WorldWideScience

Sample records for south asian immigrants

  1. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy.

  2. Acculturation Strategies Among South Asian Immigrants: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.

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    Needham, Belinda L; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Bagchi, Pramita; Kim, Catherine; Mukherjea, Arnab; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2017-04-01

    In the past, epidemiologic research on acculturation and health has been criticized for its conceptual ambiguity and simplistic measurement approaches. This study applied a widely-used theoretical framework from cross-cultural psychology to identify acculturation strategies among South Asian immigrants in the US and to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. Data were from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. We used latent class analysis to identify groups of individuals that were similar based on cultural attitudes and behaviors. We used latent class regression analysis to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. We found that South Asian immigrants employed three acculturation strategies, including separation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for South Asian culture over US culture), assimilation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for US culture over South Asian culture), and integration (characterized by a similar level of preference for South Asian and US cultures). Respondents with no religious affiliation, those with higher levels of income, those who lived a greater percentage of their lives in the US, and those who spoke English well or very well were less likely to use the separation strategy than the assimilation or integration strategies. Using epidemiologic cohort data, this study illustrated a conceptual and methodological approach that addresses limitations of previous research on acculturation and health. More work is needed to understand how the acculturation strategies identified in this study affect the health of South Asian immigrants in the US.

  3. Group Counseling with South Asian Immigrant High School Girls: Reflections and Commentary of a Group Facilitator

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    Thakore-Dunlap, Ulash; Van Velsor, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the U.S. school population speaks to a need to provide support for youth from various backgrounds. As a school-based mental health counselor, the first author observed that the South Asian immigrant students at her school did not utilize any of the counseling services provided. Because South Asians are typically collectivistic,…

  4. Dietary intake and habits of South Asian immigrants living in Western countries.

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    LeCroy, Madison N; Stevens, June

    2017-06-01

    Previous reviews have indicated that immigration from South Asian to Western countries leads to unhealthy changes in diet; however, these reviews have been limited by the methods used in some included studies. This critical narrative review summarizes findings from original research articles that performed appropriate statistical analyses on diet data obtained using culturally appropriate diet assessment measures. All studies quantitatively compared the diets of South Asian immigrants with those of residents of Western or South Asian countries or with those of South Asian immigrants who had varying periods of time since immigration. Most studies examined total energy and nutrient intake among adults. Total energy intake tended to decrease with increasing duration of residence and immigrant generation, and immigrants consumed less protein and monounsaturated fat compared with Westerners. However, findings for intakes of carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and micronutrients were mixed. Studies that examine food group intake and include South Asians living in South Asia as a comparison population are needed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Barriers and Motives to PA in South Asian Indian Immigrant Women.

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    Daniel, Manju; Abendroth, Maryann; Erlen, Judith A

    2017-03-01

    The high prevalence of chronic illnesses in South Asian Indian immigrant women underscores the need for identifying factors that could influence their PA. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the perspectives of South Asian Indian immigrant women related to barriers to and motives for lifestyle PA within the PA Framework for South Asian Indian Immigrants. Forty women participated in focus groups that were conducted in English and Hindi. Focus group questions were open-ended and semistructured. Transcribed and de-identified audiotaped sessions were coded and analyzed using Atlas.ti software. Role expectation was a core theme for barriers with four subthemes: lack of time, loss of interest, diminished social support, and environmental constraints. Self-motivation was a core theme for motives with three subthemes: optimal physical and psychological health, emphasis on external beauty, and strong social support. Future PA interventions need to target these culturally sensitive factors.

  6. Narratives of suffering of South Asian immigrant survivors of domestic violence.

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    Kallivayalil, Diya

    2010-07-01

    This article examines the narratives of suffering expressed by a group of South Asian immigrant survivors of domestic violence who accessed a mental health clinic in New York City. These accounts illustrate women's own perceptions of their suffering and symptoms and provide a window into the South Asian immigrant community's ideologies and moral domains regarding gender, violence, and sickness, as well as how individuals vary in their endorsement of these ideologies. The women's narratives illustrate how migration and culture interact with the deeply personal experience of suffering caused by domestic and sexual violence.

  7. South Asian immigrant women's experiences of being respected within cancer treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Neufeld, Anne; Olson, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this focused ethnographic inquiry was to examine South Asian immigrant women's experiences and perceptions of respect within health professional-client relationships in the context of a Canadian outpatient treatment clinic. Characteristics of respect described by 11 women interviewed were the meaning of respect, health professional's way of being, their way of attending to the person, and their way of talking. Language, cultural values and beliefs, along with underlying societal, individual and institutional factors that coexist with health professionals' ability to create respect were some of the dimensions that influenced how immigrant women experienced respect. Health professionals' capacity to acknowledge South Asian immigrant women as individuals helped to formulate/construct respect for their individual identities. The need to be respected for 'my social identity' as an immigrant woman with cancer was woven throughout women's stories, illustrated by their personal experiences and perspectives.

  8. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

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    Lesser, Iris A; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking). However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, convenience foods

  9. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

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    Iris A Lesser

    Full Text Available Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT. There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking. However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage

  10. Immigration and dietary patterns in South Asian Canadians at risk for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Kirandeep; Sandhu, Supna; Tang, Tricia

    To examine the relationship between immigration and dietary patterns among South Asian adults at risk for diabetes and living in Canada. We recruited 428 South Asian adults affiliated with Sikh and Hindu temples in Metro Vancouver. Of the total sample, 422 completed self-report surveys including demographic background information, and two brief food screeners (fruit/vegetable/fiber intake and fat intake). Food screeners were culturally tailored to include traditional foods consumed in the South Asian community. Multiple linear regressions examined the relationship between diet and immigration. All models were adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, income, and employment. Participants reported low levels of meat, fruit and vegetable consumption. Intake of whole milk products, traditional South Asian desserts and snacks were relatively high in comparison to other fat-containing food items. Specific trends in diet were seen in relation to time following immigration with the longer duration of years living in Canada the greater consumption of fruit/vegetable/fiber, non-starchy vegetables, total fat and meat reported; and lower intake of whole milk. Acculturation appears to influence some dietary patterns in our sample of South Asian Canadian adults. These findings should be considered when designing culturally tailored lifestyle modification interventions for this community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The New Asian Immigrants.

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    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  12. South Asian immigrant women's suggestions for culturally-tailored HIV education and prevention programs.

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    Hawa, Roula N; Underhill, Angela; Logie, Carmen H; Islam, Shazia; Loutfy, Mona

    2017-09-18

    Using a community-based, socialist feminist qualitative study, and an emergent research design, we explored the unique individual experiences of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Ontario, Canada. We assessed both the HIV risk context and the strategies for HIV education and prevention as expressed by study participants. Grounded in Connell's social theory of gender, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 women yielded six themes related to the power and impact of stigmatization, community's denial of HIV, infidelity, manifested in resistance to discussing sex and condom use, non-disclosure, and lack of HIV knowledge. This study validated the legitimacy of listening to the voices of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV, who communicated 20 recommendations for researchers, educators, community organizations, and service providers to culturally-tailor HIV education programs.

  13. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: Why Immigrants choose to become self-employed? : A Qualitative study of South and Southeast Asian Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Umea City

    OpenAIRE

    Sinnya, Utsav; Parajuli, Nipesh

    2012-01-01

    After going through the literature on entrepreneurship we found that very little studies have been done whether culture and family business traditions influence the decisions of entrepreneurship. Most people from the South and Southeast Asia had cultural and family business backgrounds. The purpose of our study is to investigate if culture and family business traditions of South andSoutheast Asian immigrants affect their decision to become self-employed and if so how. This will enhance the un...

  14. Invisible Voices: An Intersectional Exploration of Quality of Life for Elderly South Asian Immigrant Women in a Canadian Sample.

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    Alvi, Shahid; Zaidi, Arshia U

    2017-06-01

    Despite the emerging presence of South Asian elderly population in Canada, there continues to be a paucity of research concerning the immigration and acculturation experiences of these marginalized elderly populations and their quality of life. This research builds knowledge of the quality of life experiences faced by South Asian elderly immigrant women residing in Canada using an intersectional analytical framework. While there is a gradually developing body of research regarding elder persons globally, the present research is unique in that explores challenges, stresses and strains, and builds an understanding of the treatment of older ethnic minorities and immigrant families. Furthermore, this research has implications for policies and practices governing these growing aging populations. Finally, this research gives voice to a "silenced" and invisible group of elders whose stories may help to make improvements in the quality of living and well-being for the aging South Asian immigrant population in Canada.

  15. Coronary heart disease in South Asian immigrants: synthesis of research and implications for health promotion and prevention in nursing practice.

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    Mathews, Rahel; Zachariah, Rachel

    2008-07-01

    Although the literature reflects that Asian Indians in the United States and globally have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality because of coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes, few studies have described the clinical implications in the United States. Traditional risk factors dictate practice, yet these risk factors do not fully explain the rates. Central obesity, lipoprotein (a), and insulin resistance may have a strong role. The literature suggests that proactive nursing using culturally specific clinical measures are necessary to reduce risk factors for CHD and diabetes in South Asians. Additional research and prevention strategies focused on immigrant South Asians in the United States are recommended.

  16. Breast and cervical cancer screening among South Asian immigrants in the United States.

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    Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura A; Prabhughate, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    South Asian (SA) immigrants (from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) constitute the fastest growing of all Asian American immigrants to the United States, with a growth rate of 106% from 1990 to 2001. Data are lacking on health behaviors of this population subgroup, including cancer-related information. : The purpose of this study was to assess rates and correlates of breast and cervical cancer screening in a community sample of SAs. Participants were recruited from among attendees of 3 community-based agency programs. Data were collected in English, Hindi, and Gujarati from a convenience sample of 198 participants. Two-thirds of the sample (n = 127, 65.5%) had ever had a mammogram, whereas only a third (n = 65, 32.8%) had ever had a Papanicolaou smear or vaginal examination. Several predisposing factors (eg, country of birth, years in the United States, acculturation, age, and acknowledged barriers to screening) were significant predictors of breast and cervical screening, whereas the only enabling factor was past screening behavior. Additional study is warranted on cultural aspects of cancer screening behaviors. These data are formative on facilitators and barriers to mammogram and Papanicolaou test completion among these understudied minority women. Nurses who practice in primary care may begin to target health education based on sociodemographics of SA women and emphasize discussion of barriers to screening.

  17. The Role of Social Media in the Acculturation of South Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Phenomenological Study

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    Dayani, Dilshad

    2017-01-01

    Some South Asian immigrants in the United States experience acculturative stress as a result of sociocultural differences. Social media is a tool that can facilitate the process of acculturation of some ethnic groups in the United States such as Hispanics. The specific problem that the researcher examined in this study was that the use of social…

  18. "Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.

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    Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

    2009-08-01

    This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field.

  19. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

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    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse.

  20. Perceptions of disability among south Asian immigrant mothers of children with disabilities in Canada: implications for rehabilitation service delivery.

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    Daudji, Anisa; Eby, Sarah; Foo, Tina; Ladak, Fahreen; Sinclair, Cameal; Landry, Michel D; Moody, Kim; Gibson, Barbara E

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe perceptions of disability among South Asian immigrant mothers of children with disabilities in a large multicultural urban centre in Ontario, Canada, and to explore how these perceptions influence rehabilitation services. The study was built on our previous work conducted with mothers in South Asia. A descriptive qualitative research design was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five mothers who had immigrated to Canada from South Asia in the last decade, and whose children were receiving outpatient rehabilitation services. Three primary themes were identified: (1) perceptions of disability reflected a mix of traditional and western beliefs; (2) mothers experienced physical, emotional and social suffering related to socio-cultural and material barriers and (3) mothers' primary goal for their children was the achievement of independent walking, which was linked to notions of achieving a ?normal? life and the desire for more rehabilitation interventions. South Asian immigrant mothers' perceptions of their children's disabilities had important similarities and differences to mothers living in South Asia. Healthcare professionals can assist families in managing and coping with their child's disabilities by exploring their unique values and beliefs and identifying achievable outcomes together.

  1. Epidemiology of Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Use among South Asian Immigrants in the Northeastern United States

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    Cristine D. Delnevo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most preventable cause of death in the world today, understanding tobacco use among one of the fastest growing ethnic/racial groups is warranted. We explore cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT use among South Asians in NJ and the Northeast using the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Overall, tobacco use rates among South Asians were similar or lower than the population. However, in NJ, South Asian males had the highest SLT rate (2.7% and in the Northeast, White (AOR = 5.8, 95%  CI = 3.7–9.4 and South Asian males (AOR = 4.0, 95%  CI = 1.5–10.6 had significantly higher odds of current SLT use relative to non-White males. Tobacco use among South Asians was not homogeneous; Pakistanis are overrepresented among cigarette smokers while Indians are overrepresented among SLT users. Given the differential tobacco use among and within South Asian, disaggregating data to understand tobacco use behaviors is necessary to develop effective interventions for tobacco cessation.

  2. Ethnic inequalities in health : why is the prevalence of type 2 diabetes higher among South Asian immigrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Mako, Robsan Sayo

    2013-01-01

    Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem with the burden of the disease distributed unevenly. The prevalence of the disease is higher among South Asian immigrants in comparison to the prevalence among the population of the host countries. Studies from Norway, UK and beyond indicate that there is ethnic inequality in the prevalence of T2DM. In order to find out the reason for this high prevalence of T2DM, this ...

  3. Family adaptability and cohesion in families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: A 3-year longitudinal study.

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    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn

    2015-06-01

    South Korea's low birth rate, aging society, and female migration to urban areas due to industrialization have caused an accelerated inflow of Asian female immigrants into Korea to marry Korean men, especially in rural areas. This study was performed to determine how family function of multicultural families changes over time and what factors affect the changes in family function of multicultural families. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a 1st wave study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) scores were measured. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the 1st wave study results. The mean family adaptability score was 24.6 in the 1st wave study and 26.1 at the 3-year follow-up. The average family cohesion score was 31.0 in the 1st wave study and 36.7 at the 3-year follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase in family cohesion after 3 years (P adaptability did not change over time; however, conversely, family cohesion increased. The age difference between husband and wife and the subjective SES had a positive association with the changes in family cohesion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

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    Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480

  5. Asthma, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease amongst South Asian immigrants to Canada and their children: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric I Benchimol

    Full Text Available There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children.Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants.Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61 and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65. Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49, as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42. Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71 and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67 was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81 and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22.Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children.

  6. Family-centred care: a qualitative study of Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents' experiences of care in paediatric oncology.

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    Watt, L; Dix, D; Gulati, S; Sung, L; Klaassen, R J; Shaw, N T; Klassen, A F

    2013-03-01

    Over the past two decades, there is increasing emphasis being placed upon providing family-centred care (FCC) in paediatric oncology settings. However, there is a lack of knowledge of FCC in paediatric oncology from the perspectives of immigrant parents. The purpose of this paper is to describe Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents' experiences of FCC in paediatric oncology settings in Canada. This study adopted a constructivist grounded theory approach. Fifty first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian paediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi, and transcribed into English. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and the use of the constant comparison method. Findings indicated that overall parents were highly satisfied with the care and services they received, and their experiences were reflective of the key elements of FCC. However, there were some areas of concern identified by participants: parents not perceiving themselves as a member of the medical team; inconsistency in the quality and co-ordination of services among healthcare providers; disrespectful and mechanical manner of a few healthcare providers; and parents' discomfort with healthcare providers communicating sensitive health-related information directly with their child. In order to successfully provide family-centred services to immigrant parents of children with cancer, better communication of the elements of FCC between healthcare staff and families is needed to negotiate a clear role for the parents as partners of the healthcare team. Moreover, a better understanding of how family relationships are structured in immigrant families will assist healthcare providers to balance the best interests of the child with that of the family as a unit. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Overweight and weight dissatisfaction related to socio-economic position, integration and dietary indicators among south Asian immigrants in Oslo.

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    Råberg, Marte; Kumar, Bernadette; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-05-01

    To investigate how socio-economic position, demographic factors, degree of integration and dietary indicators are related to BMI/waist:hip ratio (WHR) and to weight dissatisfaction and slimming among South Asians in Oslo, Norway. Cross-sectional study consisting of a health check including anthropometric measures and two self-administered questionnaires. Oslo, Norway. Pakistanis and Sri Lankans (n 629), aged 30-60 years, residing in Oslo. BMI was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.004) and Pakistani origin (P integration (measured by a composite index, independent of duration of residence; P = 0.017). One-third of those with normal weight and most of those obese were dissatisfied with their weight. Among these, about 40 % had attempted to slim during the past year. Dissatisfaction with weight was positively associated with education in women (P = 0.006) and with integration in men (P = 0.026), and inversely associated with physical activity (P = 0.044) in men. Women who had made slimming attempts had breakfast and other meals less frequently than others (P < 0.05). Weight dissatisfaction exists among South Asian immigrants. More research is needed regarding bodily dissatisfaction and the relationship between perception of weight and weight-change attempts among immigrants in Norway, in order to prevent and treat both obesity and eating disorders.

  8. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women's Perspectives.

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    Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  9. Negotiation, Mediation and Communication between Cultures: End-of-Life Care for South Asian Immigrants in Canada from the Perspective of Family Caregivers.

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    Weerasinghe, Swarna; Maddalena, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we explored family caregivers' experiences in providing end-of-life care for terminally ill South Asian immigrants. We employed qualitative methods and. in-depth interviews were conducted with seven family caregivers living in Nova Scotia, Canada. Interview data were validated, coded and organized for themes. Three major themes identified in the data illustrated (a) how South Asian caregivers experienced clashes between biomedical and ethno-cultural realms of care that led to cultural insensitivity, (b) how family members acted as mediators, and (c) how communication issues that challenged cultural sensitivity were handled. Findings provide directions for culturally sensitive end-of-life care planning.

  10. "I want to save my life": Conceptions of cervical and breast cancer screening among urban immigrant women of South Asian and Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Jennifer; Moravac, Catherine; Ahmad, Farah; Cleverly, Shelley; Lofters, Aisha; Ginsburg, Ophira; Dunn, Sheila

    2016-10-13

    Breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low among immigrant women and those of low socioeconomic status. The Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES) project ran a peer-led multi-lingual educational program between 2012 and 2014 to reach under and never-screened women in Central Toronto, where breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low. The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand how Chinese and South Asian immigrants - the largest and most under-screened immigrant groups according to national and provincial statistics - conceive of breast and cervical cancer screening. We explored their experiences with screening to date. We explicitly inquired about their perceptions of the health care system, their screening experiences with family physicians and strategies that would support screening in their communities. We conducted 22 individual interviews and two focus groups in Bengali and Mandarin with participants who had attended CARES educational sessions. Transcripts were coded through an iterative constant comparative and interpretative approach. Themes fell into five major, overlapping domains: risk perception and concepts of preventative health and screening; health system engagement and the embedded experience with screening; fear of cancer and procedural pain; self-efficacy, obligation, and willingness to be screened; newcomer barriers and competing priorities. These domains all overlap, and contribute to screening behaviours. Immigrant women experienced a number of barriers to screening related to 'navigating newness', including transportation, language barriers, arrangements for time off work and childcare. Fear of screening and fear of cancer took many forms; painful or traumatic encounters with screening were described. Female gender of the provider was paramount for both groups. Newly screened South Asian women were reassured by their first encounter with screening. Some Chinese women preferred

  11. “I want to save my life”: Conceptions of cervical and breast cancer screening among urban immigrant women of South Asian and Chinese origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hulme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low among immigrant women and those of low socioeconomic status. The Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES project ran a peer-led multi-lingual educational program between 2012 and 2014 to reach under and never-screened women in Central Toronto, where breast and cervical cancer screening rates remain low. The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand how Chinese and South Asian immigrants – the largest and most under-screened immigrant groups according to national and provincial statistics - conceive of breast and cervical cancer screening. We explored their experiences with screening to date. We explicitly inquired about their perceptions of the health care system, their screening experiences with family physicians and strategies that would support screening in their communities. Methods We conducted 22 individual interviews and two focus groups in Bengali and Mandarin with participants who had attended CARES educational sessions. Transcripts were coded through an iterative constant comparative and interpretative approach. Results Themes fell into five major, overlapping domains: risk perception and concepts of preventative health and screening; health system engagement and the embedded experience with screening; fear of cancer and procedural pain; self-efficacy, obligation, and willingness to be screened; newcomer barriers and competing priorities. These domains all overlap, and contribute to screening behaviours. Immigrant women experienced a number of barriers to screening related to ‘navigating newness’, including transportation, language barriers, arrangements for time off work and childcare. Fear of screening and fear of cancer took many forms; painful or traumatic encounters with screening were described. Female gender of the provider was paramount for both groups. Newly screened South Asian women were reassured by their

  12. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  13. A Peer Health Educator Program for Breast Cancer Screening Promotion: Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese Immigrant Women’s Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Crawford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women’s experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.

  14. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  15. Hepatitis B ESL education for Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vicky M; Gregory Hislop, T; Bajdik, Christopher; Teh, Chong; Lam, Wendy; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Yasui, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Asian communities in North America include large numbers of immigrants with limited English proficiency. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in most Asian countries and, therefore, Asian immigrant groups have high rates of chronic HBV infection. We conducted a group-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a hepatitis B English as a second language (ESL) educational curriculum for Asian immigrants. Eighty ESL classes were randomized to experimental (hepatitis B education) or control (physical activity education) status. Students who reported they had not received a HBV test (at baseline) completed a follow-up survey 6 months after randomization. The follow-up survey assessed recent HBV testing and HBV-related knowledge. Provider reports were used to verify self-reported HBV tests. The study group included 218 students who reported they had not been tested for HBV. Follow-up surveys were completed by 180 (83%) of these students. Provider records verified HBV testing for 6% of the experimental group students and 0% of the control group students (P = 0.02). Experimental group students were significantly (P ESL curriculum had a meaningful impact on HBV-related knowledge and a limited impact on HBV testing levels. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of ESL curricula for other immigrant groups and other health topics, as well as other intervention approaches to increasing levels of HBV testing in Asian immigrant communities.

  16. A feasibility study of a culturally and gender-specific dance to promote physical activity for South Asian immigrant women in the greater Toronto area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Despite ample evidence demonstrating the protective effect of physical activity, the uptake of regular physical activity among South Asian (SA) women remains relatively low. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and health impacts of implementing a culture- and gender-specific physical activity among SA immigrant women residing in Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada. A community-based mixed methods approach combining cohort pretest and posttest design and qualitative methods employing in depth interviews was used. Twenty-seven SA women from the GTA participated in a 6-week, 2 days per week, Bollywood Dance exercise program led by a female SA instructor. The participation rate was considerably high (85%) and approximately 82% of the participants attended 10 or more of the classes offered. The participants' physical measurements (weight, waist and hip, and body mass index) decreased, although not significantly, over the 6-week period and there was an improvement in their physical, mental, and social health. During the face-to-face interviews, participants reported feeling less stressed and tired, being more mentally and physically robust, and having a sense of fulfillment and self-satisfaction. The only common criticism expressed was that the 6-week duration of the intervention was too short. The results showed that the Bollywood Dance was a feasible strategy in engaging SA immigrant women in physical activity. The key aspects when designing culture- and gender-specific dance interventions include community participation and active engagement in planning and implementation of the program, a supportive environment, same gender and culturally attuned dance instructor, easy access, and minimal to no cost. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Communication and language challenges experienced by Chinese and South Asian immigrant parents of children with cancer in Canada: implications for health services delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Shaw, Nicola; Sung, Lillian; Poureslami, Iraj M; Klaassen, Robert; Dix, David; Klassen, Anne F

    2012-04-01

    Language is an important aspect of health literacy and plays a vital role in families' ability to access and use health information and resources. Our study explored the role of communication and language in the healthcare experiences of immigrant parents of children with cancer living in Canada. We used a grounded theory approach. Chinese and South Asian parents of children 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian pediatric oncology centers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, or English. Questions relevant to communication included: how parents navigated the healthcare system; nature of interpreter services and translated materials; and suggestions about how to improve services. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and constant comparison. Thirty-one (62%) parents reported no difficulty communicating with healthcare providers in English, while 13 (26%) parents struggled with English, and six (12%) parents could not communicate in English. Communication challenges influenced parents' role in caring for their child and made it difficult to learn complex medical terminology. Interpreting services were sometimes inadequate or not accessible. Parents occasionally missed out on services and resources, reported limited availability of linguistically and culturally appropriate information, and experienced a lack of social integration in the healthcare process. Language ability played an essential role in parents' healthcare experiences for pragmatic and social purposes. Language challenges can heighten systemic and socio-cultural barriers to accessing health information and resources. The provision of enhanced culturally and linguistically sensitive services may support immigrant families in their caregiving role. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sita's Trousseau: restorative justice, domestic violence, and South Asian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rashmi

    2005-05-01

    This article focuses on the particular cultural factors that affect South Asian women who are abused and immigrant South Asian women who are abused, in particular, in the restorative justice process. By exploring cultural practices and the icon of Sita, the mythological heroine of the Ramayana, this article demonstrates how the South Asian ideals of womanhood and wifehood help to create a mind-set whereby South Asian women are reluctant to advocate for themselves and are reluctant to leave. Such a condition is contrary to the conditions and abilities assumed by the restorative justice movement for dispute resolution, inside or outside of domestic violence. It is concluded that restorative justice options are ill-suited to application among immigrant South Asian communities for domestic violence cases.

  19. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the following mental health outcomes: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, fair-poor self-perceived mental health status, and extremely stressful life stress. The characteristics associated with these four mental health outcomes were determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis of merged CCHS 2007–2011 data. Results South Asian Canadian-born (3.5%, 95% CI 3.4-3.6%) and South Asian immigrant populations (3.5%, 95% CI 3.5-3.5%) did not vary significantly in estimated prevalence rates of mood disorders. However, South Asian immigrants experienced higher estimated prevalence rates of diagnosed anxiety disorders (3.4%, 95% CI 3.4-3.5 vs. 1.1%, 95% CI 1.1-1.1%) and self-reported extremely stressful life stress (2.6%, 95% CI 2.6-2.7% vs. 2.4%, 95% CI 2.3-2.4%) compared to their Canadian-born counterparts. Lastly, South Asian Canadian-born populations had a higher estimated prevalence rate of poor-fair self-perceived mental health status (4.4%, 95% CI 4.3-4.5%) compared to their immigrant counterparts (3.4%, 95% CI 3.3-3.4%). Different profiles of mental health determinants emerged for South Asian Canadian-born and immigrant populations. Female gender, having no children under the age of 12 in the household, food insecurity, poor-fair self-rated health status, being a current smoker, immigrating to Canada before adulthood, and taking the CCHS survey in either English or French was associated with greater risk of negative mental health outcomes for South Asian immigrant

  20. Education and Recreation Activities of Older Asian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Dattilo, John; Heo, Jinmoo

    2011-01-01

    Older Asian immigrants experience a variety of challenges when attempting to adapt to life in a new society. Adjustment difficulties associated with cultural differences among older Asian immigrants and the host country may result in a certain levels of acculturative stress. This stress is negatively associated with health and quality of life. In…

  1. Thyroid cancer incidence among Asian immigrants to Ontario, Canada: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Baiju R; Griffiths, Rebecca; Hall, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    The highest rates of thyroid cancer are observed in Pacific Island nations as well as Australia and Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The objective of this study was to determine the risk for thyroid cancer among immigrants to Canada from Southeast and East Asia compared with immigrants from other regions and nonimmigrants. This was a population-based, longitudinal cohort study using health care administrative data to examine all residents of Ontario without pre-existing thyroid cancer. Individuals were followed from January 1997 or 5 years after they became eligible for health care coverage in Ontario, whichever came later. Patients were followed until March 2015 for incident-differentiated thyroid cancer, and then for recurrence. The study followed 14,659,733 individuals for a median of 17 years. Thyroid cancer incidence was 43.8 cases per 100,000 person-years among Southeast Asian immigrants, 28.6 cases per 100,000 person-years among East Asian immigrants, 21.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among other immigrants, and 14.5 cases per 100,000 person-years among nonimmigrants. Incidence was highest among immigrants from the Philippines (52.7 cases per 100,000 person-years), South Korea (33.5 cases per 100,000 person-years), and China (30.0 cases per 100,000 person-years). Adjusted hazard ratios for thyroid cancer compared with nonimmigrants were 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.48-2.84) for Southeast Asian immigrants, 1.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.75-2.00) for East Asian immigrants, and 1.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57) for other immigrants. Immigrants were more likely to have papillary histology and stage I cancer. East Asian immigrants, but not Southeast Asian immigrants, had a lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.94] and 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.26], respectively). Immigrants from Southeast and East Asia had markedly higher thyroid cancer incidence than nonimmigrants. At particularly elevated

  2. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    OpenAIRE

    Babakus, Whitney S; Thompson, Janice L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative an...

  3. Cultural Patterns of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    An overview of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans is discussed to aid teachers in understanding behaviors exhibited by Asian students. Culture influences in the following areas are explored: family relationships, respect for age, social interaction, communication style, family expectations, humility, school situations, decision making, and…

  4. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  5. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... like forming relationships across ethnic borders, youth organisations, and media consumption. Intergenerational relationships indicate negotiations for most, combining individualization with interdependency, but with serious conflicts for some. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian...

  6. Acculturation Stress and Depression among Asian Immigrant Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between acculturation stress and depressive symptoms in a regional probability sample (n = 407) of six groups of Asian immigrant elders (Chinese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese). Findings suggest that about 40 percent of the sample were depressed, indicating higher depression rates than found…

  7. Asian American History: Reflections on Imperialism, Immigration, and "The Body."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Catherine Ceniza

    2000-01-01

    Draws on a historical study of the immigration of nurses from the Philippines to the United States and other countries to illustrate the prevalence of stereotypes in images of Asian American history and to show how to confront stereotypes in the writing of history. (SLD)

  8. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in United Arab Emirates: An exploratory study on East African Asian Immigrant Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Khakoo, Mohamed Hussein Turabali

    2008-01-01

    Immigrant entrepreneurship has always existed and has developed remarkably. It is related to migration flows over time and has brought increasing attention from researchers and management practitioners in recent years. The research sets out to investigate the process by which immigrants enter into entrepreneurship. The idea of starting a small business and the internationalization strategies they follow. A homogeneous ethnic minority is researched upon, the East African Asians who had migrate...

  9. Parent refugee status, immigration stressors, and Southeast Asian youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Le, Thao N

    2006-10-01

    To assess the effects of parents' experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents' refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies to reduce youth violence. Obtained cross-sectional, face-to-face interview data including peer delinquency, parental engagement, parental discipline, serious violence, and family/partner violence from a sample of 329 Chinese and Southeast Asian adolescents. Measures of socioeconomic status, refugee status, and immigration stressors were collected from their respective parents. Data were analyzed using LISREL 8.54 for structural equation modeling. Findings show that parents' refugee status facilitated serious violence, and was fully mediated by peer delinquency and parental engagement, but for Vietnamese only. Parents' refugee status was also significantly related to family/partner violence, and mediated by peer delinquency. This relationship was not observed among the other Asian ethnic groups. The immigration stress variable had no significant effects on either serious violence or family/partner violence. Refugee communities may not transform easily into stereotypical immigrant Asian communities characterized by little youth violence. Results suggest that the refugee process, as experienced second-hand through the children of refugees, has a strong effect on externally oriented violence (serious violence) and on family/partner violence for particular subgroups. Therefore, community-oriented policy makers should join social workers in developing programs to address youth violence in Southeast Asian families and communities. Findings have implications for other forms of community trauma such as natural disasters.

  10. Financial capability, asset ownership, and later-age immigration: evidence from a sample of low-income older Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Lee, Eun Jeong; Huang, Jin; Kim, Junpyo

    2015-01-01

    We examined financial capability and asset ownership among low-income older Asian immigrants with special attention given to later-age immigrants who came to the United States when they were 55 years old or older. Survey data collected from supported employment program participants (N = 150) were used. The analyses demonstrated a low level of financial knowledge and asset ownership in the sample. The findings also indicated that later-age immigrants' financial-management skills, knowledge of social programs, and asset ownership were significantly lower than those of young-age immigrants. These findings call for active interventions to enhance economic security among low-income older Asian immigrants.

  11. Physical and Mental Health Disparities among Young Children of Asian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. Study design We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents’ country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. Results After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. Conclusion There is little support for the “model minority” myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. PMID:21907351

  12. Physical and mental health disparities among young children of Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-02-01

    To examine physical and mental health functioning among Asian-American children of US-born and immigrant parents. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 base-year public data file. The sample was restricted to 7726 Asian and US-born white children. Asian subgroups were created based on parents' country of birth. Child physical and mental health was assessed based on multiple sources of data and measures. Analyses included multivariate linear and logistic regression. After adjusting for demographic and contextual differences, disparities were found for physical and mental health indicators. Children of foreign-born Asian families (from east, southeast, and south Asia) were at greater risk for poor physical health, internalizing problems, and inadequate interpersonal relationships compared with children of US-born white families. There is little support for the "model minority" myth with regard to physical and mental health. Evidence of physical and mental health disparities among young Asian-American children and differing risk based on region of origin of immigrant parents suggests the need for culturally informed prevention efforts during early childhood. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liminality, the Australian State and Asian Nurse Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Willis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades the flow of Asians to Australia through legitimate immigration programs has accelerated. This is particularly the case for Asian nurses coming from countries that were once subjected to European colonisation. The difficulties encountered by nurses from Asian countries mirror those of earlier waves of migrants. These include navigating the language and differences in cultural mores, values, and beliefs, along with the loneliness that may come from leaving strong family ties at home. While racism has been evident for all earlier waves of migrants, Asians face an additional hurdle linked to the uneasy relationship Australians and the Australian state has with Asia. Australia is geographically in Asia, but culturally Anglo and European.  The impact this might have on the working relationships of Asian and Australian born registered nurses is significant given the nature of their work in caring for the sick and elderly. This liminal relationship between the Australian state and Asians provides a theoretical insight into the particular difficulties experienced by Asian nurses and the integration programs that might assist them and their Australian colleagues to develop cohesive working relationships.

  14. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  15. The impact of acculturation and acculturative stress on alcohol use across Asian immigrant subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Anastas, Jeane; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Nguyen, Duy

    2014-06-01

    Acculturation and acculturative stress are examined as predictors of alcohol use among Asian immigrants, using the 2004 National Latino and Asian Americans Survey (NLAAS). Separate regression analyses were conducted for Chinese (n = 600), Filipino (n = 508), and Vietnamese (n = 520) immigrants. Alcohol use varied for the three groups. English proficiency was associated with drinking for all groups. Family conflict was associated with drinking for Chinese immigrants. General acculturative stress and discrimination were associated with drinking for Vietnamese immigrants. Results underscore acculturation and acculturative stress as being contributors to alcohol consumption, and the importance of considering the heterogeneity of Asian immigrants in research on their alcohol use. The study's limitations are noted.

  16. Interactive Effect of Immigration-Related Factors with Legal and Discrimination Acculturative Stress in Predicting Depression Among Asian American Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; Schulz, Amy Jo; Neighbors, Harold W; Griffith, Derek M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the impact of discrimination and legal acculturative stress on Major Depression Episode lifetime among Asian American immigrants. It further examined the role of immigration related-factors (age at immigration, reason for immigration, and years spent in the U.S.) on the relationship of acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) high discrimination and legal acculturative stress were associated with Major Depression Episode lifetime; (2) age at immigration buffered the relationship of discrimination acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime as well as the relationship of legal acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime; and (3) years spent in the U.S. buffered the relationship of discrimination acculturative stress and Major Depression Episode lifetime only. These findings highlight the complex relationship of factors that impact the mental health of the Asian American immigrants.

  17. South Asian Labour and Employment Report: Promoting Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Asian workers, especially women and lower caste workers, face ... Asian Employment Report will present policy options to promote growth and employment. ... IHD will work with the South Asian offices of the United Nations Economic ...

  18. Healthy Migrant Effect on Smoking Behavior Among Asian Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuerban, Aliya

    2016-02-01

    Healthy migrant effect (HME) of immigrants has been evidenced in various heath aspects. However, few studies have explored the applicability of HME on Asian immigrants' health risk behavior-smoking. This study used three waves of Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement data, 1998-1999, 2005-2006, and 2010-2011, to compare the rates of being a current smoker among Asian immigrants and United States born citizens. Further, the odds ratios of gender, age, marital status, socioeconomic status, years of migration, and citizenship status on the likelihood of being a current smoker were examined. Across the three waves, Asian immigrants smoked at a much lower rate than their native-born counterparts. The gender gap of being a current smoker was much wider among Asian immigrants. The longer the Asian immigrants stayed in the United States, the more likely they were to become current smokers. These data confirmed the association of HME and Asian immigrants' smoking behavior, and also provided strong evidence of the importance of smoking prevention among Asian immigrants. This study also implied the possibility of a decline in the effectiveness of HME on Asian immigrants as the time they spent in the United States increased.

  19. Who Wants to be a Millionaire? Gendered Entrepreneurship and British South Asian Women in the Culture Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Dipannita; Werbner, Pnina

    2012-01-01

    The 200 Richest Asians Magazines 2000, 2002, 2003 construct the success of British South Asian multi-millionaires in images that foreground their masculine traits and characteristics. And yet, this paper argues, such individual success stories are merely the tip of an “entrepreneurial iceberg”. They mask the existence of clusters of immigrant enterprises concentrated in particular economic sectors and industries. These may be headed by women as well as men. While South Asian men in Britain in...

  20. "I felt so hurt and lonely": Suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Saharso, S.

    2012-01-01

    Young immigrant women in the Netherlands demonstrate disproportionate rates of suicidal behavior. This study investigated the origins of suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan immigrant young women in order to identify ethnic- and gender-specific patterns of suicidal

  1. I felt so hurt and lonely: Suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Saharso, Sawitri

    2012-01-01

    Young immigrant women in the Netherlands demonstrate disproportionate rates of suicidal behavior. This study investigated the origins of suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan immigrant young women in order to identify ethnic- and gender-specific patterns of suicidal

  2. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  3. Understanding advance care planning within the South Asian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Patricia D; Kalia, Rashika; Khan, Rooh-Afza; Asghar, Nadia; Banerjee, Cyrene; Boulton, Debbie; Marlett, Nancy; Shklarov, Svetlana; Simon, Jessica E

    2017-10-01

    Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of reflection on and communication of a person's future health-care preferences. Evidence suggests visible minorities engage less in ACP. The South Asian ethnic group is the largest visible minority group in Canada, and information is needed to understand how ACP is perceived and how best to approach ACP within this diverse community. To explore perspectives of South Asian community members towards ACP. Peer-to-peer inquiry. South Asian community members who graduated from the Patient and Community Engagement Research programme (PaCER) at the University of Calgary utilized the PaCER method (SET, COLLECT and REFLECT) to conduct a focus group, family interviews and a community forum. Fifty-seven community-dwelling men and women (22-86 years) who self-identified with the South Asian community in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The concept of ACP was mostly foreign to this community and was often associated with other end-of-life issues such as organ donation and estate planning. Cultural aspects (e.g. trust in shared family decision making and taboos related to discussing death), religious beliefs (e.g. fatalism) and immigration challenges (e.g. essential priorities) emerged as barriers to participation in ACP. However, participants were eager to learn about ACP and recommended several engagement strategies (e.g. disseminate information through religious institutions and community centres, include families in ACP discussions, encourage family physicians to initiate discussions and translate materials). Use of a patient engagement research model proved highly successful in understanding South Asian community members' participation in ACP. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  5. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  6. Rural and urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan: determinants of their physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Walter; Shiao, Wen-Been; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-12-01

    Different geographical areas with unique social cultures or societies might influence immigrant health. This study examines whether health inequities and different social factors exist regarding the health of rural and urban married Asian immigrants. A survey was conducted on 419 rural and 582 urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan in 2009. Whereas the descriptive results indicate a worse mental health status between rural and urban married Asian immigrants, rural married immigrants were as mentally healthy as urban ones when considering different social variables. An analysis of regional stratification found different social-determinant patterns on rural and urban married immigrants. Whereas social support is key for rural immigrant physical and mental health, acculturation (i.e., language proficiency), socioeconomics (i.e., working status), and family structure (the number of family members and children living in the family) are key to the mental health of urban married immigrants in addition to social support. This study verifies the key roles of social determinants on the subjective health of married Asian immigrants. Area-differential patterns on immigrant health might act as a reference for national authorities to (re)focus their attention toward more area-specific approaches for married Asian immigrants.

  7. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  8. Organizational Life and Political Incorporation of Two Asian Immigrant Groups: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekar, Sofya

    2009-10-14

    Civil society is the foundation of a healthy democracy but its immigrant element has received little attention. This paper is a case study of immigrant organizations of highly-skilled Asian Indians and Chinese immigrants in a suburban town of Edison, New Jersey. I find that civic participation of Asian Indian immigrants spills over into political incorporation while Chinese immigrant organizations remain marginalized. I argue the local processes of racialization are central in explaining differences in political incorporation of immigrants. In the local context, the Chinese are seen as successful but conformist model minorities and Asian Indians as invaders and troublemakers. The racialization of Asian Indians has resulted in more political activity and higher levels of political visibility of their organizations. The results highlight shortcomings of current assimilation theories, which give little space to civic and political incorporation and view human capital in an unqualifiedly positive light.

  9. Historical Perspectives on Diverse Asian American Communities: Immigration, Incorporation, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…

  10. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Among South Asian Women Living in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kim; Scott, Taryn; Sholapur, Naushin; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 4 in 10 women in North America in their lifetime and 13-27 % in the past year. The basis for estimates stems largely from studies involving Caucasian women. Less is known about other minority populations such as South Asian women. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of IPV in the past year among South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. We conducted a survey of South Asian women living in Southern Ontario. All adult self-identified South Asian women attending a cultural event celebrating South Asian women who could understand English or Punjabi were eligible to participate. The survey contained three IPV prevalence questions adapted from the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. A total of 188 women (45 % of potentially eligible women) participated. Nearly 1 in 5 women reported IPV within the past year (19.3 %, 95 % CI 13.9-26.1 %). In this study single women were significantly more likely to have experienced IPV in the past year compared to married women (p = 0.035). Self-identified immigrant and non-immigrant South Asian women in this sample of women living in Southern Ontario experienced violence in proportions comparable to the general population. Programs for women should ensure accessibility and support of all ethnicities given equivalent rates of violence in the community.

  11. Southeast Asian Adolescents’ Perceptions of Immigrant Parenting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zha Blong Xiong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In their countries of origin, immigrant youth are unlikely to question the age-old child-rearing practices of their elders; however, the parenting of adolescents in an adopted country can become a major source of family conflict. The purpose of this study is to investigate how Southeast Asian adolescents growing up in the United States perceive their parents’ practices in six areas of parenting responsibility identified by the National Extension Parent Education Model: caring for self, understanding, guiding, nurturing, motivating, and advocating. Four focus groups were conducted with 37 Southeast Asian (Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 14 to 19 years to ascertain how they perceived parenting behaviors. An analytic induction procedure was used to analyze transcripts from in-depth focus group discussions. Results indicate wide divergence between the idealized practices of the model, the parents’ actual practices, and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices. The study has important implications for the growing number of immigrant families from diverse cultures who are parenting adolescents in unfamiliar cultural contexts and for the educators, human service providers, and others who work with them.

  12. Romantic Experiences of Homeland and Diaspora South Asian Youth: Westernizing Processes of Media and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined 1316 South Asian youth socialized in progressively Westernized contexts: "traditional" Indian homeland single-sex schools, "transitional" Indian homeland co-educational schools, and the immigrant "diaspora" in Canadian schools. Results showed youth in the three contexts were similar on…

  13. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakus, Whitney S; Thompson, Janice L

    2012-12-20

    The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women.

  14. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babakus Whitney S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA and sedentary time (ST and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Results Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women.

