been very heavily impacted by sand mining for the building of military equipments and of a large tidal power station. In some places more then 90 % of the sediment has been extracted during the late 40ies up to the 60ies. The mined site were all sink sites, were sediment had been accumulating for centuries. After the sand and or gravel extraction was stopped the coastal sites were largely used for tourism and most of the eroded dune fields were turned into car parks. Storms produced large floods inland as most of the gravel or sand barrier didn't exist any more. Some local outcrops of inherited Holocene periglacial material with archaeological remains were eroded, some disappeared. During the 80ies a complete shift in planning policies took place and these sites were progressively changed into nature preserves. The aim was to make them behave in a "natural" way again. The "natural" behaviour was intended in a very precise way: barriers should be able to withstand storms again and to protect inland fields from floods. In order to allow for dune re building wooden fences were erected and marram grass was artificially planted. As, from a sedimentological point of view, these sites were sink sites, accumulation was rather rapid (up to 0.25m a year behind wooden fences) and new barrier began to build. The only problem is that they did not always build-up exactly in the same place or with the same material. Some parts of the coasts were left "unprotected" by these new barriers, ancient exposed sites became protected. Today the system as a whole may be considered as having been able to reach some level of equilibrium with the average wave conditions. It has been able to

  11. 77 FR 37359 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from chipping and grinding activities, and composting operations. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on this proposal and plan to follow with a final action.

  12. Paracas geoglyphs of the peruvian south coast: Cerro Lechuza and Cerro Pico

    OpenAIRE

    García Soto, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the manufacture of large found drawings on desert plains and hill slopes of the Peruvian south coast was at-tributed to the Nasca society. However, since the 1980s, it is known that this cultural manifestation is a tradition that wouldhave begun towards the 750 BC during the early part of the development of the Paracas culture. Paracas geoglyphs have beenreported from Pisco to the Rio Grande Basin of Nasca, particularly in the area of Palpa where the where they have identifiedm...

  13. Evidence of Early Cultures in the Palpa Valleys on the South coast of Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Reindel, Markus; Isla, Johny A.

    2012-01-01

    After the pioneering work of Julio C. Tello, Frédéric Engel and John H. Rowe on the Formative and Preceramic periods, few advances have been made in the investigation of early cultural developments on the south coast of Perú. This is especially true for the Río Grande de Nasca drainage, where there is a lack of data regarding early human occupation. The Nasca-Palpa Archaeological Project aims to reconstruct the human occupation of the Palpa valleys during all Prehispanic periods. In this arti...

  14. Eolic energy. Evaluation of the eolic potential of the Atlantic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez M, H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the study are: Gathering of the available information on winds (speeds stockings and predominant addresses of the wind every hour) in the Colombian Atlantic Costa. Analyze it and to adjust it. Mensuration team characteristic; Speed monthly average; duration and frequency of periods of calm, relative and accumulative monthly frequency and mainly the year, address and distribution of the wind typical curve for energy and power during the year, to determine, the aero generation of potential and the water pumping. The mensurations were made 10, 15, 20, 15 meters on the surface and the Himat gave the primary information, 18 stations were studied with a volume of 1321104 data. The parameters of weibull distribution were determined for every month and for all the stations. San Andres' airport is that of better potential with 2182 kw/m to the square/year, with an annual average of 344.53 w/m to the square that is a very good potential. The maximum of 292 kWh/m to the square is given in December and the minimum of 81.47 kWh/m to the square during September. They are considered good places for aero generation those from 500 kWh/m to the square and they are attractive: Riohacha, Soledad, Cartagena, Valledupar, Santa Marta and Codazzi areas. These places are favorable for the electricity generation in on-line systems with systems already existent or with aero generator-diesel combined systems or solar aero generator-cells. The results of aero generators simulation show the possibility to use these teams clearly. In the case of San Andres factors are had up to 57 percent for aero generators like the Siemens 2000 and the wind worker 10 since the potential is important they are considered convenient to study projects to implement the aero generation and the pumping

  15. Description of new genera and species of marine cyanobacteria from the Portuguese Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ângela; Ramos, Vitor; Mota, Rita; Lima, Steeve; Santos, Arlete; Vieira, Jorge; Vieira, Cristina P; Kaštovský, Jan; Vasconcelos, Vitor M; Tamagnini, Paula

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at increasing the knowledge on marine cyanobacteria from temperate regions, we previously isolated and characterized 60 strains from the Portuguese foreshore and evaluate their potential to produce secondary metabolites. About 15% of the obtained 16S rRNA gene sequences showed less than 97% similarity to sequences in the databases revealing novel biodiversity. Herein, seven of these strains were extensively characterized and their classification was re-evaluated. The present study led to the proposal of five new taxa, three genera (Geminobacterium, Lusitaniella, and Calenema) and two species (Hyella patelloides and Jaaginema litorale). Geminobacterium atlanticum LEGE 07459 is a chroococcalean that shares morphological characteristics with other unicellular cyanobacterial genera but has a distinct phylogenetic position and particular ultrastructural features. The description of the Pleurocapsales Hyella patelloides LEGE 07179 includes novel molecular data for members of this genus. The filamentous isolates of Lusitaniella coriacea - LEGE 07167, 07157 and 06111 - constitute a very distinct lineage, and seem to be ubiquitous on the Portuguese coast. Jaaginema litorale LEGE 07176 has distinct characteristics compared to their marine counterparts, and our analysis indicates that this genus is polyphyletic. The Synechococcales Calenema singularis possess wider trichomes than Leptolyngbya, and its phylogenetic position reinforces the establishment of this new genus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial diversity and biogeography in deep-sea sediments of the South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Regina; Bienhold, Christina; Ramette, Alban

    2010-01-01

    in 1051 sequences. Phylotypes affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria were present in all three basins. The distribution of these shared phylotypes seemed to be influenced neither by the Walvis Ridge nor by different deep water masses, suggesting a high dispersal......Microbial biogeographic patterns in the deep sea depend on the ability of microorganisms to disperse. One possible limitation to microbial dispersal may be the Walvis Ridge that separates the Antarctic Lower Circumpolar Deep Water from the North Atlantic Deep Water. We examined bacterial...... communities in three basins of the eastern South Atlantic Ocean to determine diversity and biogeography of bacterial communities in deep-sea surface sediments. The analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene clone libraries in each basin revealed a high diversity, representing 521 phylotypes with 98% identity...

  17. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  18. A preliminary study of paleotsunami deposit along the south coast of East Java: Pacitan-Banyuwangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anugrah, Suci D.; Istiyanati; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan

    2015-01-01

    Along the southern coast of East Java Indonesia, at a number of localities, it can be identified and attempted to assign the age of tsunami deposit. Laboratory analyses were conducted also to support this study such as Granulometry, Paleontology and radiometric dating analysis. The presence of tsunami 1994 deposit in the area of Pancer, Lampon, Prigi and Grajagan was found, as a result of 7.8 Magnitude Banyuwangi Earthquake. The radiometric dating analysis also identified some paleotsunami deposit of about 1921 and 1930 in the area of Prigi and Teleng. This paleotsunami is assumed to have a correlation with an earthquake in the south of Java at the same time. An outcrop in the Prigi and Teleng strongly convinced the fact of an earthquake generated tsunami in the south of Java in the year of about 1921 and 1930

  19. A preliminary study of paleotsunami deposit along the south coast of East Java: Pacitan-Banyuwangi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anugrah, Suci D.; Istiyanati [Tsunami Mitigation Division - Meteorogical Climatologycal and Geophysical Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan [Geology Department, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology - Bandung Institute of Technolog, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Along the southern coast of East Java Indonesia, at a number of localities, it can be identified and attempted to assign the age of tsunami deposit. Laboratory analyses were conducted also to support this study such as Granulometry, Paleontology and radiometric dating analysis. The presence of tsunami 1994 deposit in the area of Pancer, Lampon, Prigi and Grajagan was found, as a result of 7.8 Magnitude Banyuwangi Earthquake. The radiometric dating analysis also identified some paleotsunami deposit of about 1921 and 1930 in the area of Prigi and Teleng. This paleotsunami is assumed to have a correlation with an earthquake in the south of Java at the same time. An outcrop in the Prigi and Teleng strongly convinced the fact of an earthquake generated tsunami in the south of Java in the year of about 1921 and 1930.

  20. Availability of pearl producing marine bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ataur Rahman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted during September 2014 to July 2015 to identify the pearl bearing bivalves in south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and culture potentialities of marine oyster in captivity based on field investigation. A total of 7 pearl bearing bivalve species were identified in the coast with a salinity of 18-34 ppt, pH 8.1-8.3 and water depth ranged 0.2-2.0 meter in their habitat. From the collected bivalves, most abundant oyster species windowpane oyster, Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758 was reared in fiber glass tanks with seawater for a period of 6 months. During rearing highest survival rate of 88% was observed in T1 with sandy and gravel substratum and lowest survival rate of 78% was found in T2 with muddy substratum. Average temperature and salinity were varied between 24 °C-25 °C and 21-26 ppt respectively. From the reared oyster, highest 54 nos. small pearls in the month of April and lowest 7 pearls in December from a single P. placenta were obtained. The study proved that pearls can be obtained from the marine oysters in captivity in Bangladesh, and this offers large scale culture potentialities in our coast.

  1. The South Atlantic Anomaly: the key for a possible geomagnetic reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier ePavón-Carrasco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic Anomaly is nowadays one of the most important features of the Earth’s magnetic field. Its extent area at the Earth’s surface is continuously growing since the intensity instrumental measurements are available covering part of the Southern Hemisphere and centred in South America. Several studies associate this anomaly as an indicator of an upcoming geomagnetic transition, such an excursion or reversal. In this paper we carry out a detailed study about this issue using the most recent models that also include data from the last ESA mission Swarm. Our results reveal that one of the reversed polarity patch located under the South Atlantic Ocean is growing with a pronounced rate of -2.54•105 nT per century and with western drift. In addition, we demonstrate that the quadrupole field mainly controls this reversal patch at the CMB along with the rapid decay of the dipolar field. The presence of the reversal patches at the CMB seems to be characteristic during the preparation phase of a geomagnetic transition. However, the present value of the dipolar moment (7.7 1022A•m2 is not so low when compared with recent paleomagnetic data for the Holocene (last 12ka and for the entire Brunhes geomagnetic normal polarity (last 0.8 Ma, although the rate of decay is similar of the previous documented geomagnetic reversals or excursions.

  2. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from the Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-11 to 2007-11-05 (NODC Accession 0115226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115226 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from Atlantic Companion in the Inner Sea - West Coast...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Atlantic Cartier in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland, Irish Sea and St. George's Channel and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-09-12 to 2015-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0157236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157236 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Atlantic Cartier in the Inner Sea - West Coast Scotland,...

  5. The south-east coast of South Africa is characterized by its high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    fisheries management in South Africa has been ex- tended to include shellfish obtained for subsistence purposes. Because human resources for law enforce- ment are limited, and in keeping with international trends, authorities are promoting partnerships with local communities and seeking sustainable harvesting practices ...

  6. A synoptic decomposition of rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewers: Alice Favre afavre@csag.uct.ac.za Expert in cut-off lows occurring over South Africa Chris Reason chris.reason@uct.ac.za Expert in southern Africa climate variability Michael Pook mike.pook@csiro.au Expert in developing synoptic climatology...

  7. Relationship between radionuclides and sedimentological variables in the South Atlantic Continental Margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Paulo A.L.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding marine radioactivity in sediments of the Continental Margin of the South Atlantic. "1"3"7Cs and "4"0K radioactivity and sedimentological variables were determined in superficial sediment samples. It was demonstrated that "4"0K is a good indicator for sediment granulometry, whilst "1"3"7Cs presents a good correlation with its chemical composition. Moreover, it was identified through the radiometric data the occurrence of input of allochtonous matter to the Brazilian southernmost compartment from the Rio de La Plata estuary, as previously reported in the literature. (author)

  8. Observation of high energy electrons and protons in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly by Ohzora Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuche, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    Observed results of the high energy electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.58 - 35 MeV) of the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly are presented. Two silicon Δ E-E telescopes on the ohzora satellite (EXOS-C, 1984-15A) were used to observe the high energy particle and the maximum intensity of electrons and protons. The powers of energy spectra above 1 MeV have different values from energy region below 1 MeV. The electron and proton intensities are greatest at pitch angle maximized at 90 0 . (author) [pt

  9. Ethnic self-regulation and democratic instability on Nicaragua’s Atlantic Coast: The case of Ratisuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Henriksen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the negative impacts of ethnic self-regulation on the processes of democratization in Nicaragua. Based on a case study of a small Miskitu community on the Atlantic Coast the article argues that self-regulatory practices do not automatically forge the integration of civil society. On the contrary, these practices lead to an exclusionary development process that reinforces existing divisions and deepens ongoing conflicts. This argument is based on a distinction between three different, yet interrelated, expressions of neo-liberal change on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua: First, in the absence of state institutions the political influence of the ethnic minorities lies not in the ability to mobilize against the state, but in the fact that they fill the vacuum created by a state in retreat. Community members thus execute political authority and create social and political space. Second, the execution of political authority may contribute to the formation of community and the creation of space and social rights. But in this process other vulnerable groups are excluded, marginalized and denied access to basic rights. Thirdly, self-help practices lead to an exaggerated fragmentation of society into secluded and autonomous spatial and social units based on inward-looking principles.Resumen: Auto-regulación étnica e inestabilidad democrática en la costa atlántica de Nicaragua: El caso de RatisumaEn este artículo se estudian algunos de los efectos negativos de la auto-regulación étnica sobre los procesos de democratización en Nicaragua. Basándome en un caso de estudio de una pequeña comunidad miskito en la costa atlántica, en el artículo sostengo que las prácticas autoregulatorias no forjan automáticamente la integración de la sociedad civil. Al contrario, estas prácticas conducen a un proceso de desarrollo excluyente que refuerza las divisiones existentes y acentúa los conflictos en curso. Esta interpretaci

  10. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2016-02-20 to 2016-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0160572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160572 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  12. 19 CFR 122.23 - Certain aircraft arriving from areas south of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inner boundary of the Atlantic (Coastal) Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) south of 30 degrees... 33 degrees north latitude, or from the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Coasts from a place in the Western Hemisphere south of 30 degrees north latitude, from any place in Mexico, from the U.S. Virgin Islands, or...

  13. Landscape fragmentation in South Coast Renosterveld, South Africa, in relation to rainfall and topography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kemper, J

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available be identified on the basis of irreplaceability (presence of unique attributes; contribution to achiev- ing a reservation goal) and on actual and potential threats (Pressey et al. 1996). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank William Bond, Steven Higgins, Richard Hobbs, John... Ludwig and Chris Margules for com- menting on earlier versions of this manuscript. CSIR, South Africa and the Pew Charitable Trust are thanked for funding this project. REFERENCES Computer Centre for Water Research (1996) Computer Centre for Water...

  14. [Distribution, population parameters, and diet of Astropecten marginatus (Asteroidea: Astropectinidae) in the Venezuelan Atlantic coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly

    2011-03-01

    Astropecten marginatus is a sea star widely distributed in Northern and Eastern South America, found on sandy and muddy bottoms, in shallow and deep waters. To describe some of its ecological characteristics, we calculated it spatial-temporal distribution, population parameters (based on size and weight) and diet in the Orinoco Delta ecoregion (Venezuela). The ecoregion was divided in three sections: Golfo de Paria, Boca de Serpiente and Plataforma Deltana. Samples for the rainy and dry seasons came from megabenthos surveys of the "Línea Base Ambiental Plataforma Deltana (LBAPD)" and "Corocoro Fase I (CFI)" projects. The collected sea stars were measured, weighted and dissected by the oral side to extract their stomach and identify the preys consumed. A total of 570 sea stars were collected in LBAPD project and 306 in CFI one. The highest densities were found during the dry season in almost all sections. In LBAPD project the highest density was in "Plataforma Deltana" section (0.007 +/- 0.022 ind/m2 in dry season and 0.014 +/- 0.06 ind/m2 in rainy season) and in the CFI project the densities in "Golfo de Paria" section were 0.705 +/- 0.829 ind/m2 in rainy season and 1.027 +/- 1.107 ind/m2 in dry season. The most frequent size range was 3.1-4.6cm. The highest biomass was found in "Golfo de Paria" section (7.581 +/- 0.018 mg/m2 in dry season and 0.005 +/- 6.542 x 10(-06) mg/m2 in rainy season for 2004-2005 and 3.979 +/- 4.024 mg/m2 in dry season; and 3.117 +/- 3.137 mg/m2 in rainy season for 2006). A linear relationship was found between the sea star size and its weight but no relationship was observed between its size and the depth where it was collected. Mollusks are dominant in the sea star diet (47.4% in abundance). The diet in any of the sections, seasons or between projects or size class was heterogeneous, using multivariate ordinations (MDS) and SIMPER analysis and there was no difference in the prey number or food elements that a sea star can eat. Although A

  15. The potential of the coral species Porites astreoides as a paleoclimate archive for the Tropical South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Natan S.; Sial, Alcides N.; Frei, Robert

    2017-01-01

    , Red Sea and Caribbean, but lack for the Equatorial South Atlantic. Here we present coral-based records of Sr/Ca, δ18O and δ13C and the first δ18O–SST calibration for the scleractinian coral species Porites astreoides from the Rocas Atoll, Equatorial South Atlantic. The investigated geochemical proxies...

  16. Effects of Atlantic warm pool variability over climate of South America tropical transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaurte Villota, Constanza; Romero-Rodríguez, Deisy; Andrés Ordoñez-Zuñiga, Silvio; Murcia-Riaño, Magnolia; Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo

    2016-04-01

    Colombia is located in the northwestern corner of South America in a climatically complex region due to the influence processes modulators of climate both the Pacific and Atlantic region, becoming in a transition zone between phenomena of northern and southern hemisphere. Variations in the climatic conditions of this region, especially rainfall, have been attributed to the influence of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but little is known about the interaction within Atlantic Ocean and specifically Caribbean Sea with the environmental conditions of this region. In this work We studied the influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on the Colombian Caribbean (CC) climate using data of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) between 1900 - 2014 from ERSST V4, compared with in situ data SIMAC (National System for Coral Reef Monitoring in Colombia - INVEMAR), rainfall between 1953-2013 of meteorological stations located at main airports in the Colombian Caribbean zone, administered by IDEAM, and winds data between 2003 - 2014 from WindSat sensor. The parameters analyzed showed spatial differences throughout the study area. SST anomalies, representing the variability of the AWP, showed to be associated with Multidecadal Atlantic Oscillation (AMO) and with the index of sea surface temperature of the North-tropical Atlantic (NTA), the variations was on 3 to 5 years on the ENSO scale and of approximately 11 years possibly related to solar cycles. Rainfall anomalies in the central and northern CC respond to changes in SST, while in the south zone these are not fully engage and show a high relationship with the ENSO. Finally, the winds also respond to changes in SST and showed a signal approximately 90 days possibly related to the Madden-Julian Oscillation, whose intensity depends on the CC region being analyzed. The results confirm that region is a transition zone in which operate several forcing, the variability of climate conditions is difficult to attribute only one, as ENSO

  17. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ferreira Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are recognised as an excellent source of information on the distribution of their hosts. Here, the macroparasite fauna of 20 species of Pleuronectiformes belonging to five different families and inhabiting the Portuguese coast was investigated and compared with that known in four other areas (the North Sea, north Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Northwest African coast in order to determine (1 their zoogeographical pattern and (2 the role of the Portuguese coast as an intermediate biogeographic province. Macroparasites infecting Pleuronectiformes sampled along the Portuguese coast were collected using standard parasitological techniques, whereas data on those in the other four areas were obtained from the literature, rendering a total of 73 macroparasite species. Both sets of data were then compiled in a presence/absence matrix. Hosts and macroparasites were placed into zoogeographical categories according to their known distribution, and patterns were evaluated using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The zoogeography of hosts and parasites was not entirely concordant, although that of endoparasites was generally consistent with the patterns for marine free-living species. On the other hand, only specific ectoparasites truly mirrored the distribution of their hosts. These differences reflect the importance of host ecology and dispersal and environmental factors on the patterns revealed. The Portuguese coast seems to play a significant role in the distribution of Pleuronectiformes’ parasites along the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, due to its transitional character and to the sympatric occurrence of related hosts, both promoting the acquisition of new parasite species or the maintenance of historical host-parasite relationships.

  18. Vegetation and flora of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve, lower North Coast of New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, S. J.; Wilson, R.; Maryott-Brown, K.

    2015-01-01

    The vegetation of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve on the lower North Coast of New South Wales has been classified and mapped from aerial photography at a scale of 1:25,000. The plant communities so identified are described in terms of their composition and distribution within Booti Booti NP and Yahoo NR. The plant communities are also discussed in terms of their distribution elsewhere in south-eastern Australia, with particular emphasis given to the NSW North Coast where co...

  19. 76 FR 99 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 24 to the Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ...NMFS, Southeast Region, in collaboration with the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council), intends to prepare an EIS to describe and analyze a range of alternatives for management actions to be included in an amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP). These alternatives will consider measures to establish a rebuilding plan for the red grouper stock, while setting annual catch limits (ACLs), accountability measures (AMs), allocations, maximum sustainable yield (MSY), and optimum yield (OY) for red grouper. The purpose of this NOI is to solicit public comments on the scope of issues to be addressed in the EIS.

  20. Tsunami generation in Stromboli island and impact on the south-east Tyrrhenian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aeolian island arc in south Tyrrhenian sea, Italy. In the last 100 years the most relevant volcanic eruptions have beenaccompanied by local tsunamis, that have caused damage and casualties. In some cases the direct mechanism of local tsunami generation is clear, i.e. pyroclastic flows entering the sea. In some others it is uncertain and some speculation concerning the collapse of the eruptive column on the sea surface or the failure of some underwater mass can be made. But the ordinary activity is unlikely to generate large regional tsunamis. These can be produced by the lateral collapse of the volcanic cone that geomorphological and volcanological  investigations have proven to have occurred repeatedly in the recent history of the volcano, with return period in the order of some thousands of years. The last episode is dated to less than 5 ka BP, and left the Sciara del Fuoco scar on the north-west flank of Stromboli. Based on previous studies, the possible collapse of the nortwestern sector of Stromboli and the consequent generation and propagation of a tsunami are explored. The impact on Stromboli and on the other islands of the Aeolian archipelago is estimated, as well as the impact on the coast of Sicily and the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria. The simulation is carried out by means of a double model: a Lagrangian block model to compute the motion of the collapsing mass, and a finite-element hydrodynamic model to compute the evolution of the tsunami. Two distinct tsunami simulations are carried out, one on a very fine grid around the source region to evaluate the tsunami near Stromboli, and one utilising a coarser grid covering the whole south-east Tyrrhenian sea to compute the tsunami propagation toward Sicily and Calabria. It is found that a huge-volume collapse of the north-western flank of the Stromboli cone is capable of producing a regional tsunami which is catastrophic at the source

  1. Genetic connectivity between north and south Mid-Atlantic Ridge chemosynthetic bivalves and their symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina van der Heijden

    Full Text Available Transform faults are geological structures that interrupt the continuity of mid-ocean ridges and can act as dispersal barriers for hydrothermal vent organisms. In the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, it has been hypothesized that long transform faults impede gene flow between the northern and the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR and disconnect a northern from a southern biogeographic province. To test if there is a barrier effect in the equatorial Atlantic, we examined phylogenetic relationships of chemosynthetic bivalves and their bacterial symbionts from the recently discovered southern MAR hydrothermal vents at 5°S and 9°S. We examined Bathymodiolus spp. mussels and Abyssogena southwardae clams using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene as a phylogenetic marker for the hosts and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene as a marker for the symbionts. Bathymodiolus spp. from the two southern sites were genetically divergent from the northern MAR species B. azoricus and B. puteoserpentis but all four host lineages form a monophyletic group indicating that they radiated after divergence from their northern Atlantic sister group, the B. boomerang species complex. This suggests dispersal of Bathymodiolus species from north to south across the equatorial belt. 16S rRNA genealogies of chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic symbionts of Bathymodiolus spp. were inconsistent and did not match the host COI genealogy indicating disconnected biogeography patterns. The vesicomyid clam Abyssogena southwardae from 5°S shared an identical COI haplotype with A. southwardae from the Logatchev vent field on the northern MAR and their symbionts shared identical 16S phylotypes, suggesting gene flow across the Equator. Our results indicate genetic connectivity between the northern and southern MAR and suggest that a strict dispersal barrier does not exist.

  2. Atlantic Offshore Seabird Dataset Catalog, Atlantic Coast and Outer Continental Shelf, from 1938-01-01 to 2013-12-31 (NODC Accession 0115356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several bureaus within the Department of Interior compiled available information from seabird observation datasets from the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf into a...

  3. Revisiting the South Atlantic Anomaly after 3 years of Swarm satellite mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Campuzano, Saioa A.; De Santis, Angelo

    2017-04-01

    Covering part of Southern America and the South Atlantic Ocean, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is nowadays one of the most important and largest features of the geomagnetic field at the Earth's surface. It is characterized by lower intensity values than expected for those geomagnetic latitudes. Thanks to the global geomagnetic models, the spatial and temporal geometry of the Earth's magnetic field can be defined at the core-mantle boundary, showing the origin of the SAA as a reversal polarity patch that is growing with a pronounced rate of -2.54ṡ105 nT per century and with western drift. Since the Swarm satellite mission of the European Space Agency was launched at the end of 2013, the three twin satellites are picking up the most accurate values of the geomagnetic field up to now. In this work, we use the satellite magnetic data from Swarm mission along with the observatory ground data of surrounding areas to evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution of the SAA during the Swarm-life.

  4. Reproductive and population parameters of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J H; Cortés, F; Belleggia, M; Massa, A M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate reproductive and population parameters of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. In total, 2714 specimens (1616 males and 1098 females) were collected from surveys carried out using research vessels. Males ranged from 225 to 861 mm total length (LT ) and females from 235 to 925 mm LT . The size at maturity of females (651 mm) was significantly greater than that of males (565 mm). The maximum proportion of mature individuals (Pmax ) of the gestation ogive was 156 mm). The temporal and spatial co-occurrence of non-gravid adult females at different stages of ovarian development, as well as gravid females at all embryonic development stages would indicate that the female reproductive cycle in the south-western Atlantic Ocean is asynchronous. The results indicate that S. acanthias is susceptible to fishing pressure on account of its length at maturity, extended reproductive cycles and low fecundity. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Temporal Variations of Strength and Location of the South Atlantic Anomaly as Measured by RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jorn; Felix, Furst; Rothschild, Richard E.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Smith, David M.; Lingenfelter, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the particle background at an altitude of approx.540km during the time interval between 1996 and 2007 is studied using the particle monitor of the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment on board NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. A special emphasis of this study is the location and strength of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The size and strength of the SAA are anti-correlated with the the 10.7 cm radio flux of the Sun, which leads the SAA strength by approx.1 year reflecting variations in solar heating of the upper atmosphere. The location of the SAA is also found to drift westwards with an average drift rate of about 0.3deg/yr following the drift of the geomagnetic field configuration. Superimposed to this drift rate are irregularities, where the SAA suddenly moves eastwards and where furthermore the speed of the drift changes. The most prominent of these irregularities is found in the second quarter of 2003 and another event took place in 1999. We suggest that these events are previously unrecognized manifestations of the geomagnetic jerks of the Earth's magnetic field. Key words: space radiation environment, South Atlantic Anomaly, radiation monitors, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

  6. From deregulation to decentering in the South Atlantic and the construction of «Lusofonia»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Marques Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The papel shall rest on the geopolitics of the evolving security situation in the southern reaches of the Atlantic, and what this means for Portuguese and Lusophone interests. It will focus, mainly, on the growing threats the region faces and the risks of a rapid degradation which could result from the simultaneous ever louder affirmation of both regional and extra-regional players (State and non-State ones and the glaring absence of an overarching security architecture there. Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, South Africa, Angola and Nigeria (to take a few obvious examples have to contend with a growing US, Russian, and Chinese presence in the area, a presence with an ever-increasing clout economic, political, and military. Geostrategically, the region is subdivided into four sub-regions, as concerns these enhanced tensions, each raising thorny issues of its own. Special attention is given to Brazilian, Cape Verdian and Angolan interests and responses to this, and on the role Portuguese foreign policy has been playing in the developing and emergent regional tensions, potential and actual. The role of multilateral organization and coalitions, and the various degrees of formality of objectives they display, is also touched upon, albeit only lightly. More than simply on hard economic, political, and military data, the analysis endeavours to take stock of the discursive dimension of threats and tensions in the four sub-regions identified in the South Atlantic.