  15. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population

  16. Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival Among Asian Women by Ethnicity and Immigrant Status: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Chang, Ellen T.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated heterogeneity in ethnic composition and immigrant status among US Asians as an explanation for disparities in breast cancer survival. Methods. We enhanced data from the California Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through linkage and imputation to examine the effect of immigrant status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and ethnic enclave on mortality among Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1988 to 2005 and followed through 2007. Results. US-born women had similar mortality rates in all Asian ethnic groups except the Vietnamese, who had lower mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9). Except for Japanese women, all foreign-born women had higher mortality than did US-born Japanese, the reference group. HRs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) among Koreans to 1.8 (95% CI = 1.5, 2.2) among South Asians and Vietnamese. Little of this variation was explained by differences in disease characteristics. Conclusions. Survival after breast cancer is poorer among foreign- than US-born Asians. Research on underlying factors is needed, along with increased awareness and targeted cancer control. PMID:20299648

  17. The Idealized Cultural Identities Model on Help-Seeking and Child Sexual Abuse: A Conceptual Model for Contextualizing Perceptions and Experiences of South Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanukollu, Shanta N.; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an interdisciplinary framework to study perceptions of child sexual abuse and help-seeking among South Asians living in the United States. We integrate research on social marginality, intersectionality, and cultural psychology to understand how marginalized social experience accentuates South Asian immigrants' desire to…

  18. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  19. Revisiting the silence of Asian immigrant students: The negotiation of Korean immigrant students' identities in science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Minjung

    This dissertation is a study about Korean immigrant students' identities, including academic identities related to science learning and identities along various social dimensions. I explore how Korean immigrant students participate in science classrooms and how they enact and negotiate their identities in their classroom discursive participation. My dissertation is motivated by the increasing attention in educational research to the intersectionality between science learning and various dimensions of identities (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, social networks) and a dearth of such research addressing Asian immigrant students. Asian immigrant students are stereotyped as quiet and successful learners, particularly in science and mathematics classes, and their success is often explained by cultural differences. I confront this static and oversimplified notion of cultural differences and Asians' academic success and examine the intersectionality between science learning and identities of Asian immigrant students, with the specific case of Korean immigrants. Drawing upon cultural historical and sociolinguistic perspectives of identity, I propose a theoretical framework that underscores multiple levels of contexts (macro level, meso level, personal, and micro level contexts) in understanding and analyzing students' identities. Based on a year-long ethnographic study in two high school Advanced Placement Biology classes in a public high school, I present the meso level contexts of the focal school and biology classes, and in-depth analyses of three focal students. The findings illustrate: (1) how meso level contexts play a critical role in these students' identities and science classroom participation, (2) how the meso level contexts are reinterpreted and have different meanings to different students depending on their personal contexts, and (3) how students negotiated their positions to achieve certain identity goals. I discuss the implications of the findings for the

  20. Criminality or monopoly? Informal immigration enforcement in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Araia, T.; Hoag, C.; Tshabalala, X.

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants' claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped

  1. Drug addiction and diabetes: South Asian action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Balhara, Yatan Pal; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Both diabetes and drug addiction are common phenomena across the world. Drug abuse impacts glycaemic control in multiple ways. It becomes imperative, therefore, to share guidance on drug deaddiction in persons with diabetes. The South Asian subcontinent is home to specific forms and patterns of drug abuse. Detailed study is needed to ensure good clinical practice regarding the same. This communication provides a simple and pragmatic framework to address this issue, while calling for concerted action on drug deaddiction in South Asia.

  2. Correlates and Predictors of Psychological Distress Among Older Asian Immigrants in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Miya; Moon, Ailee

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress occurs frequently in older minority immigrants because many have limited social resources and undergo a difficult process related to immigration and acculturation. Despite a rapid increase in the number of Asian immigrants, relatively little research has focused on subgroup mental health comparisons. This study examines the prevalence of psychological distress, and relationship with socio-demographic factors, and health care utilization among older Asian immigrants. Weighted data from Asian immigrants 65 and older from 5 countries (n = 1,028) who participated in the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed descriptively and in multiple linear regressions. The prevalence of psychological distress varied significantly across the 5 ethnic groups, from Filipinos (4.83%) to Chinese (1.64%). General health status, cognitive and physical impairment, and health care utilization are all associated (p culturally effective mental health services and outreach programs.

  3. Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among Latino and Asian American immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick; Park, Yong S; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born counterparts. The second research question examined the effect of the protective and risk factors on prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders and found that social networking served as a protective factor. Discrimination, acculturative stress, and family conflict were risk factors on the mental health for both ethnic groups. Clinical implications and directions for future research are provided. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  4. The demography of disability and the effects of immigrant history: older Asians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jan E; Prakash, Archana; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2007-05-01

    Using data from the 2000 U.S. census, we compare the older Asian population with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites with respect to three indicators of disability. Insofar as any Asian "advantage" in health vis-a-vis whites exists among the population aged 65 and over, our evidence suggests that it occurs primarily among the U.S.-born segments of this population. We also investigate how differences in disability levels among Asian immigrant groups are influenced by country of birth and by the combined effects of duration of residence in the United States and life cycle stage at entry. These results highlight the diversity of the older Asian population with respect to the ways in which immigration and origin history are linked to disability outcomes. We conclude that in later life, immigrant status confers few disability advantages among the Asian population in the United States.

  5. Does Ethnicity Matter For Food Choices? An Empirical Analysis of Asian Immigrant Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tongyang; Berning, Joshua; Colson, Greg; Smith, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    As immigrants settle and extend their stay in the U.S., they may be exposed to a food culture and lifestyle that impacts their food choice decisions and health outcomes. This paper focuses on the behavioral changes and acculturation level of different generations of Asian immigrants on food choice decisions employing the 2013 American Time Use Survey. Heckman two-step regression results indicate that the 1st generation immigrants participate or spend more time on eating and drinking, food pre...

  6. Objects of Worship in South Asian Religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Objects of worship are an aspect of the material dimension of lived religion in South Asia. The omnipresence of these objects and their use is a theme which cuts across the religious traditions in the pluralistic religious culture of the region. Divine power becomes manifest in the objects and fo...... objects of worship, the book contributes to an understanding of the central significance of these objects in the religious and social life of South Asia. It will be of interest to students and scholars of Religious Studies and South Asian Religion, Culture and Society....

  7. African immigrants in South Africa: Job takers or job creators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivence Kalitanyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade African immigrants have been met with and exposed to severe forms of hostility towards their presence in this country. A significant number of these migrants have successfully applied their entrepreneurial flair in establishing small enterprises and employing workers, often to the envy of their local counterparts. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study conducted in 2007 on job creation by African immigrant entrepreneurs for South Africans with face-to-face interviews with 120 African immigrant entrepreneurs. These findings were triangulated 7 non-governmental organisations that interact with immigrants in Cape Town. A review of the literature on migration, entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurs formed the basis for the study The findings indicate that more than 80% of African immigrant entrepreneurs interviewed employ South Africans in their businesses. Despite a generally negative national perception towards immigrants, this study has also revealed that entrepreneurial skills are transferred from immigrant entrepreneurs to their South African employees. Whilst the study was only conducted in the suburban areas of Cape Town, the researcher believes that the results represent the general trend for South Africa. Furthermore, the study only involved those migrants who come from African continent. The overall result is the acknowledgement of the contribution that non-citizens are making to the country’s growth and development. The findings suggest recommendations geared towards policy changes regarding South African immigration law, an inclusive research about the role of immigrants on job creation in South Africa, as well as the consideration of immigrant entrepreneurs when allocating financial support.

  8. Comparison of pulmonary function in immigrant vs US-born Asian Indians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Fulambarker (Ashok); A.S. Copur; M.E. Cohen (Mark); M. Patel (Monali); S. Gill (Sanjay); S.T. Schultz (Stephen); P.H. Quanjer (Philip)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: This study investigated whether there is a difference in pulmonary function between healthy adult US-born Asian Indians and immigrant Asian Indians attributable to country of birth, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Design: FEV 1, FVC, and forced mid-expiratory flow

  9. ‘I felt so hurt and lonely’: Suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Saharso, S.

    2011-01-01

    Young immigrant women in the Netherlands demonstrate disproportionate rates of suicidal behavior. This study investigated the origins of suicidal behavior in South Asian-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan immigrant young women in order to identify ethnic- and gender-specific patterns of suicidal

  10. Pathways to dementia diagnosis among South Asian Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Lynn; Persaud, Malini; Hum, Susan; Pimlott, Nicholas J G; Cohen, Carole A; Koehn, Sharon; Leung, Karen K; Dalziel, William B; Kozak, Jean; Emerson, Victor F; Silvius, James L; Garcia, Linda; Drummond, Neil

    2013-11-01

    Urban centers are increasingly ethnically diverse. However, some visible minorities are less likely than their majority counterparts to seek and receive services and treatment for dementia. This study explored experiences of South Asian Canadians, Canada's largest visible minority group, prior to dementia diagnosis. Six persons with dementia and eight of their family carers described their early perceptions of dementia-related changes, actions taken, including help seeking and diagnosis, and affective responses. Early signs were attributed to aging or personality. Even after cognitive enhancers were prescribed, some respondents continued to believe that the dementia symptoms were 'normal'. Family carers' affective responses may be related to their attributions. Before seeking medical attention, family carers modified physical or social environments because of symptoms. Help seeking was delayed up to four years, even with significant dementia symptoms. Recognition of a health problem was influenced by safety concerns, emergence of new symptoms following trauma, and treatment for other health problems. For some, relatives living outside the home or outside Canada were instrumental in recognizing a problem and convincing family carers and persons with dementia to seek medical attention. The pathway to diagnosis might be easier with outreach to help South Asian immigrants differentiate between normal aging and dementia. Symptom recognition by physicians treating other acute conditions was a portal to dementia services for others. Screening and referral in acute care could result in earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  11. AoA Region: South Asian Seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    is an environmental assessment for the entire Bay of Bengal region (BOBP/ REP/67) prepared for the Swedish Centre for Coastal Development and Management of Aquatic Resources by Holmgren (1994) under the Bay of Bengal Programme. This assessment provides information...-based activities (UNEP 2001) includes information on the South Asian Seas region. Under the Environment Management-Capacity Building Project implemented by the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests with funding support from the World Bank, the Integrated...

  12. The development and psychometric testing of East Asian Acculturation Scale among Asian immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Fen; Chang, Wen-Yin; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Yu-Hua; Chen, Ching-Min

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of development and psychometric testing of the East Asian Acculturation Measure-Chinese version (EAAM-C) scale. An instrument validation design with a cross-sectional survey was conducted. The process was carried in two phases. In Phase 1, Barry's East Asian Acculturation Measure was translated and back translated to evaluate its content, face validity, and feasibility validity. In Phase 2, the 16-item EAAM-C was pilot-tested among 485 female immigrants for test-retest reliability, internal consistency, theoretically-supported construct validity and concurrent validity. The pilot work and the survey results indicated the tools possessed adequate content and face validity. The Cronbach's Alphas for the EAAM-C was 0.72, and 0.76-0.79 for its subscales, and the correlation of test-retest reliability (at 3 weeks) was 0.75. After dropping one item, four theoretically-supported factors which explained 61.82% of the variance were abstracted using exploratory factor analysis: assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. Based on the underlying four-factor theoretical structures of the EAAM, the confirmatory factor analysis of the EAAM-C was further examined. The analysis revealed that the four-factor model was an acceptable fit for the data which demonstrated adequate finding in its construct validity. These factors were inter-correlated, and showed statistically significant correlation with the Chinese Health Questionnaire, indicating adequate concurrent validity. The scale shows acceptable validity and consistency, and suggests that immigrant acculturation is a complex construct. This quick evaluation instrument can be applied to assess clients' acculturation and in further developing certain interventions to improve their health.

  13. Dietary intakes among South Asian adults differ by length of residence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Kandula, Namratha R; Gadgil, Meghana D; Desai, Dipika; Kanaya, Alka M

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether nutrient and food intakes among South Asian adult immigrants differ by length of residence in the USA. Cross-sectional analysis to examine differences in nutrient and food intakes by length of residence in the USA. Dietary data were collected using an interviewer-administered, culturally appropriate FFQ, while self-reported length of residence was assessed using a questionnaire and modelled as tertiles. The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. Eight hundred and seventy-four South Asians (mean age=55 (sd 9) years; 47 % women; range of length of residence in the USA=2-58 years), part of the baseline examination of the MASALA study. Intakes of fat, including saturated and trans fats, dietary cholesterol and n-6 fatty acids, were directly associated with length of residence, while intakes of energy, carbohydrate, glycaemic index and load, protein, dietary fibre, folate and K were inversely associated with length of residence (P trend USA was also associated with higher intakes of alcoholic beverages, mixed dishes including pizza and pasta, fats and oils, and lower intakes of beans and lentils, breads, grains and flour products, milk and dairy products, rice, starchy vegetables and sugar, candy and jam (P for differences across groups USA influences diet and nutrient intakes among South Asian adult immigrants and should be considered when investigating and planning dietary interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk.

  14. Susceptibility of elderly Asian immigrants to persuasion with respect to participation in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugge, Doug; Kole, Alison; Lu, Weibo; Must, Aviva

    2005-04-01

    Familism, respect for authority, and a sense of shame/pride are cultural characteristics that might influence research participation of Asian Americans. We compared 79 elderly Asian immigrants, most of whom immigrated from China or Hong Kong, with 58 elders who were not Asian and mostly not immigrants. Responding to hypothetical situations presented on a self-administered questionnaire, the Asian group professed to be more likely to be influenced by a request from a son/daughter, landlord, physician, or advertisement (p<0.001) and by a monetary incentive (p=0.05). Multivariate adjustment for potential confounders attenuated the strength of these relations, but except in the case of the monetary offer, differences remained statistically significant. Within the Asian group, multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that years lived in the US was associated with more likelihood of refusing requests to participate in research. We conclude that acculturation or assimilation into American society may build resistance to pressure to participate in research. Our findings also suggest that elderly Asian immigrants may need additional protections to achieve truly informed consent.

  15. Dance in the British South Asian diaspora: redefining classicism

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez y Royo, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses South Asian dance forms and genres in Britain, one of the major locations of the South Asian diaspora. It addresses issues of "classicism," "neoclassicism" and "contemporaneity" in South Asian dancing, particularly important as in the British context availability of public funding depends on the artists demonstrating an innovative engagement with their own practice. The author focuses, as a specific case study, on the work, Moham, choreographed and danced as a solo by bha...

  16. Replacing the nation in the age of migration: negotiating South Asian identities in Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishan Ashutosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the role of the national in shaping the geo-political divides and connections of the South Asian diaspora in Toronto. South Asian diaspora identities are explored through two contrasting political projects that reveal the ambivalent role of the nation in producing diasporic subjectivities and their shifting borders. First, by discussing the perceptions of South Asians in Toronto, it is contended that national and religious divides are reproduced in the diaspora as a means of national belonging to the society of settlement. Diasporic geo-political divides are not merely transposed from societies of origin to settlement, but rather lie at the intersection of transnational and multicultural politics that encompass societies of origin and settlement. The reproduction of national divides in the South Asian diaspora is situated in the neighbourhoods of immigrant settlement that are positioned as the objects of multicultural efficacy. The second political project reconstitutes the national through cross-national solidarities. Through a discussion of South Asian organizations and political initiatives in Toronto and other cities in North America, this section illuminates diasporic politics predicated on new understandings of history and connection that rejuvenate and politicize multicultural politics. The argument presented finds that national boundaries are re-inscribed in the diaspora at the intersection of the multiple claims of membership. Simultaneously, experiences and interactions in the diaspora provide the grounds for transforming and questioning the limits of national belonging.

  17. Personal social networks and organizational affiliation of South Asians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Cooper, Andrew J; Schneider, John A; Fujimoto, Kayo; Kanaya, Alka M; Van Horn, Linda; deKoning, Lawrence; Siddique, Juned

    2018-02-05

    Understanding the social lives of South Asian immigrants in the United States (U.S) and their influence on health can inform interpersonal and community-level health interventions for this growing community. This paper describe the rationale, survey design, measurement, and network properties of 700 South Asian individuals in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) social networks ancillary study. MASALA is a community-based cohort, established in 2010, to understand risk factors for cardiovascular disease among South Asians living in the U.S. Survey data collection on personal social networks occurred between 2014 and 2017. Network measurements included size, composition, density, and organizational affiliations. Data on participants' self-rated health and social support functions and health-related discussions among network members were also collected. Participants' age ranged from 44 to 84 (average 59 years), and 57% were men. South Asians had large (size=5.6, SD=2.6), kin-centered (proportion kin=0.71, SD=0.28), and dense networks. Affiliation with religious and spiritual organizations was perceived as beneficial to health. Emotional closeness with network members was positively associated with participants' self-rated health (p-value networks with higher density and more kin were significantly associated with health-related discussions. The MASALA networks study advances research on the cultural patterning of social relationships and sources of social support in South Asians living in the U.S. Future analyses will examine how personal social networks and organizational affiliations influence South Asians' health behaviors and outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02268513.

  18. Asian Americans and American Immigration and Naturalization Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its beginnings, the United States has been heralded as a nation of immigrants, a safe heaven for those who have to leave their homes, be the reasons hunger, political or religious persecution, the desire for land or the possibility of finding work. This self-perception as a country of immigration has been carved in stone at the foot of the symbol of the immigrant nation, the Statue of liberty.

  19. Asian Americans and American Immigration and Naturalization Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Walter

    2007-01-01

    Since its beginnings, the United States has been heralded as a nation of immigrants, a safe heaven for those who have to leave their homes, be the reasons hunger, political or religious persecution, the desire for land or the possibility of finding work. This self-perception as a country of immigration has been carved in stone at the foot of the symbol of the immigrant nation, the Statue of liberty.

  20. M_Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Roberts; Semran K. Mann; Susanne B. Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local rel...

  1. Acculturation and the prevalence of pain amongst South Asian minority ethnic groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, B; Macfarlane, G; Afzal, C; Esmail, A; Silman, A; Lunt, M

    2007-06-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is reported more commonly by South Asians in the UK than by white Europeans. This may result from a variety of factors, including cultural differences, and thus we investigated the extent to which differences in the prevalence of pain within the South Asian population could be explained by differences in acculturation (the extent to which immigrants take on the culture of their host population). Nine hundred and thirty-three Europeans and 1914 South Asian (1165 Indian, 401 Pakistani and 348 Bangladeshi) subjects were recruited from the age-sex registers of 13 general practices in areas with high densities of South Asian populations (Bolton, Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne and Birmingham). A 28-item acculturation scale was developed, based, on aspects including use of language, clothing style, and use of own-culture media. Principle component analysis generated a score (range 0-100), which was validated against constructs expected to relate to acculturation, such as years of full time education and time spent in the UK. The presence of widespread pain was assessed by the answer to the question 'Have you suffered from pain all over the body in the past month?' Widespread pain was more common in all three South Asian ethnic groups than in the white Europeans [odds ratio (OR) = 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9-4.9], with this increase ranging from 2.7 to 5.8 in the different South Asian subgroups. There was a similar increase in consultation rates for pain. Within the South Asians, pooling all three groups, there was a strong negative association between acculturation score and widespread pain, which remained after adjusting for age and sex: [OR (95% CI) per standard deviation decrease in acculturation score -1.2 (1.0-1.3)]. Adjusting for acculturation accounted for some, but not all, of the differences between the ethnic groups in the prevalence of widespread pain: OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-3.0). Widespread pain is more commonly reported in South Asians

  2. The Notion of Subject in South Asian Languages. South Asian Studies Publication Series, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manindra K., Ed.

    The following papers on subject in South Asian languages are compiled here: (1) "Subject in Sanskrit" by George Cardona; (2) "Is Sinhala a Subject Language? (or, How Restricted is Your PNP?)" by James W. Gair; (3) "Some Syntactic Reflexes of Sub-Categories of Agent in Hindi" by Peter Edwin Hook; (4) "The Notion…

  3. Acculturation and Self-Rated Mental Health Among Latino and Asian Immigrants in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Elif; Gayman, Matthew D

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses variations in acculturation experiences by identifying distinct acculturation classes, and investigates the role of these acculturation classes for self-rated mental health among Latino and Asian immigrants in the United States. Using 2002-2003 the National Latino and Asian American Study, Latent Class Analysis is used to capture variations in immigrant classes (recent arrivals, separated, bicultural and assimilated), and OLS regressions are used to assess the link between acculturation classes and self-rated mental health. For both Latinos and Asians, bicultural immigrants reported the best mental health, and separated immigrants and recent arrivals reported the worst mental health. The findings also reveal group differences in acculturation classes, whereby Latino immigrants were more likely to be in the separated class and recent arrivals class relative to Asian immigrants. While there was not a significant group difference in self-rated mental health at the bivariate level, controlling for acculturation classes revealed that Latinos report better self-rated mental health than Asians. Thus, Latino immigrants would actually have better self-rated mental health than their Asian counterparts if they were not more likely to be represented in less acculturated classes (separated class and recent arrivals) and/or as likely to be in the bicultural class as their Asian counterparts. Together the findings underscore the nuanced and complex nature of the acculturation process, highlighting the importance of race differences in this process, and demonstrate the role of acculturation classes for immigrant group differences in self-rated mental health.

  4. Spirituality of South Asian Women: Implications for Adult Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jody L.

    The implications of the spirituality of South Asian women for adult learning were examined through semistructured interviews of five South Asian women who resided in Canada. The women, who included students, working professionals, mothers, and single women, originated from Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka and were from Hindu, Moslem, and…

  5. Contextual Factors Related to Conventional and Traditional Tobacco Use Among California Asian Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Mistry, Ritesh; Maxwell, Annette E; Divan, Hozefa A; McCarthy, William J

    2018-04-01

    California's tobacco control program contracted for tobacco use surveillance of Asian Indian Americans to address the paucity of information about tobacco use in this community, given their growing proportion of California's population. This study examined correlates of conventional (CTU) and Asian Indian traditional tobacco use (TTU) in a population-based sample of predominantly immigrant Asian Indian adults residing in California (N = 3228). The analytic sample (n = 2140) was limited to self-identified immigrants from India. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine correlates of tobacco use among Asian Indian immigrants related to their acculturation and religious affiliation. While 65% of the sample had ever used traditional tobacco products (paan masala, gutka, bidis), only 25% had ever used conventional tobacco (cigarettes, cigar, pipe, chewing tobacco, snuff). Less than 5% reported tobacco use in the past 30 days. Rates of ever TTU and CTU were higher among men than women. Ethnic enclave residence was not associated with tobacco use. Impaired mental health was associated with CTU, and number of years spent in the U.S. was positively associated with both CTU and TTU. Individuals affiliated with Sikhism were less likely to use tobacco than individuals affiliated with Hinduism. Few population-based studies in the U.S. address both CTU and TTU use among Asian Indian immigrants. Tobacco use in Asian Indian immigrants may be seriously underestimated if surveillance is limited to conventional tobacco products. Interventions to reduce tobacco use should address mental health issues and consider religious affiliation.

  6. Contextualizing acculturation: gender, family, and community reception influences on Asian immigrant mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Janxin; Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates differences in the mental health among male and female immigrants from an ecological perspective, testing the influences of both individual acculturation domains and social contexts. Data from the first nationally representative psychiatric survey of immigrant Asians in the US is used (N = 1,583). These data demonstrate the importance of understanding acculturation domains (e.g., individual differences in English proficiency, ethnic identity, and time in the US), within the social contexts of family, community, and neighborhood. Results demonstrate that among immigrant Asian women, the association between family conflict and mental health problems is stronger for those with higher ethnic identity; among immigrant Asian men, community reception (e.g., everyday discrimination) was more highly associated with increases in mental health symptoms among those with poor English fluency. Findings suggest that both individual domains of acculturation and social context measures contribute to immigrant mental health, and that it is important to consider these relationships within the context of gender.

  7. Alcohol use among Asian American adolescent girls: the impact of immigrant generation status and family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking among Asian American adolescent girls is not well understood. Based on family interaction theory, the study examined the interrelationships among acculturation variables, family relationships, girls' depressed mood, peer alcohol use, and girls' alcohol use in a sample of 130 Asian American mother-daughter dyads. The mediating role of family relationships, girls' depressed mood, and peer alcohol use on girls' drinking was also assessed. The study advances knowledge related to alcohol use among early Asian American adolescent girls, highlights the effect of immigrant generation status and family relationships, and has implications for culturally specific underage drinking prevention programs.

  8. Immigrant Asian Indians in the U.S.: A Population at Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2009-01-01

    Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…

  9. Cultural and Social Processes of Language Brokering among Arab, Asian, and Latin Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Nash, Afaf; Orellana, Marjorie Faulstich

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how language and culture brokering (translating and interpreting language and culture for others) influences the acculturative experiences and self-perceptions of young adults from immigrant Arab, Asian, and Latino American backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 10 participants suggest that mediating information for…

  10. Effectiveness of culturally tailored diabetes interventions for Asian immigrants to the United States: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jee Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of tailoring community-based diabetes intervention to Asian immigrant cultures. The Cochrane processes and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations guided this systematic review. PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid, and PsycINFO were searched for analyses and syntheses of primary research published since 2000 that described interventions tailored for the cultures of Asian immigrants with diabetes. This search yielded a total of 9 articles published from 2005 to 2013. The Amsterdam-Maastricht Consensus List for Quality Assessment was used to assess the quality of the studies. Retrieved studies' populations were foreign-born adults >50 years of age with type 2 diabetes. The review revealed that culturally tailored diabetes programs are effective at improving patients' objectively measured clinical outcomes, in particular A1C levels, and psychobehavioral outcomes. Patients were also highly satisfied with bilingual health care providers and bilingual educational programs. There is strong evidence of the effectiveness of tailoring diabetes interventions to Asian immigrant populations' cultures. Further studies, including longitudinal studies and studies with rigorous research designs that subclassify Asian immigrants, are needed to encourage the implementation of culturally tailored diabetes intervention for this ethnic minority. © 2014 The Author(s).

  11. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  12. Measuring culture: a critical review of acculturation and health in Asian immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Talya; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2003-07-01

    The number of studies examining how acculturation affects the health of Asian immigrants has increased in recent years. The proliferation of studies reflects the growing size and heterogeneity of Asian immigrant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. This paper compares various approaches to acculturation within the health literature on Asian immigrants by reviewing the literature in three-health domains (1) mental health (2) physical health and (3) health services use. The review critically examines the conceptualizations and measures of acculturation in these three domains and presents major findings. We observe that measurement difficulties posed by the experiences of heterogeneous Asian groups compound theoretical and disciplinary disparities between acculturation instruments. The extent to which conceptual and methodological critiques of acculturation studies in Hispanic populations apply to studies of Asian populations is also discussed. The critical review thus provides insights into the diverse ways that the relationship between culture and health is measured in this complicated and growing literature.

  13. Phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome in South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jaya; Kamdar, Vikram; Dumesic, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs in 6% to 10% of women and, as the most common worldwide endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women, is linked to a constellation of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, including anovulatory infertility, hirsutism, acne, and insulin resistance in association with metabolic syndrome. Despite a genetic component to PCOS, ethnicity plays an important role in the phenotypic expression of PCOS, with South Asian PCOS women having more severe reproductive and metabolic symptoms than other ethnic groups. South Asians with PCOS seek medical care at an earlier age for reproductive abnormalities; have a higher degree of hirsutism, infertility, and acne; and experience lower live birth rates following in vitro fertilization than do whites with PCOS. Similarly, South Asians with PCOS have a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome than do other PCOS-related ethnic groups of a similar body mass index. Inheritance of PCOS appears to have a complex genetic basis, including genetic differences based on ethnicity, which interact with lifestyle and other environmental factors to affect PCOS phenotypic expression. Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Family Physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to state an ethnic difference in reproductive dysfunction between South Asian and white women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), state an ethnic difference in metabolic dysfunction between South Asian and white women with PCOS, identify a genetic abnormality found in South Asian women with PCOS, and list 2 environmental factors that predispose South Asian women to metabolic dysfunction.

  14. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  15. Cultural Adaptation, Parenting and Child Mental Health Among English Speaking Asian American Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-08-01

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.

  16. Help or hindrance? South Asian women in the family firm

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, Spinder; Scott, Jonathan; Hussain, Javed

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the often neglected issue of the contribution of South Asian women to both entrepreneurship and the management of family businesses. We conceptualise the family as a highly gendered institution. Two in-depth case studies, as illustrative typological exemplars, were undertaken with Asian women entrepreneurs who share both ownership and management of larger businesses which are household names, yet represent a tiny fraction of the Asian women in business. Respondents wer...

  17. Changes in dietary habits after migration and consequences for health: a focus on South Asians in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants from low-income countries comprise an increasing proportion of the population in Europe. Higher prevalence of obesity and nutrition related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD is found in some immigrant groups, especially in South Asians. Aim: To review dietary changes after migration and discuss the implication for health and prevention among immigrants from low-income countries to Europe, with a special focus on South Asians. Method: Systematic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant high quality review articles and primary research papers. The searches were limited to major immigrant groups in Europe, including those from South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka. Articles in English from 1990 and onwards from Europe were included. For health implications, recent review articles and studies of particular relevance to dietary changes among South Asian migrants in Europe were chosen. Results: Most studies report on dietary changes and health consequences in South Asians. The picture of dietary change is complex, depending on a variety of factors related to country of origin, urban/rural residence, socio-economic and cultural factors and situation in host country. However, the main dietary trend after migration is a substantial increase in energy and fat intake, a reduction in carbohydrates and a switch from whole grains and pulses to more refined sources of carbohydrates, resulting in a low intake of fiber. The data also indicate an increase in intake of meat and dairy foods. Some groups have also reduced their vegetable intake. The findings suggest that these dietary changes may all have contributed to higher risk of obesity, T2D and CVD. Implications for prevention: A first priority in prevention should be adoption of a low-energy density – high fiber diet, rich in whole grains and grain products, as well as fruits, vegetables and pulses. Furthermore

  18. Acculturation, gender, and mental health of Southeast Asian immigrant youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilario, Carla T; Vo, Dzung X; Johnson, Joy L; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    The relationships between mental health, protective factors and acculturation among Southeast Asian youth were examined in this study using a gender-based analysis. Population-based data from the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey were used to examine differences in extreme stress and despair by acculturation. Associations between emotional distress and hypothesized protective factors were examined using logistic regression. Stratified analyses were performed to assess gender-related differences. Recent immigrant youth reported higher odds of emotional distress. Family connectedness and school connectedness were linked to lower odds of extreme stress and despair among girls. Family connectedness was associated with lower odds of extreme stress and despair among boys. Higher cultural connectedness was associated with lower odds of despair among boys but with higher odds of extreme stress among girls. Findings are discussed in relation to acculturation and gender-based patterns in protective factors for mental health among Southeast Asian immigrant youth.

  19. Adipocytokine Associations with Insulin Resistance in British South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Webb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Adipocytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and may represent identifiable precursors of metabolic disease within high-risk groups. We investigated adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α and assessed the contribution of these molecules to insulin resistance in south Asians. Hypothesis. South Asians have adverse adipocytokine profiles which associate with an HOMA-derived insulin resistance phenotype. Methods. We measured adipocytokine concentrations in south Asians with newly diagnosed impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a case-control study. 158 (48.5% males volunteers aged 25–75 years with risk factors for diabetes but no known vascular or metabolic disease provided serum samples for ELISA and bioplex assays. Results. Total adiponectin concentration progressively decreased across the glucose spectrum in both sexes. A reciprocal trend in leptin concentration was observed only in south Asian men. Adiponectin but not leptin independently associated with HOMA-derived insulin resistance after logistic multivariate regression. Conclusion. Diasporic south Asian populations have an adverse adipocytokine profile which deteriorates further with glucose dysregulation. Insulin resistance is inversely associated with adiponectin independent of BMI and waist circumference in south Asians, implying that adipocytokine interplay contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease in this group.

  20. Sex role ideology among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Beitel, Mark

    2006-10-01

    Although sex role ideology (i.e., beliefs about the proper roles for men and women) is linked with self-definition and male-female interactions, researchers have rarely examined such beliefs among U.S. immigrants. This study examined the cultural (ethnic identity, self-construal) and demographic (gender, age, years in United States) correlates of sex role ideology among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants using psychometrically established measures. Male participants who endorsed ethnic identity and interdependent self-construal were more likely to report traditional sex roles; female participants who lived for a longer period of time in the United States and who endorsed independent self-construal were more likely to report sex role equality. Clinicians should consider assessing sex role ideology to reduce the likelihood of stereotyping their immigrant clients. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  1. "The Land of Opportunity Doesn't Apply to Everyone": The Immigrant Experience, Race, and Asian American Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, OiYan

    2014-01-01

    Despite their popular portrayal as high achieving and structurally incorporated, race continues to shape the career choices of Asian American college students. As second-generation Americans, Asian Americans negotiate a constellation of factors when deciding their career choices, most notably, pressures from immigrant parents, awareness of labor…

  2. International movements, post-apartheid dispensations and illegal immigration into South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambidima Wotela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arising from the supposed negative impact of illegal immigration, including security threats as well as recent xenophobic violence, the South African Government would like to counter illegal immigration. To do this, it needs to understand the root causes of illegal immigration into the country. This article, therefore, seeks to explain and interpret why illegal immigrants make South Africa their ideal choice of destination. To provide a context, the article begins with a discussion on the research setting, that is, the South African international boundaries. Thereafter, the article discusses the concept of illegal immigration from the South African context before reviewing literature on the number of illegal immigrants in South Africa and the supposed impact. The article then explores literature on international movements and discusses established migration frameworks that explain and interpret these movements. Lastly, to confirm some facts arising from the review, we interviewed officials that manage illegal immigration as well as detained immigrants. We establish that four migration streams that have created a blended society in Southern Africa sparked illegal immigration into South Africa. The article conclude that the problem of illegal immigration into South Africa is perpetuated by deep-rooted migration networks. Therefore, if the South African Government wants to avert illegal immigration, its policy-makers should examine these roots and take them into account to arrive at a solution that is in sync with the root causes of the problem.

  3. Pursuing the American Dream: The Effect of Immigrant Settlement among Asian Americans and Occupational Disparities in Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Morooka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that Asian Americans are fairly represented in professional occupations due to their high educational attainment. However, the representation of Asian Americans in managerial occupations is still small. Despite the dramatic increase of Asian Americans as a percentage of the population in recent decades, not many studies have been conducted to investigate the association between immigrant settlement and occupational disparities in managerial occupations of Asian Americans by ethnicities as well as immigrant generations. In this paper, I examine the characteristics that influence Asian Americans who embark on managerial occupations as compared to other occupations by nativity and the length of their residence in the United States. I also compare trends of native-born Asian Americans with those of native-born non-Hispanic whites to examine whether an occupational disparity has been approaching convergence.

  4. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed.

  5. Cultural considerations for South Asian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Manveen; Devins, Gerald M

    2016-02-01

    Cultural values shape a woman's experience of disease and introduce novel stressors that influence psychosocial needs and adaptation. This literature review examines the psychosocial impact of breast cancer in South Asian women, a large group that has received little attention in this regard. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature published before April 2014 using Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, PubMED, CINHAL, EMBASE, and Sociological Abstracts. We searched for articles about the psychosocial impact of breast cancer in South Asian women. We retained 23 studies for review. The literature concerning South Asian women's experiences identified culturally linked themes that play significant roles in shaping the illness experience; e.g., stigma and breast cancer, low priority of women's health, collective experience of disease, and religion and spirituality. There is a growing need for culturally sensitive care for South Asian women. By understanding the core cultural values and integrating them into clinical practice, Western healthcare providers may improve the quality of care they deliver and help women to extract the maximum benefit. Developing culturally competent support services may enhance effectiveness in addressing the healthcare needs of South Asian women and may serve other ethnic minorities in North America.

  6. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.

  7. International portfolio diversification: United States and south Asian equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamic liaison between US and three developing South Asian equity markets in short and long term. To gauge the long-term relationship, we applied Johansen co-integration procedure as all the representative indices are found to be non-stationary at level. The findings illustrate that the US equity market index exhibits a reasonably different movement over time in contrast to the three developing equity markets under consideration. However, the Granger-causality test divulge that the direction of causality scamper from US equity market to the three South Asian markets. It further indicates that within the three developing equity markets the direction of causality emanates from Bombay stock market to Karachi and Colombo. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the American investors can get higher returns through international diversification into developing equity markets, while the US stock market would also be a gainful upshot for South Asian investors.

  8. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  9. Revising the American Dream: How Asian Immigrants Adjust After an HIV Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Wei-Ti; GUTHRIE, Barbara; SHIU, Cheng-Shi; WANG, Lixuan; WENG, Zhongqi; LI, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; EMIKO, Kamitani; FUKUDA, Yumiko; LUU, Binh Vinh

    2015-01-01

    Aim We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Background Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the US. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. Design A mixed-methods study was conducted. Methods Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyze the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January - June 2013. Discussion Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their ‘American dreams’. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could ‘make their dreams come true.’ Conclusion Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower-acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should

  10. Revising the American dream: how Asian immigrants adjust after an HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Lixuan; Weng, Zhongqi; Li, Chiang-Shan; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2015-08-01

    We explored how acculturation and self-actualization affect depression in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders immigrant population. Asians and Pacific Islanders are among the fastest growing minority groups in the USA. Asians and Pacific Islanders are the only racial/ethnic group to show a significant increase in HIV diagnosis rate. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders in San Francisco and New York. Additionally, cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a sample of 50 HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders. Content analysis was used to analyse the in-depth interviews. Also, descriptive, bivariate statistics and multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate the associations among depression, acculturation and self-actualization. The study took place from January-June 2013. Major themes were extracted from the interview data, including self-actualization, acculturation and depression. The participants were then divided into three acculturation levels correlating to their varying levels of self-actualization. For those with low acculturation, there was a large discrepancy in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores between those who had totally lost their self-actualization and those who believed they could still achieve their 'American dreams'. Among those who were less acculturated, there was a significant difference in depression scores between those who felt they had totally lost their ability to self-actualize and those who still believed they could 'make their dreams come true.' Acculturation levels influence depression and self-actualization in the HIV-positive Asians and Pacific Islanders population. Lower acculturated Asian Americans achieved a lower degree of self-actualization and suffered from depression. Future interventions should focus on enhancing acculturation and reducing depression to

  11. Health literacy as the missing link in the provision of immigrant health care: A qualitative study of Southeast Asian immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Lee, Shoou-Yih D

    2016-02-01

    Language and communication barrier are main contributors to poor health outcomes and improper use of health care among immigrants. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand specific language and communication problems experiences by Southeast Asian immigrant women in Taiwan. This qualitative study used focus groups and in-depth interviews to uncover the experiences of immigrant women regarding their access to and utilization of health care in Taiwan. Eight focus groups were conducted with 62 Southeast Asian immigrant women and 23 individual in-depth interviews with a wide range of stakeholders who had diverse background and intimate knowledge of immigrant-relating health care issues were performed. Directed content analysis was applied and identified four major themes concerning conditions that influenced immigrant women's use of health information and services: (1) gaining access to health information, (2) navigating in health care delivery system, (3) interactions during health care encounters, and (4) capability of using health information and services. Findings from this study suggest that, without basic language and literate skills, the majority of immigrant women had inadequate health literacy to manage health information and navigate the Taiwan health care system. Interpersonal communication gap between immigrant women and health care providers exists because of lack of health literacy in addition al language and cultural barriers. With limited language and health literacy skills, immigrant women face numerous challenges in navigating the health care system, interacting with health care providers, and gaining access to proper health care. Future efforts are necessary to enhance individual's health literacy and establish health literate environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  13. "Tension" in South Asian women: developing a measure of common mental disorder using participatory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Alison; Patel, Viraj; Kabita, Mahbhooba; Shimu, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Although common mental disorder (CMD) is highly prevalent among South Asian immigrant women, they rarely seek mental treatment. This may be owing in part to the lack of conceptual synchrony between medical models of mental disorder and the social models of distress common in South Asian communities. Furthermore, common mental health screening and diagnostic measures may not adequately capture distress in this group. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is ideally suited to help address measurement issues in CMD as well as to develop culturally appropriate treatment models. To use participatory methods to identify an appropriate, culturally specific mental health syndrome and develop an instrument to measure this syndrome. We formed a partnership between researchers, clinicians, and community members. The partnership selected a culturally specific model of emotional distress/illness, "tension," as a focus for further study. Partners developed a scale to measure Tension and tested the new scale on 162 Bangladeshi immigrant women living in the Bronx. The 24-item "Tension Scale" had high internal consistency (α = 0.83). On bivariate analysis, the scale significantly correlated in the expected direction with depressed as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), age, education, self-rated health, having seen a physician in the past year, and other variables. Using participatory techniques, we created a new measure designed to assess CMD in an isolated immigrant group. The new measure shows excellent psychometric properties and will be helpful in the implementation of a community-based, culturally synchronous intervention for depression. We describe a useful strategy for the rapid development and field testing of culturally appropriate measures of mental distress and disorder.

  14. Factors influencing parenting efficacy of Asian immigrant, first-time mothers: A cross-sectional, correlational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eun Ha; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, Somi; Song, Ju-Eun

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we determined the factors influencing parenting efficacy of Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. The research design was a cross-sectional, correlational study. The study included 125 first-time mothers who immigrated and married Korean men, and were living in Korea. Data were collected using translated questionnaires, and analyzed for descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The major finding was that the parenting efficacy of immigrant women was influenced by childcare support from their husbands, maternal identity, and original nationality. The findings suggest that customized programs be developed and used to enhance parenting efficacy for Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. In developing such programs, the advantages of maternal identity, social support from the husband, and women's cultural context should be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  16. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  17. A life course perspective on migration and mental health among Asian immigrants: the role of human agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fang; Xu, Jun; Fujishiro, Kaori; Takeuchi, David T

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between human agency and health is an important yet under-researched topic. This study uses a life course perspective to examine how human agency (measured by voluntariness, migratory reasons, and planning) and timing (measured by age at immigration) affect mental health outcomes among Asian immigrants in the United States. Data from the National Latino and Asian American Study showed that Asian immigrants (n=1491) with multiple strong reasons to migrate were less likely to suffer from mental health problems (i.e., psychological distress and psychiatric disorders in the past 12 months) than those without clear goals. Moreover, Asian immigrants with adequate migratory planning had lower levels of distress and lower rates of 12-month psychiatric disorders than those with poorly planned migration. Compared with migrants of the youngest age category (six or younger), those who migrated during preteen and adolescent years without clear goals had higher levels of psychological distress, and those who migrated during adulthood (25 years or older) were less likely to suffer from recent depressive disorders (with the exception of those migrating for life-improving goals). Furthermore, we found that well-planned migration lowered acculturative stress, and multiple strong reasons for migration buffered the negative effect of acculturative stress upon mental health. Findings from this study advance research on immigrant health from the life course perspective by highlighting the effects of exercising human agency during the pre-migration stage upon post-migration mental health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Levers for change: philanthropy in select South East Asian countries ... the low donor awareness of societal needs and the lack of donor education and skills development. ... Tourism is an important driver of economic growth throughout Southeast Asia. ... Supporting sustainable economic growth in ASEAN.

  19. HDL functionality in South Asians as compared to white Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L. E. H.; Boon, M. R.; Annema, W.; Dikkers, A.; van Eyk, H. J.; Verhoeven, A.; Mayboroda, O. A.; Jukema, J. W.; Havekes, L. M.; Meinders, A. E.; van Dijk, K. Willems; Jazet, I. M.; Tietge, U. J. F.; Rensen, P. C. N.

    Background and Aims: South Asians have an exceptionally high risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared to white Caucasians. A contributing factor might be dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL). We aimed to compare HDL function in different age groups of both ethnicities. Methods and

  20. South Asian Labour and Employment Report: Promoting Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The 2014 India Employment Report and the 2015 South Asian Employment Report will present policy options to promote growth and employment. Researchers will document and review evidence on labour and social ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances ...

  1. Perspectives on Recent Refugees and Immigrant Waves into South Florida. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Antonio; And Others

    Six papers presented at a 1982 forum on Latin American and Caribbean migration to South Florida are collected in this document. Their titles (and authors) are: (1) "Refugees and Immigrants: The Last Two Decades" (Antonio Jorge); (2) "U.S. Refugee and Immigration Policy and Its Effect on South Florida" (Alex Stepick); (3)…

  2. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population.4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans.For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC.Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  3. A Qualitative Study of Breast Reconstruction Decision-Making among Asian Immigrant Women Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rose; Chang, Michelle Milee; Chen, Margaret; Rohde, Christine Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Despite research supporting improved psychosocial well-being, quality of life, and survival for patients undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction, Asian patients remain one-fifth as likely as Caucasians to choose reconstruction. This study investigates cultural factors, values, and perceptions held by Asian women that might impact breast reconstruction rates. The authors conducted semistructured interviews of immigrant East Asian women treated for breast cancer in the New York metropolitan area, investigating social structure, culture, attitudes toward surgery, and body image. Three investigators independently coded transcribed interviews, and then collectively evaluated them through axial coding of recurring themes. Thirty-five immigrant East Asian women who underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer were interviewed. Emerging themes include functionality, age, perceptions of plastic surgery, inconvenience, community/family, fear of implants, language, and information. Patients spoke about breasts as a function of their roles as a wife or mother, eliminating the need for breasts when these roles were fulfilled. Many addressed the fear of multiple operations. Quality and quantity of information, and communication with practitioners, impacted perceptions about treatment. Reconstructive surgery was often viewed as cosmetic. Community and family played a significant role in decision-making. Asian women are statistically less likely than Caucasians to pursue breast reconstruction. This is the first study to investigate culture-specific perceptions of breast reconstruction. Results from this study can be used to improve cultural competency in addressing patient concerns. Improving access to information regarding treatment options and surgical outcomes may improve informed decision-making among immigrant Asian women.

  4. She Is My Language Broker: How Does Cultural Capital Benefit Asian Immigrant Children in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  5. Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Severity: A Population-Based Study of Chinese and South Asian Patients in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Lebenbaum, Michael; Newman, Alice M; Zaheer, Juveria; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the sociocultural determinants of mental illness at hospital presentation. Our objective was to examine ethnic differences in illness severity at hospital admission among Chinese, South Asian, and the general population living in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a large, population-based, cross-sectional study of psychiatric inpatients aged from 19 to 105 years who were discharged between 2006 and 2014. A total of 133,588 patients were classified as Chinese (n = 2,582), South Asian (n = 2,452), or the reference group (n = 128,554) using a validated surnames algorithm (specificity: 99.7%). Diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria. We examined the association between ethnicity and 4 measures of disease severity: involuntary admissions, aggressive behaviors, and the number and frequency of positive symptoms (ie, hallucinations, command hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thought process) (Positive Symptoms Scale, Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health [RAI-MH]). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, immigration status, and discharge diagnosis, Chinese patients had greater odds of involuntary admissions (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.64-1.95) and exhibiting severe aggressive behaviors (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.23-1.51) and ≥ 3 positive symptoms (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.24-1.56) compared to the general population. South Asian ethnicity was also an independent predictor of most illness severity measures. The association between Chinese ethnicity and illness severity was consistent across sex, diagnostic and immigrant categories, and first-episode hospitalization. Chinese and South Asian ethnicities are independent predictors of illness severity at hospital presentation. Understanding the role of patient, family, and health system factors in determining the threshold for hospitalization is an important future step in informing culturally specific care for these large and growing populations worldwide. © Copyright 2016 Physicians

  6. Smoking Cessation Counseling for Asian Immigrants With Serious Mental Illness: Using RE-AIM to Understand Challenges and Lessons Learned in Primary Care–Behavioral Health Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Kim, Jin; Lim, Joyce; Powell, Catherine; Tong, Elisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in modifiable risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, substantially contributes to early mortality rates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). There is an alarmingly high prevalence of tobacco use among subgroups of Asian Americans, such as immigrants and individuals with SMI, yet there are no empirically supported effective smoking cessation interventions that have been tailored to meet the unique cultural, cognitive, and psychological needs of Asian immigrants with SMI. In this article, we share the experiences of clinicians in the delivery of smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrants with SMI, in the context of an Asian-focused integrated primary care and behavioral health setting. Through a qualitative analysis of clinician perspectives organized with the RE-AIM framework, we outline challenges, lessons learned, and promising directions for delivering smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrant clients with SMI. PMID:23667056

  7. Smoking cessation counseling for Asian immigrants with serious mental illness: using RE-AIM to understand challenges and lessons learned in primary care-behavioral health integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Kim, Jin; Lim, Joyce; Powell, Catherine; Tong, Elisa K

    2013-09-01

    Engagement in modifiable risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, substantially contributes to early mortality rates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). There is an alarmingly high prevalence of tobacco use among subgroups of Asian Americans, such as immigrants and individuals with SMI, yet there are no empirically supported effective smoking cessation interventions that have been tailored to meet the unique cultural, cognitive, and psychological needs of Asian immigrants with SMI. In this article, we share the experiences of clinicians in the delivery of smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrants with SMI, in the context of an Asian-focused integrated primary care and behavioral health setting. Through a qualitative analysis of clinician perspectives organized with the RE-AIM framework, we outline challenges, lessons learned, and promising directions for delivering smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrant clients with SMI.

  8. Insights into the genetic structure and diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from deep whole-genome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Ping Wong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language-speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP. The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP. SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP.

  9. Insights into the genetic structure and diversity of 38 South Asian Indians from deep whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lai-Ping; Lai, Jason Kuan-Han; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Cheng, Anthony Youzhi; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Liu, Xuanyao; Xu, Wenting; Chen, Peng; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Lim, Wei-Yen; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2014-05-01

    South Asia possesses a significant amount of genetic diversity due to considerable intergroup differences in culture and language. There have been numerous reports on the genetic structure of Asian Indians, although these have mostly relied on genotyping microarrays or targeted sequencing of the mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Asian Indians in Singapore are primarily descendants of immigrants from Dravidian-language-speaking states in south India, and 38 individuals from the general population underwent deep whole-genome sequencing with a target coverage of 30X as part of the Singapore Sequencing Indian Project (SSIP). The genetic structure and diversity of these samples were compared against samples from the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project and populations in Phase 1 of the 1,000 Genomes Project (1 KGP). SSIP samples exhibited greater intra-population genetic diversity and possessed higher heterozygous-to-homozygous genotype ratio than other Asian populations. When compared against a panel of well-defined Asian Indians, the genetic makeup of the SSIP samples was closely related to South Indians. However, even though the SSIP samples clustered distinctly from the Europeans in the global population structure analysis with autosomal SNPs, eight samples were assigned to mitochondrial haplogroups that were predominantly present in Europeans and possessed higher European admixture than the remaining samples. An analysis of the relative relatedness between SSIP with two archaic hominins (Denisovan, Neanderthal) identified higher ancient admixture in East Asian populations than in SSIP. The data resource for these samples is publicly available and is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the South Asian samples in Phase 3 of 1 KGP.

  10. South Asian Diasporic Youth in Denmark: Socio-Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Based on two empirical studies, this article investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s....... Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of  Indian and Pakistani background (n=5). The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent...... and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies...

  11. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  12. Gender, sex role ideology, and self-esteem among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between gender, sex role ideology, and self-esteem among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Men and women did not differ on personal or collective self-esteem (CSE). Women who endorsed traditional sex roles were significantly more likely to report higher private, identity, and total CSE. Personal self-esteem was a significant independent predictor of traditional sex role for women. Participants who endorsed sex role equality were significantly more likely to report public, membership, and total CSE. Sex role equality was associated with enhanced private CSE for men and attenuated personal self-esteem for women. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of self-esteem, which appear to be differentially associated with sex role ideology for men and women.

  13. Identity and difference - re-thinking UK South Asian entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper, which is part of a larger study, discusses from an ethno-cultural perspective, the notion of self-identification and difference pertaining to first and second-generation South Asian male entrepreneurs. In essence, previous studies have not explored this dimension to any sufficient depth. Therefore, evidence is unclear as to how ethno-culture has informed entrepreneurial identity and difference.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: Adopting a phenomenological research parad...

  14. Non-agricultural Market Access: A South Asian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Kemal; Musleh-ud Din; Ejaz Ghani

    2005-01-01

    A key element of the Doha Round of trade negotiations is liberalisation of trade in industrial products, commonly known as non-agricultural market access (NAMA). These negotiations are important for developing countries as these will determine the market access opportunities through which they can improve their growth prospects. This paper examines the key issues of NAMA from the South Asian perspective, outlines a negotiating strategy for increased market access, and spells out some policy i...

  15. South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Program on Climate Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Program on Climate Change. Selon le cinquième rapport du Groupe d'experts intergouvernemental sur l'évolution du climat, les principaux risques en Asie du Sud seraient une augmentation du débordement des rivières, des inondations côtières et des inondations en milieu urbain ...

  16. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  17. Demography of publications in South Asian Orthodontic Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gyawali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the demographic features of the articles published in South Asian orthodontic journals in the last 6 years. Materials and Methods: All the orthodontic journals published from or representing South Asian countries from 2011 to 2016 were analyzed for the number of issues published, number of articles, number of authors, country affiliation of principal author, and international collaboration in authorship. Further, article type was classified and number of citations was noted. Descriptive statistics was used to characterize the various features of the published articles. Results: A total of 825 articles were found in five orthodontic journals published from or representing South Asian region with the number authors per article ranging up to 10. International collaboration in authorship varied from 0.98% to 12.75% of articles among those journals. For all journals, principal authors of most of the articles originated from the country of publishing journal. Cross-sectional study overnumbered other types of researches. However, systematic reviews and meta-analysis which are considered as the highest form of evidence were very scant in these journals. Conclusions: International collaboration in authorship and foreign principal investigator was found minimum. Greater percentage of publications were cross-sectional studies with few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews/meta-analysis in the last 6 years.

  18. The challenges of disaster management in south Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar-ul-Islam; Anjum, G.A.; Shahzad, M.

    2005-01-01

    The type of this research work reflects an overview of disasters in South Asian countries. This outlines geographical aspects and institutional structures briefly in each country, and identifies gaps in disaster management regimes. Identified of these gaps is expected to give insights to the media to develop more informal disaster communications in South Asian Countries. Natural disasters have become a severe global problem. Deaths, displacements and damages resulting from natural disasters are colossal. During the 1990s global economic losses from major natural catastrophes averaged more than US $ 40 billion a year. The current Tsunami disaster has broken all previous records particularly in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India. This paper focuses particularly on sub continental countries in the South Asian countries, how they are managed and mismanaged, and aims to provide condensed resource material on the subject. In such countries issues related to natural disasters are covered under the legal frameworks for environment, land use, water resources and human settlements. The shift from emergency management to disaster preparedness requires coordination between various government building departments and ministries and with other international organization and various community organizations. (author)

  19. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  20. M_Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Roberts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC. This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47 and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350. Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health.

  1. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  2. Depression, a Hidden Mental Health Disparity in an Asian Indian Immigrant Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Mann, Semran K; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2015-12-23

    Cultural influences are deeply rooted, and continue to affect the lives of Asian-Indian (AI) immigrants living in Western culture. Emerging literature suggests the powerful nature of traditions and culture on the lives, mental and physical health of AI immigrants, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to explore depression among AI women in Central California (CC). This mixed-methods research was conducted in collaboration with the CC Punjabi community and the support of local religious leaders. All interviews were conducted in Punjabi and English. Whenever possible we utilized validated scales aligned with emerging themes from the qualitative data, which also provided contextualization to survey responses. In all we conducted 11 key informant interviews, four focus groups (n = 47) and a rigorously developed anonymous survey (n = 350). Social dynamics and traditional expectations including gendered roles significantly affected mental health among women participants. Subgroups along the lines of language choice (Punjabi vs. English) experience and report depression differently in part due to the highly stigmatized nature of mental health issues in this model minority community. The findings of this study highlight the importance of utilizing mixed methods to access hard to reach populations regarding sensitive topics such as mental health.

  3. The roles of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrant college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Celia Ching Yee; Correa, Alma; Robinson, Kendall; Lu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Pre-migration Trauma Exposure and Psychological Distress for Asian American Immigrants: Linking the Pre- and Post-migration Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Anderson, James G

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the life course perspective and the assumptive world theory, this paper examines whether pre-migration trauma exposure is associated with psychological distress through post-migration perceived discrimination for Asian American immigrants. The study is based on cross-sectional data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 1639). Structural equation model is used to estimate the relationship between pre-migration trauma, post-migration perceived discrimination, and psychological distress. Additional models are estimated to explore possible variations across ethnic groups as well as across different types of pre-migration trauma experience. Pre-migration trauma exposure is associated with higher levels of psychological distress, both directly and indirectly through higher level of perceived discrimination, even after controlling for demographic/acculturative factors and post-migration trauma exposure. This pattern holds for the following sub-types of pre-migration trauma: political trauma, crime victimization, physical violence, accidental trauma, and relational trauma. Multi-group analyses show that this pattern holds for all Asian immigrant subgroups except the Vietnamese. Studies of immigrant mental health primarily focus on post-migration stressors. Few studies have considered the link between pre- and post-migration contexts in assessing mental health outcomes. The study illustrates the usefulness of bridging the pre- and post-migration context in identifying the mental health risks along the immigrant life course.

  5. Recruiting South Asians to a lifestyle intervention trial: experiences and lessons from PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomilehto Jaakko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing emphasis on the inclusion of ethnic minority patients in research, there is little published on the recruitment of these populations especially to randomised, community based, lifestyle intervention trials in the UK. Methods We share our experience of recruitment to screening in the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians trial, which screened 1319 recruits (target 1800 for trial eligibility. A multi-pronged recruitment approach was used. Enrolment via the National Health Service included direct referrals from health care professionals and written invitations via general practices. Recruitment within the community was carried out by both the research team and through our partnerships with local South Asian groups and organisations. Participants were encouraged to refer friends and family throughout the recruitment period. Results Health care professionals referred only 55 potential participants. The response to written invitations via general practitioners was 5.2%, lower than reported in other general populations. Community orientated, personal approaches for recruitment were comparatively effective yielding 1728 referrals (82% to the screening stage. Conclusions The PODOSA experience shows that a community orientated, personal approach for recruiting South Asian ethnic minority populations can be successful in a trial setting. We recommend that consideration is given to cover recruitment costs associated with community engagement and other personalised approaches. Researchers should consider prioritising approaches that minimise interference with professionals' work and, particularly in the current economic climate, keep costs to a minimum. The lessons learned in PODOSA should contribute to future community based trials in South Asians. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25729565

  6. Duration of U.S. stay and body mass index among Latino and Asian immigrants: A test of theoretical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Bostean, Georgiana

    2015-11-01

    Studies find that longer-term immigrants have higher body mass index (BMI) than their more recently arrived counterparts. Most interpretations of these health patterns by duration of U.S. residence rely on theories of immigrant integration; they posit that with increasing time in the United States, immigrants incorporate economically, socially, and culturally into aspects of U.S. society, and that these changes impact health. Few studies empirically examine whether these aspects of integration are indeed mediators of the association between duration of U.S. stay and BMI, and if their patterns differ across immigrant subgroups. This study examines data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, using path analytic methods to simultaneously test six hypothesized mediators between duration and BMI: household income, English language ability, ethnic identity, family cohesion, acculturative stress and discrimination for both Latino and Asian immigrants, stratified by gender. We find little evidence for an association between duration and BMI for either Latino or Asian men. For women, duration and BMI have a significant and positive relationship, although the pathways differ between the two ethnic groups. For Latina women, household income and acculturative stress are significant indirect pathways, although they work in opposing directions. For Asian women, English proficiency and discrimination are significant indirect pathways. Our findings reveal complex pathways between duration and BMI that vary by ethnicity and gender and highlight limitations in the negative acculturation theory, which suggests that exposure to the United States should have a net negative impact on health. In contrast, our findings suggest that not all groups show declining health with longer duration, as measured by BMI, and that integration processes do not always translate into health differences in the expected directions. Future research on duration patterns may need to consider

  7. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  8. Acculturation, enculturation, and perceptions of mental disorders in Asian Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Asha; Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2010-04-01

    One hundred eighteen Asian Indian immigrants completed questionnaires assessing behavioral acculturation, values enculturation, and perceptions of the psychological and medical determinants of case descriptions of major depression and schizophrenia, as well as treatment-seeking recommendations and stigma associated with treatment seeking. Case vignettes depicted symptoms meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for major depression and schizophrenia. Results revealed that responses to male case vignettes elicited lower levels of endorsement of psychological determinants and higher levels of endorsement of biological determinants in comparison to female case vignettes. Moreover, vignette gender moderated the relationship between behavioral acculturation and perceptions of the psychological basis of the disorders depicted in the vignettes. Both vignette gender and type of disorder moderated the relationship between years in the United States and perceptions of biological determinants. The study findings were consistent with traditional gender ideals among Asian Indians. Moreover, behavioral acculturation appeared to moderate traditional conceptions of masculinity toward greater recognition of the psychological bases of mental disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Influence of information sources on hepatitis B screening behavior and relevant psychosocial factors among Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-08-01

    This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured.

  10. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  11. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...

  13. South Asian American Perspectives on Overweight, Obesity, and the Relationship Between Weight and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Joyce W.; Mason, Maryann; Kushner, Robert F.; Tirodkar, Manasi A.; Khurana, Neerja; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Compared with other racial groups, South Asian adults develop type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at a lower body mass index (BMI). Perceptions of weight and the effect of weight on health can influence weight-loss attempts but are not well described in this population. The objective of this study was to examine perceptions of weight appropriateness and the effect of weight on health among South Asian Americans. Methods We recruited 75 South Asian American adults from a si...

  14. Translating a heart disease lifestyle intervention into the community: the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study; a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Dave, Swapna; De Chavez, Peter John; Bharucha, Himali; Patel, Yasin; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2015-10-16

    South Asians (Asian Indians and Pakistanis) are the second fastest growing ethnic group in the United States (U.S.) and have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This pilot study evaluated a culturally-salient, community-based healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce ASCVD risk among South Asians. Through an academic-community partnership, medically underserved South Asian immigrants at risk for ASCVD were randomized into the South Asian Heart Lifestyle Intervention (SAHELI) study. The intervention group attended 6 interactive group classes focused on increasing physical activity, healthful diet, weight, and stress management. They also received follow-up telephone support calls. The control group received translated print education materials about ASCVD and healthy behaviors. Primary outcomes were feasibility and initial efficacy, measured as change in moderate/vigorous physical activity and dietary saturated fat intake at 3- and 6-months. Secondary clinical and psychosocial outcomes were also measured. Participants' (n = 63) average age was 50 (SD = 8) years, 63 % were female, 27 % had less than or equal to a high school education, one-third were limited English proficient, and mean BMI was 30 kg/m2 (SD ± 5). There were no significant differences in change in physical activity or saturated fat intake between the intervention and control group. Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant weight loss (-1.5 kg, p-value = 0.04) and had a greater sex-adjusted decrease in hemoglobin A1C (-0.43 %, p-value culturally-salient, community-based lifestyle intervention was feasible for engaging medically underserved South Asian immigrants and more effective at addressing ASCVD risk factors than print health education materials. NCT01647438, Date of Trial Registration: July 19, 2012.

  15. Self-harm in British South Asian women: psychosocial correlates and strategies for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Waheed W; Husain MI; Husain Nusrat

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the rates of self-harm in British South Asian women, look into the factors that contribute to these high rates of self-harm and discuss possible strategies for prevention and provision of culturally sensitive service for South Asian women who harm themselves. Method Review. Results South Asian women are significantly more likely to self harm between ages 16–24 years than white women. Across all age groups the rates of self harm are lower in South Asian men as comp...

  16. The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian monsoon winds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Betzler, C.; Eberli, G.P.; Kroon, D.; Wright, J.D.; Swart, P.K.; Nath, B.N.; Alvarez-Zarikian, C.A.; Alonso-Garcia, M.; Bialik, O.M.; Blattler, C.L.; Guo, J.; Haffen, S.; Horozal, S.; Inoue, M.; Jovane, L.; Lanci, L.; Laya, J.C.; Mee, A.L.H.; Ludmann, T.; Nakakuni, M.; Niino, K.; Petruny, L.M.; Pratiwi, S.D.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Reolid, J.; Slagle, A.L.; Sloss, C.R.; Su, X.; Yao, Z.; Young, J.R.

    :29838 | DOI: 10.1038/srep29838 www.nature.com/scientificreports The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds Christian Betzler1, Gregor P. Eberli2, Dick Kroon3, James D. Wright4, Peter K. Swart2, Bejugam Nagender Nath5, Carlos A. Alvarez....betzler@uni-hamburg.de) Received: 25 April 2016 accepted: 21 June 2016 Published: 20 July 2016 OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2Scientific RepoRts | 6:29838 | DOI: 10.1038/srep29838 control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together...

  17. Metabolic syndrome in children: current issues and South Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Khurana, Lokesh; Vikram, Naval K; Goel, Ashish; Wasir, Jasjeet S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss definition, determinants, and management issues of the metabolic syndrome in children with a focus on South Asians. The literature search was done using the PubMed search engine (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manual searches for other important references and medical databases were also done. There is a need for an integrated definition of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents, taking cognizance of the ethnic-specific variations. Obesity and body fat patterning are important determinants of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in children and ethnic variations in these parameters are seen. Excess body fat and thicker truncal subcutaneous fat are important predisposing factors for development of insulin resistance in South Asian children. Because the metabolic syndrome tracks into adulthood, its manifestations need to be recognized early for prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, maintenance of high levels of physical activity and normal weight are most important strategies; pharmacologic therapy for individual components of the metabolic syndrome is occasionally needed. The metabolic syndrome in children is an important clinical marker of diabetes and coronary heart disease in adults. In view of the rapid increase in the metabolic syndrome in most populations, high-risk screening and effective public-intervention educational programs are urgently needed.

  18. Atmospheric water budget over the South Asian summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, C. K.; Rajeevan, M.

    2018-04-01

    High resolution hybrid atmospheric water budget over the South Asian monsoon region is examined. The regional characteristics, variability, regional controlling factors and the interrelations of the atmospheric water budget components are investigated. The surface evapotranspiration was created using the High Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) with the satellite-observed rainfall and vegetation fraction. HRLDAS evapotranspiration shows significant similarity with in situ observations and MODIS satellite-observed evapotranspiration. Result highlights the fundamental importance of evapotranspiration over northwest and southeast India on atmospheric water balance. The investigation shows that the surface net radiation controls the annual evapotranspiration over those regions, where the surface evapotranspiration is lower than 550 mm. The rainfall and evapotranspiration show a linear relation over the low-rainfall regions (forcing (like surface net radiation). The lead and lag correlation of water budget components show that the water budget anomalies are interrelated in the monsoon season even up to 4 months lead. These results show the important regional interrelation of water budget anomalies on south Asian monsoon.

  19. Perceptions of Disability and Special Education among East Asian Parents: U.S. Immigrants and Non-Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min-Chi; Kim, Sunyoung; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Wilkerson, Kimber L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current literature review is to understand how East Asian American (EAA) parents of students with disabilities perceive disabilities and special education. These parental perspectives are compared to those of their East Asian (EA) parents to better understand whether EAA parents adjust their perceptions in the U.S. Findings from…

  20. Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

  1. Ethnic Identity and Parenting Stress in South Asian Families: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Aneesa

    2009-01-01

    The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…

  2. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  3. Racial differences in ART outcome between white and South Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady I. Sharara

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: Contrary to previous studies, we found no differences in ART outcome between white and South Asian women undergoing RT, despite the significantly younger age group and lower basal FSH in the South Asian population. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  4. Self-harm in British South Asian women: psychosocial correlates and strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed W

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To review the rates of self-harm in British South Asian women, look into the factors that contribute to these high rates of self-harm and discuss possible strategies for prevention and provision of culturally sensitive service for South Asian women who harm themselves. Method Review. Results South Asian women are significantly more likely to self harm between ages 16–24 years than white women. Across all age groups the rates of self harm are lower in South Asian men as compared to South Asian women. These women are generally younger, likely to be married and less likely to be unemployed or use alcohol or other drugs. They report more relationship problems within the family. South Asian women are less likely to attend the ER with repeat episode since they hold the view that mainstream services do not meet their needs. Conclusion South Asian women are at an increased risk of self harm. Their demographic characteristics, precipitating factors and clinical management are different than whites. There is an urgent need for all those concerned with the mental health services for ethnic minorities to take positive action and eradicate the barriers that prevent British South Asians from seeking help. There is a need to move away from stereotypes and overgeneralisations and start from the user's frame of reference, taking into account family dynamics, belief systems and cultural constraints.

  5. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  6. East Asian child-rearing attitudes: an exploration of cultural, demographic and self-disclosure factors among US immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity

  7. Factors Influencing Health Service Utilization Among Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers in the Greater New York City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Chao, Ying-Yu; Yeung, Ka Man; Strauss, Shiela M

    2018-06-23

    Most nail salon workers in the greater New York City area are Asian immigrant women. They are exposed daily to potentially toxic chemicals and hazards in their workplace, making them more vulnerable for possible health problems. The study's primary purpose was to identify factors influencing past year healthcare utilization among Asian immigrant women working in nail salons. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a modification of Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization in which 148 Korean and Chinese immigrant women currently working in nail salons were surveyed. The questionnaire included: (1) individual health determinants, (2) health service utilization in the past year, and (3) work environment, work-related health concerns, and work-related health problems. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models assessed factors related to past year healthcare utilization. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .01), low educational attainment (p < .05), and more work-related health symptoms (p < .05) were more likely to visit a primary care provider. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .05), and low educational attainment (p < .05), were also more likely to visit a woman's health provider. Korean (rather than Chinese) women (p < .05) and women who perceived themselves to be in fair/poor health (p < .05) were more likely to see a traditional provider of Eastern medicine. Asian immigrant women who work in nail salons have workplace health and safety concerns. They generally use Western rather than traditional medicine, with different factors related to these two types of medicine.

  8. Carolina del Norte and the New South: Social Work Practice with New Latino Immigrant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa de Saxe Zerden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the Latino population in North Carolina has increased 111%. More than half of North Carolina Latinos are foreign-born and most face issues related to immigration, acculturation, and often, discrimination. This article provides a brief overview of the historical context in which social workers engaged with immigrant communities, and argues that the profession brings strengths and unique skills to address North Carolina’s Latino immigrant population, historically, and within the current context. Key social demographics of Latino populations, sociopolitical realities, as well as theoretical and methodological issues related to the complex needs of this diverse population group are addressed. Two examples of Latino vulnerability in North Carolina, HIV/AIDS and discriminatory local immigration enforcement practices, are discussed to further highlight the unique strengths and challenges social workers in North Carolina and the New South face when working with Latino immigrants.

  9. The changing immigrant cartography of Auckland, New Zealand: An Asian ethnic precinct

    OpenAIRE

    Spoonley, P.; Meares, C.; Peace, R.; Cain, T.

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand’s post-1987 business and skill-focussed immigrant recruitment policies have had several consequences for Auckland, including the transformation of numerous public spaces. One manifestation of this process of change has been the co-location of immigrant-dominated retailing in ethnic business precincts, which provides both economic and social network spaces for immigrant interaction with co-ethnics, and a zone of contact between immigrants and others. This paper describes the exampl...

  10. Movement, drivers and bimodality of the South Asian High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nützel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The South Asian High (SAH is an important component of the summer monsoon system in Asia. In this study we investigate the location and drivers of the SAH at 100 hPa during the boreal summers of 1979 to 2014 on interannual, seasonal and synoptic timescales using seven reanalyses and observational data. Our comparison of the different reanalyses focuses especially on the bimodality of the SAH, i.e. the two preferred modes of the SAH centre location: the Iranian Plateau to the west and the Tibetan Plateau to the east. We find that only the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR reanalysis shows a clear bimodal structure of the SAH centre distribution with respect to daily and pentad (5 day mean data. Furthermore, the distribution of the SAH centre location is highly variable from year to year. As in simple model studies, which connect the SAH to heating in the tropics, we find that the mean seasonal cycle of the SAH and its centre are dominated by the expansion of convection in the South Asian region (70–130° E  ×  15–30° N on the south-eastern border of the SAH. A composite analysis of precipitation and outgoing long-wave radiation data with respect to the location of the SAH centre reveals that a more westward (eastward location of the SAH is related to stronger (weaker convection and rainfall over India and weaker (stronger precipitation over the western Pacific.

  11. Contesting Racialization: Asian Immigrant Teachers' Critiques and Claims of Teacher Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Binaya

    2008-01-01

    Research on how racialization operates in immigrant context, particularly in relation to immigrant teachers, is marginalized as an area of inquiry in US educational research. This paper examines how immigrant teachers negotiated ideological and resistant notions of teacher authenticity in US school settings. In particular, the author examines how…

  12. The Family as a Site for Gendered Ethnic Identity Work among Asian Indian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…

  13. Out and Asian: How Undocu/DACAmented Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Youth Navigate Dual Liminality in the Immigrant Rights Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Thi Dao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI represent the fastest-growing racial category in the U.S., largely due to its increasing immigration from the Asia-Pacific region (AAJC 2015. Of the 10.9 million undocumented immigrants residing in the U.S., 14% (1.5 million are from Asia (Migration Policy Institute 2014. In response to immigrant youth organizing, President Barack Obama initiated the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program in 2012, which offers temporary relief from deportation to approximately 2 million undocumented childhood arrivals (Ibid. Yet, the unique perspectives of AAPI youth have gone unheard, and their political activities have been rendered invisible in public discourse on undocu/DACAmented youth in the immigrant rights movement. This study aims to capture political identity formation through what I coin “dual liminality” that leads to political participation for undocu/DACAmented AAPI youth. It considers how their status as undocumented or DACA, as being marginalized from both mainstream and co-ethnic claims to belonging, helped them form a collective political identity and engage in political activities. The use of strategic storytelling (Polletta 2006 throughout the process of their political development also led to their return to organize co-ethnic communities against internalized stereotypes of both “Model Minority” and “Yellow Peril”. This study involves 12 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with politically active AAPI, ages 20–26, from four major cities on the East Coast, conducted between 2014 and 2015. The interviews demonstrate how these youths’ choices to reveal their status shape their collective identity formation that leads to their political engagement. Through strategic storytelling, they use their dual liminality to shape their narrative framing in both the immigrant rights and in AAPI communities, enhancing their political participation across inter-racial boundaries.

  14. The role of collective self-esteem on anxious-depressed symptoms for Asian and Latino children of immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Taveeshi; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Okazaki, Sumie; Ryce, Patrice; Sirin, Selcuk R

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a 3-wave, longitudinal study to examine the role of ethnic collective self-esteem and United States (U.S.) collective self-esteem on anxious-depressed symptoms over time among Asian and Latino immigrant-origin adolescents (n = 171). Growth curve analysis revealed that anxious-depressed symptoms first decreased between 10th and 11th grade and then increased over time for both groups. Additionally higher levels of ethnic collective self-esteem were associated with lower levels of anxious-depressed symptoms only for Asian adolescents. There was a differing pattern for U.S. collective self-esteem such that for Latino adolescents, higher U.S. collective self-esteem was associated with higher anxious-depressed symptoms, whereas for Asian adolescents there was an inverse relationship with anxious-depressed symptoms. The results expand the literature on ethnic and U.S. collective self-esteem and their link to mental health. Implications of the findings for research in general, and for counseling immigrant youth and families in particular, are discussed.

  15. Biowaste fuels South-East Asian COGEN schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the COGEN Programme of the European Commission in association with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and considers the benefits of using biowaste for the production of energy using cogeneration with the corresponding reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. The substitution of rice husks for the fuel in a cogeneration plant at a Thai rice mill, and the combustion of wood in the cogeneration plant at the Homet Raya plant in Malaysia are described, and details are given of the backgrounds to the projects, locations, the technologies used, and the process economics. The next phase of the COGEN programme due to start in 1998 which will see the programme expanded to include coal-fired and gas-fired cogeneration projects is discussed

  16. Refugees into Immigrants: Assessing the Adjustment of Southeast Asian Refugees in the U. S., 1975-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bruce Newbold

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Embodying a differential set of skills, refugees experience varying obstacles and reception upon entry into their host country. Starting in 1975, the U.S. received large numbers of refugees from Southeast Asia. Although these arrivals are no longer labeled as ‘refugees’, their initial immigration status raises interesting questions, including whether or not they match the attainment of those who arrived in the U.S. at the same time. Using the 1980 and 1990 Public Use Microdata Files (PUMS, this paper traces the adaptation of post-1975 Southeast Asians within the U.S. through the lens of segmented assimilation. Refugee flows are disaggregated into Sino-Vietnamese, Ethnic-Vietnamese, Hmong, Cambodians, and Laotian identities and contrasted to Chinese immigrants.

  17. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Gezmu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  18. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  19. Genetic studies of type 2 diabetes in South Asians: a systematic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ritam; Narayan, Kabayam M Venkat; Zabetian, Azadeh; Raj, Suraja; Tabassum, Rubina

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus, which affects 366 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and loss of quality of life. South Asians, comprising 24% of the world's population, suffer a large burden of type 2 diabetes. With intriguing risk phenotypes, unique environmental triggers, and potential genetic predisposition, South Asians offer a valuable resource for investigating the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Genomics has proven its potential to underpin some of the etiology of type 2 diabetes by identifying a number of susceptibility genes, but such data are scarce and unclear in South Asians. We present a systematic review of studies on the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes or its complications in South Asians published between 1987-2012, and discuss the findings and limitations of the available data. Of the 91 eligible studies meeting our inclusion criteria, a vast majority included Indian populations, followed by a few in those of Pakistani origin, while other South Asian countries were generally under-represented. Though a large number of studies focused on the replication of findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European populations, a few studies explored new genes and pathways along with GWAS in South Asians and suggested the potential to unravel population- specific susceptibility genes in this population. We find encouraging improvements in study designs, sample sizes and the numbers of genetic variants investigated over the last five years, which reflect the existing capacity and scope for large-scale genetic studies in South Asians.

  20. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Leora; Janssen, Patricia A; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives People of South Asian ethnicity are under-represented in health research studies. The objectives of this scoping review were to examine the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research studies and to describe strategies for improving recruitment. Design Scoping review Methods Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework for scoping reviews, we comprehensively searched electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Studies that identified barriers and facilitators to recruitment, or recruitment strategies for South Asian populations were included. Recruitment barriers, facilitators and strategies were grouped thematically and summarised narratively. Synthesis Of 1846 potentially relevant articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. Multiple facilitators and barriers to enrolment of South Asians in health research studies were identified; these most commonly related to logistical challenges, language and cultural barriers, concerns about adverse consequences of participating and mistrust of research. Several actionable strategies were discussed, the most common being engagement of South Asian communities, demonstration of cultural competency, provision of incentives and benefits, language sensitivity through the use of translators and translated materials and the development of trust and personal relationships. Conclusion There is a growing awareness of the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asian participants to health research studies. Knowledge of effective recruitment strategies and implementation during the grant funding stages may reduce the risk of poor recruitment and representation of South Asians. PMID:28576896

  1. Strangers in strange lands: a metasynthesis of lived experiences of immigrant asian nurses working in Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Nurses from Asian countries make up the majority of immigrant nurses globally. Although there are a limited number of studies on the lived experiences of Asian nurses working in Western countries, the development of nursing science will be impeded if the rich understanding gleaned from these studies is not synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's (Meta-ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage; 1988) procedures, a metasynthesis was conducted on 14 studies that met preset selection criteria. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) communication as a daunting challenge; (b) differences in nursing practice; (c) marginalization, discrimination, and exploitation; and (d) cultural differences. Based on the metasynthesis, a large narrative and expanded interpretation was constructed and implications for nursing knowledge development, clinical practice, and policy making are elaborated.

  2. [Mental health and stress by acculturation in immigrants from South America in northern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa M, Alfonso; Heredia B, Osvaldo; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra

    2016-05-01

    Coping with changes brought about by immigration and social circumstances that often characterize this process may cause mental health problems. To analyze the relationship between acculturation stress and mental health symptoms in South American immigrants residing in Antofagasta, Chile. The OQ questionnaire, which assesses mental health and the acculturation stress questionnaire from Ruiz, were answered by 431 immigrants (53.8% Colombian and 46.2% Peruvian) aged between 18 and 65 years old. The major source of acculturation stress was distance from origin, followed by difficulties in social relationships and perceived discrimination and rejection. About 50% of respondents had elevated levels of discomfort in their life, with mental health problems derived from their adjustment to social roles and relationships. There was a high correlation between acculturation stress levels and severity of mental health symptoms. Immigrants are exposed to high levels of stress resulting in a negative impact on their mental health.

  3. Conflicting Cultural Values, Gender Role Attitudes, and Acculturation: Exploring the Context of Reproductive and Mental Health of Asian-Indian Immigrant Women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Semran K; Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Asian-Indians, one of the fastest growing US immigrant groups, experience depression and anxiety, particularly among women. In this mixed-methods study, quantitative (n = 217) and qualitative (n = 36) data explored egalitarian vs. traditional views regarding women's roles and rights. Bicultural integration, family planning decision-making ability, and anxiety were associated with more egalitarian views, while Punjabi language preference, depression, and more births were associated with traditional views. Health care professionals serving this population need to be aware of the potential cultural values conflicts and gender role expectations that influence decisions around reproductive health and mental health care for Asian-Indian immigrant women.

  4. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities. PMID:19594255

  5. Gender, family, and community correlates of mental health in South Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T

    2009-07-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities.

  6. Culture care of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia: sharing transcultural nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeri, A

    1997-01-01

    Discovery and analysis of care meanings, expressions, and practices of Iranian Immigrants in New South Wales, Australia was the focus of this ethnonursing qualitative research. The purpose of the study was to systematically discover, describe and analyse the values, beliefs, and practices of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia. The aim of the investigation was to discover transcultural nursing knowledge to guide nurses and health professionals to provide culturally congruent nursing and health care to Iranians. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Leininger, 1991) was used as the conceptual framework for the study. It was predicted that care meanings and expressions of Iranian immigrants would be influenced by their worldview, social structure features, language, and cultural values rooted in their long ethnohistorical past and reflected in their lifeways in Australia. Using the ethnonursing qualitative research method, key and general informants were purposefully selected among Iranian immigrants residing in New South Wales. Three care themes supported by a number of universal and some diverse patterns were identified for Iranian immigrants. The three themes were: (1) Care meant family and kinship ties (hambastegie) as expressed in daily lifeways and interactions with family, friends, and community; (2) Care as expressed in carrying out traditional urban gender roles (role-zan-o-mard) (Azadie zan) as well as in fulfilling emerging new role responsibilities related to equality for female Iranian immigrants; and (3) Care as preservation of Iranian identity (inhamoni, hamonandi) as expressed in traditional cultural events and health care practices. Leininger's (1991) three modes of actions and decisions were used to develop appropriate and culturally meaningful nursing care actions and decisions which were in harmony with the cultural beliefs of Iranian immigrants.

  7. Impediments to the successful reconstruction of African immigrant teachers' professional identities in South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloshna Vandeyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore difficulties and challenges that confront African immigrant teachers as they attempt to reconstruct their professional identities in South African schools. The study was qualitative in nature and utilized narrative inquiry and the case study approach. Data-gathering techniques included a mix of semi-structured interviews, observations, focus group interviews, field notes and researcher journals. Data were analysed using grounded theory and content analysis methods. Findings of the study revealed that immigration status, employment status, attitudes of indigenous learners and holding on to former culture or way of knowing due to lack of induction or mentoring, were impediments to the successful reconstruction of African immigrant teachers' professional identities in South African schools.

  8. Associations of employment frustration with self-rated physical and mental health among Asian American immigrants in the U.S. Labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Rue, Tessa; Takeuchi, David T

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between employment frustration and both self-rated physical health (SRPH) and self-rated mental health (SRMH) among Asian American immigrants. A cross-sectional quantitative analysis was conducted utilizing data from 1,181 Asian immigrants participating in the National Latino and Asian American Study. Employment frustration was measured by self-report of having difficulty finding the work one wants because of being of Asian descent. SRPH and SRMH were each assessed using a global one-item measure, with responses ranging from poor to excellent. Control variables included gender, age, ethnicity, education, occupation, income, whether immigrated for employment, years in the United States, English proficiency, and a general measure for everyday discrimination. Ordered logistic regression showed that employment frustration was negatively associated with SRPH. This relationship, however, was no longer significant in multivariate models including English proficiency. The negative association between employment frustration and SRMH persisted even when including all control variables. The findings suggest that Asian immigrants in the United States who experience employment frustration report lower levels of both physical and mental health. However, English proficiency may attenuate the relationship of employment frustration with physical health. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Model (Undocumented) Minorities and "Illegal" Immigrants: Centering Asian Americans and US Carcerality in Undocumented Student Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachica Buenavista, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    As the numbers of immigrant apprehensions, detentions, and deportations increase, and in context of anti-immigrant sentiment, education scholars must better contend with the way that carcerality affects undocumented student experiences. Carcerality refers to social and political systems that formally and informally promote discipline, punishment,…

  10. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid

  11. Urbanized South Asians' susceptibility to coronary heart disease: The high-heat food preparation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakde, Smitha; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhardwaj, Swati; Misra, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Known risk factors do not fully explain the comparatively high susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Sri Lankan populations in South Asia and overseas). The search for explanatory hypotheses and cofactors that raise susceptibility of South Asians to CHD continues. The aim of this study was to propose "the high-heat food preparation hypothesis," where neo-formed contaminants (NFCs) such as trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are the cofactors. We reviewed the actions of AGEs and TFAs, the burden of these products in tissues and blood in South Asians, the relationship between these products and CHD, the effects of preparing food and reheating oils at high temperatures on NFCs, and the foods and mode of preparation in South Asian and Chinese cuisines. Animal and human studies show NFCs increase the risk for CHD. Evidence on the consumption and body burden of these products across ethnic groups is not available, and comparable data on the NFC content of the cuisine of South Asians and potential comparison populations (e.g., the Chinese with lower CHD rates) are limited. South Asians' cuisine is dominated by frying and roasting techniques that use high temperatures. South Asian foods have high TFA content primarily through the use of partially hydrogenated fats, reheated oils, and high-heat cooking. Reheating oils greatly increases the TFA content. In comparison, Chinese cuisine involves mostly braising, steaming, and boiling rather than frying. We hypothesize that South Asians' susceptibility to CHD is partly attributable to high-heat treated foods producing high NFCs. Research to accrue direct evidence is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention.

  13. Immigrants and Refugees: The Caribbean and South Florida. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida International Univ., Miami. Latin American and Caribbean Center.

    Six papers on Caribbean immigrants and refugees in south Florida are presented in this document. Their titles (and authors) are: (1) "Let's Welcome the Refugees" (Bryan O. Walsh); (2) "The Haitians and America's 'Pull'" (Anthony P. Maingot); (3) "Estimates of Haitian International Migration for the 1950-1980 Period"…

  14. The Magic of the Populace: An Ethnography of Illegibility in the South African Immigration Bureaucracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster

    2010-01-01

    their interactions with the public. This perspectival bias needs to be overcome through ethnographies of the state and of state bureaucracies in everyday practice. This article examines the Immigration Services Branch of the South African Department of Home Affairs, a state bureaucracy widely deemed “illegible...

  15. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  16. Volunteers' Experiences Delivering a Community-University Chronic Disease Health Awareness Program for South Asian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Jones, Polly; Daly, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Volunteers and voluntary organizations can connect preventative health care programs to communities and may play an important role in addressing the health needs of older adults. Despite this, tensions may exist in the structures that drive volunteers and voluntary organizations representing immigrant communities to provide unpaid labour to augment and supplement health care services. Furthermore, organizational challenges may exist for community agencies relying on volunteers to sustain a health screening and education program. The intervention program was led by one voluntary agency specifically for South Asian communities in partnership with the university and five local organizations. This paper draws on volunteer surveys (n = 22) and key informant interviews (n = 12) to detail volunteer experiences providing this intervention. Volunteers were university students and other community volunteers. A total of 810 adults participated in the intervention within the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada between October 2014 and June 2016. We found that volunteers often used their experience as a 'stepping stone' position to other education or work. They also gained from the knowledge and used it to educate themselves and their family members and friends. This paper provides a critical reflection on the role of volunteers in a preventative and educational healthcare intervention program for older adults from the South Asian community. Tensions exist when relying on volunteer labour for the implementation of preventative community health care programming and must be explored to ensure program sustainability as well as equity within the health care system.