  7. Carbonate dissolution in the South Atlantic Ocean: evidence from ultrastructure breakdown in Globigerina bulloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittert, Nicolas; Henrich, Rüdiger

    2000-04-01

    Ultrastructure dissolution susceptibility of the planktic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides, carbonate ion content of the water column, calcium carbonate content of the sediment surface, and carbonate/carbon weight percentage ratio derived from sediment surface samples were investigated in order to reconstruct the position of the calcite saturation horizon, the sedimentary calcite lysocline, and the calcium carbonate compensation depth (CCD) in the modern South Atlantic Ocean. Carbonate ion data from the water column refer to the GEOSECS locations 48, 103, and 109 and calcium carbonate data come from 19 GeoB sediment surface samples of 4 transects into the Brazil, the Guinea, and the Cape Basins. We present a new (paleo-) oceanographic tool, namely the Globigerina bulloides dissolution index (BDX). Further, we give evidence (a) for progressive G. bulloides ultrastructural breakdown with increasing carbonate dissolution even above the lysocline; (b) for a sharp BDX increase at the sedimentary lysocline; and (c) for the total absence of this species at the CCD. BDX puts us in the position to distinguish the upper open ocean and the upwelling influenced continental margin above from the deep ocean below the sedimentary lysocline. Carbonate ion data from water column samples, calcite weight percentage data from surface sediment samples, and carbonate/carbon weight percentage ratio appear to be good proxies to confirm BDX. As shown by BDX both the calcite saturation horizon (in the water column) and the sedimentary lysocline (at the sediment-water interface) mark the boundary between the carbonate ion undersaturated and highly corrosive Antarctic Bottom Water and the carbonate ion saturated North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) of the modern South Atlantic.

  8. Evolution of South Atlantic density and chemical stratification across the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny; Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Peck, Victoria L; Kender, Sev; Elderfield, Henry; Waelbroeck, Claire; Vázquez Riveiros, Natalia; Hodell, David A

    2016-01-19

    Explanations of the glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 invoke a significant role for the deep ocean in the storage of CO2. Deep-ocean density stratification has been proposed as a mechanism to promote the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean during glacial times. A wealth of proxy data supports the presence of a "chemical divide" between intermediate and deep water in the glacial Atlantic Ocean, which indirectly points to an increase in deep-ocean density stratification. However, direct observational evidence of changes in the primary controls of ocean density stratification, i.e., temperature and salinity, remain scarce. Here, we use Mg/Ca-derived seawater temperature and salinity estimates determined from temperature-corrected δ(18)O measurements on the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina spp. from deep and intermediate water-depth marine sediment cores to reconstruct the changes in density of sub-Antarctic South Atlantic water masses over the last deglaciation (i.e., 22-2 ka before present). We find that a major breakdown in the physical density stratification significantly lags the breakdown of the deep-intermediate chemical divide, as indicated by the chemical tracers of benthic foraminifer δ(13)C and foraminifer/coral (14)C. Our results indicate that chemical destratification likely resulted in the first rise in atmospheric pCO2, whereas the density destratification of the deep South Atlantic lags the second rise in atmospheric pCO2 during the late deglacial period. Our findings emphasize that the physical and chemical destratification of the ocean are not as tightly coupled as generally assumed.

  9. Imaging the lithosphere and underlying mantle of the South Atlantic, South America and Africa using waveform tomography with massive datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, N. L.; Lebedev, S.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Ravenna, M.; Gaina, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent growth in global seismic station coverage has created dense data sampling of the previously poorly constrained lithosphere and underlying mantle beneath the South Atlantic, South America and Africa. The new data enable us to image the vast region at a new level of detail and address important open questions regarding its lithospheric architecture and mantle dynamics. In order to fully exploit the data sampling, we use an efficient, multimode waveform tomography scheme that enables the extraction of structural information from millions of seismograms and use the inherent data redundancy to minimize effects of errors in the data. Our tomographic model is constrained by waveform fits of over 1.2 million vertical-component seismograms, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S- and multiple S-waves. Each successful seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations within approximate sensitivity volumes, with respect to a 3D reference model. We then combine all equations into a large linear system and invert jointly for a model of S- and P-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We are now able to image the detailed structure of various African shields. For example, in West Africa, two clearly separate high-velocity units underlay the Reguibat and Man-Léo Shields; in the Congo area, a single high-velocity body, formed by three main units correspond to the Gabon-Cameroon, Bomu-Kibali and Kasai Shields. Strong low-velocity anomalies underlay the Afar Hotspot and the East African Rift; pronounced low velocities are also seen beneath parts of the Sahara Desert. We discuss the shape of the deep Afar anomaly and its possible relationships with the Saharan volcanism and the neighboring Tanzania Craton. In the South Atlantic, we retrieve fine-scale velocity structure along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), indicative of hotspot-ridge interactions. Major hotspots show

  10. Influence of Tropical South Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures on the Indian Summer monsoon in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Fred; Joshi, Manish K.

    2017-04-01

    In this study the teleconnection from the tropical south Atlantic to the Indian monsoon has been assessed in observations and in 32 models from the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models show that the regression pattern of tropics-wide Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies onto the tropical south Atlantic index correlates well with that in observations, even though with varying spatial standard deviations. However, only about half of the 32 models considered show the correct sign of rainfall response over India to a warm anomaly in the south tropical Atlantic, which is a reduction of rainfall. On the other hand, models generally do show large-scale responses broadly consistent with the observations, and the signal over India depends on relatively subtle changes in the response. This response to a tropical south Atlantic warm (cold) anomaly is a low-level quadrupole in streamfunction with an anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly over the Arabian Sea and India. This anticyclonic (cyclonic) anomaly leads to a weakening (strengthening) of the Somali jet and low-level divergence (convergence) over India, both inducing a reduction (increase) of Indian rainfall. The models which do not show the correct rainfall response over India also show a response similar to the one indicated above, but with maximum of the anticyclonic (cyclonic) response shifted to the western Pacific. The large-scale Walker circulation adjustment to the tropical south Atlantic SST anomalies is identified as one of the factors which account for the differences in the low-level streamfunction response. Models (and the observations) with the correct sign of the rainfall signal over India show the dominant upper-level convergence (divergence) as response to a warm (cold) tropical south Atlantic in the western Pacific region, whereas models with the wrong sign of the rainfall signal show it predominantly in the central-eastern Pacific

  11. ATLANTIC MAMMAL TRAITS: a data set of morphological traits of mammals in the Atlantic Forest of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Fernando; Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Beca, Gabrielle; Bello, Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Raul; Muylaert, Renata L; Rodarte, Raisa R; Villar, Nacho; Souza, Rafael; Graipel, Maurício E; Cherem, Jorge J; Faria, Deborah; Baumgarten, Julio; Alvarez, Martín R; Vieira, Emerson M; Cáceres, Nilton; Pardini, Renata; Leite, Yuri L R; Costa, Leonora P; Mello, Marco A R; Fischer, Erich; Passos, Fernando C; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Prevedello, Jayme A; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Carvalho, Fernando; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Paviolo, Agustin; Nava, Alessandra; Duarte, José M B; de la Sancha, Noé U; Bernard, Enrico; Morato, Ronaldo G; Ribeiro, Juliana F; Becker, Rafael G; Paise, Gabriela; Tomasi, Paulo S; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Melo, Geruza L; Sponchiado, Jonas; Cerezer, Felipe; Barros, Marília A S; de Souza, Albérico Q S; Dos Santos, Cinthya C; Giné, Gastón A F; Kerches-Rogeri, Patricia; Weber, Marcelo M; Ambar, Guilherme; Cabrera-Martinez, Lucía V; Eriksson, Alan; Silveira, Maurício; Santos, Carolina F; Alves, Lucas; Barbier, Eder; Rezende, Gabriela C; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Rios, Élson O; Silva, Adna; Nascimento, Alexandre Túlio A; de Carvalho, Rodrigo S; Feijó, Anderson; Arrabal, Juan; Agostini, Ilaria; Lamattina, Daniela; Costa, Sebastian; Vanderhoeven, Ezequiel; de Melo, Fabiano R; de Oliveira Laroque, Plautino; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Valença-Montenegro, Mônica M; Martins, Amely B; Ludwig, Gabriela; de Azevedo, Renata B; Anzóategui, Agustin; da Silva, Marina X; Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes, Marcela; Vogliotti, Alexandre; Gatti, Andressa; Püttker, Thomas; Barros, Camila S; Martins, Thais K; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; Neves, Carolina L; Nardi, Marcelo S; Braga, Caryne; Gonçalves, Pablo R; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Mendes, Poliana; de Oliveira, João A; Soares, Fábio A M; Rocha, Patrício A; Crawshaw, Peter; Ribeiro, Milton C; Galetti, Mauro

    2018-02-01

    Measures of traits are the basis of functional biological diversity. Numerous works consider mean species-level measures of traits while ignoring individual variance within species. However, there is a large amount of variation within species and it is increasingly apparent that it is important to consider trait variation not only between species, but also within species. Mammals are an interesting group for investigating trait-based approaches because they play diverse and important ecological functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, predation, grazing) that are correlated with functional traits. Here we compile a data set comprising morphological and life history information of 279 mammal species from 39,850 individuals of 388 populations ranging from -5.83 to -29.75 decimal degrees of latitude and -34.82 to -56.73 decimal degrees of longitude in the Atlantic forest of South America. We present trait information from 16,840 individuals of 181 species of non-volant mammals (Rodentia, Didelphimorphia, Carnivora, Primates, Cingulata, Artiodactyla, Pilosa, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla) and from 23,010 individuals of 98 species of volant mammals (Chiroptera). The traits reported include body mass, age, sex, reproductive stage, as well as the geographic coordinates of sampling for all taxa. Moreover, we gathered information on forearm length for bats and body length and tail length for rodents and marsupials. No copyright restrictions are associated with the use of this data set. Please cite this data paper when the data are used in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using the data. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii infection) in the New South Wales mid-north coast, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Shobini; Bannan, Aiveen M; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ralph, Anna P

    2012-05-21

    To determine the geographical, epidemiological and clinical features of sporotrichosis (a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii) in the New South Wales mid-north coast. We undertook a retrospective case review of S. schenckii infections that occurred during the period 2000-2010. Microbiology laboratory staff and medical practitioners in the NSW mid-north coast were contacted to identify cases through database searches and clinical data collection. Thirty-one cases of S. schenckii infection were identified. Twenty-one occurred in males, the mean age of patients was 59 years, and all cases with data available involved cutaneous disease affecting the limbs (multiple lesions in 18 of 20 cases). Despite an impression of temporal clustering (eight cases in 1 year), this was not statistically significant (P = 0.3). Most cases occurred in months with higher rainfall (13 of 14 cases with data available). Inoculating events included injuries in gardens, in bushland and on farms, and possible bites. Symptom duration before correct diagnosis ranged from 4 to 30 weeks (median, 8 weeks; data available for 15 cases), unnecessary antibacterial therapy was common (13 of 19 cases with data available), and morbidity occurred in the form of recurrence (three cases) and mild itraconazole-induced hepatotoxicity (two cases). In all cases with recorded treatment details, the patients received itraconazole, and the median duration of itraconazole treatment was 24 weeks. These data highlight that health providers on the NSW mid-north coast should consider sporotrichosis when patients present with characteristic lesions after an inoculating injury sustained from or contaminated by decaying vegetation. The risk may be higher in older people and in wetter months. Fungal culture to confirm the diagnosis needs to be specifically requested. In contrast to outbreaks reported from other states, the epidemiological pattern in NSW appears most consistent with sporadic occurrence

  13. Hydrographic data report: south coast of Puerto Rico, 1973--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Asencio, R.

    1975-01-01

    The hydrographic data included in this report were collected as part of a site selection survey to provide basic oceanographic data to assist the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority (PRWRA) in determining the best locations for additional electrical power generating facilities on the island, both nuclear and fossil fuel. This report includes data from two sites and an offshore transect between the sites. The Punta Verraco site, PVE, is on the west side of Guayanilla Bay and the Cabo Mala Pascua site, CMP, is located on the southeast corner of the island. Data were also collected seaward from Jobos Bay, OJB, to determine the effects of the open sea on nearshore oceanographic parameter characteristics. The two south coast sites are about 90 kilometers apart. The offshore Jobos Bay transect was made about 25 kilometers west of Cabo Mala Pascua. (auth)

  14. From The Mountain To The Sea: Exchange Between The South-Central Highlands And The South Coast During The Early Horizon Period

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence of the exchange of obsidian and cinnabar, highly coveted resources that traveled in prehistoric Peru from the south-central highlands to the Paracas culture area. The evidence for exchange of these materials is compared with evidence of cultural exchange between the coast and the south-central highlands, focusing on ceramic materials uncovered from excavations at the archaeological site Atalla, located in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. The article argues t...

  15. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    I explore the role of information and communication in the world of institution-led development. Through a series of case studies from the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua, I present several projects and their implications for uncovering information that may lead to greater local benefit from externally-planned development projects. In order to construct policies and implement projects, development institutions collect, analyze, and simplify information, collapsing messy physical and social realities into narrow sets of metrics. In addition, local stakeholders often aren't privy to the analysis and assumptions of the "expert" planners. An evolved set of methods for dialogue and planning, which focus on sharing available information, can help facilitate outcomes that are more beneficial for targeted groups. Carbon abatement cost curves provide a clear example where the relations of complex social, economic, and environmental systems are reduced to a narrow set of metrics, specifically the cost of carbon mitigation and the total tons reduced. When the carbon abatement cost curve is applied to the community level, it reveals information and allows for conclusions obscured by aggregated national level studies. I show that there are opportunities for augmenting the limited metrics of these cost curves to include those that relate to welfare, beginning to highlight how costs and savings are distributed among stakeholders. In particular, the benefits to the most marginalized groups are heavily dependent on planners taking a pro-poor approach. However, planners typically remain blind to the priorities, capabilities, and values of the target stakeholders. There is a dearth of methods that effectively open up the development expert's black box of project designs, allowing their proposed solutions to be transparent to the target beneficiaries. I address this challenge through the presentation of a participatory modeling process that was utilized with groups of artisanal fishers

  16. Hurricane Irma's Effects on Dune and Beach Morphology at Matanzas Inlet, Atlantic Coast of North Florida: Impacts and Inhibited Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Conlin, M. P.; Johnson, H. A.; Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Woo, H. B.; Kelly, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    During energetic coastal storms, surge from low atmospheric pressure, high wave set-up, and increased wave activity contribute to significant morphologic change within the dune and upper beach environments of barrier island systems. Hurricane Irma made landfall on the southwestern portion of the Florida peninsula, as a category 4 storm on Sept 10th, 2017 and tracked northward along the axis of the Florida peninsula for two days before dissipating over the North American continent. Observations along the North Florida Atlantic coast recorded significant wave heights of nearly 7 m and water levels that exceeded predictions by 2 meters on the early morning of Sept. 11th. At Fort Matanzas National Monument, the dune and upper beach adjacent to Matanzas Inlet experienced landward retreat during the storm, diminishing the acreage of dune and scrub habitat for federally-listed endangered and threatened animal species, including the Anastasia beach mouse, gopher tortoises, and several protected shore birds. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveys, conducted prior to the passage of the storm (Sept. 8) and immediately after the storm (Sept. 13) document dune scarp retreat >10 m in places and an average retreat of 7.8 m (+/- 5.2 m) of the 2-m beach contour, attributable to the event, within the study region. Although it is typical to see sedimentary recovery at the base of dunes within weeks following an erosive event of this magnitude, our follow up RTK surveys, two weeks (Sept. 26) and five weeks (Oct. 19) after the storm, document continued dune retreat and upper beach lowering. Subsequent local buoy observations during the offshore passage of Hurricanes Jose, Maria (Sept. 17 and 23, respectively) and several early-season Nor'easters recorded wave heights well above normal (2-3 meters) from the northeast. The lack of recovery may reveal a threshold vulnerability of the system, in which the timing of multiple moderate-to-high wave events, in the aftermath of a land falling

  17. Vertical datum conversion process for the inland and coastal gage network located in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and South Atlantic-Gulf hydrologic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Noll, Michael L.

    2017-03-07

    Datum conversions from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 among inland and coastal gages throughout the hydrologic regions of New England, the Mid-Atlantic, and the South Atlantic-Gulf have implications among river and storm surge forecasting, general commerce, and water-control operations. The process of data conversions may involve the application of a recovered National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929–North American Vertical Datum of 1988 offset, a simplistic datum transformation using VDatum or VERTCON software, or a survey, depending on a gaging network datum evaluation, anticipated uncertainties for data use among the cooperative water community, and methods used to derive the conversion. Datum transformations from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to North American Vertical Datum of 1988 using VERTCON purport errors of ± 0.13 foot at the 95 percent confidence level among modeled points, claiming more consistency along the east coast. Survey methods involving differential and trigonometric leveling, along with observations using Global Navigation Satellite System technology, afford a variety of approaches to establish or perpetuate a datum during a survey. Uncertainties among leveling approaches are generally quality category and ≥0.1 foot for Level II or III quality categories (defined by the U.S. Geological Survey) by observation and review of experienced practice. The conversion process is initiated with an evaluation of the inland and coastal gage network datum, beginning with altitude datum components and the history of those components queried through the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Site Inventory database. Subsequent edits to the Groundwater Site Inventory database may be required and a consensus reached among the U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers to identify the outstanding workload categorized as in-office datum transformations or offset applications versus out

  18. Phanerozoic burial, uplift and denudation of the Equatorial Atlantic margin of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, Peter; Bonow, Johan M.; Green, Paul F.; dall'Asta, Massimo; Roig, Jean-Yves; Theveniaut, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    We have initiated a study aimed at understanding the history of burial, uplift and denudation of the South American Equatorial Atlantic Margin (SAEAM Uplift) including the Guiana Shield to provide a framework for investigating the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the offshore region. We report first results including observations from fieldwork at the northern and southern flank of the Guiana Shield. The study combines apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) and vitrinite reflectance data from samples of outcrops and drillcores, sonic velocity data from drill holes and stratigraphic landscape analysis (mapping of peneplains) - all constrained by geological evidence, following the methods of Green et al. (2013). The study will thus combine the thermal history from AFTA data with the denudation history from stratigraphic landscape analysis to provide magnitudes and timing of vertical movements (Japsen et al. 2012, 2016). Along the Atlantic margin of Suriname and French Guiana, tilted and truncated Lower Cretaceous strata rest on Precambrian basement (Sapin et al. 2016). Our AFTA data show that the basement underwent Mesozoic exhumation prior to deposition of the Lower Cretaceous cover. Sub-horizontal peneplains define the landscape of the Guiana Shield at elevations up to 500 m a.s.l. As these sub-horizontal peneplains truncate the tilted, sub-Cretaceous surface along the Atlantic margin, these peneplains were therefore formed and uplifted in post-Cretaceous time. This interpretation is in good agreement with our AFTA data that define Paleogene exhumation along the margin and with the results of Theveniaut and Freyssinet (2002) who used palaeomagnetic data to conclude that bauxitic surfaces across basement at up to 400 m a.s.l. on the Guiana Shield formed during the Palaeogene. Integration of the results from AFTA with stratigraphic landscape analysis (currently in progress) and geological evidence will provide a robust reconstruction of the tectonic development of the

  19. Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: Another risk to a vulnerable species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Mariana B.; Eljarrat, Ethel; Gorga, Marina; Secchi, Eduardo R.; Bassoi, Manuela; Barbosa, Lupércio; Bertozzi, Carolina P.; Marigo, Juliana; Cremer, Marta; Domit, Camila; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Dorneles, Paulo R.; Torres, João Paulo M.

    2012-01-01

    Liver samples from 53 Franciscana dolphins along the Brazilian coast were analyzed for organobrominated compounds. Target substances included the following anthropogenic pollutants: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), as well as the naturally-generated methoxylated-PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). PBDE concentrations ranged from 6 to 1797 ng/g lw (mean 166 ± 298 ng/g lw) and were similar to those observed in cetaceans from Northern Hemisphere. PBBs were found in all sampling locations (< LOQ to 57 ng/g lw). DBDPE was detected in 42% of the dolphins from the most industrialized Brazilian state and the concentrations ranging from < LOQ to 352 ng/g lw. Franciscana dolphins from the tropical Brazilian shore presented the highest MeO-PBDE concentrations ever reported for coastal cetaceans (up to 14 μg/g lw). Eight MeO-PBDE congeners were detected and the present investigation constituted the first record of occurrence of six of them in marine mammal livers. - Highlights: ► PBDE, emerging BFR and MeO-PBDE levels in Franciscana dolphin from Brazil were reported. ► Six MeO-PBDEs were detected for the first time in marine mammals. ► PBDE contamination was similar than those from other industrialized areas around the world. ► MeO-PBDEs presented the higher concentrations found in coastal biota worldwide. - Concentrations and accumulation profiles of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and emerging brominated compounds in livers of dolphins from South Atlantic.

  20. Glauconitic deposits at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm, Denmark dated to the Cambrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Bromley, Richard Granville; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bioturbated, glauconitic siltstones and sandstones are overlain by presumed Upper Triassic deposits at coastal exposures at Julegård on the south coast of Bornholm. These glauconitic deposits have not previously been dated. A 40Ar-39Ar dating of the glaucony gives an age of 493 ± 2 Ma suggesting ...... of Rusophycus Hall, 1852, probably trilobite trace fossils, are also represented....

  1. 76 FR 57871 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast; Attainment Plan for 1997 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Automotive Repair (Smog Check improvements) and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (VOC... South Coast 2007 Ozone Plan. The District conducted public workshops, provided public comment periods... to the 2007 AQMP. See SCAQMD Governing Board Resolution 11-9. CARB conducted public workshops...

  2. Deep circulation changes in the South Atlantic since the Last Glacial Maximum from Nd isotope and multi-proxy records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, R.; Abouchami, W.; Zahn, R.; Masque, P.

    2016-01-01

    We report down-core sedimentary Nd isotope (εNd) records from two South Atlantic sediment cores, MD02-2594 and GeoB3603-2, located on the western South African continental margin. The core sites are positioned downstream of the present-day flow path of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and close to the Southern Ocean, which makes them suitable for reconstructing past variability in NADW circulation over the last glacial cycle. The Fe-Mn leachates εNd records show a coherent decreasing trend from glacial radiogenic values towards less radiogenic values during the Holocene. This trend is confirmed by εNd in fish debris and mixed planktonic foraminifera, albeit with an offset during the Holocene to lower values relative to the leachates, matching the present-day composition of NADW in the Cape Basin. We interpret the εNd changes as reflecting the glacial shoaling of Southern Ocean waters to shallower depths combined with the admixing of southward flowing Northern Component Water (NCW). A compilation of Atlantic εNd records reveals increasing radiogenic isotope signatures towards the south and with increasing depth. This signal is most prominent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and of similar amplitude across the Atlantic basin, suggesting continuous deep water production in the North Atlantic and export to the South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. The amplitude of the εNd change from the LGM to Holocene is largest in the southernmost cores, implying a greater sensitivity to the deglacial strengthening of NADW at these sites. This signal impacted most prominently the South Atlantic deep and bottom water layers that were particularly deprived of NCW during the LGM. The εNd variations correlate with changes in 231Pa/230Th ratios and benthic δ13C across the deglacial transition. Together with the contrasting 231Pa/230Th: εNd pattern of the North and South Atlantic, this indicates a progressive reorganization of the AMOC to full strength during the Holocene.

  3. 77 FR 66744 - Temporary Rule to Increase the Commercial Annual Catch Limit for South Atlantic Yellowtail Snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... South Atlantic Comprehensive ACL Amendment and the Generic ACL Amendment to the Red Drum, Reef Fish Resources, Shrimp, and Coral and Coral Reefs FMPs for the Gulf of Mexico (Generic ACL Amendment) (76 FR... (518,270 kg), round weight. The AM implemented through that rule states that the commercial sector will...

  4. 76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... RIN 0648-AY72 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of...) have submitted Amendment 10 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of... actions to revise the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit; revise definitions of...

  5. 77 FR 25116 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-BB44 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf... (Councils) have submitted Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the... proposes to limit spiny lobster fishing using trap gear in certain areas in the exclusive economic zone off...

  6. 77 FR 50642 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    .... 110908576-2240-02] RIN 0648-BB44 Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment... the final rule to implement Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery..., 2012), incorrect latitudinal coordinates for Lobster Trap Gear Closed Areas 16 and 17, and longitudinal...

  7. 75 FR 12506 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research...: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of goliath grouper will consist... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...

  8. 76 FR 81479 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future population conditions, and recommends research... mackerel and cobia. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico stocks of... Review (SEDAR) process, a multi-step method for determining the status of fish stocks in the Southeast...

  9. 77 FR 2960 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Exempted... and retention. This study, to be conducted in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) off Louisiana, is intended to better document the age structure and life history of fish...

  10. 77 FR 30507 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Exempted... and retention. This study, to be conducted in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), is intended to better document the age structure and life history of fish associated with...

  11. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... 120501426-2426-01] RIN 0648-BB98 Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea... this temporary rule to delay the start date of the 2012-2013 fishing season for the commercial black... temporary rule delays the start date of the 2012-2013 commercial fishing season for black sea bass from June...

  12. 75 FR 79309 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Emergency Rule To Delay Effectiveness of the Snapper... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains a correction to the temporary rule that delays the effective date of the area closure for snapper...

  13. 75 FR 9864 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...-AY32 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based... thought to be the largest distribution (>23,000 square miles) of pristine deepwater coral ecosystems in... golden crab and deepwater shrimp fisheries while extending protection for deepwater coral ecosystems. CE...

  14. 75 FR 35330 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment for the South Atlantic Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...: NMFS issues this final rule to implement the Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment 1 (CE-BA1) to the... pristine deepwater coral ecosystems in the world while minimizing the effects on traditional fishing in the...

  15. 75 FR 14548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...; Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based Amendment for the South Atlantic Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS issues this proposed rule to implement the Comprehensive Ecosystem-Based... ecosystems in the world while minimizing the effects on traditional fishing in the Deepwater Coral HAPCs...

  16. 78 FR 27956 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 39 to the Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); notice of public hearings; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast... comments received on the DEIS in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS) and before... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 39 to the Fishery Management Plan for the...

  17. 78 FR 66900 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 28 to the Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... environmental impact statement (DEIS); scoping; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS, Southeast Region, in... received on the DEIS in developing the final environmental impact statement (FEIS), and before voting to... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 28 to the Fishery Management Plan for the...

  18. 76 FR 3596 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    .... 0907151138-1011-02] RIN 0648-AY03 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Queen Conch Management Measures AGENCY: National... includes Lang Bank east of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), when harvest and possession of queen...