  17. Biogeographic and conservation implications of revised species limits and distributions of South Asian birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of breeding species richness and endemism of South Asian birds are described and depicted. The impacts of a taxonomic revision on these patterns and on threat levels of the region’s avifauna are discussed.

  18. South Asian aerosols in perspective: Preface to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, K. Krishna; Satheesh, S. K.; Sarin, M. M.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-01-01

    The south Asian region is one the world's most populous and fast-developing regions. The more than 1.7 billion population (˜24% of the world population) with highly diverse living habits, fast growing industrial and transport sectors, large and increasing demand for power, diverse fuel use for domestic and industrial purposes, and equally diverse geographical features make this region a large cauldron of emissions and atmospheric processes. It is being increasingly recognized to be among the global hotspots of aerosols and anthropogenic trace gases. The complex geography of this region adds considerable amount of natural aerosols (sea spray, windblown desert dust, pollen, etc) into the atmosphere, which mix with the man-made ones, making the aerosol environment one of the most complex in the world. The large spatial diversity of the sources coupled with the varying atmospheric dynamics, driven by the contrasting monsoons and the topography, make South Asia's aerosol and pollution very difficult to characterize, to model and to plan effective mitigation measures, despite the fairly good knowledge on their implications to radiative and climate forcing, health effects and environmental degradation. In the recent years, there have been several reports on the impact of aerosols (more importantly black carbon - BC) on the regional and global climate system including Asian monsoon, with the caveats of long-term impacts on the livelihoods of tens of millions of people in this region; though specifics of these are not yet unequivocally established. While tropospheric perturbations would produce strong regional signatures, their global impacts still remain marginally above the uncertainty levels (IPCC, 2013). There have been several recent investigations showing that deposition of aerosol black carbon (BC) on snow can reduce the snow albedo, leading to enhanced absorption of solar radiation and hence faster melting rates of glaciers. Though several investigators have

  19. Attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and their understanding of and justification for domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harjinder

    2015-01-01

    To date nothing is known about the attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and domestic violence. Issues related to South Asian men and communities have remained largely under the surface due to religious and cultural sensitivity. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes of South Asian men in London and the South East of England toward women and their understanding and justification of domestic violence. More specifically, the research explores a range of cultural and r...

  20. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  1. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Iliodromiti

    Full Text Available International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268 min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  2. On the Move: Transnational South Asian Dancers and the 'Flexible' Dancing Body

    OpenAIRE

    KEDHAR, ANUSHA LAKSHMI

    2011-01-01

    "On the Move" combines ethnography and political economy to explore the complex racial politics in which South Asian dancers are immersed as they move across national borders as well as on local stages. Focusing on key South Asian dancer-choreographers in the UK in the late 20th/early 21st century, including Shobana Jeyasingh, Nina Rajarani, Subathra Subramaniam, Mayuri Boonham, and Akram Khan, as well as the transnational dancers they employ, I examine the way in which race, citizenship, and...

  3. Influences on hospital admission for asthma in south Asian and white adults: qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, C; Kaur, G; Gantley, M; Feder, G; Hillier, S; Goddard, J; Packe, G

    2001-10-27

    To explore reasons for increased risk of hospital admission among south Asian patients with asthma. Qualitative interview study using modified critical incident technique and framework analysis. Newham, east London, a deprived area with a large mixed south Asian population. 58 south Asian and white adults with asthma (49 admitted to hospital with asthma, 9 not admitted); 17 general practitioners; 5 accident and emergency doctors; 2 out of hours general practitioners; 1 asthma specialist nurse. Patients' and health professionals' views on influences on admission, events leading to admission, general practices' organisation and asthma strategies, doctor-patient relationship, and cultural attitudes to asthma. South Asian and white patients admitted to hospital coped differently with asthma. South Asians described less confidence in controlling their asthma, were unfamiliar with the concept of preventive medication, and often expressed less confidence in their general practitioner. South Asians managed asthma exacerbations with family advocacy, without systematic changes in prophylaxis, and without systemic corticosteroids. Patients describing difficulty accessing primary care during asthma exacerbations were registered with practices with weak strategies for asthma care and were often south Asian. Patients with easy access described care suggesting partnerships with their general practitioner, had better confidence to control asthma, and were registered with practices with well developed asthma strategies that included policies for avoiding hospital admission. The different ways of coping with asthma exacerbations and accessing care may partly explain the increased risk of hospital admission in south Asian patients. Interventions that increase confidence to control asthma, confidence in the general practitioner, understanding of preventive treatment, and use of systemic corticosteroids in exacerbations may reduce hospital admissions. Development of more sophisticated

  4. Neighborhood Walkability and Walking for Transport Among South Asians in the MASALA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth A; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    The neighborhood built environment can have a strong influence on physical activity levels, particularly walking for transport. In examining racial/ethnic differences in physical activity, one important and understudied group is South Asians. This study aims to describe the association between neighborhood walkability and walking for transport among South Asian men and women in the United States in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using the baseline dataset of the MASALA study (N = 906). Mean age was 55 years old and 54% of the sample was male. Weekly minutes spent walking for transport was assessed using a questionnaire adapted from the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study. Neighborhood walkability was measured using Walk Score, a composite index of walkability. After adjusting for covariates, with each 10-point increase in Walk Score, South Asian American men engaged in 13 additional minutes per week of walking for transport (P = .008). No association was observed between walkability and walking for transport in South Asian American women. Results provide new evidence for how the effects of environmental influences on walking for transport may vary between South Asian men and women.

  5. The impact of domestic violence exposure on South Asian children in the United States: Perspectives of domestic violence agency staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Fikre, Tsion; Millner, Uma; Bair-Merritt, Megan

    2018-02-01

    The South Asian community is the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, and past research suggests that South Asian domestic violence (DV) survivors may require culturally-specific resources. Similarly, South Asian children in the US exposed to DV may have unique responses and needs, but this has not been explored to date. The objective of this study was to examine the specific needs of South Asian children exposed to DV from the vantage point of staff from South Asian DV agencies across the United States. Thirty interviews were conducted, with data coded and consolidated into larger themes using thematic analysis. Participants described several factors important to understanding the impact of DV on South Asian children including the role of the extended family, identifying with two cultures, fear about what the South Asian community will think, gender differences, and the importance of projecting an image of perfection. Participants also discussed development of culturally-tailored resources. This study suggests the importance of framing South Asian children's experiences within the context of interweaving South Asian and American cultural values, with careful attention paid to how potential culture clashes between parents and children may impact the way children process trauma. Further work should triangulate these themes with children, parents, and extended family, as well as collaborate with South Asian DV agencies to design child-focused programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Explanatory models of psychosis amongst British South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhikha, Aqeela; Farooq, Saeed; Chaudhry, Nasim; Naeem, Farooq; Husain, Nusrat

    2015-08-01

    A strong interest in the understanding, exploring, and extracting explanatory models of psychosis has recently arisen. Explanatory models (EMs) offer justifications and propose explanations when coping with and treating illnesses. Therefore, they may be important predictors of clinical outcome. Explanatory models of psychosis have been explored in many non-Western countries. However, very little research has examined EMs of psychosis in the UK. We therefore, aimed to elicit and describe explanatory models of psychosis amongst British South Asians, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. EMs of psychosis were examined using the Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI) in a cross-sectional sample of 45 patients. Most patients (55.5%) attributed their illness to supernatural causes. Few patients cited a biological (4.4%) cause. Majority of patients held dual EMs of psychosis (77.7%), combining prescribed medication and seeing a traditional healer as a treatment method. Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) was not significantly associated with EMs of psychosis. The results suggest that patients hold multi-explanatory models in order to make sense of their illness and these stem from deep rooted traditional beliefs. This highlights the importance of educational intervention, culturally adapted psychological interventions and possibly working together with traditional healers in the UK to provide a positive support system. Further work is required in order to fully understand the relationship between EMs of psychosis and DUP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using an Opinion Poll to Build an Obesity-Prevention Social Marketing Campaign for Low-Income Asian and Hispanic Immigrants: Report of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B.; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Design: Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care…

  8. Challenges in Collating Spirometry Reference Data for South-Asian Children: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Quanjer, Philip; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angela; Beardsmore, Caroline; Chhabra, Sunil K.; Chudasama, Rajesh K.; Cook, Derek G.; Harding, Seeromanie; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Prasad, K. V. V.; Whincup, Peter H.; Lee, Simon; Stocks, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Availability of sophisticated statistical modelling for developing robust reference equations has improved interpretation of lung function results. In 2012, the Global Lung function Initiative(GLI) published the first global all-age, multi-ethnic reference equations for spirometry but these lacked equations for those originating from the Indian subcontinent (South-Asians). The aims of this study were to assess the extent to which existing GLI-ethnic adjustments might fit South-Asian paediatric spirometry data, assess any similarities and discrepancies between South-Asian datasets and explore the feasibility of deriving a suitable South-Asian GLI-adjustment. Methods Spirometry datasets from South-Asian children were collated from four centres in India and five within the UK. Records with transcription errors, missing values for height or spirometry, and implausible values were excluded(n = 110). Results Following exclusions, cross-sectional data were available from 8,124 children (56.3% male; 5–17 years). When compared with GLI-predicted values from White Europeans, forced expired volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in South-Asian children were on average 15% lower, ranging from 4–19% between centres. By contrast, proportional reductions in FEV1 and FVC within all but two datasets meant that the FEV1/FVC ratio remained independent of ethnicity. The ‘GLI-Other’ equation fitted data from North India reasonably well while ‘GLI-Black’ equations provided a better approximation for South-Asian data than the ‘GLI-White’ equation. However, marked discrepancies in the mean lung function z-scores between centres especially when examined according to socio-economic conditions precluded derivation of a single South-Asian GLI-adjustment. Conclusion Until improved and more robust prediction equations can be derived, we recommend the use of ‘GLI-Black’ equations for interpreting most South-Asian data, although ‘GLI-Other’ may be more

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Social Capital and Acculturation-Related Stress among Recent Latino Immigrants in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Maritza; Sanchez, Mariana; de la Rosa, Mario; Villar, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    This study uses social capital to assess the effects of social support on acculturation-related stress among recently immigrated Hispanics in South Florida before and after immigration. At baseline ("N" = 527), first 12 months in the United States, acculturative stress was negatively related to support from friends ("p" <…

  10. The invasive Asian green mussel Perna viridis in South Africa: all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Asian green mussel Perna viridis is an invasive Indo-Pacific species recently reported from South African harbours. To verify the invasion, a phylogenetic (and morphological) analysis of green-shelled mussels (n = 39), found in six South African harbours, was conducted using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase ...

  11. South Asian participation in clinical trials: the views of lay people and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, Mah; Atkin, Karl; Leese, Brenda

    2006-07-01

    There is little UK-based empirical research on South Asian participation in clinical trials. The predominantly US literature rarely engages with mainstream debates about ethnicity, diversity and difference. This study was prompted by a lack of knowledge about how South Asian people perceive trial involvement and the risks and benefits involved. Face to face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals (consultants, GPs, nursing staff, academics, non-medically trained trial co-ordinators, LREC and MREC members) and 60 South Asian lay people (20 Indians, 20 Pakistanis and 20 Bangladeshis) who had not taken part in a trial. The study took place in the Leeds and Bradford areas of England. It was found that lay South Asian attitudes towards clinical trial participation focused on similarities rather than differences with the general UK population, suggesting that the relevance of ethnicity should be kept in perspective. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials, and awareness was a correlate of social class, education and younger age. Lay factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials included: age; language, social class; feeling of not belonging/mistrust; culture and religion. Approachable patients (of the same gender, social class and fluent in English) tended to be 'cherry picked' to clinical trials. This practice was justified because of a lack of time, resources and inadequate support. South Asian patients might be systematically excluded from trials due to the increased cost and time associated with their inclusion, particularly in relation to the language barrier. Under-representation might also be due to passive exclusion associated with cultural stereotypes. The paper concludes by applying the theoretical framework of institutional racism as a means of making sense of policy and practice. At the same time, caution is advocated against using ethnicity as the only form of

  12. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries: focus on South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2014-01-01

    With improvement in the economic situation, an increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is seen in developing countries in South Asia. Particularly vulnerable population groups include women and children, and intra-country and inter-country migrants. The main causes are increasing urbanization, nutrition transition, reduced physical activity, and genetic predisposition. Some evidence suggests that widely prevalent perinatal undernutrition and childhood 'catch-up' obesity may play a role in adult-onset metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Data show that atherogenic dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, thrombotic tendency, subclinical inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are higher in South Asians than white Caucasians. Many of these manifestations are more severe even at an early age in South Asians than white Caucasians. Metabolic and cardiovascular risks in South Asians are also heightened by their higher body fat, truncal subcutaneous fat, intra-abdominal fat, and ectopic fat deposition (liver fat, muscle fat, etc.). Further, cardiovascular risk cluster manifests at a lower level of adiposity and abdominal obesity. The cutoffs of body mass index and waist circumference for defining obesity and abdominal obesity, respectively, have been lowered for Asians, and same has been endorsed for South Asians in the UK. The economic cost of obesity and related diseases in developing countries, having meager health budget, is enormous. Increasing awareness of these noncommunicable diseases and how to prevent them should be focus of population-wide prevention strategies in South Asian developing countries. Community intervention programs focusing on increased physical activity and healthier food options for schoolchildren are urgently required. Data from such a major intervention program conducted by us on adolescent urban schoolchildren in north India (project MARG) have shown encouraging results and could serve as a model for initiating such

  13. Exercise and coronary heart disease risk markers in South Asian and European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Saravana Pillai; Bishop, Nicolette Claire; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Stensel, David John

    2013-07-01

    South Asians have a higher-than-average risk of CHD. The reasons for this are unclear, but physical inactivity and/or poor responsiveness to exercise may play a role. This study compared the effect of prior exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG), glucose, insulin, interleukin-6, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations in South Asian and European men. Ten healthy South Asian men (i.e., nine Indian men and one Pakistani man) and 10 healthy European men age 20 to 28 yr completed two 2-d trials (exercise and control) in a randomized crossover design. On the afternoon of day 1 of the exercise trial, participants ran on a treadmill for 60 min at approximately 70% of maximal oxygen uptake. Participants rested on day 1 of the control trial. On day 2 of both trials, participants rested and consumed high-fat (57% of energy content) test meals for breakfast (0 h) and lunch (4 h). Fourteen venous blood samples were collected from a cannula between 0 and 9 h for metabolic measurements. Three-way ANOVA identified higher (P < 0.05) postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations in South Asian versus European men. Exercise lowered postprandial TAG and interleukin-6 and elevated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations. An interaction effect indicated a greater decrease (22% vs 10%) in TAG area under the concentration versus time curve after exercise in South Asian than in European men. Postprandial TAG and insulin responses to high-fat meals were elevated in these South Asian men, but acute exercise was equally, if not more, effective for reducing postprandial lipemia in South Asian than in European men.

  14. Searching for South Asian intelligence: psychometry in British India, 1919-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Shivrang

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the introduction and development of intelligence testing in British India. Between 1919 and 1940 experimenters such as C. Herbert Rice, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Venkatrao Vithal Kamat imported a number of intelligence tests, adapting them to suit a variety of South Asian languages and contexts. Charting South Asian psychometry's gradual move from American missionary efforts toward the state, this paper argues that political reforms in the 1920s and 1930s affected how psychometry was "indigenized" in South Asia. Describing how approaches to race and caste shifted across instruments and over time, this paper charts the gradual recession, within South Asian psychometry, of a "race" theory of caste. Describing some of the ways in which this "late colonial" period affected the postcolonial landscape, the paper concludes by suggesting potential lines for further inquiry into the later career of intelligence testing in India and Pakistan. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. DOES TERRORISM MATTER IN SOUTH ASIAN PEACE PROCESS?: A PERSPECTIVE OF INDIA-PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suban Kumar Chowdhury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study has started with the sole argument that peace process of this region is now turned into a complex political theatre where terrorism is the major menace. The aim of this study is to scrupulously investigate the nature and substance of South Asian peace process with particular emphasis on India-Pakistan. Thus intends to extend the scope of further research on peace process through linking it with terrorism. The methodology of this research relied largely on qualitative analysis. Methodologically, the study does not directly address the policies of the South Asian countries rather it uses already available literature of policy experts to research the linkage between terrorism and peace process, test their correlations (whether it is positive or negative in context to South Asia, and to conclusively make a judgment based on the research question-to what extent the incidence of terrorism is hindering the progress of South Asian peace process?

  16. Community-based game intervention to improve South Asian Indian Americans' engagement with advanced care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Jillapalli, Regina; Saxena, Shubhada; Kim, Miyong T

    2017-07-27

    Advance care planning (ACP) allows individuals to express their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become incapable of making their own decisions. This study assessed the efficacy of a conversation game intervention for increasing South Asian Indian Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in ACP behaviors as well as the game's acceptability and cultural appropriateness among SAIAs. Eligible community-dwelling SAIAs were recruited at SAIA cultural events held in central Texas during the summer of 2016. Pregame questionnaires included demographics and the 55-item ACP Engagement Survey. Played in groups of 3-5, the game consists of 17 open-ended questions that prompt discussions of end-of-life issues. After each game session, focus groups and questionnaires were used to examine the game's cultural appropriateness and self-rated conversation quality. Postintervention responses on the ACP Engagement Survey and rates of participation in ACP behaviors were collected after 3 months through phone interviews or online surveys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and paired t-tests comparing pre/post averages at a .05 significance level. Of the 47 participants, 64% were female, 62% had graduate degrees, 92% had lived in the U.S. for >10 years, 87% were first-generation immigrants, and 74% had no advance directive prior to the game. At the 3-month follow-up, 58% of participants had completed at least one ACP behavior, 42% had discussed end-of-life issues with loved ones, 15% did so with their healthcare providers, and 18% had created an advanced directive. ACP Engagement Survey scores increased significantly on all four of the process subscales by 3 months postgame. SAIA individuals who played a conversation game had a relatively high rate of performing ACP behaviors 3 months after the intervention. These findings suggest that conversation games may be useful tools for motivating people from minority communities to engage in ACP behaviors.

  17. Incorporating Cultural Perspectives into Diabetes Self-Management Programs for East Asian Immigrants: A Mixed-Study Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chorong; Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin

    2016-04-01

    It is important to understand East Asian immigrants (EAIs)' unique perspectives in managing diabetes in order to provide culturally-competent care. However, it is not known whether EAIs' perspectives are addressed in diabetes self-management interventions developed for EAIs. Therefore, a mixed-study review was conducted to identify EAIs' perspective from qualitative research (n = 9 studies) and to evaluate the components of EAI diabetes self-management interventions (n = 7). Themes from the qualitative synthesis demonstrated that EAIs have unique cultural values and traditional health beliefs while struggling with multi-contextual barriers due to immigration. The evaluation of EAI diabetes self-management interventions revealed that there was a lack of consensus on cultural strategies for EAIs' across the interventions. Addressing language barriers was the only factor consistently integrated in the cultural components of intervention by employing bilingual interventionists. EAIs' perspectives and experiences need to be incorporated in the future diabetes self-management interventions to better provide culturally-competent care.

  18. Wicked Problems Forum: Immigration and Higher Education. Contours of a Storied Decolonial Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Devika

    2018-01-01

    The author recounts her experiences as a South Asian-immigrant teaching public-speaking classes at an American higher education institution. In this paper, she illustrates how she puts to use her immigrant experience by accessing a storytelling mode of teaching and learning rooted in a postcolonial ethos. She humanizes, demystifies, and strives to…

  19. Volatility of Stock Markets (an Analysis of South Asian and G8 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mansoor Baig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to make an analysis of volatility of stock markets between South Asian Stock Markets and Stock Markets of Group of Eight Countries. This study important for the investors whose want to invest in stock markets. This study helps investors to determine what stock market is more volatile. To make the analysis three South Asian stock markets and Group of Eight countries stock markets are selected. South Asian stock markets indexes include KSE 100 (Pakistan, SENSEX (India, ASPI (Sri Lanka, CAC 40 (France, DAX (Germany, S &P / TSX Composite (Canada, FTSE MIB (Italy, RTS (Russia, Nikkei 225 (Japan, S & P 500 (USA and FTSE 100 (UK. Data is collected from the period of January 1st 2005 to August 31st 2015. ARCH and GARCH model is used to analyze the volatility of South Asian Stock Markets and stock markets of Group of Eight Countries. The findings show that South Asian Stock Markets are less volatile while Stock Markets of Group of Eight Countries are high volatile. This study is useful for investment institutions and portfolio managers because it focuses on current issues and takes the current data.

  20. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START: a Canada-India collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  1. Screening for the metabolic syndrome using simple anthropometric measurements in south Asian and white Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Taub, Nick; Tringham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    more predictive of metabolic syndrome than body mass index or waist-hip ratio. The area under the curve for waist circumference was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.69-0.80) and 0.76 (0.72-0.81) for south Asian men and women; 0.83 (0.80-0.85) and 0.80 (0.77-0.82) for white European men and women. Conclusions......Aims: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a general population sample of south Asians and white Europeans and compare predictors of metabolic syndrome, using ethnic specific definitions of obesity. Methods: 3099 participants (71.4% white European, 28.6% south Asian) aged 40-75 years......-hip ratio. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the definitions above was 29.9% (29.2% south Asian, 30.2% white European), and 34.4% (34.2% south Asian, 34.5% white European), respectively. Using the National Cholesterol Education Programme definition, waist circumference was significantly...

  2. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.

  3. Advancing Understanding of Acculturation for Adolescents of Asian Immigrants: Person-Oriented Analysis of Acculturation Strategy Among Korean American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; Tan, Kevin Poh Hiong; Yasui, Miwa; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2016-07-01

    Acculturation strategy, a significant predictor of immigrant adaptation, has been under-studied with Asian Americans, in particular, Asian American youth. Using person-oriented latent profile analysis, this study identified acculturation strategies among Korean American early adolescents living in the Midwest. Two-hundred ninety-one families were interviewed in 2007 that included 220 youth (mean age 13, 47.7 % female), along with 272 mothers and 164 fathers (N = 656). They were re-interviewed in 2008 (N = 588). The study found three distinct acculturation strategies: separation (11.8 %, n = 26), integrated bicultural (66.9 %, n = 150), and modest bicultural (21.3 %, n = 44). Integrated bicultural youth reported the strongest sense of ethnic identity and the most favorable characteristics, providing empirical support for the benefit of biculturalism. The findings further suggest that separation may not be as detrimental as previously thought, and modest bicultural-biculturalism that is not fully developed-may in fact be less desirable among Korean American youth.

  4. Reformulating Immigration Policy in Post-Apartheid South Africa : From the Aliens Control Act of 1991 to the Immigration Act of 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Wa Kabwe-Segatti , Aurelia

    2006-01-01

    Volume entitled: Ten Years of Democratic South Africa. Transition Accomplished? edited by Aurelia Wa Kabwe-Segatti, Nicolas Péjout and Philippe Guillaume; While socio-political and institutional transformations have been extremely rapid over the past ten years, the reform of the South African immigration policy and legislation has been delayed for almost a decade. Looking back at the system in place when the ANC took office in 1994, the author describes the successive management of migration ...

  5. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)

  6. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author).

  7. Being "in a Limbo": Perceptions of Immigration, Identity and Adaptation of Immigrant Students in South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Fox, Jill; Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2016-01-01

    Much research is available that details student experiences of immigration and adaptation to receiving countries and schools, but few studies analyze the metaphors used by immigrant students (IS) when talking about the immigration experience, or offer a comparative lens through which to view identity negotiation in two very different contexts. The…

  8. Refugees into Immigrants: Assessing the Adjustment of Southeast Asian Refugees in the U. S., 1975-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbold, K. Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishEmbodying a differential set of skills, refugees experience varying obstaclesand reception upon entry into their host country. Starting in 1975, the U.S. received large numbers ofrefugees from Southeast Asia. Although these arrivals are no longer labeled as 'refugees', theirinitial immigration status raises interesting questions, including whether or not they match theattainment of those who arrived in the U.S. at the same time. Using the 1980 and 1990 Public UseMicrodata Files (PUMS, this paper traces the adaptation of post-1975 Southeast Asians within the U.S.through the lens of segmented assimilation. Refugee flows are disaggregated into Sino-Vietnamese,Ethnic-Vietnamese, Hmong, Cambodians, and Laotian identities and contrasted to Chineseimmigrants.FrenchPrésentant des compétences différentes, les réfugiés vivent des expériences et des accueils différents à leur arrivée dans leur pays hôte. Depuis 1975, les Etats-Unis ont reçu un grand nombre de réfugiés de l'Asie du Sud-Est. Bien que ces nouveaux arrivants ne soient plus étiquetés de " réfugiés ", leur statut d'immigrant soulève tout de même quelques questions intéressantes, à savoir s'ils obtiennent le même succès que ceux qui sont arrivés aux Etats-Unis au même moment. Ce document retrace, au moyen des fichiers de microdonnées à grande diffusion (FMGD de 1980 et de 1990, l'adaptation des immigrants de l'Asie du Sud-Est arrivés aux Etats-Unis après 1975 du point de vue de l'assimilation segmentée. Les groupes de courants de réfugiés sont divisés en Sino-vietnamiens, Vietnamiens ethniques, Hmong, Cambodgiens et Laotiens et comparés aux immigrants chinois.

  9. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Tanveer; Sohal, Parmjit; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Khan, Nadia A

    2015-01-01

    Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient's perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management. We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 -February, 2014) evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire). Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis. All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician's guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to diabetes management. Diabetes

  10. Dietary acculturation among the South-Asian Surinamese population in the Netherlands: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Qaisar; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B; Stronks, Karien; Seidell, Jacob C

    2017-08-01

    To test Koctürk's model of dietary change among South-Asian Surinamese in the Netherlands. The model categorizes foods into staple, complementary and accessory foods and postulates that dietary change after migration begins with accessory foods while foods associated with ethnic identity (staple foods) change at a slower rate. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study. Dietary intake was assessed with an FFQ. Acculturation was based on social contacts and sense of belonging and was translated into four strategies of acculturation: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Other indicators of acculturation included residence duration, age at migration and migration generation status. Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants of Dutch (n 1456) and South-Asian Surinamese origin (n 968). Across all acculturation strategies, South-Asian Surinamese participants reported significantly higher intakes of rice (staple food) and chicken (complementary food) and significantly lower intakes of red meat and vegetables (complementary foods) and cookies and sweets (accessory food) than Dutch participants. Men, second-generation and assimilated South-Asian Surinamese were inclined towards Dutch foods such as potato, pasta and red meat. Accessory foods like fruits showed variation across acculturation strategies. Consistent with the Koctürk model, the intake of staple foods was stable among South-Asian Surinamese irrespective of acculturation strategy while the intake of accessory foods like fruit varied. Contrary to expectations, South-Asian Surinamese showed consistently high intakes of complementary foods like chicken and fish irrespective of acculturation strategy. Public health practitioners should take into consideration the complex and dynamic nature of dietary acculturation.

  11. Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asian women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Meghana D; Oza-Frank, Reena; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2017-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The incidence of both GDM and type 2 diabetes is exceedingly high in South Asian populations. However, the risk of type 2 diabetes after GDM in South Asian women in the United States is unknown. South Asians aged 40 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a community-based cohort called Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. A history of GDM was elicited through self-report, and type 2 diabetes was ascertained by an oral glucose tolerance test. We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the odds of type 2 diabetes after GDM history in this cross-sectional analysis. About 9.7% of women in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study self-reported a history of GDM, and were significantly younger, with higher mean diastolic blood pressure and self-reported weight at age 20 and 40 years than women without a history of GDM. In a model adjusted for age, weight at age 40, family history of diabetes, education, income, physical activity, caloric intake, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking, women with a history of GDM had increased odds of having type 2 diabetes compared with women without GDM (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3, 7.5). A history of GDM further increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in US South Asian women. Our findings underscore the importance of early postpartum screening in a population at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Challenges in Collating Spirometry Reference Data for South-Asian Children: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooky Lum

    Full Text Available Spirometry datasets from South-Asian children were collated from four centres in India and five within the UK. Records with transcription errors, missing values for height or spirometry, and implausible values were excluded(n = 110.Following exclusions, cross-sectional data were available from 8,124 children (56.3% male; 5-17 years. When compared with GLI-predicted values from White Europeans, forced expired volume in 1s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC in South-Asian children were on average 15% lower, ranging from 4-19% between centres. By contrast, proportional reductions in FEV1 and FVC within all but two datasets meant that the FEV1/FVC ratio remained independent of ethnicity. The 'GLI-Other' equation fitted data from North India reasonably well while 'GLI-Black' equations provided a better approximation for South-Asian data than the 'GLI-White' equation. However, marked discrepancies in the mean lung function z-scores between centres especially when examined according to socio-economic conditions precluded derivation of a single South-Asian GLI-adjustment.Until improved and more robust prediction equations can be derived, we recommend the use of 'GLI-Black' equations for interpreting most South-Asian data, although 'GLI-Other' may be more appropriate for North Indian data. Prospective data collection using standardised protocols to explore potential sources of variation due to socio-economic circumstances, secular changes in growth/predictors of lung function and ethnicities within the South-Asian classification are urgently required.

  13. Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity in Children of a South Asian Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Children of South Asian ethnicity residing in England have low levels of physical activity. Limited literature exists on correlates, barriers, and facilitators to activity in South Asian children. The aim of this study was to fill this gap in the literature. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents of South Asian ethnicity residing in the UK. Interviews covered a description of the family setup, participants’ opinions of physical activity including barriers and facilitators and their children’s participation, as well as approaches to general parenting, and how children spend their free time. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Key themes identified included (i restraints on parents’ and children’s time to be physically active; (ii the role of the family in children’s physical activity participation; (iii situational barriers to physical activity; (iv physical activity not a priority; (v opportunities to be active; and (vi perception of activity level and health. A number of key barriers to South Asian children’s participation in physical activity were identified, including (i restraints on parents and children’s time; (ii parents providing limited support for physical activity; and (iii physical activity having a low priority. A number of facilitators were also identified (i play; (ii school-time; and (iii extra-curricular clubs. In this sample of South Asian parents residing in the UK several socio-cultural barriers and facilitators of their children’s physical activity have been identified. The study provides preliminary data for a larger study to ascertain if such barriers and facilitators are representative of the wider South Asian community, so that recommendations for intervention and policies can be made.

  14. Barriers and Facilitators for Type-2 Diabetes Management in South Asians: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Sohal

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have among the highest burden of type 2 diabetes in the world, their diabetes management remains poor. We systematically reviewed studies on South Asian patient's perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to diabetes management.We conducted a literature search using OVID, CINHAL and EMBASE (January, 1990 -February, 2014 evaluating the core components of diabetes management: interactions with health care providers, diet, exercise, and medication adherence. South Asian patients were self-reported as Indian, Pakistani, Malaysian-Indian or Bangladeshi origin. From 208 abstracts reviewed, 20 studies were included (19 qualitative including mixed methods studies, 1 questionnaire. Barriers and facilitators were extracted and combined using qualitative synthesis.All studies included barriers and few facilitators were identified. Language and communication discordance with the healthcare provider was a significant barrier to receiving and understanding diabetes education. There was inconsistent willingness to partake in self-management with preference for following their physician's guidance. Barriers to adopting a diabetic diet were lack of specific details on South Asian tailored diabetic diet; social responsibilities to continue with a traditional diet, and misconceptions on the components of the diabetic diet. For exercise, South Asian patients were concerned with lack of gender specific exercise facilities and fear of injury or worsening health with exercise. Patients reported a lack of understanding about diabetes medication management, preference for folk and phytotherapy, and concerns about the long-term safety of diabetes medications. Facilitators included trust in care providers, use of culturally appropriate exercise and dietary advice and increasing family involvement. Overall themes for the barriers included lack of knowledge and misperceptions as well as lack of cultural adaptation to diabetes management

  15. South Asian women's coping strategies in the face of domestic violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya

    2018-02-01

    We conducted in-depth telephone interviews with a convenience sample of 20 South Asian women experiencing domestic violence in the United States. Utilizing the emotion-focused and problem-focused coping framework, the researchers analyzed the narratives of abused South Asian women. Emotion-focused coping strategies include (a) spirituality and/or religion and (b) the role of children. Problem-focused coping strategies include (c) informal and formal support and (d) strategies of resisting, pacifying, safety planning. Implications for practice and future research in the United States and internationally are discussed.

  16. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  17. Dietary and physical activity strategies to prevent type 2 diabetes in South Asian adults: protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muilwijk, Mirthe; Stronks, Karien; Qureshi, Samera Azeem; Beune, Erik; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Gill, Jason; Sheikh, Aziz; Jenum, Anne Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health concern among populations of South Asian ethnicity. Although dietary and physical activity interventions may reduce the risk of T2D, the effectiveness has been moderate among South Asians. This might (in part) be because this subgroup follows

  18. Social Networks of Adults with an Intellectual Disability from South Asian and White Communities in the United Kingdom: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anjali K.; Forrester-Jones, Rachel V. E.; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Little research exists comparing the social networks of people with intellectual disability (ID) from South Asian and White backgrounds. This UK study reports on the barriers that South Asian people with intellectual disability face in relation to social inclusion compared to their White counterparts. Materials and methods: A…

  19. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in South Asians : effects of dietary interventions on metabolism and cardiovascular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Leontine Erica Henriëtte

    2015-01-01

    People of South Asian origin have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people of Western European descent. Not only is the prevalence of these diseases higher in South Asians, they also occur at a younger age and lower BMI, and have a

  20. Observed trend in Asian dust days in South Korea and its geo-physiographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    South Korea has experienced significant socio-economic damages by Asian dust (also called Yellow sand or Yellow dust). Asian dust is a wind-driven natural phenomenon that carries fine sand particles along with surface pollutants from semi-arid areas in northern China, Inner Mongolia, the Gobi Desert, and the Taklimakan Desert to the East Asia. Its occurrence requires three necessary conditions: dry soil in source areas, strong ascending air current to lift sand particles up, and intense wind speed to transport the particles. Accordingly, the drier source areas are, the larger amount of source materials for Asian dust becomes. Further, regional wind speed and direction are key elements that determine the influencing boundary and level of damage. In this study, we investigate number of Asian dust days over South Korea. We utilize monthly data over 50 years (from 1961 to 2013) recorded at 12 stations, operated by the Korean Meteorological Administration, which are evenly distributed over the country. We find that annual number of Asian dust days in South Korea tends to increase until early 2000s and the increasing trend is ceased since then. Interestingly, this transition time (early 2000s) matches the time when the surface wind speed trend has reversed (Kim and Paik, 2015). Hence, we hypothesize that occurrence of Asian dust in South Korea can be largely captured by surface wind, instead of air circulation at high altitude. We also hypothesize that the transition in the trend around early 2000s is associated with expansion of cold air system during winter over the East Asia. Detailed analysis to support these findings will be presented. Reference Kim, JC., & Paik, K. (2015). Recent recovery of surface wind speed after decadal decrease: A focus on South Korea. Climate Dynamics, (Under review).

  1. Disparity in disability between native-born non-Hispanic white and foreign-born Asian older adults in the United States: effects of educational attainment and age at immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2011-04-01

    It is widely known that educational attainment has considerable influence on the prevalence of disability among native-born non-Hispanic older adults in the US. However, few studies have examined whether educational attainment has a similar effect on disability among foreign-born Asian older adults. If it does not have a similar effect on these adults, why not, and is its effect influenced by the age at which they immigrated to the US? This study addresses these questions by using the 2006 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS). Logistic regression analyses reveal that education has differential effects on the two racial groups. Education protects foreign-born Asians less than native-born non-Hispanic whites. In addition, Asian adults who immigrated earlier are less likely to experience disability. Interestingly, the interaction between age at immigration and educational attainment for foreign-born Asian older adults indicates that less educated Asians are more likely to benefit from early immigration. Heterogeneity within the Asian group is also examined. The findings suggest that educational attainment has differential effects not only on the two racial groups but also on the foreign-born Asian group depending on age at immigration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Issues regarding the delivery of early intervention psychiatric services to the South Asian population in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.

  3. Expectations of filial obligation and their impact on preferences for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older Asian Indian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sadhna; Lee, Sang E; Sen, Soma

    2011-03-01

    Filial obligation, described as culturally-defined rights and duties that prescribe how family members are expected to care for and provide support to each other, is an important variable that influences older immigrants' preferences for living and care arrangements. This exploratory study examined variables associated with expectations of filial obligation among middle-aged and older, Asian Indian, first generation immigrants and explored the relationship between variations in expectations of filial obligation and expressed preferences for future living arrangements. Data were collected through telephone surveys of 226 English-speaking immigrants in Atlanta, GA. Although no significant relationships were observed between filial obligation expectations and length of residence in the U.S., respondents indicated a variety of preferred future living arrangements. Contrary to current living arrangement patterns found among older immigrants, very few respondents preferred to move in with their children. The most popular preference was to "move closer to children," followed by "moving to a retirement community" with the majority preferring a retirement community geared to Asian Indians. Other preferences included "not moving" and "returning to India." Variations in expectations of filial obligation, length of residence in the U.S., and self-rated health were significantly associated with these preferences. Implications are discussed for building capacity within ethnic communities to address living arrangement preferences and their repercussions for caregiving in ethnic families and in communities.

  4. South Asian women with diabetes: Psychosocial challenges and management: Consensus statement

    OpenAIRE

    Sarita Bajaj; Fatema Jawad; Najmul Islam; Hajera Mahtab; Jyoti Bhattarai; Dina Shrestha; Chandrika Wijeyaratne; Dimuthu T Muthukuda; Niranjala Weegoda Widanage; Than Than Aye; Moe Wint Aung; Bharti Kalra; R M Anjana; Aswathy Sreedevi; Komal Verma

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultur...

  5. The Effects of growing Indian military potential on South Asian stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    POTENTIAL ON SOUTH ASIAN STABILITY , by Major Hashim I. Bajwa, 116 pages. India is emerging as an economic powerhouse and its national power is on...Afghanistan, Nepal, and Myanmar due to the political and economic instability in these countries. He advocates an assertive politico-military outlook for... instability in South Asia to Glen Snyder’s “ stability / instability paradox.” He argues that the “ stability / instability paradox” is still relevant in

  6. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  7. Attitudes toward Professional Psychological Help Seeking in South Asian Students: Role of Stigma and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Prerna G.; Metz, Kristina; Carlson, Cindy I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the…

  8. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  9. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  10. Language Brokering, Acculturation, and Empowerment: Evidence from South Asian Canadian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cila, Jorida; Lalonde, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the practice of language brokering (LB) among South Asian Canadian college-age adults and how such practice relates to acculturation to mainstream and heritage cultures, as well as personal empowerment. One hundred and twenty-four young adults reported on three different indices of LB (brokering frequency, diversity of…

  11. Bereavement and Coping of South Asian Families Post 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Arpana G.; Yeh, Christine J.; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Nath, Shivani

    2007-01-01

    Eleven first-generation South Asian family members who lost a relative in the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001, were interviewed about their loss and their coping strategies. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology. Participant responses clearly delineated bereavement reactions and coping within a…

  12. Coping with Discrimination: The Subjective Well-Being of South Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…

  13. Using Phenomenology to Understand Experiences of Racism for Second-Generation South Asian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharry, Pauline; Crozier, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the lived experiences of racism for second-generation Canadian women of South Asian descent and how this affected their identity. Six adult co-researchers shared their experiences of what occurred when faced with racism. A phenomenological approach was employed, out of which five categories…

  14. South Asian Nomads--A Literature Review. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This review of literature on South Asian nomads is part of a series of monographs on educational access published by the Consortium for Research on Educational Access Transitions and Equity (CREATE). In the context of India, most recent work has focused on access to the education system for the poor. CREATE research in India has focused on …

  15. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among South Asians in Nickerie, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, v.B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why

  16. South Asian Students' Needs for Cantonese and Written Chinese in Hong Kong: A Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David C. S.; Chuk, Joanne Y. P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on qualitative data obtained from 15 South Asian (SA) B.Ed. (EL) (Bachelor of Education in English Language) students, this study reports on SA students' difficulty in mastering Mandarin-based written Chinese and the vernacular Cantonese in Hong Kong. For convenience, SA here also refers to students whose homeland is the Philippines. Since…

  17. Culture, Hybridity, and the Dialogical Self: Cases from the South Asian Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Sunil; Ram, Anjali

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines a dialogical approach to understanding how South Asian-American women living in diasporic locations negotiate their multiple and often conflicting cultural identities. We specifically use the concept of voice to articulate the different forms of dialogicality--polyphonization, expropriation, and ventriloquation--that are…

  18. Adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and total volumetric bone density in postmenopausal South Asian women with small bone size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Andrea L; Hakim, Ohood A; Horton, Khim; Gibbs, Michelle A; Cui, Liang; Berry, Jacqueline L; Lanham-New, Susan A; Hart, Kathryn H

    2013-07-01

    There is some evidence that South Asian women may have an increased risk of osteoporosis compared with Caucasian women, although whether South Asians are at increased risk of fracture is not clear. It is unknown whether older South Asian women differ from Caucasian women in bone geometry. This is the first study, to the authors' knowledge, to use peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) to measure radial and tibial bone geometry in postmenopausal South Asian women. In comparison to Caucasian women, Asian women had smaller bone size at the 4% (-18% pAsians had increased cortical thickness (-17% p=0.04) at the 38% tibia, (in proportion to bone size (-30% p=0.003)). Furthermore, at the 4% and 14% tibia there were increased total densities (+12% to +29% pAsians. These differences at the 14% and 38% (but not 4%) remained statistically significant after adjustment for Body Mass Index (BMI). These adaptations are similar to those seen previously in Chinese women. Asian women had reduced strength at the radius and tibia, evidenced by the 20-40% reduction in both polar Strength Strain Index (SSIp) and fracture load (under bending). Overall, the smaller bone size in South Asians is likely to be detrimental to bone strength, despite some adaptations in tibial cortical thickness and tibial and radial density which may partially compensate for this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Growing inter-Asian connections: Links, rivalries, and challenges in South Korean–Central Asian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical context, which emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, combined with Korea's growing economic prowess, enabled greater dynamism and diversification in Seoul's foreign policy-making. Growing pressure from energy-intensive economies coupled with new developments and investment in logistics and infrastructure has brought different parts of the Eurasian landmass closer together in recent years. Inter-Asian connections are especially growing. This article uses the case of deepening relations between Korea and the post-Soviet Central Asian republics as a vantage point to reflect on one such example of unfolding Asian inter-connectedness. In addition it sees Seoul's engagement in the region as a fitting example of Korea's broader ambitions to assert itself as a global economic player. The article shows that Korea's policy toward Central Asia has been primarily driven by energy needs and is defined by pragmatism. It finds that the economic dimension of the relationship has greatly overshadowed other aspects such as politics and security. In its pursuit of closer ties with the region Seoul has sought to turn structural weaknesses into added value and has attempted to develop a distinctive, non-threatening profile built around the lack of a political baggage and geopolitical ambitions, and the desire to share its experience of formerly impoverished turned leading economy. In turn, Central Asia's selective integration in the world economy has continued, also thanks to its ties with Korea. The Central Asian republics welcomed the opportunity to diversify their foreign relations, the sources of foreign investment and export routes. At the same time the opaque business environment, a leadership succession, which cannot be postponed for much longer, and Seoul's “no-strings attached” approach expose Korea to some risks as regime stability might not last forever.

  20. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Susan L., E-mail: schantz@illinois.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gardiner, Joseph C. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Aguiar, Andrea [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Sweeney, Anne M. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States); Peck, Jennifer D. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States); Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in

  1. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Aguiar, Andrea; Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in this region.

  2. Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis in Asian immigrants: use of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federle, M.P.; Cello, J.P.; Laing, F.C.; Jeffery, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Five cases of recurrent pyogenic cholangitis (RPC) were studied by ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and cholangiography. All patients were recent immigrants from the Orient or Indonesia and had had recurrent attacks of cholangitis for many years. The bile was infected by E. coli and the biliary ducts were dilated; in addition, extrahepatic bile-pigment calculi we represent in all 5 and intrahepatic calculi in 4. Abdominal ultrasound usually failed to demonstrate duct calculi and extrahepatic dilatation due to the soft, mud-like consistency of the stones. CT was successful in showing the calculi and the full extent of dilatation. The authors conclude that preoperative diagnosis of RPC is best achieved by awareness of the characteristic clinical presentation and the findings on abdominal CT. Preoperative cholangiography provides excellent detail, but poses the danger of biliary sepsis requiring antibiotics

  3. Tropospheric biennial oscillation and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall in a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Gopinadh; Chowdary, J. S.; Srinivas, G.; Gnanaseelan, C.; Parekh, Anant; Attada, Raju; Rama Krishna, S. S. V. S.

    2018-06-01

    In this study Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall are examined in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. High correlation between the observations and model TBO index suggests that the model is able to capture most of the TBO years. Spatial patterns of rainfall anomalies associated with positive TBO over the south Asian region are better represented in the model as in the observations. However, the model predicted rainfall anomaly patterns associated with negative TBO years are improper and magnitudes are underestimated compared to the observations. It is noted that positive (negative) TBO is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the model. This leads to the fact that model TBO is El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) driven, while in the observations Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) also plays a role in the negative TBO phase. Detailed analysis suggests that the negative TBO rainfall anomaly pattern in the model is highly influenced by improper teleconnections allied to IOD. Unlike in the observations, rainfall anomalies over the south Asian region are anti-correlated with IOD index in CFSv2. Further, summer monsoon rainfall over south Asian region is highly correlated with IOD western pole than eastern pole in CFSv2 in contrast to the observations. Altogether, the present study highlights the importance of improving Indian Ocean SST teleconnections to south Asian summer rainfall in the model by enhancing the predictability of TBO. This in turn would improve monsoon rainfall prediction skill of the model.

  4. Tropospheric biennial oscillation and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall in a coupled model

    KAUST Repository

    Konda, Gopinadh; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Srinivas, G; Gnanaseelan, C; Parekh, Anant; Attada, Raju; Rama Krishna, S S V S

    2018-01-01

    In this study Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall are examined in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. High correlation between the observations and model TBO index suggests that the model is able to capture most of the TBO years. Spatial patterns of rainfall anomalies associated with positive TBO over the south Asian region are better represented in the model as in the observations. However, the model predicted rainfall anomaly patterns associated with negative TBO years are improper and magnitudes are underestimated compared to the observations. It is noted that positive (negative) TBO is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the model. This leads to the fact that model TBO is El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) driven, while in the observations Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) also plays a role in the negative TBO phase. Detailed analysis suggests that the negative TBO rainfall anomaly pattern in the model is highly influenced by improper teleconnections allied to IOD. Unlike in the observations, rainfall anomalies over the south Asian region are anti-correlated with IOD index in CFSv2. Further, summer monsoon rainfall over south Asian region is highly correlated with IOD western pole than eastern pole in CFSv2 in contrast to the observations. Altogether, the present study highlights the importance of improving Indian Ocean SST teleconnections to south Asian summer rainfall in the model by enhancing the predictability of TBO. This in turn would improve monsoon rainfall prediction skill of the model.

  5. Recent Advances in the Molecular Genetics of Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in South Asian Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Kraker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The South Asian population, numbered at 1.8 billion, is estimated to comprise around 20% of the global population and 1% of the American population, and has one of the highest rates of cardiovascular disease. While South Asians show increased classical risk factors for developing heart failure, the role of population-specific genetic risk factors has not yet been examined for this group. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is one of the major cardiac genetic disorders among South Asians, leading to contractile dysfunction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. This disease displays autosomal dominant inheritance, and it is associated with a large number of variants in both sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric proteins. South Asians, a population with large ethnic diversity, potentially carries region-specific polymorphisms. There is high variability in disease penetrance and phenotypic expression of variants associated with HCM. Thus, extensive studies are required to decipher pathogenicity and the physiological mechanisms of these variants, as well as the contribution of modifier genes and environmental factors to disease phenotypes. Conducting genotype-phenotype correlation studies will lead to improved understanding of HCM and, consequently, improved treatment options for this high-risk population. The objective of this review is to report the history of cardiovascular disease and HCM in South Asians, present previously published pathogenic variants, and introduce current efforts to study HCM using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, next-generation sequencing, and gene editing technologies. The authors ultimately hope that this review will stimulate further research, drive novel discoveries, and contribute to the development of personalized medicine with the aim of expanding therapeutic strategies for HCM.

  6. Paraoxonase 1 Phenotype and Mass in South Asian versus Caucasian Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Connelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asian renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. We carried out a study to determine whether paraoxonase 1, a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risk, was decreased in South Asian compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. Subjects were matched two to one on the basis of age and sex for a total of 129 subjects. Paraoxonase 1 was measured by mass, arylesterase activity, and two-substrate phenotype assay. Comparisons were made by using a matched design. The frequency of PON1 QQ, QR and RR phenotype was 56%, 37%, and 7% for Caucasian subjects versus 35%, 44%, and 21% for South Asian subjects (χ2=7.72, P=0.02. PON1 mass and arylesterase activity were not significantly different between South Asian and Caucasian subjects. PON1 mass was significantly associated with PON1 phenotype (P=0.0001, HDL cholesterol (P=0.009, LDL cholesterol (P=0.02, and diabetes status (P<0.05. Arylesterase activity was only associated with HDL cholesterol (P=0.003. Thus the frequency of the PON1 RR phenotype was higher and that of the QQ phenotype was lower in South Asian versus Caucasian renal transplant recipients. However, ethnicity was not a significant factor as a determinant of PON1 mass or arylesterase activity, with or without analysis including PON1 phenotype. The two-substrate method for determining PON1 phenotype may be of value for future studies of cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients.

  7. Paraoxonase 1 Phenotype and Mass in South Asian versus Caucasian Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Philip W; Maguire, Graham F; Nash, Michelle M; Rapi, Lindita; Yan, Andrew T; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    South Asian renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. We carried out a study to determine whether paraoxonase 1, a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risk, was decreased in South Asian compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. Subjects were matched two to one on the basis of age and sex for a total of 129 subjects. Paraoxonase 1 was measured by mass, arylesterase activity, and two-substrate phenotype assay. Comparisons were made by using a matched design. The frequency of PON1 QQ, QR and RR phenotype was 56%, 37%, and 7% for Caucasian subjects versus 35%, 44%, and 21% for South Asian subjects (χ(2) = 7.72, P = 0.02). PON1 mass and arylesterase activity were not significantly different between South Asian and Caucasian subjects. PON1 mass was significantly associated with PON1 phenotype (P = 0.0001), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.009), LDL cholesterol (P = 0.02), and diabetes status (P < 0.05). Arylesterase activity was only associated with HDL cholesterol (P = 0.003). Thus the frequency of the PON1 RR phenotype was higher and that of the QQ phenotype was lower in South Asian versus Caucasian renal transplant recipients. However, ethnicity was not a significant factor as a determinant of PON1 mass or arylesterase activity, with or without analysis including PON1 phenotype. The two-substrate method for determining PON1 phenotype may be of value for future studies of cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients.

  8. Tropospheric biennial oscillation and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall in a coupled model

    KAUST Repository

    Konda, Gopinadh

    2018-05-22

    In this study Tropospheric Biennial Oscillation (TBO) and south Asian summer monsoon rainfall are examined in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) hindcast. High correlation between the observations and model TBO index suggests that the model is able to capture most of the TBO years. Spatial patterns of rainfall anomalies associated with positive TBO over the south Asian region are better represented in the model as in the observations. However, the model predicted rainfall anomaly patterns associated with negative TBO years are improper and magnitudes are underestimated compared to the observations. It is noted that positive (negative) TBO is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the model. This leads to the fact that model TBO is El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) driven, while in the observations Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) also plays a role in the negative TBO phase. Detailed analysis suggests that the negative TBO rainfall anomaly pattern in the model is highly influenced by improper teleconnections allied to IOD. Unlike in the observations, rainfall anomalies over the south Asian region are anti-correlated with IOD index in CFSv2. Further, summer monsoon rainfall over south Asian region is highly correlated with IOD western pole than eastern pole in CFSv2 in contrast to the observations. Altogether, the present study highlights the importance of improving Indian Ocean SST teleconnections to south Asian summer rainfall in the model by enhancing the predictability of TBO. This in turn would improve monsoon rainfall prediction skill of the model.

  9. Union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hannemann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing literature on the dynamics of immigrant fertility and mixed marriages, but partnership transitions among immigrants and ethnic minorities are little studied. Objective: This study investigates union formation and dissolution among immigrants and their descendants in the UK. Methods: We use data from the Understanding Society study and apply the techniques of event history analysis. We contrast partnership trajectories of various immigrant groups and compare these with those of the 'native' British population. Results: The analysis shows significant differences in partnership formation and dissolution among immigrants and ethnic minorities. Women of Caribbean origin have the highest cohabitation and the lowest marriage rates, whereas cohabitation remains rare among immigrants from South Asia and their descendants, as most of them marry directly. Immigrants from the Caribbean region and their descendants also show higher divorce rates than 'native' British women, whereas women of South Asian origin have a low divorce risk.

  10. Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Guthrie, Barbara; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Weng, Zhongqi; Wang, Lixuan; Kamitani, Emiko; Fukuda, Yumiko; Luu, Binh Vinh

    2014-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders (API) are among the fastest growing minority groups within the USA, and this growth has been accompanied by an increase in HIV incidence. Between 2000 and 2010, the API HIV infection rate increased from 4.5% to 8.7%; however, there is a paucity of HIV-related research for this group, and even less is known about the prevalence and correlates of antiretroviral therapy adherence behavior, quality of life, impact of stress, and efficacious self-management among HIV+ API Americans. This paper examines how acculturation and perceived stress affect depression symptomatology and treatment seeking in the HIV+ API population. A series of cross-sectional audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 HIV+ API (29 in San Francisco and 21 in New York City). The relationship between acculturation and perceived stress was analyzed, and the results indicate that for those HIV+ API who reported low or moderate acculturation (as compared to those who reported high acculturation), stress was significantly mediated by depression symptomology. Interventions to address acculturation and reduce perceived stress among API generally and Asians specifically are therefore needed.

  11. Care: what it means to Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeri, A

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of linguistic terms relating to care/caring can create better understanding of diversities in expression and experiences of care of different cultures. Such linguistic understandings and discovery of "meaning-in-context" can enhance communication toward unity in light of diversity. In order to gain an understanding of expression of care/caring for Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia, linguistic terms in the Persian language as discovered are described. The study, conceptualised within Leininger's theory of Culture Care diversity and universality led to the discovery of 31 linguistic care terms in the Persian language, reflecting the emic view of care for Iranian Immigrants in multicultural Australia. Using Leininger's ethnonursing research method and in depth naturalistic interviews, five types of care were abstracted from recurrent patterning and saturation according to type and meaning of care were discovered and described. The five categories describe care as: action; (hamoyat, parastari), thoughts; (ba-fakr-ham-boodan), reflecting family ties; (hambastegie), care as being Iranian, reflecting Iranian identity; (inhamani, hamonandi). Finally, care as related to context and expressed in safety and peace; (amnieyat, aramash), describing Australia as a safe and peaceful place to live. This paper will attempt to share an Iranian immigrants' emic view of care.

  12. Social networks of adults with an intellectual disability from South Asian and White communities in the United Kingdom: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anjali K; Forrester-Jones, Rachel V E; Murphy, Glynis H

    2018-03-01

    Little research exists comparing the social networks of people with intellectual disability (ID) from South Asian and White backgrounds. This UK study reports on the barriers that South Asian people with intellectual disability face in relation to social inclusion compared to their White counterparts. A mixed-methods research design was adopted to explore the social lives of 27 men (15 White; 12 South Asian) and 20 women (10 White; 10 South Asian with intellectual disability). Descriptive and parametric tests were used to analyse the quantitative data. The average network size of the whole group was 32 members. South Asian participants had more family members whilst White participants had more service users and staff in their networks; 96% network members from White intellectual disability group were also of White background, whilst the South Asian group had mixed ethnic network members. Social networks of individuals with intellectual disability in this study were found to be larger overall in comparison with previous studies, whilst network structure differed between the White and South Asian population. These differences have implications relating to future service planning and appropriateness of available facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ACADEMIC DEPENDENCY ON WESTERN DISCIPLINARY KNOWLEDGE AND CAPTIVE MIND AMONG SOUTH ASIAN SOCIOLOGISTS: A CRITIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Gamage

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how academic dependency of South Asia on the West has resulted in what has been termed ‘captive mind’, and its impact on the knowledge production process of South Asia. To this end, it observes that the relationship between Western centres of Social Science teaching and learning vs. those of the global South, in particular Asia, is an unequal one that stems from the colonial past, leading to the treatment of Western methods and types of knowledge production as superior and therefore worthy of imitation. The application of American and European methods of studying the Social Sciences to Asian settings without due adaptation, it argues, has rendered South Asian Sociology largely incapable of generating original knowledge to contribute to the growth of an emancipatory sociological imagination that will function for the benefit of the populace. Therefore it appeals to South Asian Sociologists – and other Social Scientists – to abandon the practice of studying regional social institutions as if these are exotic phenomena, practices, norms and ritual, and evolve their disciplinary framework in more critical, creative, and relevant ways.

  14. Institutional Support to South Asian Policy Research Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are very few policy research organizations in South Asia outside India. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  15. Gender and Governance in Conflict Zones: A South Asian Perspective

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... zones across South Asia, including laws that perpetuate a culture of impunity and ... women face when trying to influence governance practices in conflict zones: ... the media, non-governmental organizations, and others in three workshops ...

  16. Addressing barriers to empowering women: A South Asian perspective

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... But, has something been lost in battles to empower women that have ... violence against women and gender inequality persist in South Asia and globally. ... women also experience discrimination on the basis of race, religion, ...

  17. Cervical cancer prevention training in South East Asian LMICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Soon-Yau Ng

    2017-02-01

    Singapore is a first-world economy with a healthcare system that can support this mode of training and is geographically proximate to Southeast Asian LMICs that need this training. This makes it possible for model of tiered training with trainers on site in the LMICs and more advanced training where trainees receive training in Singapore. We present a case study where this tiered system of training is applied to Cambodia and demonstrate that this model of training is not only effective but also sustainable.

  18. Strategies for recruiting South Asian women to cancer screening research and the lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the recruitment strategies used in a research study of cervical cancer screening among South Asian women, the challenges encountered and the lessons learnt from the experience. Ethnic minority populations face different barriers to participating in research studies. Strategies have been developed to recruit this population to health-related research in Western countries, but there is little information about such research in the Asian region. Discussion paper. The discussion is based on our previous experience. The source of this experience is the recruitment strategies used, their results and the challenges encountered during the process. Culturally, relevant strategies and maintaining good relationships with stakeholders improved participant recruitment. Familiarity with South Asians' traditional calendar - when cultural and religious festivals are held every year - would aid the setting up of appropriate schedules for participant recruitment, either before or after the periods when they cannot be reached, such as Ramadan. South Asian women are often busy with childcare and housework. This is their major responsibility in the family and any failure to fulfil such duties is a source of stress and may foster feelings of guilt. A better understanding of their daily routines is therefore important. Such information enables the establishment of daily meeting schedules to increase the success rate of recruitment. Recruitment is a tedious process, but appropriate planning and taking account of cultural and religious practices and daily schedules will help to improve its rate of success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Depression in South Asian women living in the UK: a review of the literature with implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Feryad; Cochrane, Ray

    2004-06-01

    Research has shown that South Asian people in the UK underutilize health services compared with White people. Also, where services are accessed, they may not adequately meet cultural and religious needs. In exploring the relationship between the cultural and religious beliefs of South Asian service users about perceptions, beliefs about aetiology, cause and treatment of mental illness, past studies have illustrated a wide range of expectations, experiences, beliefs and attitudes. This article reviews research on depression in South Asian women in the UK, highlighting implications for services.

  20. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Application of SAR remote sensing and crop modeling for operational rice crop monitoring in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Holecz, F.; Khan, N. I.; Barbieri, M.; Maunahan, A. A.; Gatti, L.; Quicho, E. D.; Pazhanivelan, S.; Campos-Taberner, M.; Collivignarelli, F.; Haro, J. G.; Intrman, A.; Phuong, D.; Boschetti, M.; Prasadini, P.; Busetto, L.; Minh, V. Q.; Tuan, V. Q.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses multi-temporal SAR imagery, automated image processing, rule-based classification and field observations to classify rice in multiple locations in South and South Asian countries and assimilate the information into ORYZA Crop Growth Simulation Model (CGSM) to monitor rice yield. The study demonstrates examples of operational application of this rice monitoring system in: (1) detecting drought impact on rice planting in Central Thailand and Tamil Nadu, India, (2) mapping heat stress impact on rice yield in Andhra Pradesh, India, and (3) generating historical rice yield data for districts in Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  2. Possible teleconnections between East and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in projected future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sumin; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Oh, Jai-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2018-01-01

    The present paper examined the teleconnections between two huge Asian summer monsoon components (South and East Asia) during three time slices in future: near-(2010-2039), mid-(2040-2069) and far-(2070-2100) futures under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. For this purpose, a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model is used and integrated at 40 km horizontal resolution. To get more insight into the relationships between the two Asian monsoon components, we have studied the spatial displaying correlation coefficients (CCs) pattern of precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region with that of South Asia and three regions of East Asia (North China, Korea-Japan and Southern China) separately during the same three time slices. The possible factors responsible for these teleconnections are explored by using mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and wind fields at 850 hPa. The CC pattern of precipitation over South Asia shows an in-phase relationship with North China and an out-of-phase relationship with Korea-Japan, while precipitation variations over Korea-Japan and Southern China exhibit an out-of-phase relationship with South Asia. The CCs analysis between the two Asian blocks during different time slices shows the strongest CCs during the near and far future with the RCP8.5 scenario. The CC pattern of precipitation over Korea-Japan and Southern China with the wind (at 850 hPa) and MSLP fields indicate that the major parts of the moisture over Korea-Japan gets transported from the west Pacific along the western limb of NPSH, while the moisture over Southern China comes from the Bay of Bengal and South China Seas for good monsoon activity.

  3. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  4. South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Country(s). Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Pakistan. Project Leader. Priya Shyamsundar. Institution. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Institution Country. Nepal. Institution Website. http://www.iucn.org ...

  5. Institutional Support to South Asian Policy Research Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are very few policy research organizations in South Asia outside India. Those that exist are fragile due to little demand for policy research, limited if no funding from local sources, and an often insecure political climate. This grant will strengthen the ability of the seven selected research institutions in Bangladesh, Nepal ...

  6. Breast Cancer and Mammography Screening: Knowledge, Beliefs and Predictors for Asian Immigrant Women Attending a Specialized Clinic in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippman, Catriona; Moshrefzadeh, Arezu; Lohn, Zoe; Hodgson, Zoë G; Dewar, Kathryn; Lam, Melanie; Albert, Arianne Y K; Kwong, Juliet

    2016-12-01

    Screening mammography (MMG) reduces breast cancer mortality; however, Asian immigrant women underutilize MMG. The Asian Women's Health Clinic (AWHC) was established to promote women's cancer screening amongst this population. This study evaluated the rate, and predictors, of MMG amongst women attending the AWHC. Women (N = 98) attending the AWHC completed a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression evaluated rate and predictors of MMG. Most participants (87 %, n = 85) reported having had a mammogram. Significant MMG predictors were: lower perceived MMG barriers [lifetime: OR (CI) 1.19 (1.01-1.49); past 2 years: OR (CI) 1.11 (1.01-1.25)], and knowing someone with breast cancer [past year: OR (CI) 3.42 (1.25-9.85); past 2 years: OR (CI) 4.91 (1.32-2.13)]. Even amongst women using preventive medicine, 13 % report never having had a mammogram. More research is needed into innovative interventions, e.g. the AWHC, and breast cancer-related outcomes amongst Asian immigrant women.

  7. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  8. The Asian Criminological Paradigm and How It Links Global North and South: Combining an Extended Conceptual Toolbox from the North with Innovative Asian Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In their recent seminal paper ‘Southern Criminology’, Carrington, Hogg and Sozzo (2016 address the issue of the global divide between South/North relations in the hierarchal production of criminological knowledge. They point out that the divide privileges theories, assumptions and methods that are largely based on the empirical specificities of the global North. Carrington et al. contend that the dominance of global North criminology has led to a severe underdevelopment of criminology in the global South, except ‘in Asia, with the establishment of the Asian Criminological Society and its journal’ (Liu 2009, in Carrington et al. 2016: 3. Carrington et al. propose an important task of bridging the global divide through further developing criminology in the global South. My present paper reviews the development of Asian criminology under the framework of the Asian Criminological Paradigm (Liu 2009. I primarily review the conceptual and theoretical developments, to suggest strategies that can contribute to the task of bridging the gap between global North and South. What Asian criminology has done is expand the theoretical tool box originally developed in the global North through the strategies of transportation of theories, elaboration of theories, and proposing new concepts and theories based on the empirical grounds of Asian contexts.

  9. School Engagement and Civic Engagement as Predictors for the Future Political Participation of Ethnic Chinese and South Asian Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Y. M. Yuen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the findings of a large study on the relationship between school and civic engagement and the self-perceived participation in political activities of ethnic Chinese and South Asian immigrant students in Hong Kong. Data was col¬lected from a sample of 5,574 6th – 11th graders aged 12−19. The nature of school engagement was assessed by a self-rated questionnaire against the affective, behavioral and cognitive domains. Students’ civic engagement was measured by the ICCS student questionnaire (Schulz et al., 2009. Before running the regression analyses, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed and the results showed that both instruments had good construct validity and internal consistency. Consistent with the primary aim of this study, MANOVA analyses indicate significant student group differences in school engagement, and civic related self-belief and behaviours. Our findings showed that non-Chinese speaking South Asian students (NCS scored higher than their mainstream Chinese and newly arrived students from Mainland China (NAS counterparts across the dimensions of both instruments. Results of hierarchical regressions confirmed that school engagement was significant in pre¬dicting expected political participation in the future. The effects of school and civic engagement on future political participation varied significantly between all studied groups.

  10. Child Grooming and Sexual Exploitation: Are South Asian Men the UK Media’s New Folk Devils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha K Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Media reporting on the trial focused on the fact that eight of the men were of Pakistani descent, while all the girls were white. Framing similar cases in Preston, Rotherham, Derby, Shropshire, Oxford, Telford and Middlesbrough as ethnically motivated, the media incited moral panic over South Asian grooming gangs preying on white girls. While these cases shed light on the broader problem of sexual exploitation in Britain, they also reveal continuing misconceptions that stereotype South Asian men as ‘natural’ perpetrators of these crimes due to culturally-specific notions of hegemonic masculinity. Examining newspaper coverage from 2012 to 2013, this article discusses the discourse of the British media’s portrayal of South Asian men as perpetrators of sexual violence against white victims, inadvertently construing ‘South Asian men’ as ‘folk devils’.

  11. The Impact of Kinship on the Economic Dynamics of Transnational Networks: reflections on some South Asian developments

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Prepared for a Conference on Transnational Networks in Princeton in 2001, this paper explored the comparative dynamics of the trans-local networks which South Asian migrants from Mirpur (Pakistan), Jullundur (India) and Sylhet (Bangladesh) have constructed around themselves.

  12. Supporting South Asian carers and those they care for: the role of the primary health care team.

    OpenAIRE

    Katbamna, Savita; Bhakta, Padma; Ahmad, Waqar; Baker, Richard; Parker, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Demographic and socioeconomic changes have increased policy interest in informal carers. However, despite the multicultural nature of British society, most research in this field has been in majority communities. AIM: To explore the role of the primary health care team (PHCT) in supporting carers from British South Asian communities. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Four South Asian communities in Leicestershire and West Yorkshire. METHODS: Focus groups and in-depth in...

  13. Socio-demographic and racial differences in acute coronary syndrome: Comparison between Saudi and South Asian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Ferwana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is the leading cause of death in Saudi Arabia as elsewhere. Although, many studies found that South Asians had increased rates of ACS, others did not. The aim of the study is to explore the extent of difference between South Asians and Saudi presentation and risk factors of ACS patients. Materials and Methods: All patients who were diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction (AMI based on World Health Organization (WHO criteria in 6 month period were included in the study. Results: A total of 190 patients confirmed ACS were included; 121 (63.70% were Saudi, 50 (26.3% were South Asians, and 19 (10.0% were other Arab nationalities. The mean age was 53.9 (SD 14.6. Out of the total South Asians 82% had normal body mass index (BMI ( P = 0.000. Saudi patients were the lowest of the three groups who smoked cigarette and/or shisha (26.6%; P = 0.000. 52.9% of Saudi patients were diabetics and 41.3% were hypertensive ( P = 0.004. More South Asians were presented with chest pain (94% vs 76%. Discussion: South Asians had a double rate of ACS incidence; they were younger, lower socio-economic status, more cigarette smokers, and less diabetics and hypertensive than other patients. An association between the apolipoprotein E (apoE genotype with the incidence of ACS in young South Asian is proposed. Conclusion: South Asians had double rate of ACS incidence; they were younger, lower socio-economic status, more cigarette smokers, and less diabetics and hypertensive than other patients.

  14. The Right to Basic Education for All: Addressing the Educational Needs and Barriers of Immigrant Learners in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, Nylon

    2013-01-01

    The South African Constitution guarantees the right to basic education for all learners, including children of immigrants from across the country's borders. In view of this constitutional imperative, the Department of Basic Education is mandated to provide quality education to all learners, irrespective of their socio-economic and other…

  15. Knowledge gaps and misconceptions about coronary heart disease among U.S. South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Tirodkar, Manasi A; Lauderdale, Diane S; Khurana, Neerja R; Makoul, Gregory; Baker, David W

    2010-04-01

    Although South Asians are at higher risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) than most other U.S. racial/ethnic groups, very little research has addressed this disparity. As a first step in developing culturally targeted CHD prevention messages for this rapidly growing community, this study examined South Asians' knowledge and beliefs about CHD. Analyses, conducted in 2009, were based on data collected from January to July 2008 in a cross-sectional study population of 270 South Asian adults in Illinois. Interviews were conducted in English, Hindi, or Urdu using a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the associations between sociodemographics and CHD knowledge and attitudes about preventability. Eighty-one percent of respondents had one or more CHD risk factors. Most participants (89%) said they knew little or nothing about CHD. Stress was the most frequently mentioned risk factor (44%). Few mentioned controlling blood pressure (11%); cholesterol (10%); and diabetes (5%) for prevention. Fifty-three percent said that heart attacks are not preventable. Low education level, being interviewed in Urdu or Hindi, and low level of acculturation were associated with less knowledge and believing that CHD is not preventable. A majority of South Asians in this study believed that CHD is not preventable and had low awareness of modifiable risk factors. As a first step, CHD education should target the knowledge gaps that may affect risk factor control and behavior change. Educational messages may need to be somewhat different for subgroups (e.g., by education and language) to be maximally effective. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sing who you are: music and identity in postcolonial British-South Asian literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hoene, Christin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the role of music in British-South Asian postcolonial literature, asking how music relates to the possibility of constructing postcolonial identity. The focus is on novels that explore the postcolonial condition in India and the United Kingdom, as well as Pakistan and the United States: Vikram Seth's A Suitable Boy (1993), Amit Chaudhuri's Afternoon Raag (1993), Suhayl Saadi's Psychoraag (2004), Hanif Kureishi's The Buddha of Suburbia (1990) and The Black A...

  17. DOES TERRORISM MATTER IN SOUTH ASIAN PEACE PROCESS?: A PERSPECTIVE OF INDIA-PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Suban Kumar Chowdhury; Shakirul Islam

    2017-01-01

    The study has started with the sole argument that peace process of this region is now turned into a complex political theatre where terrorism is the major menace. The aim of this study is to scrupulously investigate the nature and substance of South Asian peace process with particular emphasis on India-Pakistan. Thus intends to extend the scope of further research on peace process through linking it with terrorism. The methodology of this research relied largely on qualitative analysis. Metho...

  18. THE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LIMITED SOUTH ASIAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS AFTER FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2015-01-01

    After the recent global crisis, corporate scandals and bankruptcy in US and Europe, there is some certain evidence on weak corporate governance, risk management and audit system. The 2009 India Code of Corporate Governance also revealed that during the crisis time, there are certain weaknesses although corporate structure is fairly durable. Hence, this paper chooses a different analytical approach and among its aims is to give some systematic opinions. First, it classifies limited South Asian...

  19. Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy outcomes among Chinese and South Asian women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Geetha; Chiu, Maria; Shah, Baiju R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the association between Chinese or South Asian ethnicity and adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes for women with gestational diabetes compared to the general population. A cohort study was conducted using population-based health care databases in Ontario, Canada. All 35,577 women aged 15-49 with gestational diabetes who had live births between April 2002 and March 2011 were identified. Their delivery hospitalization records and the birth records of their neonates were examined to identify adverse neonatal outcomes and adverse maternal outcomes. Compared to infants of mothers from the general population (55.5%), infants of Chinese mothers had a lower risk of an adverse outcome at delivery (42.9%, adjusted odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.68), whereas infants of South Asian mothers had a higher risk (58.9%, adjusted odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.23). Chinese women also had a lower risk of adverse maternal outcomes (32.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.63) compared to general population women (41.2%), whereas the risk for South Asian women was not different (39.4%, adjusted odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.02) from that of general population women. The risk of complications of gestational diabetes differs significantly between Chinese and South Asian patients and the general population in Ontario. Tailored interventions for gestational diabetes management may be required to improve pregnancy outcomes in high-risk ethnic groups.

  20. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory Y H; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-04-25

    Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%). 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1%) (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean). Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD) 0.18), median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.848 to 1) and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18), median 1 (IQR 1 to 1). Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL) was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  1. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Calvert, Melanie; Duffy, Helen; Freemantle, Nick; Davis, Russell; Lip, Gregory YH; Gill, Paramjit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009) ...

  2. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  3. 'I feel my Dad every moment!': memory, emotion and embodiment in British South Asian fathering practices

    OpenAIRE

    Chowbey, Punita; Salway, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the fathering narratives of British South Asian men with children aged three to eight years, in the context of their complex migration histories and experiences of socioeconomic marginalisation in contemporary Britain. It investigates men’s narratives about their memories of their own fathers and their legacy for own values and practices as fathers. The findings show that the fathering practices are shaped not just by the intergenerational replication of values and pract...

  4. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  5. The Impact of Revenue Diversification on Bank Profitability and Stability: Empirical Evidence from South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Nisar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the benefits and drawbacks of bank revenue diversification. Revenue diversification may benefit banks if diversified activities are inherently less risky and possess high returns, while it may hurt banks if diversified activities are more risky and have low returns. Analyzing a panel dataset of 200 commercial banks from all South Asian countries, we found that overall revenue diversification into non-interest income has a positive impact on the profitability and stability of South Asian commercial banks. We further observed that different types of non-interest income-generating activities have different impacts on bank performance and stability. While fees and commission incomes have a negative impact on the profitability and stability of South Asian commercial banks, other non-interest income has a positive impact. Our results imply that banks can benefit from revenue diversification if they diversify into specific types of non-interest income-generating activities. Our findings are robust and relevant to the use of alternative measures of revenue diversification, profitability and stability.

  6. Group psychological intervention for postnatal depression: a nested qualitative study with British South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Yumna; Lovell, Karina; Lunat, Farah; Atif, Najia; Waheed, Waquas; Rahman, Atif; Mossabir, Rahena; Chaudhry, Nasim; Husain, Nusrat

    2015-11-25

    Postnatal depression affects 10-15 % of all mothers in Western societies and remains a major public health concern for women from diverse cultures. British Pakistani and Indian women have a higher prevalence of depression in comparison to their white counterparts. Research has shown that culturally adapted interventions using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) may be acceptable and may help to address the needs of this population. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and overall experience of the Positive Health Programme by British South Asian mothers. This was a nested qualitative study, part of an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally-adapted intervention (Positive Health Programme or PHP) for postnatal depression in British South Asian women. In-depth interviews (N = 17) were conducted to determine the views of the participants on the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. The participants found the intervention acceptable and experienced an overall positive change in their attitudes, behaviour, and increased self-confidence. The findings suggest that the culturally adapted Positive Health Programme is acceptable to British South Asian women. These results support that culturally sensitive interventions may lead to better health outcomes and overall satisfaction. Protocol registered on Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01838889.

  7. CD36 expression and lipid metabolism following an oral glucose challenge in South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jeetesh V; Banerjee, Amitava; Montoro-Garcia, Silvia; Shantsila, Eduard; Alam, Mushfique; Flinders, Paul; Houlton, Kathleen Al; Hughes, Elizabeth A; Lip, Gregory Yh; Gill, Paramjit S

    2015-07-10

    To investigate lipid metabolism and the relationship with monocyte expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 in South Asians. An observational study of South Asians whom as an ethnic group have - a higher risk of developing diabetes. The susceptibility to diabetes is coupled with an earlier and more rapid progression of micro-, and macro-vascular complications. Twenty-nine healthy South Asian participants [mean age 34.6 (8.9) years, 76.2% male, mean body-mass index 25.0 (5.2) kg/m(2)] were recruited from an urban residential area of central Birmingham (United Kingdom). The main outcomes measured were post prandial (30 min) and post absorptive (120 min) changes from fasting (0 min) in circulating lipoproteins, lipds and hormones, and monocyte expression of CD36 post injection of a 75 g oral glucose challenge. The inducements of variations of monocyte CD36 expression were analysed. Our results showed evident changes in monocyte CD36 expression following the glucose challenge (P challenge (P lifestyle exposures have a role in moderating the expression of CD36.

  8. Family Violence and Child Sexual Abuse Among South Asians in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hillary A; Chaudhary Nagaraj, Nitasha; Vyas, Amita N

    2016-08-01

    Family violence, including child sexual abuse (CSA), is a significant public health problem in the United States. It is particularly difficult to assess family violence and CSA among South Asians because it is often hidden due to cultural and familial stigma. A web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample (n = 368) of South Asian adults in the US. One-fourth (25.2 %) of the sample reported CSA; 13.8 % reported abuse involving exposure; 21.5 % reported abuse involving touching; 4.5 % reported attempted sexual intercourse; and 3.5 % reported forced sexual intercourse. Adjusted odds ratios found that participants who reported any relationship violence were significantly more likely to have experienced CSA (OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.26-4.13); and suicide attempt was significantly associated with CSA (OR 3.96; 95 % CI 1.27-12.3). The findings presented in this formative study will assist in guiding future studies and interventions for South Asians in the United States.

  9. South Asians and risk of cardiovascular disease: current insights and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalmurti, Sandeep S; Paley, Ari; Gany, Francesca; Fisher, Edward A; Hochman, Judith S

    2010-01-01

    Patients from the Indian subcontinent have a distinct cardiovascular risk profile with profound health consequences. South Asians tend to develop more severe coronary artery disease at a younger age, and may also suffer from earlier myocardial infarction and heart failure. The genesis of this risk is multi-factorial. One important culprit is increased insulin resistance, possibly due to recently identified genetic polymorphisms. Another possible explanation is subclinical inflammation and a prothrombotic environment, as evidenced by increased levels of homocysteine, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and fibrinogen. The lipid profile of South Asians may play a role, as this population is known to have elevated levels of lipoprotein (a), as well as lower levels of HDL. In addition, this HDL may be dysfunctional, as this population may have a higher prevalence of low levels of HDL2b, as well as an increased preponderance of smaller HDL. Current guidelines for primary and secondary prevention have not reflected our growing insight into the unique characteristics of the South Asian population, and may need to evolve to reflect our knowledge.

  10. Understanding clinician perception of common presentations in South Asians seeking mental health treatment and determining barriers and facilitators to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Pramit; Khushalani, Sunil; Dhawan, Swaran; Goga, Joshana; Hemanth, Naveena; Kosi, Razia; Sharma, Rashmi K; Black, Betty S; Jayaram, Geetha; Rao, Vani

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the presentation of mental health symptoms among South Asians living in the US. To explore mental health symptom presentation in South Asians in the US and to identify facilitators and barriers to treatment. Focus group study. Four focus groups were conducted with 7-8 participants in each group. All participants (N = 29) were clinicians who had been involved in the care of South Asian patients with emotional problems and/or mental illness in the US. Qualitative content analysis. Key themes identified included: generational differences in symptom presentation, stress was the most common symptom for younger South Asians (40 years of age). Substance abuse and verbal/physical/sexual abuse were not uncommon but were often not reported spontaneously. Stigma and denial of mental illness were identified as major barriers to treatment. Facilitators for treatment included use of a medical model and conducting systematic but patient-centered evaluations. South Asians living in the US present with a variety of mental health symptoms ranging from stress associated with acculturation to major mental illnesses. Facilitating the evaluation and treatment of South Asians with mental illness requires sensitivity to cultural issues and use of creative solutions to overcome barriers to treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in social support and illness perceptions among South Asian and Caucasian patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E; Grace, Sherry L

    2010-01-01

    Social support and illness perceptions may affect recovery from a cardiac event or procedure. Previous research has found that patients of South Asian origin with coronary artery disease (CAD) have lower levels of social support and may perceive different causes of their condition. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate differences in social support and illness perceptions between Caucasian and South Asian patients with CAD. A total of 562 inpatients with CAD (53 [9%] South Asian) were recruited from 2 hospitals. The Medical Outcomes Study social support scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire were administered to examine ethnocultural differences in total social support and subscales, and in illness perceptions subscales, including causes of illness. South Asian participants had significantly lower levels of tangible (P=.001) and emotional/informational support (P stress/worry (P=.04) and poor medical care in the past (P=.02) and less likely to attribute their illness to aging (P=.03) compared with Caucasian participants. Lower levels of social support among South Asians in Canada may have negative effects on recovery and prognosis. Our results support qualitative findings suggesting South Asians perceive their illness to be a result of fate or related to stress. Future studies should investigate interventions targeted at modifying illness perceptions among this group in an attempt to improve risk-reducing behavior and secondary prevention use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Family communication as strategy in diabetes prevention: an observational study in families with Dutch and Surinamese South-Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, Suzanne C M; Cornel, Martina C; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H L M; Snoek, Frank J

    2012-04-01

    To explore the possibility of utilizing family communication as a diabetes prevention strategy, specifically targeting high-risk families with South-Asian ancestry in The Netherlands. In a cross-sectional study, type 2 diabetes patients from Dutch (n=311) and Surinamese South-Asian (n=157) origin filled in a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic characteristics, beliefs and concerns about familial diabetes risk, primary prevention, and diabetes-related family communication. Discussing diabetes is regarded acceptable in most families. Especially Surinamese South-Asian patients (68%) seemed motivated to convey risk messages to their relatives; they reported a higher risk perception and expressed more concern than Dutch patients. While 40% in both groups thought relatives are able to prevent developing diabetes, 46% in Dutch and 33% in Surinamese South-Asian patients were unsure. Promoting family communication appears a feasible strategy in diabetes prevention in high-risk (Surinamese South-Asian) families. Health care providers should address patients' concern and emphasize opportunities for prevention. Findings favor training of clinicians in utilizing a family approach as prevention strategy. Patients (particularly Surinamese South-Asians) are in need of professional help in the process of family risk disclosure. (Online) Educational tools should be made available at which patients can refer their relatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions Between Asian Air Pollution and Monsoon System: South Asia (ROSES-2014 ACMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Chin, Mian; Tao, Zhining; Kim, Dongchul; Bian, Huisheng; Kucsera, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Asia's rapid economic growth over the past several decades has brought a remarkable increase in air pollution levels in that region. High concentrations of aerosols (also known as particulate matter or PM) from pollution sources pose major health hazards to half of the world population in Asia including South Asia. How do pollution and dust aerosols regulate the monsoon circulation and rainfall via scattering and absorbing solar radiation, changing the atmospheric heating rates, and modifying the cloud properties? We conducted a series of regional model experiments with NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecast (NUWRF) regional model with coupled aerosol-chemistry-radiation-microphysics processes over South Asia for winter, pre-monsoon, and monsoon seasons to address this question. This study investigates the worsening air quality problem in South Asia by focusing on the interactions between pollution and South Asian monsoon, not merely focusing on the increase of pollutant emissions.

  14. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  15. Children of South Sea Island immigrants to Australia: factors associated with adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M W; Fua, C

    1995-01-01

    Social-delinquent problem youth of South Sea Island immigrant to Australia parents, were compared to non-problem youth from the same circumstances, on family, sociocultural, personality, and substance abuse variables. Interviews and testing were done by members of their own community. A consistent pattern of differences most pronounced for males was found between the two groups although not all reached statistical significance. The problem youth compared to the non-problem youth tended to come from families somewhat lower in socioeconomic level, somewhat less traditional in culture, and notably more prone to discipline by physical punishment than by verbal reasoning. The problem youth had significantly lower self-esteem, significantly higher maladjustment test scores, and significantly greater use and problems with alcohol and drugs. They were more alienated and had less clearly established direction for their future. Recommendations for remediation are considered.

  16. Vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors: Differences between South Asian and US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Kapoor, Deksha; Singh, Kalpana; Narayan, K M Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K; Kadir, M Masood; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2016-09-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases are increasing disproportionately in South Asia compared with other regions of the world despite high levels of vegetarianism. This unexpected discordance may be explained by differences in the healthfulness of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in South Asia compared with the United States. The aim of this study was to compare the food group intake of vegetarians with non-vegetarians in South Asia and the United States and to evaluate associations between vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high triacylglycerols, high low-density lipoprotein, low high-density lipoprotein, and high Framingham Heart Score). Using cross-sectional data from adults (age 20-69 y) in South Asia (Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South-Asia [CARRS] 2010-2011; N = 15 665) and the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006; N = 2159), adherence to a vegetarian diet was assessed using food propensity questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and predicted margins (e.g., adjusted prevalence of the outcomes). One-third (33%; n = 4968) of adults in the South Asian sample were vegetarian compared with only 2.4% (n = 59) in the US sample. Among South Asians, vegetarians more frequently ate dairy, legumes, vegetables, fruit, desserts, and fried foods than non-vegitarians (all P central obesity than non-vegetarians: 62% (95% CI, 43%-78%) versus 78% (95% CI, 76%-80%), respectively. There is greater divergence between vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in the United States than in South Asia, and US vegetarians have more consistently healthier food group intakes than South Asian vegetarians. Vegetarians in both populations have a lower probability of overweight/obesity compared with non-vegetarians. The strength of this association may be stronger for US vegetarian diets, which were also protective

  17. South Asian Ethnicity as a Risk Factor for Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events after Renal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangala, Sai K.; Silver, Samuel A.; Wong, Steven C.W.; Huang, Michael; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M.; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives South Asians (SAs) comprise 25% of all Canadian visible minorities. SAs constitute a group at high risk for cardiovascular disease in the general population, but the risk in SA kidney transplant recipients has never been studied. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cohort study of 864 kidney recipients transplanted from 1998 to 2007 and followed to June 2009, we identified risk factors including ethnicity associated with major cardiac events (MACEs, a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary intervention, and cardiac death) within and beyond 3 months after transplant. Kaplan-Meier methodology and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to determine risk factors for MACEs. Results There was no difference among SAs (n = 139), whites (n = 550), blacks (n = 65), or East Asians (n = 110) in baseline risk, including pre-existing cardiac disease. Post-transplant MACE rate in SAs was 4.4/100 patient-years compared with 1.31, 1.16, and 1.61/100 patient-years in whites, blacks, and East Asians, respectively (P diabetes, systolic BP, and prior cardiac disease. SAs also experienced more MACEs within 3 months after transplant compared with whites (P < 0.0001), blacks (P = 0.04), and East Asians (P = 0.006). However, graft and patient survival was similar to other groups. Conclusions SA ethnicity is an independent risk factor for post-transplant cardiac events. Further study of this high-risk group is warranted. PMID:20884776

  18. MARGINALIZATION OF SOUTH ASIANS BASED ON THE RACE AND SKIN COLOR IN BHARATI MUKHERJEE’S "JASMINE" AND CHITRA B. DIVAKARUNI’S "THE MISTRESS OF SPICES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Filipczak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to focus on the issue of marginalization of South Asians in the United States as portrayed in two novels written by writers of Indian origin: Bharati Mukherjee’s "Jasmine" and Chitra Bannerjee Divakaruni’s "The Mistress of Spices". It is investigated how race or skin color are the reasons for the marginalization of Indian immigrants in the United States. While "Jasmine" shows white Americans’ inability to embrace the racial difference of an Indian immigrant, which may be read as a reflection of the relative newness of this ethnic group in the United States and its shifting racial classification, "The Mistress of Spices" shows that the patterns of marginalization based on skin color may be developed already in the homeland, India, and then transferred to the US and confronted with the country’s racial diversity. Divakaruni’s novel raises a discussion of how the appreciation of whiteness developed in the country of birth leads to the hierarchical relations between the members of the Indian diaspora, and how it affects their relations with other American minorities. In this way, it shows that marginalization based on skin color is not only the outcome of inter-ethnic encounters but it can be an internal problem of this ethnic group as well.