  19. 78 FR 34310 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    .... 130402313-3499-01] RIN 0648-BD15 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Regulatory Amendment 2 AGENCY: National Marine... the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  20. 78 FR 45894 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    .... 120510052-3615-02] RIN 0648-BC20 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Parrotfish Management Measures in St. Croix AGENCY.... Virgin Islands (FMP), as prepared by the Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council). This rule...

  1. 78 FR 56171 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    .... 130402313-3748-02] RIN 0648-BD15 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Regulatory Amendment 2 AGENCY: National Marine... Management Plan (FMP) for the Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI...

  2. 78 FR 37208 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implementing the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands...

  3. 78 FR 15338 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    .... 120510052-3174-01] RIN 0648-BC20 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Parrotfish Management Measures in St. Croix AGENCY... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (FMP), as prepared by the Caribbean Fishery Management Council...

  4. 76 FR 30554 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907151138-1235-03] RIN 0648-AY03 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Queen Conch Management Measures Correction In rule...

  5. 76 FR 66675 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    .... 100120037-1626-01] RIN 0648-AY55 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendments to the Queen Conch and Reef Fish Fishery Management Plans of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands... the Fishery Management Plan for Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands and...

  6. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Currently, data on U.S. Caribbean spiny lobster life history are limited...

  7. South Atlantic pale oceanography and evolution during the Albian; Paleoceanografia e a evolucao do Atlantico Sul no Albiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ricardo Latge Milward de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Exploracao e Producao]. E-mail: ricardolatge@petrobras.com.

    2004-11-01

    A vast array of geochemical, geophysical, sedimentological and paleontological data, together with modern environmental analogues in the Red Sea, support the view that the South Atlantic maintained its bi partitioned condition from latest Aptian to the middle Albian. The lineament comprising the Florianopolis High and Sao Paulo Dorsal formed an effective barrier to sea-water circulation between the Southern South Atlantic (SSA) and Central South Atlantic (CSA) until late Albian times. During that time, the latter communicated mainly with the North Atlantic, which in turn was connected to the Tethys Sea. The CSA was then entirely located within an arid climatic belt, and subject to a negative hydric balance, whereas an estuarine circulation pattern prevailed in the SSA. The comparison of carbon and oxygen stable isotope results from limestones in various parts of the world demonstrates that the CSA waters were warmer than those of the Malvinas in the South, and the Tethyan Sea to the North. The CSA sedimentary evolution was coeval with profound paleoceanographic changes. These were mainly induced by global tectonic phenomena related to the dynamics of oceanic crustal accretion, culminating with the definitive interconnection of the Tethyan and Indian oceanic waters by the end-Albian. Halokynetic movements and orbital variations brought about oscillations in accommodation space, which permitted the stacking of tens of shallowing-upward cycles with varied magnitudes. (author)

  8. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury(Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseousmercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  9. 77 FR 50672 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... National Environmental Policy Act, including biological, economic, social, administrative, and cumulative... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BC30 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

  10. 78 FR 58248 - Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; 2013-2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... between the eastern and western zones at 87[deg]31.1' W. long., which is a line directly south from the... Atlantic; 2013-2014 Accountability Measure and Closure for Gulf King Mackerel in Western Zone AGENCY... king mackerel in the western zone of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) through...

  11. 75 FR 62488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... U.S.C. 1801 et seq. 2. In Sec. 622.2, the definitions of ``Deep-water grouper (DWG)'' and ``Shallow... neither overfished nor undergoing overfishing. Red snapper overfishing is being addressed separately in... and possession of all South Atlantic shallow-water groupers (gag, black grouper, red grouper, scamp...

  12. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  13. Overview of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission collaborative research program to assess tsunami hazard for nuclear power plants on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, A.M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Titov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) initiated a long-term research program to improve understanding of tsunami hazard levels for nuclear facilities in the United States. For this effort, the US NRC organized a collaborative research program with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with a goal of assessing tsunami hazard on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Necessarily, the US NRC research program includes both seismic- and landslide-based tsunamigenic sources in both the near and the far fields. The inclusion of tsunamigenic landslides, an important category of sources that impact tsunami hazard levels for the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts is a key difference between this program and most other tsunami hazard assessment programs. The initial phase of this work consisted of collection, interpretation, and analysis of available offshore data, with significant effort focused on characterizing offshore near-field landslides and analyzing their tsunamigenic potential and properties. In the next phase of research, additional field investigations will be conducted in key locations of interest and additional analysis will be undertaken. Simultaneously, the MOST tsunami generation and propagation model used by NOAA will first be enhanced to include landslide-based initiation mechanisms and then will be used to investigate the impact of the tsunamigenic sources identified and characterized by the USGS. The potential for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment will also be explore in the final phases of the program.

  14. Summary of First Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Birds on the South Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    lagoons . Several examples of poor beach nourishment operations exist. First, in Miami Beach, Florida, quartz sand was replaced with carbonate sands, which...fisheries (through viable clam and baitworm populations)? (A nearby spatial reference area was selected for a control.) Macroinvertebrates were sampled

  15. Basin-scale changes of total organic carbon profiles in the eastern South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. A. Alvarez-Salgado

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Total organic carbon (TOC samples were collected at 6 stations spaced ~800 km apart in the eastern South Atlantic, from the Equator to 45°S along 9°W. Analyses were performed by high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO in the base laboratory. Despite the complex advection and mixing patterns of North Atlantic and Antarctic waters with extremely different degrees of ventilation, TOC levels below 500 m are quasi-constant at 55±3 µmol C l-1, pointing to the refractory nature of deep-water TOC. On the other hand, a TOC excess from 25 to 38 g C m-2 is observed in the upper 100 m of the permanently stratified nutrient-depleted Equatorial, Subequatorial and Subtropical upper ocean, where vertical turbulent diffusion is largely prevented. Conversely, TOC levels in the nutrient-rich upper layer of the Subantarctic Front only exceeds 9 g C m-2 the deep-water baseline. As much as 70% of the TOC variability in the upper 500 m is due to simple mixing of reactive TOC formed in the surface layer and refractory TOC in deep ocean waters, with a minor contribution (13% to oxygen consumption in the prominent subsurface AOU maximum at 200-400 m depth.

  16. The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

    2012-12-01

    Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area.

  17. Evidences linking ENSO and coral growth in the Southwestern-South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, H. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); Godiva, D. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sifeddine, A. [IRD, Institut de Recherche Pour le Developpement, UR055 Paleotropique, Bondy (France); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Leao, Z.M.A.N.; Kikuchi, R.K.P. [UFBA/Instituto de Geociencias. Rua Barao de Geremoabo, s/n, Federacao, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Rigozo, N.R. [LARAMG, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais/DBB/UERJ. Pav. HLC, Subsolo, Maracana, RJ (Brazil); FAETEC, Faculdade de Educacao e Tecnologia Thereza Porto Marques, Jacarei, SP (Brazil); Segal, B. [UFRJ/Museu Nacional/Setor de Celenterologia/Departamento de Invertebrados, Quinta da Boa Vista s/n, Sao Cristovao, RJ (Brazil); Ambrizzi, T. [USP/Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kampel, M. [INPE/Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cornec, F. le [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista, s/n, Centro, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    Physical and biological changes in the marine environment, induced by oceanic-atmospheric processes, can be imprinted in massive coral skeletons. Herein, we present an evidence of potential El Nino impacts at the Southwestern South Atlantic Ocean (SWSA) inferred from the sclerochronology of the reef coral Favia leptophylla. The application of spectral analysis (wavelet decomposition and the iterative regression) to coral growth length and to meteorological-oceanographic parameters (air temperature, sea surface temperature and precipitation) as well as to Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and solar irradiation indicated a major significant inverse relationship between SOI and coral growth length at the 4-8 years frequency band. We propose here that coral growth length from the SWSA could be affected by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events through an ''atmospheric bridge'', in contrast to its direct effect at the Pacific Ocean, related to the increase in sea surface temperature. (orig.)

  18. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A. Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments...... quality, because is directly exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in their habitat. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of macro (Cl, K, P, Ca, S) and trace (Zn, Br, Fe, Sr, I, Se, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, iAs, Cd, Pb, Hg) elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from...... three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest...

  19. Antarctic Bottom Water temperature changes in the western South Atlantic from 1989 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; McTaggart, Kristene E.; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2014-12-01

    Warming of abyssal waters in recent decades contributes to global heat uptake and sea level rise. Repeat oceanographic section data in the western South Atlantic taken mostly in 1989 (1995 across the Scotia Sea), 2005, and 2014 are used to quantify warming in abyssal waters that spread northward through the region from their Antarctic origins in the Weddell Sea. While much of the Scotia Sea warmed between 1995 and 2005, only the southernmost portion, on the north side of the Weddell Gyre, continued to warm between 2005 and 2014. The abyssal Argentine Basin also warmed between 1989 and 2005, but again only the southernmost portion continued to warm between 2005 and 2014, suggesting a slowdown in the inflow of the coldest, densest Antarctic Bottom Waters into the western South Atlantic between 1989 and 2014. In contrast, the abyssal waters of the Brazil Basin warmed both between 1989 and 2005 and between 2005 and 2014, at a rate of about 2 m°C yr-1. This warming is also assessed in terms of the rates of change of heights above the bottom for deep isotherms in each deep basin studied. These results, together with findings from previous studies, suggest the deep warming signal observed in the Weddell Sea after the mid-1970s Weddell Polynya was followed by abyssal warming in the Argentine Basin from the late 1970s through about 2005, then warming in the deep Vema Channel from about 1992 through at least 2010, and warming in the Brazil Basin from 1989 to 2014.

  20. Changes in ocean circulation in the South-east Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, B. F.; McClymont, E.; Felder, S.; Leng, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast Atlantic Ocean is an important ocean gateway because major oceanic systems interact with each other in a relatively small geographic area. These include the Benguela Current, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the input of warm and saline waters from the Indian Ocean via the Agulhas leakage. However, there remain questions about circulation change in this region during the Pliocene, including whether there was more or less Agulhas Leakage, which may have implications for the strength of the global thermohaline circulation. ODP Site 1087 (31°28'S, 15°19'E, 1374m water depth) is located outside the Benguela upwelling region and is affected by Agulhas leakage in the modern ocean. Sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) are thus sensitive to the influence of Agulhas Leakage at this site. Our approach is to apply several organic geochemistry proxies and foraminiferal analyses to reconstruct the Pliocene history of ODP 1087, including the UK37' index (SSTs), pigments (primary productivity) and planktonic foraminifera (water mass changes). SSTs during the Pliocene range from 17 to 22.5 °C (mean SSTs at 21 °C), and show variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. Our results indicate that the Benguela upwelling system had intensified and/or shifted south during the Pliocene. We find no evidence of Agulhas leakage, meaning that either Agulhas Leakage was severely reduced or displaced during the mid-Pliocene. Potential causes of the observed signals include changes to the local wind field and/or changes in the temperature of intermediate waters which upwell in the Benguela system. Pronounced cooling is observed during cold stages in the Pliocene, aligned with the M2 and KM2 events. These results may indicate that changes to the extent of the Antarctic ice sheet had impact on circulation in the south east Atlantic during the Pliocene via displacement of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currents.

  1. Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhen; Xie Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang Jianhui; Zhang Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009–2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the Greenland Sea, the ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 45 to 280 pg/L, and five most frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOA (15 pg/L) and PFOS (25–45 pg/L) were occasionally found in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the ΣPFASs concentration decreased from 2007 to 2010. The elevated PFOA level that resulted from melting snow and ice in Greenland Sea implies that the Arctic may have been driven by climate change and turned to be a source of PFASs for the marine ecosystem. - Highlights: ► PFOA is released from the Arctic snow and ice and might be transport southwards to the Atlantic. ► Decline temporal trends of PFASs are present in the Northern Hemisphere in the Atlantic. ► PFOS has elevate concentration in comparison to PFOA in the Southern Ocean. - Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported for the Arctic, Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, which improves understanding the fate of PFASs in the global oceans.

  2. Aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions in the South-East Atlantic: first results from the ORACLES-2016 deployment and plans for future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; Abel, S.

    2016-12-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for regional and global climate change predictions. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is severely limited. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We describe first results from various synergistic, international research activities aimed at studying aerosol-cloud interactions in the region: NASA's airborne ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols Above Clouds and Their IntEractionS) deployment in August/September of 2016, the DoE's LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds) deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility to Ascension Island (June 2016 - October 2017), the ground-based components of CNRS' AEROCLO-sA (Aerosols Clouds and Fog over the west coast of southern Africa), and ongoing regional-scale integrative, process-oriented science efforts as part of SEALS-sA (Sea Earth Atmosphere Linkages Study in southern Africa). We expect to describe experimental

  3. A new daily observational record from Grytviken, South Georgia: exploring 20th century extremes in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Z.; Turney, C. S.; Allan, R.; Colwell, S.; Kelly, G.; Lister, D.; Jones, P. D.; Beswick, M.; Alexander, L. V.; Lippmann, T.; Herold, N.; Jones, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Although recent work has highlighted a host of significant late 20th century environmental changes across the mid to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, the sparse nature of observational records limits our ability to place these changes in the context of long-term (multi-decadal and centennial) variability. As a result, investigating the impact of anthropogenic forcing on climate modes of variability and ecosystems is particularly challenging. Sub-Antarctic islands are particularly important in this regard, straddling major ocean and atmospheric boundaries and offering the potential to develop highly resolved records of change. In 1905, a whaling and meteorological station was established at Grytviken on Sub-Antarctic South Georgia in the South Atlantic (54°S) providing near-continuous observations through to present day. Although South Georgia lies in a strategic location for understanding Southern Ocean atmosphere-ocean dynamics, only a monthly resolved dataset has until now been available. Here we report a near continuous daily observational record from Grytviken for temperature and precipitation, which we compare to different datasets (including Twentieth Century Reanalysis; 20CR version 2c). A warming trend over the 20th century is observed in mean daily temperature at Grytviken with an average rate of temperature rise of 0.14°C per decade over the period 1907-2016 (p<0.0001). We find a significant trend towards increasingly warmer daytime extremes commencing from the mid-20th century accompanied by warmer night-time temperatures. Analysis of these data, and reanalysis products, suggest a realignment of synoptic conditions across the mid to high-latitudes, with a link between increasing temperature trends and atmospheric circulation dominated by stronger westerly airflow, resulting in significant foehn-related warming.