  19. Vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors: Differences between South Asian and American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Kapoor, Deksha; Singh, Kalpana; Narayan, KM Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K; Kadir, M Masood; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic diseases are increasing disproportionately in South Asia compared to other regions of the world despite high levels of vegetarianism. This unexpected discordance may be explained by differences in the healthfulness of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in South Asia versus the US. Objective (1) To compare the food group intake of vegetarians versus non-vegetarians in South Asia and the US and (2) to evaluate associations between vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high triglycerides, high LDL, low HDL, and high Framingham Heart Score). Design Using cross-sectional data from adults (20–69 years) in South Asia (CARRS 2010–2011; n=15,665) and the US (NHANES 2003–2006; n=2159), adherence to a vegetarian diet was assessed using food propensity questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and predicted margins (e.g. adjusted prevalence of the outcomes). Results One-third (33.0%; n=4968) of adults in the South Asian sample were vegetarian in contrast to only 2.4% (n=59) in the US sample. Among South Asians, compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians more frequently ate dairy, legumes, vegetables, fruit, desserts, and fried foods (all pvegetarians, vegetarians more frequently ate legumes, fruit, and whole grains, and less frequently ate refined cereals, desserts, fried foods, fruit juice, and soft drinks (all pvegetarians were slightly less frequently overweight/obese compared to non-vegetarians – 49% (95% CI: 45%, 53%) versus 53% (51%, 56%), respectively – while US vegetarians were considerably less frequently overweight/obese compared to non-vegetarians: 48% (32%, 63%) versus 68% (65%, 70%), respectively. Furthermore, US vegetarians were less likely to exhibit central obesity compared to non-vegetarians: 62% (43%, 78%) versus 78% (76%, 80%), respectively. Conclusions There is greater divergence between vegetarian and

  20. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  1. Smaller kidney size at birth in South Asians: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Paul J; Jeffrey, Robin F; Yuen, Ho M; Godfrey, Keith M; West, Jane; Wright, John

    2016-03-01

    Rates of advanced chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy are higher in South Asian than in white British populations. Low birth weight is also more frequent in South Asian populations and has been associated with increased risks of kidney disease, perhaps due to a reduced nephron endowment. Using ultrasound scans at 34 weeks of gestation, we measured fetal kidney dimensions (transverse and anteroposterior diameters, length and circumference) and derived volume in a random sample of 872 white British and 715 South Asian participants in the Born in Bradford cohort study. Kidney measurements were compared between ethnic groups. Birth weight for gestational age at 40 weeks was 200 g less in South Asian babies compared with white British babies. The mean kidney volume for gestational age was 16% lower in South Asian than in white British babies [8.79 versus 10.45 cm(3), difference 1.66 cm(3) (95% confidence interval 1.40-1.93, P < 0.001)]. The difference was robust after adjustment for maternal age, socio-economic factors, marital status, body mass index, smoking and alcohol use in pregnancy, parity, baby's gender and birth weight for gestational age [adjusted difference 1.38 cm(3) (0.97-1.84), P < 0.001]. There were smaller reductions in other fetal measures. South Asian babies have smaller kidneys compared with white British babies, even after adjusting for potential confounders including birth weight. This finding may contribute to increased risks of adult kidney disease in South Asian populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio investment, GARCH (1,1 is used because shocks are responded quickly by this model. The results reveal that there exists significant relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility. Thus, less volatility in international portfolio flows is associated with high interest rate, currency depreciation, foreign direct investment, lower inflation, and higher GDP growth rate of the host country. Thus findings of this study suggest that foreign portfolio investors focus on stable macroeconomic environment of country.

  3. Countering Anti-Immigrant Discourses in the New Latino South: "Nos Mascan Pero No Nos Tragan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, Shanan; McClure, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The increased visibility of immigrant communities in the southeastern United States coupled with the economic recession has led to a proliferation of anti-immigrant policies and contributed to a climate which positions Latin@ immigrants and the Spanish language as foreign or threatening. In this article, we examine language ideologies related to…

  4. Stature estimation equations for South Asian skeletons based on DXA scans of contemporary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Wells, Jonathan C K; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay; Stock, Jay T

    2018-05-03

    Stature estimation from the skeleton is a classic anthropological problem, and recent years have seen the proliferation of population-specific regression equations. Many rely on the anatomical reconstruction of stature from archaeological skeletons to derive regression equations based on long bone lengths, but this requires a collection with very good preservation. In some regions, for example, South Asia, typical environmental conditions preclude the sufficient preservation of skeletal remains. Large-scale epidemiological studies that include medical imaging of the skeleton by techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) offer new potential datasets for developing such equations. We derived estimation equations based on known height and bone lengths measured from DXA scans from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (Hyderabad, India). Given debates on the most appropriate regression model to use, multiple methods were compared, and the performance of the equations was tested on a published skeletal dataset of individuals with known stature. The equations have standard errors of estimates and prediction errors similar to those derived using anatomical reconstruction or from cadaveric datasets. As measured by the number of significant differences between true and estimated stature, and the prediction errors, the new equations perform as well as, and generally better than, published equations commonly used on South Asian skeletons or based on Indian cadaveric datasets. This study demonstrates the utility of DXA scans as a data source for developing stature estimation equations and offer a new set of equations for use with South Asian datasets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Human development and South East Asian countries: Special emphasis on India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kalpa

    2013-08-31

    'Development' is to improve the quality of people's lives by creating an environment for them to engage in a wide range of activities, to be healthy and well nourished, to be knowledgeable and to be able to participate in the community life. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a multi-dimensional index of development as it is the combination of three development indices- health index, education index and income index. This article attempts to compare the HDI and its components between various South East Asian countries. Secondary data is used. India's position on the HDI scale is equivalent to the South East Asian average and rank 134 out of more than 190 countries. In South East Asia, India stood fifth in HDI, behind Sri Lanka, Thailand, Maldives and Indonesia. Country has launched several schemes and programs to improve the health indicators, to provide elementary education to every child and to alleviate poverty. India's HDI value has improved with time but still country has a long way to go in achieving an acceptable HDI. Need is to strengthen the existing schemes and programs.

  6. IAU South West and Central Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

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    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hakopian, S. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced its Strategic Plan on Astronomy for Development in 2009, during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). One of its main components was the creation of the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and corresponding Regional Offices (ROADs) for implementation and coordination of its aims. The OAD was created in Cape Town, South Africa and later on ROADs were created in 8 regions. Since 2015, Armenia hosts one of them, IAU South West Asian (SWA), later renamed to South West and Central Asian (SWCA) ROAD. At present, already 6 countries have officially joined (Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Turkey), but the Office serves for a rather broad region, from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. Armenia's geographical location and its historical role in astronomy (both for well-known archaeoastronomical heritage and the presence of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) founded by Viktor Ambartsumian in 1946) serve as a link between Europe and Eastern Partnership countries, Middle East and Asia in general. We run activities in 3 directions, Task Forces (TF): TF1 Universities and Research, TF2 Children and Schools and TF3 Public Outreach. We present our projects and all other accomplishments and discuss the role of our ROAD in maintaining contacts and development of astronomy in the region, as well as contacts between Europe and the Eastern Partnership countries. Most up-to-date information about the IAU SWCA ROAD is available on its webpage at http://iau-swa-road.aras.am/eng/index.php.

  7. Understanding low colorectal cancer screening uptake in South Asian faith communities in England--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cecily K; Thomas, Mary C; McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Raine, Rosalind

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer screening uptake within the South Asian population in England is approximately half that of the general population (33 % vs 61 %), and varies by Muslim (31.9 %), Sikh (34.6 %) and Hindu (43.7 %) faith background. This study sought to explore reasons for low uptake of CRC screening in South Asian communities and for the variability of low uptake between three faith communities; and to identify strategies by which uptake might be improved. We interviewed 16 'key informants' representing communities from the three largest South Asian faith backgrounds (Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism) in London, England. Reasons for low colorectal cancer screening uptake were overwhelmingly shared across South Asian faith groups. These were: limitations posed by written English; limitations posed by any written language; reliance on younger family members; low awareness of colorectal cancer and screening; and difficulties associated with faeces. Non-written information delivered verbally and interactively within faith or community settings was preferred across faith communities. Efforts to increase accessibility to colorectal cancer screening in South Asian communities should use local language broadcasts on ethnic media and face-to-face approaches within community and faith settings to increase awareness of colorectal cancer and screening, and address challenges posed by written materials.

  8. Cultural stereotypes of women from South Asian communities: mental health care professionals' explanations for patterns of suicide and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, J

    2002-09-01

    Low rates of treated depression and high rates of suicide in women from some South Asian communities are evident in epidemiological studies in the UK. It is argued here that explanations for these apparent differences are likely to be located in stereotypes of repressive South Asian cultures. This small scale study, utilising focus groups and individual interviews, sought to explore the construction of cultural stereotypes within mental health discourse with specific reference to stereotypes of women from South Asian communities. Mental health carers from a UK inner city area of relatively high social deprivation were targeted. Focus groups were conducted with a range of mental health care professionals who worked in both inpatient and outpatient mental health care services. In addition, individual interviews were conducted with consultant psychiatrists and General Practitioners. Extensive reference is made in this paper to the content of focus groups and interviews and how health carer's knowledge about and experience of South Asian cultures and caring for women from these communities was contextualised. Mental health care professionals constructed cultural difference in terms of fixed and immutable categories which operated to inferiorise Britain's South Asian communities. It is argued that their knowledge is constructed upon stereotypes of western culture as superior to a construction of eastern cultures as repressive, patriarchal and inferior to a western cultural ideal. Ultimately, it is argued that these stereotypes become incorporated as 'fact' and have the potential to misdirect diagnosis and therefore, also misdirect treatment pathways.

  9. Medicinal perceptions of vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants living in Bradford, Northern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Houlihan, Laura; Ansari, Nafeesa; Hussain, Bushra; Aslam, Saiqa

    2007-08-15

    Dietary habits change rapidly amongst migrant communities in Western countries, and these changes can cause major concerns for public-health policymakers because they frequently lead to increases in diet-related diseases like diabetes. Such is the case in most South-Asian communities in the UK. In this study, we carried out an ethnobiological survey of the vegetables traditionally consumed among the Indian and Pakistani communities of Bradford, in Western Yorkshire, UK. Our purpose was to analyse in depth details of the traditional culinary use of vegetables within these households, and to assess the health perceptions of them. Semi-structured interviews with a total of 150 South-Asian women were carried out. Twenty-five vegetables were recorded, as well as their traditional culinary use and their frequency of use. We found that a few of these vegetables, particularly those presenting bitter or aromatic tastes, were perceived to have remarkable medicinal value particularly against diabetes. Our study also found important generational differences in the women's knowledge of the culinary processes related to these foods, confirming that the consumption of traditional vegetables is inextricably embedded in cultural heritage and the representation of identity among migrants. Our findings may offer evidence of a link between the choice of food and the foods' perceived medicinal value among South-Asian migrants. It may also provide important information for health care professionals when designing strategies for improving health care counteracting type 2 diabetes. We strongly believe such strategies should take into account socio-cultural components and emic health beliefs, as well as patients' views of traditional dietary ingredients.

  10. Liberalising trade in health services: constraints and prospects for South Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Fahmida; Ahamad, Mazbahul

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the prospects and challenges associated with liberalising trade in health services in five South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Country-specific secondary information, a brief literature review of empirical studies and debriefing sessions with key stakeholders are employed to explore the issues related to liberalising health services trade. The health sectors in India, Nepal and Pakistan are scheduled under General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) classification, whereas those in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are not. In Bangladesh, there is opportunity for investment in joint venture hospitals under Mode 3. Nonetheless, India is the largest trader in health services under all four modes. In Sri Lanka, cross-border trade in healthcare services is found to be insignificant. Moreover, expertise in eye treatment in Nepal could also attract foreign investment in medical services under Mode 3. In contrast, Pakistan exhibits no potential under Mode 4, because of a lack of healthcare professionals. In this view, the prospects of trade in health services within the South Asian region under the four GATS modes are constrained by infrastructural, regulatory, perception-related, logistical and cultural problems. Considering the level of development and commercial opportunities, regional integration in the health sector could be explored in such areas as telemedicine, medical tourism, cross-border investment and capacity building of health personnel. These developments call for stronger and pro-active government-to-government collaboration in the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) region in a transparent and accountable manner. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. South Asian people and heart disease: an assessment of the importance of socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazroo, J Y

    2001-01-01

    Higher rates of mortality from ischemic heart disease among South Asian people are well established and appear to be unrelated to socioeconomic position. However, traditional indicators of socioeconomic position may be inadequate when making comparisons across ethnic groups. This study investigates these issues in a British morbidity survey. The Fourth National Survey was a British cross-sectional study conducted from 1993 to 1994. The study used a national representative community sample, consisting of 2867 white respondents, 2001 Indian respondents, and 1776 Pakistani and Bangladeshi respondents. Data on occupational class and standard of living were used to examine the contribution of socioeconomic factors to differences in rates of reported severe chest pain and diagnosed heart disease. White and Indian respondents had similar rates of reported indicators of heart disease, while Pakistani and Bangladeshi respondents had rates that were considerably higher. There was a clear socioeconomic gradient in reported heart disease for each ethnic group, with those who were poorer having higher rates. Controlling for occupational class made little difference to the greater risk of heart disease found in the Pakistani and Bangladeshi group; however, controlling for a more sensitive indicator of socioeconomic position-standard of living-greatly reduced their disproportionate risk. The findings suggest that South Asian people do not share a uniformly greater risk of heart disease. The more economically advantaged South Asian group, Indians, had rates that are similar to those found among white people, while the poorest groups, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, had rates that are considerably higher. Socioeconomic position predicted risk in each ethnic group and made a key contribution to the higher risk found for Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals. Other studies may have failed to identify the important contribution of socioeconomic position because the indicators used were

  12. The effect of El-Niño on South Asian Monsoon and agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mukherjee A, Wang S.Y.Abstract:The South Asian Monsoon has a prominent and significant impact on South Asian countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and it is one of the most studied phenomena in the world. The monsoon is historically known to be influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of seasonal precipitation over India strongly depends upon the ENSO phasing. The average southwest monsoon rainfall received during the years with El Niño was found to be less compared to normal years and the average rainfall during the northeast monsoon is higher in coastal Andhra Pradesh. ENSO is anti-correlated with Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The last prominent effect of ENSO on India's monsoon occurred in 2009 with 23% reduction in annual rainfall, reducing summer sown crops such as rice, sugar cane etc. and pushing up food prices. Climatic resources endowment plays a major role in planning agricultural production in tropical and sub-tropical environment especially under rain-fed agriculture, and so contingent crop planning drawn on this relationship would help to mitigate the effects of ENSO episodes in the region. The unexplored area in this domain of research is the changes in the frequency and intensity of ENSO due to global warming and its impact on ENSO prediction and agricultural management practices. We analyze the last 30 years datasets of Pacific SST, and precipitation and air temperature over Southeast Asia to examine the evolution of ENSO teleconnections with ISM, as well as making estimates of drought indices such as Palmer Drought Severity Index. This research can lead toward better crop management strategies in the South Asian monsoon region.

  13. Vitamin D production in UK Caucasian and South Asian women following UVR exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Ohood A; Hart, Kathryn; McCabe, Patrick; Berry, Jacqueline; Francesca, Robertson; Rhodes, Lesley E; Spyrou, Nicholas; Alfuraih, Abdulrahman; Lanham-New, Susan

    2016-11-01

    It is known that skin pigmentation reduces the penetration of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and thus photosynthesis of 25-hydroxvitamin D (25(OH)D). However ethnic differences in 25(OH)D production remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D production between UK South Asian and Caucasian postmenopausal women, in response to a defined and controlled exposure to UVR. Seventeen women; 9 white Caucasian (skin phototype II and III), 8 South Asian women (skin phototype IV and V) participated in the study, acting as their own controls. Three blood samples were taken for the measurement of vitamin D status during the run in period (9days, no sunbed exposure) after which, all subjects underwent an identical UVR exposure protocol irrespective of skin colour (9 days, 3 sun bed sessions, 6, 8 and 8min respectively with approximately 80% body surface exposed). Skin tone was measured four times during the study. Despite consistently lower 25(OH)D levels in South Asian women, they were shown to synthesise vitamin D as efficiently as Caucasians when exposed to the same dose of UVR. Interestingly, the baseline level of vitamin D rather than ethnicity and skin tone influenced the amount of vitamin D synthesised. This study have found no ethnic differences in the synthesis of 25(OH)D, possibly due to the baseline differences in 25(OH)D concentration or due to the small population size used in this study. Applying mixed linear model, findings indicated no effect of ethnicity and skin tone on the production of vitamin D; baseline level and length of exposure were the critical factors. To confirm that ethnicity and skin tone has no effect on 25(OH)D production, a larger sample size study is required that considers other ethnic groups with highly pigmented skin. Initial vitamin D status influences the amount of UVB needed to reach equal serum concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. UK ethnicity data collection for healthcare statistics: the South Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Gulnaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnicity data collection has been proven to be important in health care but despite government initiatives remains incomplete and mostly un-validated in the UK. Accurate self-reported ethnicity data would enable experts to assess inequalities in health and access to services and help to ensure resources are targeted appropriately. The aim of this paper is to explore the reasons for the observed gap in ethnicity data by examining the perceptions and experiences of healthy South Asian volunteers. South Asians are the largest ethnic minority group accounting for 50% of all ethnic minorities in the UK 2001 census. Methods Five focus groups, conducted by trained facilitators in the native language of each group, recruited 36 South Asian volunteers from local community centres and places of worship. The topic guide focused on five key areas:1 general opinions on the collection of ethnicity, 2 experiences of providing ethnicity information, 3 categories used in practice, 4 opinions of other indicators of ethnicity e.g. language, religion and culture and 5 views on how should this information be collected. The translated transcripts were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach. Results The findings of this Cancer Research UK commissioned study revealed that participants felt that accurate recording of ethnicity data was important in healthcare with several stating the increased prevalence of certain diseases in minority ethnic groups as an appropriate justification to improve this data. The overwhelming majority raised no objections to providing this data when the purpose of data collection is fully explained. Conclusions This study confirmed that the collection of patients' ethnicity data is deemed important by potential patients but there remains uncertainty and unease as to how the data may be used. A common theme running through the focus groups was the willingness to provide these data, strongly accompanied by a desire

  15. UK ethnicity data collection for healthcare statistics: the South Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Gulnaz; Johnson, Mark Rd; Szczepura, Ala; Wilson, Sue; Gumber, Anil; Dunn, Janet A

    2012-03-27

    Ethnicity data collection has been proven to be important in health care but despite government initiatives remains incomplete and mostly un-validated in the UK. Accurate self-reported ethnicity data would enable experts to assess inequalities in health and access to services and help to ensure resources are targeted appropriately. The aim of this paper is to explore the reasons for the observed gap in ethnicity data by examining the perceptions and experiences of healthy South Asian volunteers. South Asians are the largest ethnic minority group accounting for 50% of all ethnic minorities in the UK 2001 census. Five focus groups, conducted by trained facilitators in the native language of each group, recruited 36 South Asian volunteers from local community centres and places of worship. The topic guide focused on five key areas:1) general opinions on the collection of ethnicity, 2) experiences of providing ethnicity information, 3) categories used in practice, 4) opinions of other indicators of ethnicity e.g. language, religion and culture and 5) views on how should this information be collected. The translated transcripts were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach. The findings of this Cancer Research UK commissioned study revealed that participants felt that accurate recording of ethnicity data was important in healthcare with several stating the increased prevalence of certain diseases in minority ethnic groups as an appropriate justification to improve this data. The overwhelming majority raised no objections to providing this data when the purpose of data collection is fully explained. This study confirmed that the collection of patients' ethnicity data is deemed important by potential patients but there remains uncertainty and unease as to how the data may be used. A common theme running through the focus groups was the willingness to provide these data, strongly accompanied by a desire to have more information with regard to its use.

  16. Now and Then - Diasporic Identity Processes among South Asian Young Adults in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores some social-psychological aspects for South Asian Young Adults in Denmark such as identity processes through social relations across the geographical borders and psychological diaspora consciousness and is a follow up of the project conducted in the mid-nineties, in Denmark (N....... The young adults are perceived as active actors in relation to their life situation. The results show the young adults as well as parental generations´ reinterpretation of the self, other and home. They also depict that the young adults’ diasporic identities involve the countries of origin as well...

  17. Poultry Production and Marketing in Nepal : with Comparison to Other South Asian Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    杉山, 道夫; 小栗, 克之; BHATTARAI, Til Chandra; スギヤマ, ミチオ; オグリ, カツユキ; SUGIYAMA, Michio; OGURI, Katsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the present situation of the Nepalese poultry industry and its comparison to other South Asian Countries with the help of survey and available secondary data. There were about 15.9 million poultry producing 10,962 Mt meat and 421,460 thousands of eggs including commercial and backyard poultry in the year 1996/97. The commercial poultry produced 269 eggs in 48 weeks of production with feed conversion ratio 2.9. The per Kg production cost of eggs was ab...

  18. Exploring end-of-life care for South Asian kidney patients: interviewer reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Emma; Waqar, Muhammad; Gill, Balbir; Hoque, Pina; Jetha, Champa; Bola, Kulwinder Kaur; Mahmood, Riffat; Mahmood, Sultan; Saujani, Rita; Randhawa, Gurch

    2017-03-16

    The reduction of inequalities in access to quality care has been a central tenet of UK health policy. Ethnic minorities may experience additional inequalities because of language and other cultural barriers. This article reports interviewer reflections of conducting interviews with South Asian kidney patients about their experiences of end-of-life care. It explores themes which emerged from the analysis of a focus group held with eight bilingual research interviewers. The relevance of these themes to understanding inequalities and access to end-of-life care is discussed; together with the potential for the research process to contribute to service improvement.

  19. Airborne Bacterial Communities in Three East Asian Cities of China, South Korea, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Park, Eun Ha; Lee, Sunghee; Ko, GwangPyo; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Deng, Furong; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Ho

    2017-07-17

    The global diversity of airborne bacteria has not yet been studied, despite its importance in human health and climate change. Here, we focused on the diversity of airborne bacteria and their correlations with meteorological/environmental conditions in China, South Korea, and Japan. Beijing (China) had more diverse airborne bacteria, followed by Seoul (South Korea) and Nagasaki (Japan), and seasonal variations were observed. Beijing and Seoul had more diverse airborne bacteria during the winter, whereas Nagasaki showed greater diversity during the summer. According to principal component analysis and Bray-Curtis similarity, higher similarity was observed between Beijing and Seoul than between Seoul and Nagasaki during all seasons except summer. Among meteorological/environmental variables, temperature and humidity were highly correlated with the diversity of airborne bacteria on the measurement day, whereas wind speeds and the frequency of northwest winds were highly correlated for 2-3-day moving averages. Thus, proximity and resuspension could enhance bacterial diversity in East Asian cities.

  20. South Asians are Under-Represented in a Clinic Treating Atrial Fibrillation in a Multicultural City in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebjee, M H; Tyndall, K; Holding, S; Russell, C; Graham, L N; Pepper, C B

    2012-01-01

    The Leeds rapid access atrial fibrillation (AF) clinic was set up to streamline and standardise management of patients with newly diagnosed AF. Anecdotal evidence suggests that there is under-representation of south Asians in these clinics.All patient attendances between June 2007 and June 2011 were documented and combined with ethnicity data from patient administration records. Local population demographics for 2009 were obtained from the office of national statistics. This was used to estimate the expected prevalence of AF across the different ethnic groups in Leeds taking age into account. One thousand two hundred and ten patients were referred. The study sample included 992 patients, and the number of south Asians attending was 88% less than expected (Chi squared analysis; pcosmopolitan population. Potential reasons for this discrepancy including barriers to accessing treatment for this population or a lower prevalence of AF in south Asians due to an as yet unidentified genetic factor.

  1. Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca K; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among South...... Asians. We therefore aimed to examine ethnic differences in early changes in glucose metabolism prior to incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a prospective British occupational cohort, subject to 5 yearly clinical examinations, we examined ethnic differences in trajectories of fasting plasma glucose...... (FPG), 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), 2 h post-load serum insulin (2hSI), HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-S) and secretion (HOMA2-B), and the Gutt insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120) among 120 South Asian and 867 white participants who developed diabetes during...

  2. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Regmi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology: We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion: Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion: This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health

  3. Impact of gestational diabetes on the risk of diabetes following pregnancy among Chinese and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, G; Chiu, M; Shah, B R

    2012-08-01

    Ethnicity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are both risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, it is uncertain whether ethnicity modifies the effect of GDM on diabetes risk. We aimed to determine the risk of diabetes following pregnancy with and without GDM for Chinese and South Asian women compared with white women. Using healthcare databases, all 1,050,108 women aged 20-49 with live births between January 1995 and June 2008 in Ontario were identified. They were followed for up to 15 years for the diagnosis of diabetes. The age-standardised prevalences of GDM were 4.1%, 7.1% and 2.9% for Chinese, South Asian and white women, respectively. The cumulative incidence of diagnosed diabetes at the median follow-up time of 7.6 years was 16.5% and 1.8% for Chinese women with and without GDM, 31.8% and 3.6% for South Asian women with and without GDM, and 25.7% and 1.8% for white women with and without GDM. The presence of GDM conferred an increase in the risk for diabetes after pregnancy of more than 13-fold in white women, but only a nine- to tenfold increase among Chinese and South Asian women. Although one-third of South Asian women with GDM were diagnosed with diabetes within 8 years postpartum, the incremental impact of GDM on diabetes risk was not as strong among Chinese and South Asian women as it was among white women.

  4. Diabetes mellitus prevalence is increasing in South Asians but is stable in Chinese living in Singapore and Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kristin H X; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Koshkina, Vira; Ma, Stefan; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Magliano, Dianna J; Söderberg, Stefan; Chia, Kee Seng; Zimmet, Paul; Lim, Wei-Yen

    2017-09-01

    Asia is experiencing a type 2 diabetes epidemic, but prevalence differs by ethnicity and level of socioeconomic development. Singapore and Mauritius have implemented comprehensive campaigns to address this public health problem. We compared diabetes and obesity prevalence trends among Chinese and South Asians living in Singapore and Mauritius to determine the contribution of ethnicity and economic development to diabetes. Age-specific data from serial national population-based surveys in Singapore and Mauritius between 1987 and 2010 were used to estimate age-standardized diabetes and obesity prevalence. Modified Breslow-Cox proportional hazard models were used to obtain rate ratios for diabetes risk factors. In Singapore, the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes remained stable for Chinese (men: 14% in 1992, 13% in 2010; women: 12% in 1992, 10% in 2010), but increases were observed for South Asians (men: 20% in 1992, 26% in 2010; women: 18% in 1992, 20% in 2010). There were similar patterns in Mauritius. In both countries, obesity prevalence trends were stable for Chinese women, but increased for Chinese men and South Asians. Associations between obesity and diabetes were stronger in Chinese than South Asians regardless of country. Despite different socioeconomic settings in Singapore and Mauritius, we observed rising diabetes prevalence among South Asians but stable prevalence in Chinese in both countries. This provides further evidence that ethnicity contributes to the development of diabetes, and that there should be an increased emphasis on future prevention strategies targeting South Asian populations in these countries. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height2) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. Methods: We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI–FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. Results: We restricted analyses to 4–12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height5) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m−2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m−2; Pchildren. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (Pchildren with higher unadjusted BMI and the smallest in older children with lower unadjusted BMI. Conclusions: BMI underestimated BF in South Asians and overestimated BF in Black Africans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children. PMID:28325931

  6. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Is There a Risk of Yellow Fever Virus Transmission in South Asian Countries with Hyperendemic Dengue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2013-01-01

    The fact that yellow fever (YF) has never occurred in Asia remains an “unsolved mystery” in global health. Most countries in Asia with high Aedes aegypti mosquito density are considered “receptive” for YF transmission. Recently, health officials in Sri Lanka issued a public health alert on the potential spread of YF from a migrant group from West Africa. We performed an extensive review of literature pertaining to the risk of YF in Sri Lanka/South Asian region to understand the probability of actual risk and assist health authorities to form evidence informed public health policies/practices. Published data from epidemiological, historical, biological, molecular, and mathematical models were harnessed to assess the risk of YF in Asia. Using this data we examine a number of theories proposed to explain lack of YF in Asia. Considering the evidence available, we conclude that the probable risk of local transmission of YF is extremely low in Sri Lanka and for other South Asian countries despite a high Aedes aegypti density and associated dengue burden. This does not however exclude the future possibility of transmission in Asia, especially considering the rapid influx travelers from endemic areas, as we report, arriving in Sri Lanka. PMID:24367789

  8. THE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF LIMITED SOUTH ASIAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS AFTER FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After the recent global crisis, corporate scandals and bankruptcy in US and Europe, there is some certain evidence on weak corporate governance, risk management and audit system. The 2009 India Code of Corporate Governance also revealed that during the crisis time, there are certain weaknesses although corporate structure is fairly durable. Hence, this paper chooses a different analytical approach and among its aims is to give some systematic opinions. First, it classifies limited South Asian representative corporate governance (CG standards into two (2 groups: India and Malaysia latest CG principles covered in group 1 and, group 2, including corporate governance principle from Thailand and Indonesia, so-called relative good CG group, while it uses ACCA and OECD and ICGN principles as reference. Second, it, through analysis, identifies differences and advantages between above set of standards which are and have been used as reference principles for many relevant organizations. Third, it establishes a selected comparative set of standards for South Asian representative corporate governance system in accordance to international standards. Last but not least, this paper covers some ideas and policy suggestions.

  9. Heath beliefs of UK South Asians related to lifestyle diseases: a review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther; Kinra, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals.

  10. Mechanism of ENSO influence on the South Asian monsoon rainfall in global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sneh; Kar, Sarat C.

    2018-02-01

    Coupled ocean atmosphere global climate models are increasingly being used for seasonal scale simulation of the South Asian monsoon. In these models, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) evolve as coupled air-sea interaction process. However, sensitivity experiments with various SST forcing can only be done in an atmosphere-only model. In this study, the Global Forecast System (GFS) model at T126 horizontal resolution has been used to examine the mechanism of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing on the monsoon circulation and rainfall. The model has been integrated (ensemble) with observed, climatological and ENSO SST forcing to document the mechanism on how the South Asian monsoon responds to basin-wide SST variations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The model simulations indicate that the internal variability gets modulated by the SSTs with warming in the Pacific enhancing the ensemble spread over the monsoon region as compared to cooling conditions. Anomalous easterly wind anomalies cover the Indian region both at 850 and 200 hPa levels during El Niño years. The locations and intensity of Walker and Hadley circulations are altered due to ENSO SST forcing. These lead to reduction of monsoon rainfall over most parts of India during El Niño events compared to La Niña conditions. However, internally generated variability is a major source of uncertainty in the model-simulated climate.

  11. Public attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities: a qualitative comparison of white British & South Asian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina

    2012-03-01

    National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of culture on attitudes. The aim of this study was to explore how young people from White British and South Asian backgrounds differ in their attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities and above all, how they arrive at their beliefs. A qualitative design utilizing focus groups and individual interviews with White British and South Asian adolescents aged 16-19 years (N = 61) was employed. Questionnaire data were collected to compare this sample to findings from a larger study run concurrently (Attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities: a cross cultural study. Thesis, University College London). Interview and focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis. Thematic analysis yielded five themes and pointed to widespread confusion about the concept of 'intellectual disability', not helped by the continuing invisibility of people with intellectual disabilities in the media. Participants expressed many positive beliefs, yet closer analysis revealed that underlying these may be more ambivalent or even hostile attitudes. Key differences between the two cultural groups are discussed. The findings highlight the need for raising public awareness and the importance of culturally sensitive support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Disclosure, discrimination and desire: experiences of Black and South Asian gay men in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research.

  13. Heath Beliefs of UK South Asians Related to Lifestyle Diseases: A Review of Qualitative Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. Methods. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. Results. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. Conclusions. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals.

  14. The Use of Traditional Herbal Medicines Amongst South Asian Diasporic Communities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamra, Sukvinder K; Slater, Adrian; Howard, Caroline; Johnson, Mark; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Migrant South Asian communities in the UK have brought with them their own traditional forms of medicine, yet little is known about their current use of herbal medicines (HMs) in the UK. The aim of the study was to explore the origins, use and transmission of knowledge of traditional HMs used by diasporic South Asian communities in the UK. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used for data collection (n = 192). An opportunity sampling technique was used to recruit participants across several locations in Birmingham and Leicester. Two thirds of participants (n = 126) stated they used HMs to maintain their health and to treat various health conditions such as digestive problems, skin conditions and diabetes. Almost 2000 actively used HMs were documented including 123 plant species that were identified. Participants imported HMs from abroad as well as sourcing them locally and even growing some of their own plants. Up to 82% (n = 87) of participants who took prescription medicines did not tell their healthcare professionals about any HMs they consumed; this raises concerns about people's knowledge of herb-drug interactions, compliance and effect on prescribed medicine regimens. Similar studies to explore the use of HMs by other ethnic groups are imperative to help optimise pharmaceutical care of patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyatilaka, Indu; Lanerolle, Pulani; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Atukorala, Sunethra; Somasundaram, Noel; de Silva, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment), and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. 2800 urban women (30-45 years) were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week) and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week) for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week) was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  16. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Waidyatilaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment, and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. METHODS: 2800 urban women (30-45 years were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  17. An exploration of culture, diabetes, and nursing in the South Asian community: a metasynthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Elizabeth; Gillibrand, Warren

    2009-04-01

    South Asian people are often perceived as a homogenous group whose culture is prescriptive and constraining. A metasynthesis of how culture influences diabetes self-management in the context of a South Asian population was undertaken. Theory explication was used to deconstruct and reconceptualize the findings of the studies. Eleven publications reported themes of health beliefs, individuality, context, and shared experiences. The results indicate that culture does not influence diabetes self-management in a rigid and prescriptive way; instead, individuals negotiate and interpret culture in a shifting and diverse context. An individualized approach to delivering culturally appropriate nursing care should be taken.

  18. Social contexts and HIV vulnerabilities among South Asian women in the greater Toronto area: Examining social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawa, Roula; Underhill, Angela; Logie, Carmen; Loutfy, Mona

    2018-02-01

    We explored how social norms interact with beliefs and social structures (power relations, emotional relations, and gendered division of labor) to influence the experiences of South Asian women with HIV in Canada. The first author conducted semi-structured interviews, and identified five themes using thematic analysis: connection to community/religious institutions, family honor, and restrained/prohibited discussion of sexuality. These norms reproduce hegemonic masculinity; constrain women's social, relational, and economic power; and elevate HIV vulnerability. We present findings to challenge hegemonic masculinity at the international level, and of developing strategies to address both interfamily gender-based violence and racism faced by the South Asians in Canada.

  19. Factors related to dysmenorrhea among Vietnamese and Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Ae; Kim, Min Yeoung; Lee, Sa Ra; Jeong, Kyung Ah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find factors associated with dysmenorrhea, we surveyed the obstetric and gynecologic histories as well as socioeconomic factors of Vietnamese female residents in Can Tho (southern part of Vietnam) and Bavi (northern part of Vietnam) and Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in South Korea. Methods From March 2010 to March 2011, 3,017 Vietnamese women aged 17 to 42 years (mean, 25.5 years) were recruited. Socioeconomic factors as well as baseline characteristics, including gynecologic history and menstrual patterns, were collected using questionnaires. The relationships between these factors and dysmenorrhea were analyzed using chi-square test, independent t-test and logistic regression analysis. Results Dysmenorrhea was found in 58.8% of all women. The mean age and the age at menarche were younger in the women with dysmenorrhea. A longer duration of menstrual flow and severe menstrual volume increased the risk of dysmenorrhea. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was lower in women who had experienced pregnancy, term delivery and breastfeeding. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in Vietnamese women was also different according to their educational status. When participants were divided according to their religious preferences, atheist women showed a lower prevalence with 55%, and women who were religious had a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea. The body mass index, menstrual cycle length, monthly income, and duration of residency in Korea were not related with the prevalence of dysmenorrhea. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors as well as age, menstrual pattern and obstetric history were related with dysmenorrhea in Vietnamese women. PMID:24328009

  20. Factors related to dysmenorrhea among Vietnamese and Vietnamese marriage immigrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Ae; Kim, Min Yeoung; Lee, Sa Ra; Jeong, Kyung Ah; Chung, Hye Won

    2013-07-01

    To find factors associated with dysmenorrhea, we surveyed the obstetric and gynecologic histories as well as socioeconomic factors of Vietnamese female residents in Can Tho (southern part of Vietnam) and Bavi (northern part of Vietnam) and Vietnamese female marriage immigrants living in South Korea. From March 2010 to March 2011, 3,017 Vietnamese women aged 17 to 42 years (mean, 25.5 years) were recruited. Socioeconomic factors as well as baseline characteristics, including gynecologic history and menstrual patterns, were collected using questionnaires. The relationships between these factors and dysmenorrhea were analyzed using chi-square test, independent t-test and logistic regression analysis. Dysmenorrhea was found in 58.8% of all women. The mean age and the age at menarche were younger in the women with dysmenorrhea. A longer duration of menstrual flow and severe menstrual volume increased the risk of dysmenorrhea. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was lower in women who had experienced pregnancy, term delivery and breastfeeding. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in Vietnamese women was also different according to their educational status. When participants were divided according to their religious preferences, atheist women showed a lower prevalence with 55%, and women who were religious had a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea. The body mass index, menstrual cycle length, monthly income, and duration of residency in Korea were not related with the prevalence of dysmenorrhea. Socioeconomic factors as well as age, menstrual pattern and obstetric history were related with dysmenorrhea in Vietnamese women.

  1. BMI-for-age in South Asian children of 0–20 years in the Netherlands: secular changes and misclassification by WHO growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dekker, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: South Asians are prone to cardiometabolic disease at lower BMI levels than most other ethnic groups, starting in childhood. The magnitude of BMI misclassifications is unknown. Aim: To compare the BMI distribution of contemporary South Asian 0–20 year olds in the Netherlands with: (1) The

  2. A Cross-National Comparative Study of Blood Pressure and Hypertension Between English and Dutch South-Asian- and African-Origin Populations: The Role of National Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Kunst, Anton; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Nicolaou, Mary; Redekop, William Ken; Stronks, Karien

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We compare patterns of blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension between white-Dutch and their South-Asian and African minority groups with their corresponding white-English and their South-Asian and African ethnic minority groups; and the contribution of physical activity, body

  3. Mental health of South Asian youth in Peel Region, Toronto, Canada: a qualitative study of determinants, coping strategies and service access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Amanpreet; Hynie, Michaela; Shakya, Yogendra; McKenzie, Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study set out to understand the mental health challenges and service access barriers experienced by South Asian youth populations in the Peel Region of Toronto, Canada. Setting In-depth semistructured interviews were carried out with South Asian youth living in Peel Region (Mississauga, Brampton and Caledon), a suburb of Toronto, Canada, home to over 50% of Ontario’s South Asian population. Participants South Asian youth (n=10) engaged in thoughtful, candid dialogue about their mental health and service access barriers. Primary and secondary outcome measures Qualitative interview themes related to mental health stressors and mental health service access barriers experienced by youth living in Peel Region were assessed using thematic analysis. Results South Asian youth face many mental health stressors, from intergenerational and cultural conflict, academic pressure, relationship stress, financial stress and family difficulties. These stressors can contribute to mental health challenges, such as depression and anxiety and drug use, with marijuana, alcohol and cigarettes cited as the most popular substances. South Asian youth were only able to identify about a third (36%) of the mental health resources presented to them and did not feel well informed about mental health resources available in their neighbourhood. Conclusions They offered recommendations for improved youth support directed at parents, education system, South Asian community and mental health system. Institutions and bodies at all levels of the society have a role to play in ensuring the mental health of South Asian youth. PMID:29101148

  4. Midwifery education, regulation and association in six South Asian countries--a descriptive report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogren, Malin Upper; Wiseman, Anita; Berg, Marie

    2012-06-01

    To describe the situation of midwifery education, regulation and association in six South Asian countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Data were collected via three questionnaires, constructed by the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Investing in Midwives Programme, used at a regional workshop in Bangladesh, 2010. Selected for the purpose of this study were 55 out of 134 questions of which two were open-ended. The answers from structured closed-ended questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the open ended answers with a qualitative content analysis. There was a variation in midwifery education across South Asia, in terms of entry level, competencies and requirements for teachers. None of the countries had national legislation that recognized midwifery as an autonomous profession. Four of the countries had a midwifery association. Two countries had a curriculum based on ICM's essential competences for basic midwifery practice. Main recommendations for improving formal midwifery education across the countries were development of legislation, strengthened formal midwifery education, strengthened professional value, and an improved learning environment. The findings might benefit the future midwifery profession in South Asia and is an important step in addressing the MDGs to reduce maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in the region. With assistance, the area of South Asia will be able to create autonomous midwives that comply with ICM's global standards for midwifery education and regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The South Asian Origins of the Global Network to Eradicate Blindness: WHO, NGOs, and Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Logan D A

    2018-03-01

    The global network to eradicate blindness emerged out of the work of Western and South Asian professionals to eradicate smallpox which was endemic in South Asia. The history of the emergence of the global network to eradicate blindness demonstrates a shift from vertical command and control public health programs directed by the WHO, to the decentralized public health services originating in non-profit, non-governmental organizations and coordinated by the WHO. The WHO constitution started with a federal regionalist structure that encouraged collaboration and coordination with NGOs. In South Asia in particular, epidemiologists and general medical practitioners moved from eradicating smallpox through the WHO to creating their own domestic and international NGOs based in various countries with a mission to control blindness in South Asia and Africa. In 1975, pushed by the WHO Director General, these new NGOs in turn joined with individual ophthalmologists and existing blind member associations to form the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. Thus, the WHO was shaped by, and shaping, international NGOs such as the IAPB. The IAPB pushed for the formation of the WHO Prevention of Blindness program. This was the earliest example of how the IAPB facilitates bottom-up agenda-setting in the WHO. In 1980, when the WHO officially closed the smallpox program, the Prevention of Blindness program first received independent funding. Presently, the IAPB acts as a decentralized arm of the WHO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guarded self-disclosure predicts psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Mizrahi, Trina C

    2005-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between guarded self-disclosure, psychological distress, and willingness to use psychological services if distressed among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Participants who endorsed overall guarded self-disclosure, self-concealment (i.e., unwillingness to reveal affect to others), or conflict avoidance (i.e., maintenance of harmony via suppression of feelings) were significantly more likely to report psychological distress and were significantly less likely to report willingness to use psychological services. While conflict avoidance was a significant independent predictor of psychological distress, self-concealment was a significant independent predictor of willingness to use psychological services. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of guarded self-disclosure, which appear to be differentially associated with psychological distress and willingness to use psychological services.