  4. Pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane A; Iaria, Sebastião T; Gelli, Dilma S; Rivera, Irma N G

    2007-08-01

    Oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from June 1998 to March 1999, in the Cananéia estuary, on the south coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. Aeromonas spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (MPN) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. The presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and fecal coliforms counts were determined in oysters and in water samples too. Sixty percent of water samples contained fecal coliforms ranging from 200 CFU/100 ml and 100%, 30%, 20% and 10% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Aeromonas, and V. vulnificus in 5 l of water samples, respectively. In oyster samples, the fecal coliforms concentration ranged from or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g in 40% of untreated and from oyster samples and their concentration varied from 3.6 to > or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g. For the untreated oyster samples 80%, 70%, and 10% were positive for V. vulnificus (oyster samples 60%, 30%, and 0% of them contained the same bacteria, respectively. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., P. shigelloides, and V. cholerae O1 were not detected in any of the samples. Fecal indicators did not correlate with Vibrio presence (p>0.05), although the isolation of Aeromonas species had a positive correlation (p = 0.017). The results showed no correlation between temperature, salinity, and bacteria (p > 0.05). The comparison between bacterial concentration in treated and untreated oyster samples, showed that only Aeromonas was higher in untreated oyster samples (p = 0.039). This study contributes toward creating a more global understanding of food-borne bacterial pathogens. The presence and concentration of viable bacterial hazards in oysters and water surrounding areas was determined for the first time

  5. Liver lipids of Indian and Atlantic Ocean spinner Carcharhinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shark liver oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the n3 moieties. Data on the liver fatty acids of sharks from African waters, however, are limited. Liver samples from sharks from the western Indian Ocean off the east coast of South Africa and those from the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico were examined.

  6. Contrasting morphological and DNA barcode-suggested species boundaries among shallow-water amphipod fauna from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jorge; Ferreira, Maria S; Antunes, Ilisa C; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Sousa, Ronaldo; Gomes, Pedro A; Costa, Maria Helena; Cunha, Marina R; Costa, Filipe O

    2017-02-01

    In this study we compared DNA barcode-suggested species boundaries with morphology-based species identifications in the amphipod fauna of the southern European Atlantic coast. DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region (COI-5P) were generated for 43 morphospecies (178 specimens) collected along the Portuguese coast which, together with publicly available COI-5P sequences, produced a final dataset comprising 68 morphospecies and 295 sequences. Seventy-five BINs (Barcode Index Numbers) were assigned to these morphospecies, of which 48 were concordant (i.e., 1 BIN = 1 species), 8 were taxonomically discordant, and 19 were singletons. Twelve species had matching sequences (<2% distance) with conspecifics from distant locations (e.g., North Sea). Seven morphospecies were assigned to multiple, and highly divergent, BINs, including specimens of Corophium multisetosum (18% divergence) and Dexamine spiniventris (16% divergence), which originated from sampling locations on the west coast of Portugal (only about 36 and 250 km apart, respectively). We also found deep divergence (4%-22%) among specimens of seven species from Portugal compared to those from the North Sea and Italy. The detection of evolutionarily meaningful divergence among populations of several amphipod species from southern Europe reinforces the need for a comprehensive re-assessment of the diversity of this faunal group.

  7. Long-term subsidence, cooling, and exhumation history along the South Atlantic passive continental margin in NW-Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Salomon, Eric; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Schneider, Gabi

    2017-04-01

    In northwestern Namibia the Kaoko Belt is one of the most important Precambrian crustal segments that have stored the subsidence, cooling, and exhumation history of Namibia since the Neoproterozoic. ZFT-ages, with ages between 292.7 (46.0) and 436.8 (45.9) Ma, are giving new insights on this early evolution. Paleozoic to Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Karoo Supergroup and the Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the Etendeka sequence overlay the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks (1). New apatite fission-track (AFT) ages range from 390.9 (17.9) Ma to 80.8 (6.0) Ma. Along the coast apatites of Proterozoic rock samples reveal the youngest ages. Further inland the ages increase significantly. In addition, rapid change of AFT-ages occurs on both sides of major thrust and shear zones. Using the oldest thermochronological data the revealed t-T paths indicate a long era of exhumation, starting at the end of the Pan-African Orogeny in the Neoproterozoic and continuing into the Permo-Carboniferous. The subsequent sedimentation of the Karoo Supergroup initiates a new era of subsidence until the end of Triassic (2).The subsequent period of denudation ends abruptly with the rapid deposition of the Etendeka basalts in the Early Cretaceous (3). The maximum thickness of the Etendeka volcanic suite has been estimated, using the apatite fission-track data, to about 3.2 (1.2) km. With the ongoing opening of the South Atlantic and the formation of the continental margin the Kaoko Belt went through a rapid cooling event starting 130 Ma and ending 80 Ma, at a mean rate of 0.034 km/Ma for the western, and 0.018 km/Ma for the northern and eastern Kaoko Belt. This cooling event was accompanied by a reactivation of major fault zones, like the Purros Mylonite Zone (4). Thereafter, stable conditions were established, with denudation rates generally lower than 0.010 km/Ma, until the Neogene, where a second cooling event led to increased exhumation rates around 0.042 km/Ma. The total

  8. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  9. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas H F Prado

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574, South American fur seal, (n = 3,419, South American sea lion (n = 2,049, bottlenose dolphins (n = 293 and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219 were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to

  10. Acoustic impedance properties of seafloor sediments off the coast of Southeastern Hainan, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhengyu; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jingqiang; Zheng, Xufeng; Yan, Wen; Tian, Yuhang; Luo, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Geoacoustic parameters are essential inputs to sediment wave propagation theories and are vital to underwater acoustic environment and explorations of the sea bottom. In this study, 21 seafloor sediment samples were collected off the coast of southeastern Hainan in the South China Sea. The sound speed was measured using a portable WSD-3 digital sonic instrument and the coaxial differential distance measurement method. Based on the measured sound speed and physical properties, the acoustic impedance and the pore-water-independent index of impedance (IOI) were calculated in this study. Similar to the sound speed, the IOI values are closely related to the sediment physical properties and change gradually from the northwest to the southeast. The relations between IOI and physical properties were studied and compared to the relations between the sound speed and physical properties. IOI is better correlated to physical properties than sound speed. This study also uses an error norm method to analyze the sensitivity of IOI to the physical parameters in the double-parameter equations and finds that the most influential physical parameters are as follows: wet bulk density > porosity > clay content > mean particle size.

  11. Presence of stratospheric humidity in the ozone column depletion on the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, M. Luis; Gutierrez, O. Luis; Morales, S. Luis; Universidad de Chile, Santiago; Torres, C. Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    The ozone column depletion over the western coast of South America has been previously explained, based on the existence of winds in the area of the depletion, which cause compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, the presence of humidity and methane transported by these winds to the stratosphere where the ozone depletion is present gives evidence that these compounds also participate in the depletion of the ozone layer. These two compounds, humidity and methane, are analysed during the ozone depletion of January, 1998. It is observed that when humidity presents fluctuations, ozone has fluctuations too. A maximum of humidity corresponds to a minimum of ozone, but there is a shift in altitude between them. This shift is observed in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and corresponds to approximately 500 m. It is important to point out that during this event El Nino was present and the sources of methane are the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean. The data for this study was obtained from NASA and HALOE

  12. Mass balance for lead in the California South Coast Air Basin: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankey, R.L.; Davidson, C.I.; McMichael, F.C.

    1998-01-01

    A mass balance for lead for the year 1989 in the South Coast Air Basin has inputs to the atmosphere of 600 ± 190 kg/day and outputs of 580 ± 160 kg/day, showing rough agreement. Stationary sources are responsible for only about 5% of the total lead emissions. The bulk of the lead is emitted from vehicles using leaded gasoline (37%) and unleaded gasoline (15%), as well as from resuspension of previously deposited lead on roads (43%). Over half of the total emitted lead deposits on roads and nearby soil, while about one-third is carried out of the basin by wind. A small amount, less than 10%, is deposited on surfaces throughout the basin. These percentages are approximately the same as those in a mass balance for the same region calculated for 1972, when lead emissions from leaded gasoline were about a factor of 70 greater than leaded gas emissions in 1989. When the lead emissions re used as inputs o a simple continuously stirred flow reactor model for the basin, reasonable, agreement is obtained between calculated and measured concentrations

  13. Natural radioactivity measurements in beach sand along the South East coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, B.S.; Vijayakumar, B.; Ravi, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sand was carried out along the south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India, The activity concentrations of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in beach sand ranged from 2 to 2,762 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 236 Bq.kg"-"1, 7 to 30,872 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 2,300 Bqkg"-"1 and 6.0 to 890 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 85 Bqkg"-"1, respectively. The Radium Equivalent Activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were assessed and compared with world average values. The results indicate that the absorbed dose rates range from 10 to 20506 nGyh"-"1 with mean value of 1545 nGy.h"-"1. The annual effective dose range between 0.01 and 25.15 mSvy"-"1, with the mean value of 1.90 mSvy"-"1. (author)

  14. Hydrologic conditions in the South Coast aquifer, Puerto Rico, 2010–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2016-01-15

    In 1958, the U.S. Geological Survey began documenting hydrologic conditions, including groundwater levels, groundwater withdrawals for agricultural irrigation and public water supply, and water quality, in the South Coast aquifer, Puerto Rico. This information has improved the understanding of the water resources of the region. The hydrologic data indicate that (1) groundwater levels declined as much as 40 feet in the Salinas area and 11 feet in the Guayama area during 2012–14; (2) groundwater withdrawals for agricultural irrigation increased from 6.0 to 10.5 million gallons per day, or 75 percent, from 2010 to 2012; and (3) total groundwater withdrawals decreased from 29.3 to 23.8 million gallons per day from 2010 to 2014. The quantity and quality of water in the aquifer is primarily affected by variations in aquifer recharge as a result of changing rainfall or modes of irrigation; however, the spatial patterns and magnitude of water withdrawals for all uses have a secondary impact on the quantity and quality of water in the aquifer.

  15. Decadal trends in beach morphology on the east coast of South Africa and likely causative factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandy shorelines are dynamic with constant changes that can cause hazards in developed areas. The causes of change may be either natural or anthropogenic. This paper evaluates evidence for shoreline changes and their causative factors using a case study on the east coast of South Africa. Beach morphology trends were found to be location-specific, but overall the beaches show a receding trend. It was hypothesized that wave, tide, sea level and wind trends as well as anthropogenic influences are causative factors, and their contributions to shoreline changes were evaluated. Maximum significant wave heights, average wave direction, peak period and storm event frequencies all show weak increasing trends, but only the increases in peak period and wave direction are statistically significant. The chronic beach erosion cannot be attributed to wave climate changes since they are still too small to explain the observations. Instead, the impacts of sea level rise and reductions in the supply of beach sediments are suggested as the main causative factors. The analysis also identifies a trend in the frequency of severe erosion events due to storms that coincide with a 4.5-yr extreme tide cycle, which demonstrates the potential impact of future sea level rise.

  16. Particulate emission rates from light-duty vehicles in the South Coast Air Quality Management District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, T.D.; Norbeck, J.M.; Smith, M.R.; Truex, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a particulate emission rate study conducted on 129 light-duty gasoline and 19 light-duty diesel vehicles for the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC's) Project E-24-2. Total particulate emission rates for newer gasoline vehicles were low with modest increases with vehicle age and older technology. Average FTP particulate emission rates as a function of model year for gasoline vehicles were found to be 2.5 mg/mi for 1991 and newer models, 14.4 mg/mi for 1986--1990 models, 49.0 mg/mi for 1981--1985 models, and 33.8 mg/mi for 1980 and older models. High gaseous emitters were found to have approximately 5--10 times the particulate emission rates of normal emitters. The diesel vehicles had an average particulate emission rate of 561 mg/mi. It should be noted that the light-duty diesel vehicles were predominantly older, pre-1985 vehicles; the 1985 and newer diesel vehicles had substantially lower particulate emissions, i.e., less than 100 mg/mi. Emission inventory estimates in the South Coast Air Basin based on the fleet emission rates were higher than those obtained using the default values in EMFAC7G, due primarily to the contribution of high emitters

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetric Slope, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2009), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic...

  18. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1996 to 20 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1996 to 20 November...

  19. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1994 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 0000873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1994 to 21 November...

  20. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Backscatter, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Navy Pathfinder - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  1. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetric Rugosity, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the rugosity of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  2. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Multibeam Bathymetry, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  3. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetry Mosaic, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ron Brown - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry (depth) of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic...

  4. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetric Slope, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Ron Brown - (2010), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic...

  5. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Multibeam Bathymetry, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Navy Pathfinder - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  6. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Multibeam Bathymetry, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  7. NOAA TIFF Image - 5m Backscatter Mosaic, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 5x5 meter cell size representing the backscatter (intensity) of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic...

  8. Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data from bottle in South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989 (NODC Accession 0000196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data were collected using bottle in the South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989. Data were collected...

  9. NOAA TIFF Image - 30m Rugosity, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - Navy Pathfinder - (2003), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 30x30 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  10. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Multibeam Bathymetry, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2009), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic Bight,...

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 10m Bathymetric Slope, South Atlantic Bight - Deep Coral Priority Areas - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - (2007), UTM 17N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a unified GeoTiff with 10x10 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of several deep coral priority areas off the South Atlantic...