  7. Study on the change and acculturation of dietary pattern of Southeast Asian workers living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Seung-Joo

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed the dietary pattern of Southeast Asian workers (Vietnamese, Thais, Cambodians and Myanmar) living in South Korea in order to recognize the dietary changes after they moved to South Korea. Questionnaires were completed by 251 Southeast Asian workers living in South Korea. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we assessed the diets before and after living in the hometown and in South Korea. Significant changes observed in the Southeast Asian workers were decreased in consumption frequency of fresh fruits, cooked vegetables, rice noodles, green tea and glutinous rice, and increase in consumption of Kimchi, seaweed, milk, coffee and pizza. These changes were attributed to rapid dietary acculturation. The frequencies of eating homemade food were significantly decreased after they came to Korea except for Thais. Thais showed the highest frequencies of eating homemade food daily among others. 28.2% of respondents said their health condition had deteriorated after living in South Korea due to difficulties to adapt Korean food, increased frequencies of eating instant food, and lacking exercises. By providing understanding of the dietary patterns of Southeast Asian workers, these results can be used for preliminary data to develop a program for their Korean food adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Tailored Intervention to Promote Breast Cancer Screening Among Immigrant Asian Women Residing in the U.S

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Tsu-Yin

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer in Asian American women. American women are more likely to receive a diagnosis in the advanced stages of the disease primarily because of late detection...

  9. Development of a Tailored Intervention to Promote Breast Cancer Screening among Immigrant Asian Women Residing in the US

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Tsu-Yin

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading diagnosed cancer in Asian American women. American women are more likely to receive a diagnosis in the advanced stages of the disease, primarily because of late detection...

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Macdonald, H M; Horton, K; Kang'ombe, A R; Berry, J L; Lanham-New, S A

    2013-02-01

    This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Serum 25(OH)D Asians in the winter (81 %) and autumn (79.2 %). Deficient status (below 50 nmol/L) was common in Caucasian women. Multi-level modelling suggested that, in comparison to sun exposure (1.59, 95 %CI = 0.83-2.35), dietary intake of vitamin D had no impact on 25(OH)D levels (-0.08, 95 %CI = -1.39 to 1.23). Year-round vitamin D deficiency was extremely common in South Asian women. These findings pose great health threats regarding the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and warrant urgent vitamin D public health policy and action.

  11. Resources predicting positive and negative affect during the experience of stress: a study of older Asian Indian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sadhna; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2004-10-01

    Using the life stress model of psychological well-being, in this study we examined risks and resources predicting the occurrence of both positive and negative affect among older Asian Indian immigrants who experienced stressful life events. We collected data through a telephone survey of 226 respondents (aged 50 years and older) in the Southeastern United States. We used hierarchical, negative binomial regression analyses to examine correlates of positive and negative affect. Different coping resources influenced positive and negative affect when stressful life events were controlled for. Being female was a common risk factor for poorer positive and increased negative affect. Satisfaction with friendships and a cultural or ethnic identity that is either bicultural or more American were predictive of greater positive affect. Greater religiosity and increased mastery were resources predicting less negative affect. Cognitive and structural interventions that increase opportunities for social integration, increasing mastery, and addressing spiritual concerns are discussed as ways of coping with stress to improve the well-being of individuals in this immigrant community.

  12. Using an opinion poll to build an obesity-prevention social marketing campaign for low-income Asian and Hispanic immigrants: report of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care access. Participants were selected by ethnic encoding from consumer databases. California's northern, southern, and Central Valley regions. Nine hundred and five adult Hispanic, Chinese, Vietnamese, Hmong, and Korean Californians from households Media usage, food stamp participation, health insurance, health problems, access and availability of fruits and vegetables (FVs) and physical activity, beliefs about overweight, and related regulation and policy change. Descriptive statistics and percentages for all questions. Latinos reported receiving most information from television; Hmong from radio. Hispanics, Koreans, and Vietnamese thought diabetes was the greatest health issue in California. Among Hmong, 83% thought FVs were too expensive, and 49% of Vietnamese thought good quality, affordable fresh FVs were too hard to find. Identifying characteristics and opinions that distinguish these ethnic immigrant populations better enables the Network for a Healthy California to develop culturally relevant social marketing campaigns and materials. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Initial Teacher Training: South Asian Approaches. Quality in Basic Education: Professional Development of Teachers. Papers Prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on Teacher Training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This publication is one of two prepared for a South Asian Colloquium on issues related to teacher training in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The papers in this volume focus on innovations and alternative strategies designed to improve quality in teacher education at preservice phase. The publication is in five sections. The first four…

  14. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Immigrant Men in South Mississippi: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Rehner, Tim; Castellanos, Diana Cuy

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in mental health among Latino immigrants in the United States, it is particularly salient to note that minimal or marginal attention has been paid to Mexican immigrant men settling in non-metro or rural areas outside of traditional settlement places. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with…

  15. Do stigma and its psychosocial impact differ between Asian-born Chinese immigrants and Western-born Caucasians with head and neck cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Sophie; Payne, Ada Y M; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary; Devins, Gerald M

    2016-07-01

    Stigma appears to influence emotional distress and well-being in cancer survivors, but cross-cultural differences have been ignored. Previous studies suggest that stigma may be especially relevant for survivors of Asian origin. However, their study designs (e.g. focused on female cancers, qualitative designs, and an absence of comparison groups) limit the strength of this conclusion. We hypothesized that (1) Asian-born Chinese immigrants (AI) would report more perceived cancer-related stigma than Western-born Caucasians (WBC); and (2) the impact of stigma on emotional distress and well-being would be greater in AI as compared to WBC. Head and neck cancer survivors (n = 118 AI and n = 404 WBC) completed measures of well-being, emotional distress, and a three-item indicator of stigma in structured interviews. The majority of respondents (59%) reported one or more indicators of stigma. Stigma correlated significantly with emotional distress (r = .13, p = .004) and well-being (r = -.09, p = .032). Contrary to our hypotheses, WBCs and AIs did not differ in reported stigma nor did we detect differences in its psychosocial impact. Stigma exerts a deleterious psychosocial impact on head and neck cancer survivors. It did not differ significantly between AI and WBC survivors.

  16. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  17. The mental health of married immigrant women in South Korea and its risk and protective factors: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeeun; Park, Subin

    2018-02-01

    Married immigrant women in South Korea undergo a wide array of psychosocial challenges in the process of adapting to a new culture and marriage with a Korean husband. For an integrative understanding of women's mental health status and to determine the key risk and protective factors, we systematically reviewed empirical articles about the mental health of married immigrant women. We searched and reviewed articles from nine online databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, DBpia, KISS, KMbase, KoreaMed and RISS, which were published up until January 2017. We identified 38 quantitative studies that examined psychiatric symptoms and pertinent factors for this population. The relative risks of psychiatric symptoms among married immigrant women varied across diverse samples. We summarized the associated factors existing prior to and after marriage migration that may moderate their mental health consequences. We identified five key risk factors: acculturative stress, country of origin, family stress, domestic violence and extended family structure, and two protective factors: social support and marriage satisfaction, which were consistently supported by the included studies. With the paucity of prospective studies, longitudinal research is needed that addresses the long-term processes of married immigrant women's psychological adaptation and the underlying risk and protective factors at diverse settlement phases. Furthermore, we suggest that future research should focus on how women's personal attributes interact with macro-level, socio-cultural contexts, including familial relationship and the community social-support system. Future evidence-based policy and interventions should comprehensively address married immigrant women's socio-cultural, economic and mental health needs.

  18. A Pilot Examination of a Mosque-Based Physical Activity Intervention for South Asian Muslim Women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananya Tina; Landry, Mireille; Zawi, Maha; Childerhose, Debbie; Stephens, Neil; Shafique, Ammara; Price, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Low levels of physical activity have been reported in South Asian Muslim women. Mosques could be beneficial in providing physical activity opportunities for Muslim women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a mosque-based physical activity program for South Asian Muslim women in Canada. Sixty-two South Asian Muslim women participated in a 24-week mosque-based exercise intervention. Feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of the program was evaluated by pre-post survey questions from the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire among 28 women who consented to the research data collection. Nineteen women were assessed pre-and post-intervention. The women demonstrated increase in median scores of self-efficacy (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.004) and the importance of engaging in regular physical activity (90 pre vs. 100 post; p = 0.01). Fewer participants were classified as inactive at the end of the intervention (42 % pre vs. 10 % post; p = 0.006). There was a mean increase in DASI scores (39.2 pre vs. 44.6 post; p = 0.06) reflecting an improvement in peak aerobic capacity and functional quality of life. Culturally relevant structured networks such as mosques are important assets when designing healthy lifestyle interventions for South Asian Muslim women.

  19. Factors that Enable Women of South Asian and African Descent to Succeed in Leadership Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamassah, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This research study focused on the factors that enable women of South Asian and African descent to succeed as leaders in the college system. The findings were derived from online questionnaires and in-depth interviews of 16 racialized women from two Greater Toronto Area (GTA) colleges. Many factors and recommendations were shared. Some of the…

  20. The effectiveness of structured exercise in the south Asian population with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Hani; Coulter, Elaine; Ghouri, Nazim; Paul, Lorna

    2017-11-01

    The impact of exercise interventions on south Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), who have a higher T2DM incidence rate compared to other ethnic groups, is inconclusive. This study aimed to systematically review the effect of exercise interventions in south Asians with T2DM. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2017 for controlled trials investigating the impact of exercise interventions on south Asian adults with T2DM. The PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Eighteen trials examining the effect of aerobic, resistance, balance or combined exercise programs met the eligibility criteria. All types of exercise were associated with improvements in glycemic control, blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, muscle strength, functional mobility, quality of life or neuropathy progression. The majority of included studies were of poor methodological quality. Few studies compared different types or dose of exercise. In conclusion, this review supports the benefits of exercise for south Asians with T2DM, although it was not possible to identify the most effective exercise prescription. Further studies of good methodological quality are required to determine the most effective dosage and type of exercise to manage T2DM in this population.

  1. Impulsive but fatal self-poisoning with pesticides among south asians in Nickerie, Suriname. An exploratory autopsy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spijker, B.A.J.; Graafsma, T.; Dullaart, H.I.A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intentional self-poisoning with pesticides is a serious problem in many developing countries. It is a commonly used method among South Asians all over the world. Aims: To describe the circumstances and characteristics of suicides in Nickerie, Suriname, in order to gain insight into why

  2. Body mass index and self-rated health in East Asian countries : Comparison among South Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Yang, Youngmi; Park, Jumin; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    There have been conflicting findings regarding the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and SRH by comparing its relationship in four East Asian countries: South Korea, China, Japan, and

  3. In Pursuit of the American Degree: Internationalization, National Security, and the Making of South Asian Foreign Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation examines how global neoliberal forces intersect with racialized state security practices to shape the transnational subjectivities of South Asian overseas students studying in the U.S. in the post-9/11 moment. These students' movement across national borders to pursue higher education in the United States positions them as ideal…

  4. Communication Challenges and Strategies of U.S. Health Professionals Caring for Seriously Ill South Asian Patients and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nidhi; Washington, Karla T; Shaunfield, Sara; Aslakson, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    While effective communication is important in the care of seriously ill patients, little is known about communication challenges faced by healthcare providers serving U.S. patients of South Asian origin, one of the fastest growing demographic groups in the United States. Researchers sought to examine communication challenges faced by healthcare providers serving seriously ill South Asian patients and their families and present strategies recommended by providers for effective communication. Researchers conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative data obtained through focus groups and individual interviews with 57 healthcare providers, including physicians, social workers, nurses, chaplains, and others drawn from different healthcare settings in one Midwestern city. While acknowledging the considerable diversity within the U.S. South Asian community, participants discussed three types of communication challenges they often encounter when serving this population: ensuring effective interpretation, identifying a spokesperson, and challenges posed by different cultural norms. Participants shared strategies to address these challenges such as proactively inquiring about patients' and families' preferences and encouraging early appointment of a spokesperson. While providers should avoid stereotyping patients, an awareness of common challenges and adoption of recommended strategies to address these challenges may enhance the provision of culturally responsive person-centered services for seriously ill South Asian patients and their families receiving care in the United States.

  5. Constructions of Battered Asian Indian Marriage Migrants: The Narratives of Domestic Violence Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Sonia; Zajicek, Anna

    2018-03-01

    How are the images of abused South Asian marriage migrants shaped by domestic violence advocates? We explore the social constructions of battered Asian Indian marriage migrants in the victim advocates' narratives. First, we find the narratives both reproduce and challenge the dominant stereotypes, utilizing some individualistic typifications while constructing these images with an understanding of the broader context of battered South Asian women's experiences. Second, depending on the issue (e.g., economic dependence or religion), the advocates paint either a multidimensional or a one-dimensional picture of their clients. We emphasize the need for further intersectional studies of the images of abused immigrants constructed by victim advocates.

  6. Prostate cancer risk profiles of Asian-American men: disentangling the effects of immigration status and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Sieh, Weiva; Chung, Benjamin I; Cheng, Iona; Brooks, James D

    2014-04-01

    Asian-American men with prostate cancer have been reported to present with higher grade and later stage disease than white American men. However, Asian-American men comprise a heterogeneous population with distinct health outcomes. We compared prostate cancer risk profiles among the diverse racial and ethnic groups in California. We used data from the California Cancer Registry on 90,845 nonHispanic white, nonHispanic black and Asian-American men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2010. Patients were categorized into low, intermediate and high risk groups based on clinical stage, Gleason score and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Using polytomous logistic regression we estimated adjusted ORs for the association of race/ethnicity and nativity with risk group. In addition to the nonHispanic black population, 6 Asian-American groups (United States born Chinese, foreign born Chinese, United States born Japanese, foreign born Japanese, foreign born Filipino and foreign born Vietnamese) were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile compared to nonHispanic white men. The OR for high vs intermediate risk disease ranged from 1.23 (95% CI 1.02-1.49) for United States born Japanese men to 1.45 (95% CI 1.31-1.60) for foreign born Filipino men. These associations appeared to be driven by higher grade and prostate specific antigen rather than by advanced clinical stage at diagnosis. In this large, ethnically diverse, population based cohort Asian-American men were more likely to have an unfavorable risk profile at diagnosis. This association varied by racial/ethnic group and nativity, and was not attributable to later stage at diagnosis. This suggests that Asian men may have biological differences that predispose to more severe disease. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intersectionality at Work: South Asian Muslim Women's Experiences of Employment and Leadership in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Memoona; Syed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The results show that although Muslim women continue to face a myriad of challenges in the workplace, they are also able to tackle some of these issues through their individual strategies and networks, such as personal networks and further education. The study highlights the need for policymakers and employers to consider intersectionality to enable ethnic minority women's inclusion and leadership within and outside the workplace.

  9. Equality for followers of South Asian religions in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Jo

    2013-06-01

    Significant minority populations confer richness and diversity to British society. Responsive end-of-life care is a universal need that has ascended the public agenda following myriad reports of inadequate provision. Nevertheless, the potential exists for unwitting discrimination when caring for terminally ill patients on the basis of their religion or faith. Recent implementation of the Equality Act 2010, together with the government and professional initiatives, promises to positively impact upon this area of contemporary relevance and concern, although the extent to which facilitative policies can truly enhance patient care will depend upon how these are translated into care at the bedside. The contributions of health professionals will be central in meeting the challenges and seizing the opportunities for meeting the religion and faith interests of patients of South Asian descent.

  10. Identifying Depression in South Asian Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: Considerations for Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a prevalent burden for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and one that is under-recognized and consequently under-treated. Although several studies have explored the association between depression symptoms, treatment adherence and outcomes in Euro-American patient groups, quantitative and qualitative exploration of these issues in patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds has been lacking. This review discusses the methodological issues associated with measuring depression in patients of South Asian origin who have a 3- to 5-fold greater risk of developing ESRD. There is a need to advance research into the development of accurate screening practices for this patient group, with an emphasis on studies utilizing rigorous approaches to evaluating the use of both emic (culture-specific and etic (universal or culture-general screening instruments.

  11. Factors Affecting Purchase Intention of South East Asian (SEA Young Adults towards Global Smartphone Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Zahid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to probe the effect of perceived price, perceived quality, brand awareness, and social influence on purchase intention of South East Asian (SEA Young Adults towards global smartphone brands. This explanatory research uses quantitative empirical data collected from 200 SEA Young Adults studying in one of the public universities in Malaysia. Stratified random sampling is used while ensuring fair representation of SEA countries, viz., Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 20.0. The study resulted in the finding that social influence has the highest level of linear relationship and so is the most influential factor among four. The findings provide guidelines to global smartphone brands for developing value proposition and better promotion mix for smartphones promotion.

  12. Clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: investigating differences in White and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Hamidreza; Davies, Melanie J; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Levy, Miles J; Gray, Laura J; Howlett, Trevor A; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-10-01

    To understand the phenotypic presentation of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of different ethnicities and at different ages. Cross-sectional, retrospective data analysis (1988 - 2009). Specialist clinic in a University Hospital, Leicestershire, UK. Women with PCOS, n = 1310 (mean age 26·2 years), 70·9% White and 29·1% South Asian (SA) attending a speciality clinic in Leicester UK. Clinical and demographic characteristics of women with PCOS including age at first clinic appointment, signs and symptoms, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP). Compared to White women, the SA were younger (24·3 vs 27·1 years, P women with PCOS appear to be significantly different depending on ethnicity, obesity and age. This has implications for management strategies in these groups. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.

  14. Efficacy and safety of atorvastatin in South Asian patients with dyslipidemia: an open label noncomparative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetesh V Patel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeetesh V Patel1, Sandeep Gupta2, Frank Lie3, Elizabeth A Hughes11Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, West Bromwich, UK; 2Whipps Cross and St Bartholomew’s Hospitals; and 3Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, UKBackground: Rates of coronary heart disease (CHD mortality are 40% higher amongst South Asian men and women living in the UK compared with the general UK population. Despite an established excess CHD risk, little is known of the efficacy and safety of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins amongst South Asian migrants.Methods and results: Hyperlipidemic South Asian patients (raised or uncontrolled lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] were recruited from two UK centers (n = 33. After a five-week period, which included dietary advice, patients received atorvastatin 10 mg/d for five weeks to achieve a target LDL-C goal of < 3.0 mmol/L, titrated to 20 mg, 40 mg, or 80 mg for a further 12 weeks as required. Significant reductions in LDL-C levels from baseline were observed after 4 weeks’ and 17 weeks’ treatment with atorvastatin (≥ 33.6%; 26.0, 41.2. Overall, 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.5, 92.6% achieved the target LDL-C after 4 weeks’ treatment with 10 mg atorvastatin. Titration to a dose of more than 20 mg was required in only one patient (40 mg at any point during the study. Nineteen patients reported at least one adverse event during the study; the majority were mild in severity and considered unrelated to atorvastatin.Conclusions: Atorvastatin was effective in achieving target lipid levels and was well tolerated. Statin therapy for high-risk South Asian individuals is likely to benefit CHD outcomes, although further and larger prospective trials are required.Keywords: hyperlipidemia, lipids, cholesterol, dyslipidemia, statins, coronary heart disease, South Asians

  15. Body mass index adjustments to increase the validity of body fatness assessment in UK Black African and South Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudda, M T; Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Fewtrell, M S; Haroun, D; Lum, S; Williams, J E; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Wells, J C K; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) (weight per height 2 ) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and Black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of Black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for White European children. We used data from four recent UK studies that made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of White European, South Asian and Black African origins. A height-standardized fat mass index (FMI) was derived to represent BF. Linear regression models were then fitted, separately for boys and girls, to quantify ethnic differences in BMI-FMI relationships and to provide ethnic-specific BMI adjustments. We restricted analyses to 4-12 year olds, to whom a single consistent FMI (fat mass per height 5 ) could be applied. BMI consistently underestimated BF in South Asians, requiring positive BMI adjustments of +1.12 kg m - 2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83, 1.41 kg m - 2 ; PAfricans, requiring negative BMI adjustments for Black African children. However, these were complex because there were statistically significant interactions between Black African ethnicity and FMI (P=0.004 boys; P=0.003 girls) and also between FMI and age group (PAfricans. Ethnic-specific adjustments, increasing BMI in South Asians and reducing BMI in Black Africans, can improve the accuracy of BF assessment in these children.

  16. Predicate Offences of Money Laundering and Anti Money Laundering Practices in Bangladesh Among South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Mohammad Saiful

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the main reasons of money laundering in Bangladesh among the twenty seven predicate offences of money laundering prescribed by Bangladesh Bank and position of Bangladesh among South Asian Countries regarding anti-money laundering practices. Besides, an anti-money laundering model has been developed to combat against money laundering as 14 percent bankers think that only existing know your customer form and transaction profile of banking sector are not enough to detect money laundering. To conduct the study, 91 bankers have been surveyed to take response through structured questionnaire regarding their opinion about the predicate offences of money laundering and sufficiency of existing KYC form of banking sector to detect money laundering. From the responses, factor analysis, test of hypothesis, correlation and regression analysis have been conducted using SPSS software. The study identifies that predicate offences of money laundering can be minimized mainly through scrutinizing the activities of local criminals with foreign network and strict anti-corruption measures through automation in National Board of Revenue, strict policy adoption of criminal detection and support from foreign experts. Besides, regression model shows that only six predicate offences of money laundering explains 87.2 percent of money laundering that should get more emphasize to combat against money laundering. From the comparative analysis, it has been found that Bangladesh in holding better position just after India among six South Asian Countries according to Basel AML Index score. This study provides a complete understanding of the position of Bangladesh in case of money laundering and anti-money laundering practices. The integration of four domains, i.e. AML model development, factor analysis, econometric analysis and comparative analysis of AML index will provide insights to managers and policy makers about the money laundering

  17. In vitro fertilization outcomes after fresh and frozen blastocyst transfer in South Asian compared with Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meera Sridhar; Caballes, Marissa; Lathi, Ruth Bunker; Baker, Valerie Lynn; Westphal, Lynn Marie; Milki, Amin A

    2016-06-01

    To study pregnancy outcomes between South Asian and Caucasian women undergoing frozen blastocyst transfer cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. Caucasian and South Asian patients undergoing frozen blastocyst transfer between January 2011 and December 2014. Not applicable. Live birth rate. A total of 196 Caucasian and 117 South Asian women were included in our study. Indians were on average 2.2 years younger than Caucasian women (34.9 vs. 37.1 years), and were more likely to be nulliparous (59% vs. 43%). All other baseline characteristics were similar. In women undergoing their first frozen ET cycle, implantation rate (49% vs. 47%), clinical pregnancy rate (PR; 54% vs. 49%), and live birth rate (43% vs. 43%) were similar between South Asians and Caucasians, respectively. In patients who underwent a prior fresh blastocyst transfer, the live birth rate was significantly lower in South Asian versus Caucasian women (21% vs. 37%). Our data demonstrate that IVF outcomes are better in frozen versus fresh cycles among South Asian women. The IVF clinics may wish to consider these findings when counseling South Asian patients about the timing of ET. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The international implications of the Chinese model of development in the Global South: Asian Consensus as a network power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vadell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes People's Republic of China (PRC economic and political ascendance in the 21st century focusing on the evolution of the sui generis economic development model and its significances of the evolution of relationship between China and the developing countries in the peripheral "Global South." The objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between China and the Global South (Africa and South America in the 21st century, characterized as a new Center-periphery global network power based on trade and investment that we call as "Asian Consensus."

  19. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  20. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  1. Depositor Discipline and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence From the South-East Asian Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kabir Hassan; M. Ershad Hussain

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether the risk-taking behavior of commercial banks in five countries of South-East Asia changed after the Asian Crises of 1997. The paper utilizes the framework created by Gruben et al (1997, 1998, and 2003). It also examines the connection between the risk-taking behavior and depositor discipline of these banks after the Asian Crises of 1997. Based on bank level data from the Bank Scope, 2005 CD, he paper presents evidence that the state of depositor discipline is very ...

  2. The 13th South-East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise selected, edited papers that were presented at the 13th SOUTH EAST ASIAN CONGRESS OF MEDICAL PHYSICS with the theme of “Improving the quality of human health through physics”, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 10-12 December 2015. It was hosted by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN Sunan Kalijaga), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and University of Indonesia (UI) in association with the South East Asia Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP). Yogyakarta was the ancient capital of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. It is famous for the UNESCO world heritage site of Borobudur temple. This temple was built in the 9 th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty. The temple was designed in the Javanese Buddhist architectural style. The monument was restored by the Indonesian government with UNESCO's help in 1975 and 1982. The congress attracted about 241 participants from 13 countries. Twelve invited speakers delivered nine plenary lectures as well as four pre-congress workshops. A total of 86 oral and 65 poster presentations were given. A variety of topics were discussed, ranging from the most advanced topics such as proton therapy, image-guided radiotherapy, functional MRI to the more conventional ones such as dose distribution, simulation, dosimetry, quality assurance, etc. In this proceedings papers are published under five categories, namely therapeutics, diagnostics, nuclear medicine, biomedical engineering and biophysics. (paper)

  3. Modeling biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions using a new, satellite constrained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R.; Cohen, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions, is a crucial contributor to the total local aerosol loading. Furthermore, the impact of the ITCZ, and Monsoonal circulation patterns coupled with complex topography also have a prominent impact on the aerosol loading throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. However, at the present time, biomass burning emissions are highly underestimated over this region, in part due to under-reported emissions in space and time, and in part due to an incomplete understanding of the physics and chemistry of the aerosols emitted in fires and formed downwind from them. Hence, a better understanding of the four-dimensional source distribution, plume rise, and in-situ processing, in particular in regions with significant quantities of urban air pollutants, is essential to advance our knowledge of this problem. This work uses a new modeling methodology based on the simultaneous constraints of measured AOD and some trace gasses over the region. The results of the 4-D constrained emissions are further expanded upon using different fire plume height rise and in-situ processing assumptions. Comparisons between the results and additional ground-based and remotely sensed measurements, including AERONET, CALIOP, and NOAA and other ground networks are included. The end results reveal a trio of insights into the nonlinear processes most-important to understand the impacts of biomass burning in this part of the world. Model-measurement comparisons are found to be consistent during the typical burning years of 2016. First, the model performs better under the new emissions representations, than it does using any of the standard hotspot based approaches currently employed by the community. Second, long range transport and mixing between the boundary layer and free troposphere contribute to the spatial-temporal variations. Third, we indicate some source regions that are new, either because of increased urbanization, or of

  4. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  5. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AK Lofters,1–4 M Vahabi,5 V Prakash,6 L Banerjee,7 P Bansal,8 S Goel,7,8 S Dunn1,2,9 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, 4Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St Michael’s Hospital, 5Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, 6Screening Saves Lives Program, Canadian Cancer Society, Mississauga, 7Wise Elephant Family Health Team, Brampton, 8Mississauga Halton Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, 9Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach.Materials and methods: Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months.Results: Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer to 44.6% (breast cancer of patients came in for screening

  6. The effect of prior walking on coronary heart disease risk markers in South Asian and European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Saravana Pillai; Deighton, Kevin; Bishop, Nicolette C; King, James; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Rogan, Alice; Sedgwick, Matthew; Thackray, Alice E; Webb, David; Stensel, David J

    2015-12-01

    Heart disease risk is elevated in South Asians possibly due to impaired postprandial metabolism. Running has been shown to induce greater reductions in postprandial lipaemia in South Asian than European men, but the effect of walking in South Asians is unknown. Fifteen South Asian and 14 white European men aged 19-30 years completed two, 2-day trials in a randomised crossover design. On day 1, participants rested (control) or walked for 60 min at approximately 50 % maximum oxygen uptake (exercise). On day 2, participants rested and consumed two high-fat meals over a 9-h period during which 14 venous blood samples were collected. South Asians exhibited higher postprandial triacylglycerol [geometric mean (95 % confidence interval) 2.29 (1.82 to 2.89) vs. 1.54 (1.21 to 1.96) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], glucose [5.49 (5.21 to 5.79) vs. 5.05 (4.78 to 5.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], insulin [32.9 (25.7 to 42.1) vs. 18.3 (14.2 to 23.7) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] and interleukin-6 [2.44 (1.61 to 3.67) vs. 1.04 (0.68 to 1.59) pg mL(-1) h(-1)] than Europeans (all ES ≥ 0.72, P ≤ 0.03). Between-group differences in triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin were not significant after controlling for age and percentage body fat. Walking reduced postprandial triacylglycerol [1.79 (1.52 to 2.12) vs. 1.97 (1.67 to 2.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)] and insulin [21.0 (17.0 to 26.0) vs. 28.7 (23.2 to 35.4) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] (all ES ≥ 0.23. P ≤ 0.01), but group differences were not significant. Healthy South Asians exhibited impaired postprandial metabolism compared with white Europeans, but these differences were diminished after controlling for potential confounders. The small-moderate reduction in postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin after brisk walking was not different between the ethnicities.

  7. Implications of global climate change on water resources of the south Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.

    1994-01-01

    An assessment of future changes in the mean and/or variances of hydrological parameters due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases is much warranted for south Asia for developing adaptive response strategies. The evolution of changes in surface meteorological as well as hydrological parameters in the transient numerical experiments with the current state-of-art coupled climate models holds much promise for a better understanding of the interannual variability of climate and its change on a regional scale. A plausible future hydrological scenario for the south Asian region based on the numerical results obtained from the reference control and greenhouse warming simulations (using the Business-as-Usual scenario of CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere) with the Hamburg climate model is presented in this paper. For validation of regional-scale model-simulated hydrology and the assessment of future changes, analysis of data has been performed for annual mean conditions as well as for two seasons, namely, winter (December to February) and summer (June to August). Their results suggest a rise in annual mean surface air temperature of about 1.0 to 2.5 C over the ocean and between 2.0 to 4.5 C over the land regions of south Asia during the next hundred years. During the NH-winter, surface warming in the land regions of India and China is considerably higher (3.6 C) than during the NH-summer (2.7 C). The model simulates an increase in total (averaged for land points over the study area) annual precipitation of about 16 cm per year in a warmer atmosphere

  8. Exploring the health visiting service from the view of South Asian clients in England: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Lena; Stenner, Karen; Vydelingum, Vasso

    2016-09-01

    The fact that health inequalities disproportionately affect the minority ethnic population is not new and projections are that the minority ethnic population will continue to increase. The importance of early intervention and the key role that health visitors can play in attempting to reduce health inequalities is well documented as is the requirement for health providers to establish culturally sensitive services. To date, much of the research has focused on the perspectives of healthcare professionals caring for minority ethnic clients in hospital-based settings and little is known about the perspectives of minority ethnic clients regarding the health visiting service (HVS). The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of South Asians regarding their experiences with the HVS. The study was conducted in a small town in the South of England between March and June 2013. A qualitative study using a grounded theory approach was used to capture the perspectives of this group regarding their interactions with the HVS. The sample consisted of 15 participants and data were collected through audio-recorded semi-structured interviews and analysed using constant comparative approach. Three key categories were identified: 'understanding the health visitor's role', 'sensitivity of services' and 'the significance of family'. While clients valued one-to-one support from health visitors, there was some evidence of poor communication and ethnocentric tendencies within the service. It was found that South Asian clients distinguish between health and parenting advice, being more likely to accept health advice from their health visitor and more likely to accept parenting advice from their family. The findings, although limited in their generalisability, offer important insights into how South Asians perceive the service and will equip health visitors with a better understanding of how best to improve the experience of South Asian clients accessing the health visiting.

  9. Immigrant to Canada, newcomer to childhood cancer: a qualitative study of challenges faced by immigrant parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Banerjee, Ananya T; Sung, Lillian; Klaassen, Robert J; Dix, David; Poureslami, Iraj M; Shaw, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    Given the increasing numbers of immigrant families in Canada, it is imperative that healthcare providers (HCPs) understand the caregiving experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our study aimed to explore any special challenges faced by immigrant parents of children with cancer and to identify supportive factors. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used. Participants included 50 first generation Chinese and South Asian parents of children with cancer who were at least six months post-diagnosis. Recruitment took place at six Canadian pediatric oncology centres. Interviews were conducted in English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Urdu, Punjabi or Hindi. Analysis involved coding and the use of the constant comparison method. Interviewing continued until no new themes emerged. While immigrant parents described many challenges faced by any parent of a child with cancer, the context of being an immigrant made certain experiences particularly challenging. Parents described challenges in the following areas: managing caregiving demand and financial strain, accessing support from others, and interfacing with the healthcare system. Parents described receiving a range of practical, emotional, social and informational support from extended family, their workplace, other cancer families, community organizations and HCPs. Our study addresses an important gap in the research literature by providing practical insight into the experiences of immigrant family caregivers. Our findings may help to inform the development of pediatric oncology policies and programs in ways that respond to the unique needs and challenges of culturally and linguistically diverse families. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Dietary Transition in the South Asian Diaspora: Implications for Diabetes Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parackal, Sherly

    2017-01-01

    South Asians (SA) have a four to five fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison to other Asian migrant groups. Dietary patterns have been attributed as an important independent modifiable risk factor. The aim of this review is to document the dietary patterns of SA migrants in Western countries and to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary patterns with T2DM and its predisposing factors. Using key search words articles from 1990 onwards were sourced from MEDLINE Pro- Quest and PubMed (not MEDLINE) databases for this narrative review. A significant shift in meal pattern with frequent dining out and eating fast foods, traditional festival foods and Western desserts and snacks was common among SA. Consumption of potatoes, dairy, oil, meat and fish increased and beans, lentils, fruits and vegetables decreased post-migration. "Animal protein" and "fried snacks, sweets and high-fat dairy" were associated with greater insulin resistance and lower HDL cholesterol. A "mixed" dietary pattern was associated with obesity and hypertension and a "western" dietary pattern was associated with overall risk for Metabolic Syndrome. A 70% increase in the odds of diabetes per standard deviation in gram of protein intake was also observed. Dietary patterns pave the way to develop diabetes and other obesity related diseases among SA as duration of residence increases. The first five years since migration maybe a window of opportunity to provide targeted interventions to ensure maintenance of healthy dietary habits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  12. Progress Toward Universal Health Coverage: A Comparative Analysis in 5 South Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Karan, Anup; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Parsons, Alexander; Abe, Sarah Krull; Bilano, Ver; Awan, Rabia; Gilmour, Stuart; Shibuya, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Achieving universal health coverage is one of the key targets in the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. To investigate progress toward universal health coverage in 5 South Asian countries and assess inequalities in health services and financial risk protection indicators. In a population-based study, nationally representative household (335 373 households) survey data from Afghanistan (2014 and 2015), Bangladesh (2010 and 2014), India (2012 and 2014), Nepal (2014 and 2015), and Pakistan (2014) were used to calculate relative indices of health coverage, financial risk protection, and inequality in coverage among wealth quintiles. The study was conducted from June 2012 to February 2016. Three dimensions of universal health coverage were assessed: access to basic services, financial risk protection, and equity. Composite and indicator-specific coverage rates, stratified by wealth quintiles, were then estimated. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to assess inequalities in service and financial indicators. Access to basic care varied substantially across all South Asian countries, with mean rates of overall prevention coverage and treatment coverage of 53.0% (95% CI, 42.2%-63.6%) and 51.2% (95% CI, 45.2%-57.1%) in Afghanistan, 76.5% (95% CI, 61.0%-89.0%) and 44.8% (95% CI, 37.1%-52.5%) in Bangladesh, 74.2% (95% CI, 57.0%-88.1%) and 83.5% (95% CI, 54.4%-99.1%) in India, 76.8% (95% CI, 66.5%-85.7%) and 57.8% (95% CI, 50.1%-65.4%) in Nepal, and 69.8% (95% CI, 58.3%-80.2%) and 50.4% (95% CI, 37.1%-63.6%) in Pakistan. Financial risk protection was generally low, with 15.3% (95% CI, 14.7%-16.0%) of respondents in Afghanistan, 15.8% (95% CI, 14.9%-16.8%) in Bangladesh, 17.9% (95% CI, 17.7%-18.2%) in India, 11.8% (95% CI, 11.8%-11.9%) in Nepal, and 4.4% (95% CI, 4.0%-4.9%) in Pakistan reporting incurred catastrophic payments due to health care costs. Access to at least 4 antenatal care visits, institutional delivery, and presence

  13. South Asian women with diabetes: Psychosocial challenges and management: Consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sarita; Jawad, Fatema; Islam, Najmul; Mahtab, Hajera; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Shrestha, Dina; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Muthukuda, Dimuthu T; Widanage, Niranjala Weegoda; Aye, Than Than; Aung, Moe Wint; Kalra, Bharti; Anjana, R M; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Verma, Komal

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death. Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier. There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect of sexual issues

  14. South Asian women with diabetes: Psychosocial challenges and management: Consensus statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Bajaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death.Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier.There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect

  15. South Asian women with diabetes: Psychosocial challenges and management: Consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sarita; Jawad, Fatema; Islam, Najmul; Mahtab, Hajera; Bhattarai, Jyoti; Shrestha, Dina; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Muthukuda, Dimuthu T.; Widanage, Niranjala Weegoda; Aye, Than Than; Aung, Moe Wint; Kalra, Bharti; Anjana, R. M.; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Verma, Komal

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is the ninth leading cause of death in women globally. In South Asians mortality in women with diabetes stands second highest. There is a marked gender discrimination which is faced by women across South Asia esp in access to services and support for diabetes, resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality in women with diabetes. The most important risk factor identified for the diabetes epidemic is obesity along with genetic susceptibility. Lack of health care, social and cultural disparity, discrimination at work, disparity in marriage, restricted medical facilities are prevalent. Diabetes and depression are common in women. Increasing age, low level of education, low socioeconomic conditions, difficulties posed in finding partners, frequent divorce and family history of psychiatric illness are significant risk factors for diabetes and depression. Such patients usually have poor metabolic control, higher complication rates, increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, lower quality of life as well as increased risk of death. Preconception counseling should be incorporated in the routine diabetes clinic visit for all women of childbearing potential. Women with diabetes should have information and access to contraception. Proper family planning counseling and psychological support can help stop practices such as female foeticide and multiple pregnancies. Psychological support to patients and their families are needed to break the barrier. There is emerging evidence that women with diabetes are more prone to untoward outcomes as compared to men. Central obesity, metabolic syndrome and the polycystic ovary syndrome show ethnic specific differences in South Asian women. Optimal sexuality is an integral part of holistic health. Shortage of trained female health care professionals, lack of privacy in over-crowded health care facilities, a social taboo attached to such matters, and lack of confidence in patients contribute to the neglect of sexual issues

  16. An Evaluation of Subseasonal Intensity Variation of the South Asian High in the CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, W.; Ren, X.

    2017-12-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) is a vital member among the Asian summer monsoon circulations in the upper troposphere located over the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas during boreal summer. This study presents an evaluation of the characteristics of SAH's subseasonal intensity variation simulated by 18 coupled models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is used on subseasonal anomalies in 100hPa geopotential height over 20°-40°N, 35°-110°E for June, July and August from 1979 to 2005. The first EOF mode from the ERA-Interim (denoted as observation) shows a monopole pattern capturing the strengthening/weakening of SAH. The power spectrum analysis of the corresponding principal component (PC1) time series shows a period about 10-30 days. In general, all the 18 coupled models can reproduce the monopole pattern and its subseasonal oscillation to a certain extent. The four well-simulated models are: ACCESS1-3, HadGEM2-CC, MRI-CGCM3 and BNU-ESM, which EOF1 show strong positive anomalies in the 100hPa geopotential height over the SAH's region and weak negative anomalies in their north side. Lead-lag regression shows that the evolution of the EOF1 from day -12 to +3 in the above four models is also reasonably simulated. In the observation, positive rainfall band moves northward from the equatorial Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengals and the Western North Pacific to the north of Indian Peninsula, south of Tibetan Plateau and Southeast China, accompanied by the increasing intensity of SAH. In the above four models, the northward movement of anomalous rainfall band can be well reproduced. In the observation, the spatial pattern of anomalies in integrated apparent heat source and integrated apparent moisture sink resemble that of rainfall, thus corresponding to anomalous condensation heat release. The anomalous heating stimulates positive height anomalies with an anomalous anticyclonic circulation to its

  17. Weapons of the (Not So) Weak: Immigrant Mass Mobilization in the US South

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda-Millán, C

    2016-01-01

    © 2014, © The Author(s) 2014. Survey research shows that foreign-born Latinos in the USA are among the least likely to participate in political activism. Yet during the spring of 2006, up to five million (mostly Latino) immigrants and their allies took part in a historic national protest wave. This article examines how nativist legislation can spark immigrant large-scale collective action in an unexpected location. The case of Fort Myers, FL illustrates the cognitive mechanisms that help expl...

  18. Illness beliefs and the sociocultural context of diabetes self-management in British South Asians: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neesha R; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Bundy, Christine; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David

    2015-05-10

    British South Asians have a higher incidence of diabetes and poorer health outcomes compared to the general UK population. Beliefs about diabetes are known to play an important role in self-management, yet little is known about the sociocultural context in shaping beliefs. This study aimed to explore the influence of sociocultural context on illness beliefs and diabetes self-management in British South Asians. A mixed methods approach was used. 67 participants recruited using random and purposive sampling, completed a questionnaire measuring illness beliefs, fatalism, health outcomes and demographics; 37 participants completed a social network survey interview and semi-structured interviews. Results were analysed using SPSS and thematic analysis. Quantitative data found certain social network characteristics (emotional and illness work) were related to perceived concern, emotional distress and health outcomes (p work remained a significant predictor of perceived concern and emotional distress related to diabetes (p culturally appropriate interventions to modify beliefs and support self-management in this population.

  19. Teasing, acculturation, and cultural conflict: psychosocial correlates of body image and eating attitudes among South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sheethal D; Crowther, Janis H

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined sociocultural correlates of body dissatisfaction and maladaptive eating attitudes among 74 South Asian American women. Participants completed measures assessing three forms of teasing--general appearance, weight/shape, and ethnic--as well as thin-ideal internalization, acculturation, cultural conflict, body dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes. Results indicated that all three types of teasing and cultural conflict were significantly related to body dissatisfaction and maladaptive eating attitudes. Cultural conflict was found to mediate the relationship between ethnic teasing and body dissatisfaction. Neither thin-ideal internalization nor acculturation was significantly associated with either body dissatisfaction or maladaptive eating attitudes. However, body dissatisfaction was found to mediate the relationship between weight/shape teasing and maladaptive eating attitudes. Implications of these findings and possible future directions for research on South Asian American women are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing the Relationship Adjustment of South Asian Canadian Couples Using a Systemic-Constructivist Approach to Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saunia; Reid, David W

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) in improving the relationship adjustment of South Asian Canadian couples in ways that attend to their culture was evaluated. The SCCT interventions engage partners in reflexive processing of both their own and their partner's ways of construing, and the reciprocity between these two. A core change mechanism of SCCT, couple identity ("we-ness"), that connotes the ability for thinking and experiencing relationally, was coded from verbatim transcripts of partners' within-session dialogue. As predicted, South Asian partners' relationship adjustment improved significantly from the first to final session of SCCT, and concurrent increases in each partner's couple identity mediated such improvements. The implications for considering culture and couple identity in couple therapy are discussed. Video Abstract is found in the online version of the article. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. BMI-for-age in South Asian children of 0-20 years in the Netherlands: secular changes and misclassification by WHO growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, J A; Dekker, M; Middelkoop, B J C

    2018-03-01

    South Asians are prone to cardiometabolic disease at lower BMI levels than most other ethnic groups, starting in childhood. The magnitude of BMI misclassifications is unknown. To compare the BMI distribution of contemporary South Asian 0-20 year olds in the Netherlands with: (1) The South Asian norm reference (secular trends); and (2) The WHO child growth standard and reference. The BMI-for-age distribution of 6677 routine measurements of 3322 South Asian children, aged 0-20 years, was described with the LMS method and BMI z-scores. The BMI distribution in South Asian 0-4 year olds was almost similar to the norm reference (mean BMI z-score = 0.11, skewness = 0.31, SD = 1.0), whereas in 5-19 year olds the distribution had shifted upwards (mean = 0.53) and widened (skewness = -0.12, SD = 1.08). Overweight (incl. obesity) and obesity peaked at 8-10 years, at 45-48% and 35-37%, respectively. Relative to the WHO references, the BMI distribution was left-shifted at ages 0-4 years (mean BMI z-score = -0.46, skewness = 0.23, SD = 0.98) and widened at ages 5-20 years (mean = 0.05; skewness = -0.02, SD = 1.40). At most ages, thinness rates were significantly higher and obesity rates lower than based on South Asian norms. A secular change of BMI-for-age in South Asian children mostly affected children >4 years. WHO references likely under-estimate overweight and obesity rates in South Asian children.