  12. Two new marine Gastrotricha from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, M Antonio; Perissinotto, Renzo; Bownes, Sarah J

    2015-01-12

    The study is part of a larger research programme aimed at shedding light on the gastrotrich communities of the subtropical east coast province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In previous papers, faunistic and preliminary taxonomic data on marine and freshwater gastrotrichs found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, were reported. Here two new interesting marine macrodasyidan species in the families Dactylopodolidae and Thaumastodermatidae are described based on observations carried out on living specimens and using differential interference contrast microscopy. The two novel species are named in honor of two great South African icons recently deceased: Nadine Gordimer and Nelson Mandela. Dactylopodola nadine sp. n. is the third species in the genus to bear red eye-spots; it can easily be distinguished from the closely-related red-eyed D. baltica and D. roscovita by its smaller size (Total length = 230 μm vs 275 μm vs 450 μm, respectively) and the lower number of adhesive tubes of the anterior, lateral and posterior series (on each side: 3, 4 and 4 vs 5, 6 and 8 vs 2, 9 and 12-15). Pseudostomella mandela sp. n. is a fairly large species (up to 481 μm in length), with a cuticular covering made up of tetrancres and relatively long caudal pedicles (up to 44 μm in length ). The most evident autoapomorphic trait of the new species is the presence of 7 pairs of 'cirrata' tubes, two emerging in a lateral position along the pharyngeal region and five from the dorsolateral sides of the trunk. Additional relevant taxonomic characters include: 4 tubes of the anterior series, 11 tubes of the ventrolateral series and 3 tubes of the posterior series per side, 5 papillae on the dorsal margin and 6 papillae on the ventral margin of the oral palps. The high number of putative new species discovered among the South African gastrotrich fauna during our relatively short survey, highlights the relevance of this region with regard to the diversity of this group and stresses once again

  13. Aqua-planet simulations of the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ferreira, Rosana; Chao, Winston C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Amazon Basin convection and cold fronts on the formation and maintenance of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is studied using aqua-planet simulations with a general circulation model. In the model, a circular patch of warm sea-surface temperature (SST) is used to mimic the effect of the Amazon Basin on South American monsoon convection. The aqua-planet simulations were designed to study the effect of the strength and latitude of Amazon Basin convection on the formation of the SACZ. The simulations indicate that the strength of the SACZ increases as the Amazon convection intensifies and is moved away from the equator. Of the two controls studied here, the latitude of the Amazon convection exerts the strongest effect on the strength of the SACZ. An analysis of the synoptic-scale variability in the simulations shows the importance of frontal systems in the formation of the aqua-planet SACZ. Composite time series of frontal systems that occurred in the simulations show that a robust SACZ occurs when fronts penetrate into the subtropics and become stationary there as they cross eastward of the longitude of the Amazon Basin. Moisture convergence associated with these frontal systems produces rainfall not along the model SACZ region and along a large portion of the northern model Amazon Basin. Simulations in which the warm SST patch was too weak or too close to the equator did not produce frontal systems that extended into the tropics and became stationary, and did not form a SACZ. In the model, the SACZ forms as Amazon Basin convection strengthens and migrates far enough southward to allow frontal systems to penetrate into the tropics and stall over South America. This result is in agreement with observations that the SACZ tends to form after the onset of the monsoon season in the Amazon Basin.

  14. Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Beach Sediments From Aden Coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Zahran, A.M.; A ASSUBAIHI, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of natural gamma emitting 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K radionuclides in beach sediments along Aden coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen has been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometric technique. The mean activity concentrations of measured radionuclides were compared with other literature values. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index and representative level index were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values.

  15. Phytoplankton biomass dynamics and environmental variables around the Rocas Atoll Biological Reserve, South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavalcanti Jales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rocas Atoll Biological Reserve is located in the Atlantic Ocean, at 3º 51' S and 33º 49' W. It lies 143 nautical miles from the City of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyze the hydrology, water masses, currents and chlorophyll a content to determine the dynamics of phytoplankton biomass around the Rocas Atoll. Samples were collected in July 2010 in the area around the Atoll, using the Research Vessel Cruzeiro do Sul of the Brazilian Navy. Two transects were established according to the surface currents, one of which at the southeast of the Atoll (SE and the other at norwest (NW. Three collection points were determined on each of these transects. Samples were collected at different depths (surface and DCM - Deep Chlorophyll Maximum and different times (day and night. According to PCA (Principal Component Analysis, the nutrients analyzed, DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus and silicate, were inversely correlated with temperature and dissolved oxygen. Most environmental variables showed a significant increase due to the turbulence on the Northwest transect. There was an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll a and nutrients when the temperature and oxygen in the mixed layer was reduced due to the influence of the SACW (South Atlantic Central Water. Despite the increase observed in some variables such as nutrient salts and chlorophyll a, the temperature in the mixed layer attained a mean value of 23.23 ºC due to the predominance of Tropical Water. The increase of the phytoplankton biomass on the NW transect was, therefore, caused by the "island effect" and not by upwelling.

  16. On the Recurrence of Enigmatic Nannoplankton Blooms in the Subtropical South Atlantic during the Early Oligocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, L. V.; Kelly, D. C.; Meyers, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic cooling and expansion of Antarctic ice sheets was accompanied by a global reorganization in ocean circulation during the early Oligocene. Such a change in the ocean-climate system is expected to alter the pelagic ecosystem through elevated rates of extinction and increased biogeographic provincialism. A well documented, but poorly understood, example of this provincialism is the recurrence of unusual chalks composed of the nannofossil genus Braarudosphaera across the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean. Here we present preliminary findings from a study of the paleoceanographic conditions that fostered these Braarudosphaera "blooms" at Deep Sea Drilling Site 516 (Rio Grande Rise, southwestern Atlantic). Within the early Oligocene stratigraphy at this site, there are four chalky (recrystallized) layers in which braarudosphaerids compose ~70% of the nannofossil assemblages. Astronomical tuning was performed on conventional benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records encompassing the four layers to determine the timing of their recurrence. A strong astronomical rhythm is preserved with the blooms occurring during nodes in the theoretical obliquity solution. In addition, planktic foraminiferal stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) records were generated for the study section using both secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and conventional gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The SIMS-based δ13C record for the thermocline-dwelling genus Catapsydrax registers substantial (~1.5‰) decreases during the blooms, signaling pulsed increases in the upwelling of 13C-depleted waters. By contrast, the IRMS-based δ13C record for this same genus show no appreciable change in hydrographic conditions during the blooms. We attribute the invariant nature of the IRMS-based δ13C record to the smoothing effects of diagenesis. These results demonstrate how marine plankton respond to changing oceanographic conditions driven by astronomical forcing of ice-sheet dynamics.

  17. The Impact of the AMOC Resumption in the Western South Atlantic Thermocline at the Onset of the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thiago P.; Lessa, Douglas O.; Venancio, Igor M.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Kuhnert, Henning; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S.

    2017-11-01

    After glacial terminations, large amounts of heat and salt were transferred from low to high latitudes, which is a crucial phenomenon for the reestablishment of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, how different glacial terminations evolved in the (sub)tropics is still poorly documented. Here we use foraminifera oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotopes to show that the North Atlantic heat piracy, following the AMOC resumption at the early Last Interglacial, affected the thermocline δ18O levels of the subtropical western South Atlantic. Because of the cooling imposed by this process, glacial δ18O persisted in the thermocline for 7 kyr after the onset of the Last Interglacial, dampening the effect of sea level rise usually imprinted on foraminifera δ18O during terminations. Faunal composition and δ13C also suggest the existence of a colder and thicker South Atlantic Central Water coeval with the AMOC recovery. This process apparently did not occur during the last deglaciation.

  18. Mid-depth South Atlantic Ocean circulation and chemical stratification during MIS-10 to 12: implications for atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Maslin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed record of benthic foraminifera carbon isotopes from the intermediate-depth South East Atlantic margin shows little glacial-interglacial variability between MIS-12 to MIS-10, suggesting that Northern Atlantic deepwaters consistently penetrated to at least 30° S. Millennial-scale increases in either the mass or flux of northern-sourced deepwaters over the core site occurred alongside reductions in Lower North Atlantic Deep Water recorded in North Atlantic sediment cores and show that the lower and intermediate limb of the Atlantic deepwater convective cell oscillated in anti-phase during previous glacial periods. In addition, a 500 yr resolution record of the Cape Basin intermediate-deep δ13C gradient shows that a reduction in deep Southern Ocean ventilation at the end of MIS-11 was consistent with a modelled CO2 drawdown of ~21–30 ppm. Further increases in the Southern Ocean chemical divide during the transition into MIS-10 were completed before minimum CO2 levels were reached, suggesting that other mechanisms such as alkalinity changes were responsible for the remaining ~45 ppm drawdown.

  19. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  20. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2001-03-05 to 2001-04-17 (NODC Accession 0108096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108096 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to 2010-05-16 (NODC Accession 0109927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109927 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2000-11-28 to 2000-12-27 (NODC Accession 0115599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115599 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to 2009-11-23 (NODC Accession 0109918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109918 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-10-13 to 2002-11-16 (NODC Accession 0113890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113890 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  5. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1981-03-28 to 1981-04-23 (NODC Accession 0116646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116646 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1988-07-23 to 1988-09-01 (NODC Accession 0117675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117675 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1996-04-15 to 1996-05-16 (NODC Accession 0113539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113539 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-06-04 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0108061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108061 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1990-10-04 to 1990-10-27 (NODC Accession 0116643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116643 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-01-23 to 1989-04-12 (NODC Accession 0115014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115014 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-23 to 2008-03-15 (NODC Accession 0117496)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117496 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  12. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-03-04 to 2002-04-09 (NODC Accession 0108097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108097 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-06 to 2006-07-09 (NODC Accession 0108078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108078 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1983-10-07 to 1984-02-19 (NODC Accession 0117503)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117503 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1999-07-12 to 1999-09-22 (NODC Accession 0113601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113601 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from KNORR and MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1987-11-23 to 1989-04-19 (NCEI Accession 0157692)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157692 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR and MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1994-01-04 to 1994-03-21 (NODC Accession 0115157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115157 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MAURICE EWING in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  18. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Strait of Gibraltar from 2013-03-20 to 2013-05-22 (NODC Accession 0114434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114434 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-03-20 to 2010-08-06 (NODC Accession 0114477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0114477 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from ANTARES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-01-02 to 1993-02-10 (NODC Accession 0115753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115753 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-01-02 to...

  1. Mollusc diversity associated with the non-indigenous macroalga Asparagopsis armata Harvey, 1855 along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Costa-Garcia, Ricardo; Besteiro, Celia; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Veiga, Puri

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to explore mollusc assemblages associated with the non-indigenous macroalga Asparagopsis armata, to compare them with those on other macroalgae at the study region and to explore potential differences on mollusc assemblages between two regions in the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, where A. armata is present. To achieve this, at each region, four intertidal shores were sampled. Twenty-nine mollusc species were reported and thus, A. armata harboured similar or higher diversity than other annual macroalgae in this area. When compared with perennial macroalgae, results depend on the species and studied area. Moreover, significant differences in structure of mollusc assemblages between the two studied regions were found. However, these were due to differences in the relative abundance of species rather than the presence of exclusive species at each region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tropospheric profiles of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and other related trace species measured over the Atlantic near the west coast of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F; Bruening, D; Grobler, E S; Koppmann, R; Kraus, A B; Schrimpf, W; Weber, M; Ehhalt, D H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In June and December 1994, the concentrations of the nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub y} were measured together with ozone, photolysis frequency of NO{sub 2}, methane, CO, CO{sub 2}, PAN, and light hydrocarbons near the west coast of Europe above the Atlantic Ocean. Two vertical profiles for each season were obtained in the altitude range 1.5 to 12 km at four locations: near Prestwick (56 deg N, 9 deg W), Brest (49 deg N, 6 deg W), Faro (37 deg N, 12 deg W) and Tenerife (30 deg N, 18 deg W). The measured vertical profiles of NO are compared to the results of a low resolution 3-D chemical tracer model. (author)

  3. Antibody Prevalence of Select Arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes Region and Atlantic Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R.; Arsnoe, Dustin M.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C.; Mickley, Randall M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive. PMID:25266351

  4. Hydroelectric resources. Inventory of the hydroelectric resources of the Atlantic Coast; Recursos hidroelectricos. Inventario de los recursos hidroelectricos de la Costa Atlantica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, R M; Insignares R, G

    1987-07-01

    Basically this report gives a clear vision of the possibilities of energy development in the Colombian Atlantic Coast, projects that contemplate a wide range as soon as it refers that is to say to generation ranges, they have been identified at level macro in the Sierra Nevada region and the Peasant with a profitable hydroelectric potential of 631 MW; in the Sinu region, 3 projects were identified with a profitable potential of 1186 MW and in the Magdalena region, was also identified 3 projects whose profitable potential is of 475 MW. At level micro, the carried out studies defined in the same previous regions a series of projects that they necessarily reach the megawatt. The report contains a description of each one of the identified projects and its current situation. It also presents a review of the makers of turbines that exist at the moment in the country.

  5. Tropospheric profiles of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and other related trace species measured over the Atlantic near the west coast of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Koppmann, R.; Kraus, A.B.; Schrimpf, W.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In June and December 1994, the concentrations of the nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub y} were measured together with ozone, photolysis frequency of NO{sub 2}, methane, CO, CO{sub 2}, PAN, and light hydrocarbons near the west coast of Europe above the Atlantic Ocean. Two vertical profiles for each season were obtained in the altitude range 1.5 to 12 km at four locations: near Prestwick (56 deg N, 9 deg W), Brest (49 deg N, 6 deg W), Faro (37 deg N, 12 deg W) and Tenerife (30 deg N, 18 deg W). The measured vertical profiles of NO are compared to the results of a low resolution 3-D chemical tracer model. (author)

  6. Attheya armata along the European Atlantic coast - The turn of the screw on the causes of "surf diatom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, R.; Leira, M.; López-Rodríguez, M. C.; Otero, X. L.

    2018-05-01

    The "surf diatom" species Attheya armata (West) Crawford accumulations have been detected in the coasts of Galicia (NW Spain) in recent years. However, unlike in other parts of the world, the current knowledge of the phenomenon in European coasts remains disperse and scarce. A multiple approach has been used to monitor a sector of the Galician coast and to evaluate chemical and biological parameters in the environment, as well as under in vitro culture conditions, with the aim of studying the causes underlying these episodes. Contrary to the general assumption, our results indicate no direct relationship between the ephemeral accumulation episodes occurrences with the continental discharges or nutrient levels in beach waters. The isotopic reference values for coastal food web in Galicia allows to affirm with certainty that A. armata accumulations is dominate by the sediment dynamics.

  7. Variability of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide apparent quantum yield spectra in three coastal estuaries of the South Atlantic Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Reader

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical oxidation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC to carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 has been estimated to be a significant process with global photoproduction transforming petagrams of DOC to inorganic carbon annually. To further quantify the importance of these two photoproducts in coastal DOC cycling, 38 paired apparent quantum yield (AQY spectra for CO and CO2 were determined at three locations along the coast of Georgia, USA over the course of one year. The AQY spectra for CO2 were considerably more varied than CO. CO AQY spectra exhibited a seasonal shift in spectrally integrated (260 nm–490 nm AQY from higher efficiencies in the autumn to less efficient photoproduction in the summer. While full-spectrum photoproduction rates for both products showed positive correlation with pre-irradiation UV-B sample absorption (i.e. chromophoric dissolved organic matter, CDOM as expected, we found no correlation between AQY and CDOM for either product at any site. Molecular size, approximated with pre-irradiation spectral slope coefficients, and aromatic content, approximated by the specific ultraviolet absorption of the pre-irradiated samples, were also not correlated with AQY in either data set. The ratios of CO2 to CO photoproduction determined using both an AQY model and direct production comparisons were 23.2 ± 12.5 and 22.5 ± 9.0, respectively. Combined, both products represent a loss of 2.9 to 3.2% of the DOC delivered to the estuaries and inner shelf of the South Atlantic Bight yearly, and 6.4 to 7.3% of the total annual degassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. This result suggests that direct photochemical production of CO and CO2 is a small, yet significant contributor to both DOC cycling and CO2 gas exchange in this coastal system.

  8. Organic storage of CO/sub 2/ on the continental slope off the mid-Atlantic bight, the southeastern Bering Sea, and the Peru coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.J.; Premuzic, E.T.; Gaffney, J.S.; Rowe, G.T.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W.; Balsam, W.L.; Betzer, P.R.; Macko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of organic content, sedimentation rates derived from /sup 14/C and /sup 210/Pb analyses, /sup 13/C and /sup 15/N isotope ratios, amorphous silica, particle size, and calcium carbonate within sediments from slopes off the mid-Atlantic bight, the southeastern Bering Sea, and the Peru coast. These sediments are mainly marine, diatom-rich, and about one-third of the organic carbon is recent, reflecting a possible transient of shelf export in response to man's increased activities since the industrial revolution. Using a combination of sedimentation and mixing rates of carbon, the C:N ratio of sediments within the upper 50 cm, and the amount of nitrogen thought to be released from the coastal zone, independent estimates suggest a carbon loading to world slopes of approx. 0.3 to 0.5 x 10/sup 9/ tons C y/sup -1/. The Bering slope exhibits no anthropogenic transients, however, while increased carbon loading may have occurred off Peru in response to overfishing and off the mid-Atlantic bight in response to eutrophication. The generality of their results depends on which of the three systems is most representative of world slopes.

  9. Assessment of proposals related to oil spill risk for the south coast of Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to quantify the present and future risks of oil pollution in Canadian waters off the south coast of Newfoundland due to marine traffic transiting this area. The study methodology included as assessment of the key components of risk, such as the probability of an oil spill occurring and the consequences of the spill should it occur. Key elements that were identified were stakeholder consultation; oil spill frequency; environmental impact assessment; risk results; area specific factors; and future trends. One of the key findings was that the most probable area for a spill was in inner Placentia Bay. Local and regional interests in the area resulted in 25 proposals for spill prevention, response and research. This paper provided a background discussion for each proposal and where relevant, a description of the status quo, and a rationale for implementing, or not implementing the proposal. Proposals for spill prevention consisted of strategies for vessel traffic; vessel instrumentation; use of double hulls; aerial surveillance program; control enforcement; additional radar monitoring; pilotage for long harbours; and escort and rescue tugs. Proposals for spill response consisted of designating places of refuge; location of response equipment; additional response capability; response time standards; designating waste handling sites; bird rescue and rehabilitation; testing of equipment cascading; training of fishermen for first response; and first responder equipment. Oil spill research proposals consisted of research on ecosystem effects; research on response priorities; representative oil spill scenarios; and emergency management plans. General category proposals were also submitted, and dealt primarily with independent oversight committees; consultations with pilots; and occurrence of mystery spills and bilge dumps. 1 tab.

  10. Ecology of megabenthic bivalve communities from sandy beaches on the south coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. Rufino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects of 75 megabenthic bivalve species found on the south coast of Portugal (from Vila Real to Sagres were studied based on the information provided by seasonal bivalve surveys from 2000 to 2007 (8600 hauls, simultaneously using a razor shell dredge and a clam dredge. Of the 75 species identified, 36 occurred less than 30 times, and thus were considered rare in the area. The remaining 39 bivalves were analysed according to their occurrence, bathymetric distribution, geographic preferences, seasonal preferences, burying-depth, beach exposure and river mouth proximity. All species belonging to the Pharidae and Solenidae families (razor shells and most Tellinidae were significantly more frequent in the razor shell dredge (indicating deeper burying in the sediment, whilst the families Cardiidae and Donacidae were significantly more frequent in the clam dredge (indicating that these species are probably closer to the sediment surface. As for the season, most bivalve species occurred similarly in both seasons (19 sp; 49%, but a large proportion were more abundant during the autumn surveys (17 sp., 44%, whereas only three species were commoner during the spring surveys. Most species belonging to the families Cardiidae and Mactridae were commoner in the autumn surveys. The spatial distribution differed between species and cluster analysis identified four communities with greater geographic affinity. Species belonging to the family Cardiidae were preferably found in the western part (WB and the eastern part (S of the study area, whereas the families Donacidae, Mactridae and Tellinidae occurred mainly in the central area (EB and the eastern (S coastal sectors. Overall, shallower species (modal depth at 3-6 m showed greater occurrences and abundances than the deeper ones, and the depth pattern observed did not change between seasons. Donacidae and Mactridae (except Mactra glauca were represented essentially by shallow species, whereas

  11. Redescription of Hanleya brachyplax (Polyplacophora, Hanleyidae from the south-southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Jardim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 is described in detail. The species occurs off the southeastern and south coast of Brazil (São Paulo and Santa Catarina states in depths from 250 to 408 m. It differs from its congeners in having uniform white valves; wide intermediate valves; the tail valve with straight profile in the antemucronal area, and a concave postmucronal surface; and a cream-colored girdle, covered by non-articulated spines. An anatomical investigation was also performed, showing the main muscle groups; the presence of gills in the posterior third of the pallial groove; auricle with six orifices; a very flat kidney, restricted to the posterior half of the animal; and a simple esophageal region. The odontophore has a single pair of long cartilages. The buccal musculature is also described.Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 é descrita em detalhes. A espécie ocorre entre as costas Sul e Sudeste do Brasil (Estados de São Paulo e Santa Catarina em profundidades de 250 a 408 m. Se diferenciando das espécies do mesmo gênero por apresentar valvas uniformemente brancas; valvas intermediarias largas; valva anal com a região antemucronal reta e região postmucronal suavemente concava; cinturão creme, revestido de espinhos não articulados. Um estudo anatômico foi realizado, evidenciando os principais grupos musculares; restrição dos filamentos branquiais à região posterior da cavidade palial; aurículas com seis orifícios; rim achatado e restrito a porção posterior do animal; região esofágica simples. O odontóforo composto por um par de cartilagens simples. Musculatura da massa bucal é também descrita.

  12. Deagrarianisation and forest revegetation in a biodiversity hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shackleton

    Full Text Available Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa's Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape.

  13. Deagrarianisation and forest revegetation in a biodiversity hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Shackleton

    Full Text Available Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa's Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990 s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape.

  14. Deagrarianisation and Forest Revegetation in a Biodiversity Hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Ross; Shackleton, Charlie; Shackleton, Sheona; Gambiza, James

    2013-01-01

    Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa’s Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape. PMID:24155911

  15. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    1997-01-01

    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  16. Imposex incidence in Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast after Tributyltin global ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayari, Tahani; Bierne, Nicolas; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2018-04-01

    The development of male genital tract by female gastropods, or imposex, can be caused by the tributyltin used in antifouling paints. A spatial survey of imposex in the gastropod Stramonita haemastoma was conducted across five Western Mediterranean and eleven North-Eastern Atlantic sites, in order to monitor the effectiveness of the tributyltin regulation imposed in the International Maritime Organisation. Imposex still occurs in eight out of eleven Mediterranean sites and in three out of five Atlantic sites. Extreme values of imposex incidence (I%) and degree (VDSI) were recorded in Tunisia, mainly in Bizerta channel (I% = 96.2%, VDSI = 0.96). However, the Relative Penis Length index (RPLI) was higher in Western Mediterranean sites where values varied between 0.56 in Algiers (Algeria) and 11.80 in Bouznika (Morocco). In the European sites, moderate to low imposex level and degree were recorded. All the affected sites were below the Ecotoxicological Assessment Criteria (EAC) derived for TBT.

  17. Freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean in 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Basin-scale freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW is reported to have occurred in the South Atlantic Ocean during the period from 2005 to 2014, as shown by the gridded monthly means of the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo data. This phenomenon was also revealed by two repeated transects along a section at 30° S, performed during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Freshening of the AAIW was compensated for by a salinity increase of thermocline water, indicating a hydrological cycle intensification. This was supported by the precipitation-minus-evaporation change in the Southern Hemisphere from 2000 to 2014. Freshwater input from atmosphere to ocean surface increased in the subpolar high-precipitation region and vice versa in the subtropical high-evaporation region. Against the background of hydrological cycle changes, a decrease in the transport of Agulhas Leakage (AL, which was revealed by the simulated velocity field, was proposed to be a contributor to the associated freshening of AAIW. Further calculation showed that such a decrease could account for approximately 53 % of the observed freshening (mean salinity reduction of about 0.012 over the AAIW layer. The estimated variability of AL was inferred from a weakening of wind stress over the South Indian Ocean since the beginning of the 2000s, which would facilitate freshwater input from the source region. The mechanical analysis of wind data here was qualitative, but it is contended that this study would be helpful to validate and test predictably coupled sea–air model simulations.

  18. Freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the South Atlantic Ocean in 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjun; Shi, Jiuxin; Zhao, Xiaolong

    2017-07-01

    Basin-scale freshening of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is reported to have occurred in the South Atlantic Ocean during the period from 2005 to 2014, as shown by the gridded monthly means of the Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) data. This phenomenon was also revealed by two repeated transects along a section at 30° S, performed during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. Freshening of the AAIW was compensated for by a salinity increase of thermocline water, indicating a hydrological cycle intensification. This was supported by the precipitation-minus-evaporation change in the Southern Hemisphere from 2000 to 2014. Freshwater input from atmosphere to ocean surface increased in the subpolar high-precipitation region and vice versa in the subtropical high-evaporation region. Against the background of hydrological cycle changes, a decrease in the transport of Agulhas Leakage (AL), which was revealed by the simulated velocity field, was proposed to be a contributor to the associated freshening of AAIW. Further calculation showed that such a decrease could account for approximately 53 % of the observed freshening (mean salinity reduction of about 0.012 over the AAIW layer). The estimated variability of AL was inferred from a weakening of wind stress over the South Indian Ocean since the beginning of the 2000s, which would facilitate freshwater input from the source region. The mechanical analysis of wind data here was qualitative, but it is contended that this study would be helpful to validate and test predictably coupled sea-air model simulations.

  19. Distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Arctic, Atlantic Ocean and Antarctic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    The global distribution and long-range transport of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated using seawater samples collected from the Greenland Sea, East Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean in 2009-2010. Elevated levels of ΣPFASs were detected in the North Atlantic Ocean with the concentrations ranging from 130 to 650 pg/L. In the Greenland Sea, the ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 45 to 280 pg/L, and five most frequently detected compounds were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS). PFOA (15 pg/L) and PFOS (25-45 pg/L) were occasionally found in the Southern Ocean. In the Atlantic Ocean, the ΣPFASs concentration decreased from 2007 to 2010. The elevated PFOA level that resulted from melting snow and ice in Greenland Sea implies that the Arctic may have been driven by climate change and turned to be a source of PFASs for the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geothermal. Possibilities of use of the geothermal energy in the Colombian Atlantic Coast and general aspects on this energy type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1987-01-01

    With base in the compilation and prosecution of the geologic information and available geophysics in the Departments of Cordoba, Sucre, Bolivar, Atlantic and Magdalena and of the analysis of the results obtained for samples of thermal waters, the possible existence of attractive reas; geothermically was evaluated by the light of the main constituent elements of a geothermal field: Source of heat. Reservoir. Waterproof covering. Recharge area. The absence of recent volcanic manifestations as much in surface as to shallow depths, the nonexistence of a source of heat of economic interest is suggested. The presence of thermal manifestations in 3 towns of the Atlantic Costa shows results of the chemical analyses characterized by the drop silica concentration (92 ppm) and high concentration of bicarbonates (504 ppm) that which identifies to waters of low temperature, what reinforces the nonexistence of a source of significant heat. With the current information it is but attractiveness to focus the investigations in the Atlantic Costa toward the use in other such energy ways as the lot, eolic, biomass, Ph; that toward the use of endogenous fluids. It is included information related with the exploration and exploitation of a geothermal field and with the economic evaluation for geothermal plants of several capacities. Additionally specific examples of four countries in the world that you/they generate electricity with base in geothermal vapor