  2. Understanding adherence-related beliefs about medicine amongst patients of South Asian origin with diabetes and cardiovascular disease patients: a qualitative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kanta; Greenfield, Sheila; Raza, Karim; Gill, Paramjit; Stack, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular (CVD) disease amongst UK South Asians is higher than in\\ud the general population. Non-adherence to medicines may lead to poor clinical outcomes for South Asian patients\\ud with diabetes and CVD. To understand the decision making processes associated with taking medicines, a qualitative systematic meta-synthesis exploring medicine taking behaviours, and beliefs was undertaken.\\ud \\ud Methods: Four databases (Medline, Embase, Science Citati...

  3. Dietary intake and factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight and obese South Asian men living in the United Kingdom:a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Emadian, Amir; England, Clare; Thompson, Janice L

    2017-01-01

    Objective:It is widely recognised that South Asian men living in the UK are more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) than their white British counterparts. Despite this, limited data have been published quantifying current dietary intake patterns and qualitatively exploring eating behaviours in this population. The objectives of this study were to: 1) assess diet; 2) explore perceptions of T2DM; 3) investigate factors influencing eating behaviours in overweight/obese South Asian...

  4. Cultural negotiations in health and illness: The experience of adult onset diabetes among Gujarati South Asians in England.

    OpenAIRE

    Keval, Harshad C.

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes has become a global health problem, with both physical and psycho-social impacts on people's lives. The South Asian communities in the UK have been identified as 'high risk' groups with high rates of type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes. This thesis explores the experiences of type 2 diabetes among a group of Hindu Gujaratis in several locations in England. Purposive and snowball sampling was used to recruit participants and a grounded theory framework was utilised to generate and...

  5. The South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study to improve cardiovascular risk factors in a community setting: Design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kandula, Namratha R.; Patel, Yasin; Dave, Swapna; Seguil, Paola; Kumar, Santosh; Baker, David W.; Spring, Bonnie; Siddique, Juned

    2013-01-01

    Disseminating and implementing evidence-based, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention lifestyle interventions in community settings and in ethnic minority populations is a challenge. We describe the design and methods for the South Asian heart lifestyle intervention (SAHELI) study, a pilot study designed to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a culturally-targeted, community-based lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet behaviors among medically underserved...

  6. Social Identity Integration, Parental Response, and Psychological Outcomes among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore, Saanjh Aakash

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to understand how social identities are integrated across domains of identity. Focusing on a population in which cultural norms dictate sexuality behaviors as a condition of ethnic membership, the study examines how South Asian LGBQ Americans integrate their ethnic and sexual orientation identities, and also examines the role of this dual social identity integration in the relationship between the distal stress of parental responses to LGBQ identity, the proximal str...

  7. Kebijakan Pemerintah Bhutan Dalam Pemberdayaan Sektor Pariwisata Untuk Memasuki Safta (South Asian Free Trade Area) Tahun 2002-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Azela, Rizki; ", Pazli

    2014-01-01

    This research describes the Government Policies In Empowerment Bhutan TourismSector to Enter SAFTA (South Asian Free Trade Area) 2002-2007. Bhutan's tourism industrybegan in 1974 It was introduced with the main objective to increase revenue, especiallyforeign exchange and publish unique culture and traditions of the country to the outsideworld, and contribute to socio-economic development of the country. In the tourism sector,tourism policy of Bhutan also developed in accordance with the prin...

  8. What would encourage help-seeking for memory problems among UK-based South Asians? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadam, Naaheed; Waugh, Amy; Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill

    2015-09-11

    People from Minority Ethnic groups tend to present late to dementia services, often in crisis. Culture-specific barriers to help-seeking seem to underlie this. We sought to determine these barriers to timely help-seeking for dementia among people from South Asian backgrounds and what the features of an intervention to overcome them would be. Qualitative study to delineate barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking for South Asian adults with dementia through focus groups and individual interviews. Community settings in and around Greater London. To achieve a maximum variation sample, we purposively recruited 53 English or Bengali speaking South Asian adults without a known diagnosis of dementia through community centres and snowballing. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 83 years, were mostly female and were 60% Bangladeshi. We recruited people from different religions and occupational backgrounds and included those with experience of caring for someone with dementia as well as those without this experience. Participants identified four main barriers to timely diagnosis: barriers to help-seeking for memory problems; the threshold for seeking help for memory problems; ways to overcome barriers to help-seeking; what features an educational resource should have. We have identified the features of an intervention with the potential to improve timely dementia diagnosis in South Asians. The next steps are to devise and test such an intervention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. A black feminist exploration of the cultural experiences and identities of academically ‘successful’ British South-Asian girls

    OpenAIRE

    Ludhra, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This study draws on a black feminist theoretical perspective, to develop an understanding of the cultural identities and experiences of twelve, academically 'successful', British South-Asian girls. The girls are aged between 16-18 years, and from Hindu, Sikh and Muslim religious backgrounds, selected across two West London secondary schools. A narrative interview approach is used to...

  10. How to offer culturally relevant type 2 diabetes screening: lessons learned from the South asian diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Draanen, Jenna; Shafique, Ammara; Farissi, Aziz; Wickramanayake, Dilani; Kuttaiya, Sheela; Oza, Shobha; Stephens, Neil

    2014-10-01

    The literature on diabetes mellitus in the South Asian population clearly states the high-risk status of this group, yet there is a lack of effective models of culturally relevant, community-based screening and education programs for such a group. The South Asian Diabetes Prevention Program (SADPP) was developed to enhance equitable access to diabetes prevention resources for the South Asian communities in Toronto by offering language-specific and culturally relevant services. The SADPP model works through 3 participant education sessions plus an additional attachment and enrolment component. The screening tool that SADPP uses to provide participants with their individual risk score at the first education session is derived from the multiculturally validated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK), which has been modified to reflect the distinctive characteristics of the South Asian population. After analyzing the risk scores, 32% of participants were at increased risk, 40% were at high risk, 21% were at very high risk and only 7% were found to be at low risk of diabetes development. Evaluations of the program conducted in 2010 and 2013 revealed that the program is achieving its objectives and that participants increase their knowledge and self-efficacy related to diabetes prevention after program participation. Participants reported that the presentation from the nurse and dietitian, the question-and-answer time, the healthy eating demonstration, the multiple languages of delivery and the convenient location were especially beneficial. Those working in the field are encouraged to adapt this model and to contribute to the development of culturally relevant, community-driven diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Supporting South Asian carers and those they care for: the role of the primary health care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katbamna, Savita; Bhakta, Padma; Ahmad, Waqar; Baker, Richard; Parker, Gillian

    2002-04-01

    Demographic and socioeconomic changes have increased policy interest in informal carers. However, despite the multicultural nature of British society, most research in this field has been in majority communities. To explore the role of the primary health care team (PHCT) in supporting carers from British South Asian communities. Qualitative study. Four South Asian communities in Leicestershire and West Yorkshire. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were used to assess male and female carers, supported by a literature review. Failure to recognise carers' needs, gaps in service provision, and communication and language issues compromised carers' ability to care. While some carers were positive about the PHCT role, the main weaknesses concerned poor consultation, PHCT attitudes towards carers, and access to appropriate services. South Asian carers' experiences largely parallel those of others, but there are some issues that are distinct, namely, language and communication barriers, culturally inappropriate services, and implicit or explicit racism. The multi-ethnic nature of Great Britain requires that professional practice enhances the ability of minority ethnic communities to provide informal care. The findings underline the important role of the PHCT in ensuring that carers' needs are taken seriously and that appropriate services reach them.

  12. Gender-Associated Perceptions of Barriers and Motivators to Physical Activity Participation in South Asian Punjabis Living in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Chau, Shirley; Walker, Gordon J; Mummery, W Kerry; Jennings, Cally

    2015-05-01

    Gender is a sociocultural factor known to impact the physical activity (PA) behaviors of South Asians. The purpose of this research was to examine gender-associated perceptions of barriers and motivators for PA in a South Asian population living Canada. A random sample (N = 204) of South Asian Punjabi adults (18yrs+) completed a computer assisted telephone interview concerning their perceptions to PA participation. Content analysis was used to identify relevant main themes and chi-square analysis was used to calculate gender differences. Results indicated that women more often reported a lack of time due to work and family (χ2 = 7.284, df = 1, P = .007) and a lack of motivation (χ2 = 4.982, df = 1, P = .026), yet men more often reported climate (χ2 = 7.045, df = 1, P = .008) as a barrier. Regarding motivators, men more often reported prevention and reduction of disease (χ2 = 4.451, df = 1, P = .034) and watching others perform (χ2 = 10.827, df = 1, P = .001); however, reducing weight gain (χ2 = 4.806, df = 1, P = .028) and looking like others (χ2 = 4.730, df = 1, P = .029) were reported more often by women. Gender-associated differences concerning PA are present in this population and must be considered in the design and implementation of effective interventions.

  13. Role of Islamic religious and cultural beliefs regarding intellectual impairment and service use: a South Asian parental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur-Bola, Kulwinder; Randhawa, Gurch

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that some South Asian families from Muslim backgrounds may use fewer additional support services for their severely impaired children compared to other non-Muslim families. Often this has been attributed to socioeconomic factors and stereotypical views such as "the family's faith prohibits the use of specific services". This paper focuses on clarifying what Islam purports to say about impairment and considers how cultural influences may inadvertently influence some South Asian parents' decisions to use services for their severely impaired children. This work aims to improve professional-parent/patient communication by enhancing better understanding of Islam on impairment, and supporting non-Muslim professionals to appreciate the differences between Islamic religion and general South Asian cultural beliefs regarding disability. Fourteen parents from ten Pakistani and Bangladeshi families took part in semi-structured open-ended interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyse the data. The emerging theory suggested most first generation Muslim families from rural villages were unable to distinguish between Islamic religious and cultural beliefs on impairment, and risked missing out on essential services due to poor professional-parent/patient communication.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of the Corneal and Anterior Chamber Parameters Derived From Scheimpflug Imaging in Arab and South Asian Normal Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv; Avadhani, Kavitha; Thirumalai, Sandeep M; Choudhuri, Sounak

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the differences in the normal corneal and anterior segment Scheimpflug parameters in Arab and South Asian eyes. This hospital-based study was performed at a cornea and refractive surgery service in Abu Dhabi. A total of 600 consecutive normal candidates of South Asian (group 1, n = 300) and Arab (group 2, n = 300) origins underwent Scheimpflug imaging (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Italy). One eye was randomly selected for evaluation. The age and sex distributions in both groups were comparable. The pachymetric variables were statistically higher in group 2 (group 2 vs. group 1, 544.3 ± 32.2 μm vs. 535.1 ± 31.4 μm for central corneal thickness, 541.0 ± 32.6 μm vs. 531.9 ± 31.5 μm for minimum corneal thickness, 571.7 ± 43.2 μm vs. 558.1 ± 42.3 μm for apical thickness, and 58.1 ± 4.2 vs. 57.3 ± 4.3 mm³ for the corneal volume; P Arab ethnicity tend to have statistically thicker and flatter corneas and less-crowded anterior segments than those of the South Asian counterparts. These epidemiological differences have a mild to moderate biological effect size (Cohen d), but they should be considered when evaluating these eyes for anterior segment or corneal procedures.

  15. Vitamin D status and attitudes towards sun exposure in South Asian women living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hurst, Pamela R; Stonehouse, Welma; Coad, Jane

    2010-04-01

    To determine the vitamin D status of women of South Asian origin living in Auckland, New Zealand, and to investigate their attitudes and behaviours with regard to sun exposure. Cross-sectional study. Auckland, New Zealand. Women of South Asian origin (n 235) aged 20 years and older were tested for serum 25(OH)D, and 228 were included in these analyses. Of these, 140 completed a questionnaire about attitudes and behaviours to sun exposure, and health motivation. Exclusion criteria included high dose (>1000 IU/d) supplementation with 25(OH)D3, or any supplementation with 1,25(OH)2D3. As serum vitamin D concentrations were not normally distributed, data are reported as median (25th, 75th percentile). Median serum 25(OH)D3 was 27.5 (18.0, 41.0) nmol/l. Adequate concentrations (>50 nmol/l) were observed in only 16 % of the subjects. Concern about skin cancer and the strength of the New Zealand sun were the most prevalent reasons given for sun avoidance, with 65 % saying they did avoid the sun. However, a seasonal variation was observed, with concentrations reducing significantly (P < 0.001) from summer through to early spring by 19.5 nmol/l. The results of the present study suggest that South Asian women are at high risk of hypovitaminosis D, due, in part, to deliberate sun avoidance and an indoor lifestyle, and that they are especially vulnerable in winter and spring.

  16. Perceived Benefits, Facilitators, Disadvantages, and Barriers for Physical Activity Amongst South Asian Adolescents in India and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Divya; Correa, Natasha; Punthakee, Zubin; Lear, Scott A; Jayachitra, Krishnaswamy G; Vaz, Mario; Swaminathan, Sumathi

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand perceived benefits, facilitators, disadvantages, and barriers for physical activity among South Asian adolescents in India and Canada. Thirteen focus group discussions with South Asian (origin) adolescent boys and girls of different nutritional status and socioeconomic status in rural and urban India and urban Canada. Across the groups, fitness and 'energy' were perceived to be major benefits of physical activity. In India, better academic performance was highlighted, while health benefits were well detailed in Canadian groups. In all settings, friends, family, and teachers were perceived as facilitators of as well as barriers to physical activity. Lack of a safe space to play was a major concern for urban adolescents, while academic pressures and preference for other sedentary recreational activities were common barriers across all groups. Girls were less likely than boys to be interested in physical activity, with girls' participation in India further limited by societal restrictions. The study suggests key areas for promotion of physical activity among South Asian adolescents: balance between academic pressure and opportunities for physical activity, especially in India; urban planning for a built environment conducive to physical activity; and gender-sensitive programming to promote girls' activity which also addresses culture-specific barriers.

  17. Let him not be alone: perspectives of older British South Asian minority ethnic patients on dying in acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasalu, Munikumar Ramasamy

    2017-09-02

    To investigate older British South Asians' views on dying at acute hospitals. Older people, including those from ethnic minorities prefer 'home as a haven' for their last days of life; however, they are more likely to die in hospital. Constructive grounded theory was used as a methodological approach that informed data collection to data analysis. Open meetings with 11 local South Asian community organisations enabled the researchers to recruit a total of 55 older South Asians in this study. Data were collected using gender-based focus groups (n=5) and in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n=29). Transcripts were analysed using Nvivo 9. Three key themes were identified: 'mistrust', 'let him not be alone' and 'family as a protective shield'. The theme 'mistrust' is explored through examination of beliefs, attitudes and expectations about 'hospital' as a place in the care of the dying. The theme of 'let him not be alone' draws the family's preferences and concerns in relation to leaving their older dying relative alone in the hospital. The final theme of 'family as a protective shield' describes the element of family care as a protective shield for their older one to have peaceful end-of-life care moments in the hospital. Allowing older relatives to die in hospital seems to evoke feelings of missed filial responsibilities and guilt among family carers among older ethnic minorities. The presence of cultural paranoia and mistrust often led minorities to experience sub-standard end-of-life care in acute hospitals.

  18. A qualitative review of immigrant women's experiences of maternal adaptation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Eun; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Tiffany; Roh, Eun Ha

    2016-08-01

    to synthesise the evidence of immigrant women's experiences of maternal adaptation in Korea. eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Korean electronic databases. Qualitative research studies, published in English and Korean addressing maternal adaptation experiences of immigrant women by marriage in Korea, were considered in the review. The suitability of the quality of articles was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklist. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for data analysis. Authors, purpose of the study, study design, theoretical framework, population (nationality and sample size), data collection (setting and method), and main study findings were extracted and summarised in a data extraction form for further narrative analysis and synthesis. A qualitative systematic review was performed by means of thematic synthesis. the literature search identified 7,628 articles, of which 15 studies, published between 2009 and 2014, were evaluated in the systematic review. Two overarching categories including five themes were identified in the qualitative studies related to maternal adaptation experiences; 'Experiences of motherhood transition' and 'Experiences of child-rearing'. these findings demonstrate the importance of understanding and improving maternal adaptation of immigrant women living in Korea. This can be achieved by enhancing social support, providing culturally sensitive maternal healthcare services, and expanding opportunities for immigrant women in education, job training, and economic independence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  20. Impacts of the East Asian monsoon on lower tropospheric ozone over coastal South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Derong; Ding, Aijun; Mao, Huiting; Fu, Congbin; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jane; Wang, Tao; Chan, L Y; Lu, An; Hao, Nan

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) on climatology and interannual variability of tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) over the coastal South China was investigated by analyzing 11 years of ozonesonde data over Hong Kong with the aid of Lagrangian dispersion modeling of carbon monoxide and calculation of an EAM index. It was found that the seasonal cycle of O 3 in the lower troposphere is highly related to the EAM over the study region. Ozone enhancements in the free troposphere are associated with the monsoon-induced transport of pollutants of continental anthropogenic and biomass burning origins. Lower tropospheric O 3 levels showed high interannual variability, with an annual averaged amplitude up to 61% of averaged concentrations in the boundary layer (0–1 km altitudes) and 49% below 3 km altitude. In spring and autumn, the interannual variability in boundary layer O 3 levels was predominately influenced by the EAM intensity, with high O 3 mixing ratios associated with northeasterly circulation anomalies. (letter)

  1. Desi Films: Articulating Images of South Asian Identity in a Global Communication Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although India itself has been an important source of information about the Indian identity for Western audiences, a specialized genre of desi media have also garnered more recognition in recent years. Desi films—movies created by and/or for South Asian immigrants—are capable of reaching large numbers of people regardless of their educational level, economic status, or linguistic proficiency. Most are produced in English or with English subtitles and are easily accessible in most areas, either in theatres, video rental stores, libraries, or via Internet movie sites. This paper examines Indian diasporic films as a vehicle for cultural articulation and debate. First, it provides a theoretical foundation of hegemony and resistance with regard to notions of ethnicity and immigrants’ articulations of identity in interstitial zones. Second, it discusses sources of hegemony from Indian and Western media. Third, it explores the creation of a hybrid identity as reflected in Indian diasporic films, pointing out some of the themes and conventions of this emerging genre.

  2. Assessing social support among South Asians: the multidimensional scale of perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Kareen; Zimet, Gregory D; Tse, Samson

    2012-06-01

    The psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) of the Urdu (MSPSS-U) and Nepali (MSPSS-N) versions were investigated among Pakistani (n=148) and Nepalese (n=153) respondents living in Hong Kong. The factor analysis of the MSPSS-N conducted in this study confirmed the three factors of the original MSPSS, namely, Family, Friend, and Significant Others, while only two factors were extracted from the MSPSS-U (i.e., the Family and Friends subscales). With regard to construct validity, both the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were inversely correlated with depression, anxiety and stress as assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). The internal reliability and construct validity of the MSPSS-U and MSPSS-N were also established and provided support for the validity of both versions as tools for measuring perceived social support among South Asian migrants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Ozone Valley over the Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian High in CAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenkun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local climate effects of Tibetan Plateau Ozone Valley (OVTP were investigated by numerical simulations using Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1 (CAM5. After a 20-year spin-up period, two additional 10-year experiments were conducted. CAM5 was driven by monthly mean climatological ozone in control experiment (CE and OVTP in the sensitivity experiment (SE was removed from May to September. After the removal of OVTP, South Asian High (SAH becomes more robust and colder from June to August, especially in June. The reason for enhancement of SAH is that removal of OVTP increasing ozone in 200–30 hPa leads to significant enhancement of longwave and shortwave radiative heating rate in SAH region in June, and then enhancement of horizontal divergence resulting from the radiative warming leads to strengthening of SAH influenced by the Coriolis force, while the colder SAH is primarily caused by dynamic processes. Adiabatic expansion and ascending movement mainly bring about temperature decrease in SAH after OVTP removal, but the thermodynamic process related to radiative heating offsets part of the cooling response.

  4. Barriers to and Facilitators of South Asian Indian-Americans’ Engagement in Advanced Care Planning Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans’ (SAIAs’) engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Methods Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Results Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy–tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers’ or oldest sons’ decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. Clinical Relevance The study’s findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. PMID:28388828

  5. Clinical phenotype of South-East Asian temporomandibular disorder patients with upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, D K L; Pang, K P

    2018-01-01

    Clinical and radiographic characteristics of a subset of South East Asian temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) were documented in a multi-center prospective series of 86 patients (26 men and 60 women / mean age 35.7 years). All had excessive daytime sleepiness, high arousal index and Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthralgia while 90·7% reported sleep bruxism (SB). Unlike patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), hypertension was uncommon (4·7%) while depression was prevalent at 68·6% with short REM latency of 25% documented in 79·6% and 57·6% of these depressed patients, respectively. 65·1% displayed a posteriorly displaced condyle at maximum intercuspation with or without TMJ clicking. Most exhibited a forward head posture (FHP) characterised by loss of normal cervical lordosis (80·2%), C0-C1 narrowing (38·4%) or an elevated hyoid position (50%), and 91·9% had nasal congestion. We postulate the TMD-UARS phenotype may have originally developed as an adaptive response to 'awake' disordered breathing during growth. Patients with persistent TMD and/or reporting SB should be screened for UARS and chronic nasal obstruction, especially when they also present with FHP. The lateral cephalogram is a useful tool in the differentiation of UARS from other OSA phenotypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Barriers to and Facilitators of South Asian Indian-Americans' Engagement in Advanced Care Planning Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong

    2017-05-01

    To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy-tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers' or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  8. Volatility Forecasting Models and Market Co-Integration: A Study on South-East Asian Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erie Febrian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatility forecasting is an imperative research field in financial markets and crucial component in most financial decisions. Nevertheless, which model should be used to assess volatility remains a complex issue as different volatility models result in different volatility approximations. The concern becomes more complicated when one tries to use the forecasting for asset distribution and risk management purposes in the linked regional markets. This paper aims at observing the effectiveness of the contending models of statistical and econometric volatility forecasting in the three South-east Asian prominent capital markets, i.e. STI, KLSE, and JKSE. In this paper, we evaluate eleven different models based on two classes of evaluation measures, i.e. symmetric and asymmetric error statistics, following Kumar's (2006 framework. We employ 10-year data as in sample and 6-month data as out of sample to construct and test the models, consecutively. The resulting superior methods, which are selected based on the out of sample forecasts and some evaluation measures in the respective markets, are then used to assess the markets cointegration. We find that the best volatility forecasting models for JKSE, KLSE, and STI are GARCH (2,1, GARCH(3,1, and GARCH (1,1, respectively. We also find that international portfolio investors cannot benefit from diversification among these three equity markets as they are cointegrated.

  9. Late presentation and management of South Asian breast cancer patients in West Yorkshire, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sreekumar Sundara; Lim, Jennifer N W; Haq, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to bridge the knowledge gap and improve our understanding of the late presentation and management of breast cancer among South Asian women of non-oriental origin (SA) living in the United Kingdom. Retrospective review of the breast cancer waiting list data-base held at Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS trust was undertaken to identify SA women diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2000 to August 2007. We identified 41 (2.5%) SA women among 1,630 patients diagnosed with breast cancer during this period and 36 were included (median age=53.5 years, range=32-84). Only 19% (n=7) were screen detected and 81% (n=29) presented thorough symptomatic breast clinic. In the latter, 66% (n=19) were in the screening age group and 45% (n=13) presented beyond 8 weeks (late presentation). In our cohort, 91% (n=29) patients had advanced disease (TNM stage 2 and 3) resulting in a high mastectomy rate of 61% (n=22). 19% (n=7) died as a direct result of cancer and the remaining 78% (n=28) remains disease free following treatment thus far. The delay in presentation and poor national breast screening programme uptake among the SA women resulted in advanced disease at diagnosis. There is need for increasing the breast cancer awareness as well as encouraging breast screening among SA women in the UK.

  10. An evaluation of age estimation using teeth from South Asian River dolphins (Platanistidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina H Lockyer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The South Asian river dolphins (Platanista gangetica minor and P. g. gangetica are endangered, geographically isolated, freshwater cetaceans. Accurate age estimation of individuals is an important aspect of population biology as it is used for calculating parameters such as age at maturity and reproduction, longevity, and growth and survival rates. However this has never been comprehensively studied for this endangered cetacean family. A sample of 41 teeth from 29 skulls stored in museum collections was available. We compared two different aging methods to select the most appropriate. This involved decalcification and freeze-sectioning of teeth at variable thicknesses (10–25 micron, and staining with 1 Toluidine Blue, or 2 Ehrlichs Acid Haematoxylin. Stains were then compared for readability of Growth Layer Groups (GLG. The optimum section was found at 20 micron using Erhlichs Acid Haematoxylin. Both dentinal and cemental GLG were readable and comparable, but cemental GLG were generally easier to interpret because they were better defined. Ages varied from newborn / young of year (with none or only a neonatal line present to a maximum age of 30 GLG. There is currently no validation available for GLG deposition rate, but it is likely annual because of the extreme seasonal changes in the river habitat.

  11. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina L; Palep-Singh, Manisha; Ledger, William L; Balen, Adam H; Jenkinson, Crispin; Campbell, Michael J; Lashen, Hany

    2010-12-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best health status for both groups

  12. The Relation of Drug Trafficking Fears and Cultural Identity to Attitudes Toward Mexican Immigrants in Five South Texas Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Manuel; Argueta, Nanci L; Castro, Yessenia; Perez, Ricardo; Dawson, Darius B

    This paper reports the findings of research investigating the relationship of spill-over fears related to drug trafficking and of cultural identity to Mexican Americans' attitudes toward recent immigrants from Mexico in five non-metropolitan communities in the US-Mexico borderlands of South Texas. A mixed methods design was used to collect data from 91 participants (30 intact families with two parents and at least one young adult). Quantitative findings showed that the majority of participants expressed the view that most people in their communities believed that newcomers were involved in drug trafficking and in defrauding welfare programs. A significant interaction indicated that Mexican cultural identity buffered the negative effects of drug trafficking fears as related to the view that the newcomers were creating problems in the communities and region. Qualitative data yielded positive and negative themes, with those that were negative being significantly more numerous. The findings have implications for intra-ethnic relations in borderlands communities as well as for immigration policy.

  13. Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: an analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvasina, Paola; Muntaner, Carles; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2014-12-03

    Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants' poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants' access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period. A secondary data analysis was conducted on the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Simple descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the sample. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period. Approximately 32% of immigrants reported unmet dental care needs. Immigrants lacking dental insurance (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.05-3.37), and those with an average household income of $20,000 to $40,000 per year (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.01-2.61), and lower than $20,000 (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.31-3.86), were more likely to report unmet dental care needs than those earning more than $60,000 per year. In addition, South Asian (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.25-2.73) and Chinese (OR = 2.17; CI: 1.47-3.21) immigrants had significantly higher odds of reporting unmet dental care needs than Europeans. Lack of dental insurance, low income and ethnicity predicted unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period in a sample of immigrants to Canada.

  14. A complex approach on integrated late bilinguals’ English VOT production: a study on south Brazilian immigrants in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Flores Kupske

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a Complex perspective to language, this study explores the correlation between length of residence (LOR in London and the production of word-initial English voiceless stops by late south Brazilian bilinguals who have an integrative motivation towards the host language and culture. To this end, 12 immigrants are compared to 10 standard southern British English monolinguals. Acoustic analysis of VOT duration is reported. The results demonstrated that the immigrants’ VOT values for English increased along with LOR. The bilinguals with the longest LOR revealed a production of English VOT within the range expected for the controls. These findings can be interpreted as evidence for language as a Complex Adaptive System, and for the hypothesis that the neuroplasticity and the cognitive mechanisms for language development remain intact during the lifespan.

  15. Quantifying the digital divide: a scientific overview of network connectivity and grid infrastructure in South Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S M; Cottrell, R L; Kalim, U; Ali, A

    2008-01-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices

  16. Quantifying the Digital Divide: A Scientific Overview of Network Connectivity and Grid Infrastructure in South Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shahryar Muhammad; Cottrell, R. Les; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad

    2007-01-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices

  17. All roads lead to weediness: Patterns of genomic divergence reveal extensive recurrent weedy rice origins from South Asian Oryza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongyun; Young, Nelson D; Reagon, Michael; Hyma, Katie E; Olsen, Kenneth M; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-06-01

    Weedy rice (Oryza spp.), a weedy relative of cultivated rice (O. sativa), infests and persists in cultivated rice fields worldwide. Many weedy rice populations have evolved similar adaptive traits, considered part of the 'agricultural weed syndrome', making this an ideal model to study the genetic basis of parallel evolution. Understanding parallel evolution hinges on accurate knowledge of the genetic background and origins of existing weedy rice groups. Using population structure analyses of South Asian and US weedy rice, we show that weeds in South Asia have highly heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, with ancestry contributions both from cultivated varieties (aus and indica) and wild rice. Moreover, the two main groups of weedy rice in the USA, which are also related to aus and indica cultivars, constitute a separate origin from that of Asian weeds. Weedy rice populations in South Asia largely converge on presence of red pericarps and awns and on ease of shattering. Genomewide divergence scans between weed groups from the USA and South Asia, and their crop relatives are enriched for loci involved in metabolic processes. Some candidate genes related to iconic weedy traits and competitiveness are highly divergent between some weed-crop pairs, but are not shared among all weed-crop comparisons. Our results show that weedy rice is an extreme example of recurrent evolution, and suggest that most populations are evolving their weedy traits through different genetic mechanisms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Strategies for Working with Asian Americans in Mental Health: Community Members' Policy Perspectives and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Suzie S; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants. Findings demonstrate the importance and value of including diverse Asian American individuals in mental health policymaking efforts.

  19. Middle Holocene Organic Carbon and Biomarker Records from the South Yellow Sea: Relationship to the East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liang; Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Dou, Yanguang; Xie, Luhua; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    The East Asian monsoon system influences the sedimentation and transport of organic matter in East Asian marginal seas that is derived from both terrestrial and marine sources. In this study, we determined organic carbon (OC) isotope values, concentrations of marine biomarkers, and levels of OC and total nitrogen (TN) in core YSC-1 from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS). Our objectives were to trace the sources of OC and variations in palaeoproductivity since the middle Holocene, and their relationships with the East Asian monsoon system. The relative contributions of terrestrial versus marine organic matter in core sediments were estimated using a two-end-member mixing model of OC isotopes. Results show that marine organic matter has been the main sediment constituent since the middle Holocene. The variation of terrestrial organic carbon concentration (OCter) is similar to the EASM history. However, the variation of marine organic carbon concentration (OCmar) is opposite to that of the EASM curve, suggesting OCmar is distinctly influenced by terrestrial material input. Inputs of terrestrial nutrients into the SYS occur in the form of fluvial and aeolian dust, while concentrations of nutrients in surface water are derived mainly from bottom water via the Yellow Sea circulation system, which is controlled by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Variations in palaeoproductivity represented by marine organic matter and biomarker records are, in general, consistent with the recent EAWM intensity studies, thus, compared with EASM, EAWM may play the main role to control the marine productivity variations in the SYS.

  20. Immigration as a crisis tendency for HIV vulnerability among racialised women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: an anti-oppressive lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily-Hawa, Roula N; Islam, Shazia; Loutfy, Mona

    2018-04-16

    South Asian immigrant women in Canada face unique structural barriers that influence their HIV vulnerability. Using an intersectional and anti-oppressive lens, we explored the role of immigration in bringing about changes in gender roles and the structure of gender relations and their effect on HIV risk among immigrant women as they experienced crisis tendencies in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Informed by Connell's theory of gender, the study entailed in-depth interviews with 12 self-identified South Asian immigrant women living in the Greater Toronto Area, in Ontario, Canada. A thematic analysis yielded four themes: power relations, emotional relations, gendered division of labour and social norms. Our findings revealed interdependencies between immigration and each of structural, individual and normative factors (the themes) as they pertain to crisis tendencies when patriarchy is disrupted. Given the rapid increase in global immigration, the connections between transnationalism and hegemony, and the established link between immigration and HIV, future research should extend this work to other immigrant communities.

  1. How do people of South Asian origin understand and experience depression? A protocol for a systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-08-30

    Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. CRD42015026120. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Vitiligo linked to stigmatization in British South Asian women: a qualitative study of the experiences of living with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A R; Clarke, S A; Newell, R J; Gawkrodger, D J

    2010-09-01

    Vitiligo is a visible condition that is more noticeable in darker-skinned people. Beliefs about illness have been linked to psychosocial adjustment. There is some evidence that such beliefs may be influenced by cultural factors. Surprisingly little is known about beliefs in relation to vitiligo. The study sought to explore in depth the ways in which British Asian women manage and adjust psychosocially to vitiligo, and the potential role of ethnicity and culture in this process. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with seven British women of South Asian decent and analysed using the qualitative method of template analysis. Participants described feeling visibly different and all had experienced stigmatization to some extent. Avoidance and concealment were commonplace. Experiences of stigmatization were often perceived to be associated with cultural values related to appearance, status, and myths linked to the cause of the condition. The findings of this study present a unique in-depth analysis of British South Asians living with vitiligo and suggest there is a need for further research to explore cultural associations of disfigurement and of adjustment to chronic skin conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that in addition to individual therapeutic interventions there may be a need for community interventions aimed at dispelling myths and raising awareness of sources of support and treatment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Record linked retrospective cohort study of 4.6 million people exploring ethnic variations in disease: myocardial infarction in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Law and policy in several countries require health services to demonstrate that they are promoting racial/ethnic equality. However, suitable and accurate data are usually not available. We demonstrated, using acute myocardial infarction, that linkage techniques can be ethical and potentially useful for this purpose. Methods The linkage was based on probability matching. Encryption of a unique national health identifier (the Community Health Index (CHI ensured that information about health status and census-based ethnicity could not be ascribed to an identified individual. We linked information on individual ethnic group from the 2001 Census to Scottish hospital discharge and mortality data. Results Overall, 94% of the 4.9 million census records were matched to a CHI record with an estimated false positive rate of less than 0.1 %, with 84.9 – 87.6% of South Asians being successfully linked. Between April 2001 and December 2003 there were 126 first episodes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI among South Asians and 30,978 among non-South Asians. The incidence rate ratio was 1.45 (95% CI 1.17, 1.78 for South Asian compared to non-South Asian men and 1.80 (95% CI 1.31, 2.48 for South Asian women. After adjustment for age, sex and any previous admission for diabetes the hazard ratio for death following AMI was 0.59 (95% CI 0.43, 0.81, reflecting better survival among South Asians. Conclusion The technique met ethical, professional and legal concerns about the linkage of census and health data and is transferable internationally wherever the census (or population register contains ethnic group or race data. The outcome is a retrospective cohort study. Our results point to increased incidence rather than increased case fatality in explaining high CHD mortality rate. The findings open up new methods for researchers and health planners.

  4. Pregnant women of South Asian ethnicity in Canada have substantially lower vitamin B12 status compared with pregnant women of European ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Theresa H; Sinclair, Graham; Mattman, Andre; Jung, Benjamin; Barr, Susan I; Vallance, Hilary D; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women. South Asian pregnant women had significantly lower B12 status than European pregnant women at both time points, as indicated by lower serum total B12 and holoTC concentrations, and higher MMA concentrations (all P≤0·001). The largest difference, which was substantial (Cohen's d≥0·5), was observed in mean serum total B12 concentrations (1st trimester: 189 (95 % CI 180, 199) v. 246 (95 % CI 236, 257) pmol/l; 2nd trimester: 176 (95 % CI 168, 185) v. 226 (95 % CI 216, 236) pmol/l). Further, South Asian ethnicity was a significant negative predictor of B12 status during pregnancy. South Asian women living in Vancouver have substantially lower B12 status during early pregnancy. Future research identifying predictors and health consequences of this observed difference is needed to allow for targeted interventions.

  5. Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk: variations in people of African ancestry and South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, F P

    1997-09-01

    Mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and end-stage renal failure are high in South Asian migrants in the UK. This is associated with high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. These seem to be manifestations of a metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) and central obesity (based on high waist-to-hip ratio rather than on conventional measures of body mass index). This is associated with sedentary lifestyle, high serum triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol. Mortality from stroke and end-stage renal failure are high in black migrants to the UK (both Caribbeans and West Africans). However, CHD mortality is low in this group. This pattern of mortality is associated with high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. This group tends to be obese (particularly women) according to conventional measures of body mass index and to have hyperinsulinaemia, low serum triglycerides and high HDL-cholesterol. Conventional risk factors such as cigarette smoking and hypercholesterolaemia are less prevalent in ethnic minority populations in the United Kingdom and unlikely to explain the differences seen between groups, although each risk factor is likely to contribute to the variation in vascular disease within each group. There is difficulty in reconciling the results of migration studies (eg, from rural to urban environments) pointing to major environmental influences on the changes in cardiovascular risk factors with the consistent pattern of disease of ethnic groups across the world and in subsequent generations, suggesting a certain degree of genetic susceptibility. Important environment-gene interplays might be underlying some of these processes. The detection and management of hypertension and diabetes are still unsatisfactory in inner city areas and show variations by ethnic origin. Strategies for the control of CHD and stroke adopted in European countries directed mostly to white populations may be inappropriate for ethnic minority

  6. The Abrupt Onset of the Modern South Asian Monsoon Winds (iodp Exp. 359)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Kroon, D.; Wright, J. D.; Swart, P. K.; Nath, B. N.; Reijmer, J.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The South Asian Monson (SAM) is one of the most extreme features in Earth's climate system, yet its initiation and variations are not well established. The SAM is a seasonal reversal of winds accompanied by changes in precipitation with heavy rain during the summer monsoon. It is one of the most intense annually recurring climatic elements and of immense importance in supplying moisture to the Indian subcontinent thus affecting human population and vegetation, as well as marine biota in the surrounding seas. The seasonal precipitation change is one of the SAM elements most noticed on land, whereas the reversal of the wind regime is the dominating driver of circulation in the central and northern Indian Ocean realm. New data acquired during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 359 from the Inner Sea of the Maldives provide a previously unread archive that reveals an abrupt onset of the SAM-linked ocean circulation pattern and its relationship to the long term Neogene climate cooling. In particular it registers ocean current fluctuations and changes of intermediate water mass properties for the last 25 myrs that are directly related to the monsoon. Dating the deposits of SAM wind-driven currents yields an age of 12.9 Ma indicating an abrupt SAM onset, over a short period of 300 kyrs. This coincided with the Indian Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone expansion as revealed by geochemical tracers and the onset of upwelling reflected by the sediment's content of sedimentary organic matter. A weaker `proto-monsoon' existed between 12.9 and 25 Ma, as mirrored by the sedimentary signature of dust influx. Abrupt SAM initiation favors a strong influence of climate in addition to the tectonic control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together with increased continentalization and establishment of the bipolar ocean circulation, i.e. the beginning of the modern world, shifted the monsoon over a threshold towards the modern system.

  7. Diagnosis of common hemoglobinopathies among South East Asian population using capillary isoelectric focusing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Sanchaisuriya, K; Fucharoen, S

    2017-02-01

    We have evaluated an automated capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF)-based Hb analyzer in diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies commonly found among South East Asian population. Study was performed on a cohort of 665 adult Thai subjects and 13 fetal blood specimens obtained at routine thalassemia diagnostic laboratory. Hb analysis was performed using the cIEF system. Thalassemia genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. The system revealed satisfactorily within-run and between-run precision for quantitation of Hb A 2 and Hb E (CV: 0.02-0.09%). The reference ranges of Hb A 2 and Hb E were 2.6-4.0% and 25.7-33.1%, respectively. The system identified the cases of β-thalassemia and Hb E disorders correctly. Several thalassemia genotypes and Hb variants were identifiable. However, Hb Constant Spring was separated closely to Hb A 2 and Hbs Bart's and H were relatively difficult to be reported due to interfering peaks separating at the same regions. Prenatal diagnosis by fetal blood analysis was found to be accurate for Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis and Hb E-β 0 -thalassemia disease. The cIEF system could accurately diagnose β-thalassemia and Hb E carriers and demonstrate many Hb variants found in the region. The system cannot report Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb E whereas Hbs Lepore and F are comigrated. Diagnosis of α-thalassemia disease based on Hb H and Hb Bart's might be difficult. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Perceived and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among South Asian women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Whitney Babakus; Duda, Joan L; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-03-16

    Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA) women fail to meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST). There is limited research on SA women's understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as "keeping busy" or "being healthy", and of ST as "lazy" or "resting in old age". Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity), with none able to estimate duration of ST. Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily activities (e.g., walking, housework) and reducing ST in this population.

  9. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the OP3 field study of rainforest atmospheric chemistry, above-canopy fluxes of isoprene, monoterpenes and oxygenated volatile organic compounds were made by virtual disjunct eddy covariance from a South-East Asian tropical rainforest in Malaysia. Approximately 500 hours of flux data were collected over 48 days in April–May and June–July 2008. Isoprene was the dominant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from the forest, accounting for 80% (as carbon of the measured emission of reactive carbon fluxes. Total monoterpene emissions accounted for 18% of the measured reactive carbon flux. There was no evidence for nocturnal monoterpene emissions and during the day their flux rate was dependent on both light and temperature. The oxygenated compounds, including methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde, contributed less than 2% of the total measured reactive carbon flux. The sum of the VOC fluxes measured represents a 0.4% loss of daytime assimilated carbon by the canopy, but atmospheric chemistry box modelling suggests that most (90% of this reactive carbon is returned back to the canopy by wet and dry deposition following chemical transformation. The emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes, normalised to 30 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR, were 1.6 mg m−2 h−1 and 0.46mg m−2 h−1 respectively, which was 4 and 1.8 times lower respectively than the default value for tropical forests in the widely-used MEGAN model of biogenic VOC emissions. This highlights the need for more direct canopy-scale flux measurements of VOCs from the world's tropical forests.

  10. Diasporic Activism and the Mediations of “Home”: South Asian Voices in Canadian Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Bhatia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical analyses of literatures of the Indian diaspora discuss the “home” of origin as a subtext and a site to which diasporas aspire to return even though it remains an unachievable ideal that is refracted through nostalgic retellings of a space that remains at best “imaginary” (Mishra 2007. Alternatively, some critics, as Roger Waldinger and David Fitzgerald point out, view diasporas’ relationship with the homeland in terms of “loyalty,” obscuring in the process the antagonisms that may arise depending upon one’s circumstances, antagonisms that produce “interactions” between homes of residence and those of origin (2012. In South Asian drama in Canada, many of the concerns regarding race, multiculturalism, job discrimination and violence against women and other marginalized groups are propelled by their links to the playwrights’ “home” of origin. With attention to selected plays, this paper will analyze how the networks between home and spaces of residence in multicultural Canada come alive on theatre stages through visual motifs, actors, props, and photographic collages, which confront the different trajectories of “home” that resurface in these plays. Through live scenes of imagination th